Index

Index
PREAMBLE ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 4.4.1 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 6 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 BODY TEMPERATURE, COMFORT, HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION _____________________________________ 4 Comfort ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 Hours at full utilisation for providing cooling ____________________________________________________________________ 5 BASES _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 Air-conditioning, cooling and tempering _________________________________________________________________________ 7 Passive and active cooling ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 Passive cooling__________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 Active cooling ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 Heat cooling sources__________________________________________________________________________________________________10 Ground probes _________________________________________________________________________________________________________10 Ground collectors______________________________________________________________________________________________________11 Groundwater ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________12 Air ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________12 Distribution systems __________________________________________________________________________________________________12 Area heating (underfloor) ___________________________________________________________________________________________13 Area heating (ceiling) ________________________________________________________________________________________________13 Fan convectors and ceiling cassettes ______________________________________________________________________________14 H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE ______________________________________________________14 COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS __________________________________________________________17 Sizing ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________17 Operating modes WPF________________________________________________________________________________________________17 Heating mode WPF____________________________________________________________________________________________________17 Passive cooling operation with WPF_______________________________________________________________________________18 Operating modes WPC cool__________________________________________________________________________________________18 Heating mode WPC cool______________________________________________________________________________________________18 Passive cooling operation with WPC cool ________________________________________________________________________18 Active cooling operation WPF and WPC___________________________________________________________________________18 Minimum flow rate for active cooling _____________________________________________________________________________19 Valve positions _________________________________________________________________________________________________________19 Passive cooling_________________________________________________________________________________________________________19 Active cooling __________________________________________________________________________________________________________19 Cooling and DHW demand___________________________________________________________________________________________20 Hydraulics WPF ________________________________________________________________________________________________________21 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 1 _______________________________________________________________________________________22 Hydraulics WPC cool __________________________________________________________________________________________________23 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________24 COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS __________________________________________________________25 Sizing ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________25 Operating modes ______________________________________________________________________________________________________25 Heating operation _____________________________________________________________________________________________________25 Passive cooling operation ___________________________________________________________________________________________26 Active cooling operation _____________________________________________________________________________________________26 COOLING WITH AIR|WATER HEAT PUMPS______________________________________________________________27 SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMI _________________________________________28 Standard settings ______________________________________________________________________________________________________29 Set room temperature ________________________________________________________________________________________________29 Flow temperature _____________________________________________________________________________________________________29 Flow temperature hysteresis________________________________________________________________________________________29 Dynamic (active cooling only)_______________________________________________________________________________________30 Control characteristics of the passive cooling ___________________________________________________________________30 1

Index

7.6.1 7.7 7.7.1 8 9 9.1 9.2 10 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.5.1 12 13 14 15

Source pump ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________30 Control characteristics of the active cooling _____________________________________________________________________31 Compressor _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________32 BRINE RESISTANCE _______________________________________________________________________________________33 WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE ________________________________________________________________34 Wiring diagram ________________________________________________________________________________________________________34 Distribution strip/zone valve ________________________________________________________________________________________37 COMPARISON COOLING WITH DIFFERENT HEAT PUMPS _____________________________________________40 ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS _______________________________________________41 VRF systems, air-conditioning systems with direct evaporation_____________________________________________41 Free cooling ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________41 Air duct __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________41 Water wall ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________41 Cost consideration_____________________________________________________________________________________________________42 Recommendations ____________________________________________________________________________________________________43 COOLING LOAD CALCULATION FORM ___________________________________________________________________44 CHECK LIST ________________________________________________________________________________________________45 BIBLIOGRAPHY ____________________________________________________________________________________________46 KEYWORD INDEX _________________________________________________________________________________________47

2

PREAMBLE

PREAMBLE
This manual is designed to provide an overview on the subject of cooling buildings with heat pumps. It is designed for the trade and design engineers and represents a supplement to the technical folder "Heat pumps". In part I, the essential basics are explained, together with the influencing magnitudes of ambient climate and comfort, as well as listing the differences between air-conditioning, cooling and tempering. Furthermore, there will be a brief introduction relating to the h-x diagram and the dew point. The essential characteristics of passive and active cooling are explained, and diverse possible heat sources and distribution systems are introduced. The main part of this manual describes cooling with the various Stiebel Eltron heat pumps and their corresponding WPMi control unit. This overview provides information regarding possible application areas, sizing and design/engineering. Important control variables, setting parameters and the respective hydraulic diagrams are also illustrated. The manual closes with an introduction of alternative systems for ambient cooling and costing samples. The cost consideration includes a comparison of the different cooling systems by way of an example: Active and passive cooling, room air-conditioning units and VRF airconditioning systems.

3

BODY TEMPERATURE, COMFORT, HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION

1

BODY TEMPERATURE, COMFORT, HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION

It is important for human beings to maintain a constant body temperature. For this to happen, there must be balance between internal heat production and heat transfer to the ambience. Internal heat production is primarily the result of the so-called activity level. Seated activities, such as writing and reading, for example, represent activity level I. On average, humans generate heat at 100 W. This exerts an influence on the heat added to the ambient climate in much the same way as an installed device or a piece of lighting equipment.
Table 1 Heat production subject to activity in accordance with DIN 1946-2 Activity level I II Basic metabolic rate Seated activity, such as writing or reading Light work whilst standing up, such as laboratory work, typing III IV Moderately heavy physical activity Heavy physical activity >250 >140 200 111 150 83 Activity Heat production per person [W] 79 100 Specific heat production [W/m²] 44 56

The heat transfer to ambience is subject to the climatic conditions of the surroundings and the level of clothing. In the latter case, transfer is effected through radiation, convection, conduction and water vapour diffusion. /2/ To maintain the heat balance, humans possess an effective temperature control system. For example, an increase in blood circulation and dissipation of sweat can substantially increase heat transfer to the ambience. /2/ Humans are able to store chemical energy, for example in the form of fat deposits. However, humans have hardly any thermal storage capacity. Heat is produced constantly and transferred to the ambience. 1.1 Comfort

The conditions at which humans perceive their thermal ambience as pleasant, in other words when there is an equilibrium between the internal heat production and heat transfer, is described as comfortable. Thermal comfort is a subjective perception variable that depends on the ambience and the individual person.

4

3 to 6 K below the outside temperature. cinemas. Consequently. 5 . For example.BODY TEMPERATURE. hospitals. buildings for wholesalers and retailers. HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION Human comfort decreases with ambient temperatures that are too low or too high. with cooling. For the annual hours at full utilisation in cooling operation. the internal temperature should only be reduced by approx. /2/ /4/ The following comfort diagram by Leusden and Freymark illustrates the relationship between two factors: Relative humidity and ambient temperature. theatres. COMFORT. as well as hotels and apartments.2 Hours at full utilisation for providing cooling Buildings that require a higher cooling demand include offices. as summer clothing would generally not be suitable for such ambient conditions. The following terms are summarised under the comfort influencing variables: - Activity level Clothing Air temperature Temperature of the surface areas enclosing the ambient space Relative humidity Air velocity Air purity These different variables have lead to the assessment and evaluation of the ambient climate being generally based on the comfort field developed by Leusden and Freymark. see diagram 1. living and working environments should provide a comfortable climate. Generally. Excessive temperatures can also severely reduce human output/capacity. Figure 1 Comfort field according to Leusden and Freymark 1. He/she would perceive both air conditions as equally pleasant. Where higher temperature differentials persist there would be a risk of catching a cold. see the following tables. one person may not discern any substantial loss in comfort at an ambient temperature of 22 °C and a relative humidity between 30 % and 70 %.

HOURS AT FULL UTILISATION Table 2 Hours at full utilisation /7/ Type of building Office building Hospitals Department stores Trade fairs Theatre/Cinema Hotels Apartments Hours at full utilisation [h/p.300 400 . COMFORT.200 6 .] cooling operation 300 .500 100 .BODY TEMPERATURE.400 800 600 .600 200 .800 500 .a.

a humidifier and a heater. air. is regulated. we differentiate between passive and active cooling. these provide excellent ambient comfort in most cases. In addition.BASES 2 BASES The increasing demand for comfort has resulted in an increasing number of apartments being equipped with cooling systems. Controlling the relative humidity requires a humidifying/de-humidifying system. Conventionally. the heat transfer operates in reverse. Passive cooling is only possible when the heat source temperature lies below the required cooling temperature. 18 °C for underfloor heating systems and 7 to 13 °C with fan convectors. In cooling mode. 7 . Where there is no risk of frost with passive cooling. cooling and tempering Air-conditioning of rooms means that the air temperature. as well as the relative humidity. The main difference between these methods is the operation with (active) or without (passive) a compressor. At low energy consumption. heat pumps extract the heat stored in the environment (underground. 2. cooling and tempering are the conventional method for increasing comfort levels.2 Passive and active cooling When cooling a building with heat pumps. where the water contained in the air condenses on the cooling surfaces. i. where the air is regulated to the required parameters using a cooler. In apartment buildings and smaller commercial operations. fan convectors and ceiling cassettes with condensate drain are used. area heating. this does not result in any dehumidification. water flows through the refrigerant distribution systems. for example via wall or underfloor heating systems or cooling ceilings. For this. 2. In heating mode. the heating circuit contains a water:glycol mixture (brine). Tempering describes the lowering or raising of the ambient temperature by a few Kelvin. Systems for the cooling of rooms to a specified temperature level generally only require the air to be dehumidified. groundwater or surface water) and raise that energy by means of a compressor to a higher temperature level that makes it useful for DHW heating or for heating the building.e. this is only done in centralised air-conditioning systems. where air acts as heat transfer medium. cooling ceiling or fan convectors. Heat pumps enable both heating and cooling. This can be assumed to be approx. That is possible with heat transfer above the dew point temperatures. Heat is extracted from the building and transferred to the environment.1 Air-conditioning. With active cooling. refrigerant distribution systems are generally filled with antifreeze. However.

Only pipes and fittings made from corrosion-resistant materials may be used. heat is transferred from the cool source via heat exchanger to the area heating system or the fan convectors. Table 3 Main characteristics of passive and active cooling Passive cooling Compressor OFF Water in the distribution system Heat source temperature lower than the required cooling temperature Active cooling Compressor ON Water:glycol mixture (brine) in the distribution system Passive cooling is also referred to as quiet or natural cooling. The heat pump can be changed over between heating and cooling via corresponding diverter valves.2 Active cooling The active cooling operates according to a principle similar to air-conditioning systems. In practical applications.2. where the heat from within a building is extracted via the active refrigerant circuit and is then transferred to low temperature "heat sink".1 Passive cooling With passive cooling. i. the cooling water temperature must be above the dew point temperature. The refrigerant circuit can be reversed.2. Otherwise condensate may form on the heat exchanger surfaces. 25 to 50 W/m². The flow temperature is approx. The heat pump compressor will be started.BASES Active cooling is required when the heat source temperature lies above the required cooling temperature. Method 2: Reversing the refrigerant circuit (reversible heat pumps). and the possible cooling capacity is limited to approx. this can only be brought about with brine|water heat pumps. Active cooling can be brought about by two different means: Method 1: Swapping the connections of the heating and heat source circuit at the heat pump evaporator and condenser via suitable hydraulic equipment. active cooling as dynamic cooling. the flow direction of the refrigerant is crucial.e. it is "active". The position of a 4-2-way valve determines the order of the components through which the flow 8 . 2. 15 to 20 °C. With area cooling. 2. The heating circuit is routed to the heat pump evaporator and the source circuit to the heat pump condenser. All supply lines entering the house must be insulated in a vapour diffusion-proof manner to prevent the formation of condensate. For this.

For example.2. 9 . The cooling capacity will not be rated at more than 60 W per m² heat transfer surface due to considerations of personal comfort.BASES is routed. and the operating mode changed between generating heat and cooling. cooling ceilings should not be operated with flow temperatures below 15 °C. the evaporator and condenser functions are swapped.1 Comparison between active cooling using hydraulic changeover and a reversible heat pump The advantages and disadvantages of these two types of active cooling with heat pumps are compared in the following table.2. By changing the valve position. 2. Figure 2 Operating mode of a brine|water heat pump with passive and active cooling function Possible cooling distribution systems are fan convectors and ceiling cassettes. Cooling ceilings and area heating systems are unsuitable for active cooling due to the low flow temperatures.

size the probe for the heating or cooling case. result from the presence of many occupants in the 10 . groundwater. 10 °C) of the ground at greater depths. For passive cooling.Hydraulic changeover and reversible heat pump Cooling via hydraulic changeover Advantages - Reversible heat pump - Passive cooling is also possible. the probes will be sized for 80% of the cooling extract capacity. The cooling capacity is sufficient for conventional residential buildings and the assumption of a few cooling days per annum. optional retrofitting (do not forget the thermal insulation of existing pipe runs!) Lower pressure drop in the heating circuit Lower investment outlay - - - - Disadvantages - More material required (four diverter valves). When cooling with reversible heat pumps. Table 5 Conventional natural heat sink systems for cooling with heat pumps [4] Passive cooling Ground probe Groundwater 8 – 12 °C 8 – 12 °C Active cooling Ground probe Ground collector Outside air -20 . For cooling operation it is recommended to drill for shorter probes (max. for example. 100 m). air or groundwater can be used as heat source/sink. Sources for active cooling are ground probes. Where high cooling loads are present. consequently more susceptible Higher pressure drop in the heating circuit Significantly higher installation effort and space requirement - Only active cooling is possible Either cooling or DHW heating - 2.+35 °C 8 – 12 °C 0 – 15 °C 2. resulting in a drop of the available cooling capacity.3 Heat cooling sources Groundwater and ground probes are likely heat sources/heat sinks for passive cooling. the temperature underground gradually rises. higher efficiency Simultaneous cooling and DHW heating possible Marginally better efficiency in the refrigerant circuit Standard device can be used. In particular with high internal cooling loads that may.1 Ground probes Passive cooling with ground probes utilises the constant temperature (approx. ground collectors and. Ground probes are suitable for passive and active cooling. to a limited extent.3. Subject to application.BASES Table 4 Advantages and disadvantages .

Cooling with ground probes in summer also regenerates the heat source for winter.5 14.7 12.3.5 Height 3.8 16.BASES building.5 17. Active cooling is possible.8 13. Should the temperature there exceed 15 °C. the ground temperature near the surface is substantially dependent on the outside temperature.5 11.2 Ground collectors Ground collectors have only a limited use for passive cooling.60 °C) to be maintained without difficulties. as in cooling mode.5 12. thereby enabling the limit temperatures (10 .5 16.5 15. the CoP is higher than with systems using air as heat sink.5 19.5 13.2 11. 11 .5 14.0 12. In addition.7 9.5 18.2 8. The collector will be sized only for the heating operation.0 11.5 13.5 Urban area 9. With passive cooling. The collector is well suited to active cooling. the ground heats up quickly reducing the temperature differential between the ground temperature and the room temperature to an unacceptable level. Table 6 Average temperatures underground Drilling depth Average temperatures underground [°C] [m] Exposed site 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 9.3 15.0 8.0 15.3 12.2 2. The drying out of the ground would be one disadvantage when using ground collectors for active cooling. Furthermore. the cooling demand may be greater than the heating energy demand. the ground has a substantially lower temperature than the ambient air. passive cooling could no longer be achieved (see Figure 3).5 10.

3. The average groundwater temperature in cooling mode is approx. the outside air can be used as heat sink. For this. The heat source temperature determines the limits. Min. receives a flow of brine via a three-way valve. ceiling) or via fan convectors (with condensate drain). Heat is dissipated via an additional heat exchanger that. 2. Active cooling is generally not required because of the low and stable temperature. 18 °C 7 °C Max. There are no further requirements of the source side. 35 °C 40 °C Flow temp.3. Observe that the groundwater returned underground must not exceed a temperature of 20 °C. 60 °C 20 °C 2.BASES Figure 3 Temperature progression underground 2. A water analysis should also verify that the water is compatible with the heat exchanger material.4 Distribution systems The cooling operation is possible via an area (underfloor heating system. Heating Cooling –20 °C 15 °C Max. 10 to 15 °C. In heating mode. this is generally supplied constantly in series with the condenser whilst the pump is running. Table 7 Application limits reversible air|water heat pump Outside air temp.4 Air With a reversible air|water heat pump.3 Groundwater Both passive and active cooling are possible with groundwater as heat source. 12 . Min. the cooled air is transferred to the rooms to be cooled via fan convectors. in cooling mode.

Rooms requiring cooling include: Working.2 Area heating (ceiling) No minimum air temperatures need to be taken into consideration. a room temperature should not exceed 21 °C at 0.4. The cooling capacity is limited since. for example. conventional not to include the bathroom.1 m height when operating an underfloor heating system in cooling mode. this may be significantly higher if the area heating system is subject to direct solar irradiation.4. living and bedrooms. according to DIN 1946-2. the cooling capacity of a cooling ceiling can be substantially higher than that of an underfloor heating system used for cooling. /6/ When sizing the underfloor heating system for cooling. It is. to prevent the formation of condensate on the cooling surfaces.BASES Apart from selecting the distribution system it requires careful consideration which rooms actually require cooling in summer. select a smaller pipe spacing than would be conventional for heating purposes. Consequently. Figure 4 Method of laying an underfloor heating system 2.1 Area heating (underfloor) The cooling capacity for cooling with area heating systems can be up to 25 W/m². The following summarises a number of climatic. As a result. 2. Check with the respective parquet manufacturer. economic and architectural benefits of area cooling: - High comfort level No draughts Quiet operation Low investment outlay Low operating costs Unrestricted interior design Monitoring the relative humidity is beneficial. The following applies to both heating and cooling cases: The better the thermal insulation of the building the higher the pipe spacing can be with identical flow temperatures. specific cooling capacities between 40 and 100 W/m² are 13 . toilet and kitchen into the cooling cycle. whether this kind of floor surface is compatible with a cooling operation. However.

To prevent the comfort limits specified by the DIN 1946 being exceeded. temperature. the air flow rate and the cooling water temperature. Pipelines embedded into walls cannot be used for connection to fan convectors as they are not vapour diffusion-proof.4. In the following simplified diagram.H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE possible. 3 H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE Mollier best depicts the change in condition non-cooled rooms/cooled rooms in the so-called h-x diagram. cooling ceilings 2. The minimum flow temperature for cooling ceilings is 15 °C (manufacturer's details). the resistance of the individual components to brine must be checked out. whereby the flow temperature represents the limiting variable. Please note: It is prohibited that the heating circuit is filled with potassium carbonate.3 Fan convectors and ceiling cassettes The cooling capacity of fan convectors and ceiling cassettes is subject to the size of the building. Consequently. Brine can only be topped up as ready-mixed solution. the cooling capacity should be between 30 and 60 W per m² heat transfer surface of the fan convector. relative humidity and absolute humidity are depicted. The larger and more powerful the device. the higher its cooling capacity. Figure 5 Fan convector and ceiling cassette The distribution system for active cooling with fan convectors or ceiling cassettes is filled with water:glycol mixture (brine). The pipelines for the fan convectors and ceiling cassettes must be installed vapour diffusionproof. Figure 5 System image. but also the air flow rate and the air velocity. 14 .

Figure 6 Change of condition room cooling /3/ 1 Isothermal lines: Lines of constant temperature 15 . draw a vertical line down from point 1 to the 22 °C isothermal line1 (point 2). This demonstrates clearly that the relative humidity increases when the room is cooled.H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE It is assumed that the non-cooled room has a temperature of 26 °C and a relative humidity of 65 % (point 1). for example 4 K by passive or active cooling (cooling to above the dew point = above the saturation line). If the room is cooled by. a different condition occurs and condensate is produced. Now the temperature of the cooled room is 22 °C with a relative humidity of 80 %. If the cooling reaches below the saturation line.

The dew point temperature for condition 2 can be checked on the Y-axis. Table 8 Dew point temperature 16 . Working with the following table enables a precise and more convenient determination of the dew point temperature.4 °C.H-X DIAGRAM AND DEW POINT TEMPERATURE The dew point temperature subject to the air temperature and relative humidity can also be checked in the h-x diagram. if the vertical line from point 1 to point 2 is extended to the saturation line. In that case it is 18.

Ground probe 2 Cooling capacity [kW] 32 x 2.7 10.4 5.3 12.1 WPF operating modes Heating mode WPF Environmental energy is extracted from the ground via the heat exchanger on the heat source side. The domestic hot water is heated via the indirect coil integrated into the DHW cylinder.0 7.7 10.1 Sizing The ground probes are sized according to the heat pump heating output.5 1 pce.2 9.2 4. install a correspondingly greater number of probes.COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4 COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4. 55 W/m extraction capacity. 1 pce.9 13.2 4.1 4.8 9.2 5.3 4.8 9.6 4.5 6. 17 .8 7. 1 pce.2.0 7.9 No.4 16. 2 pce. 2 Condition: Approx. The absorbed energy together with the energy used to drive the compressor is transferred to the heating water by the heat exchanger on the heating water side. Where higher cooling capacities are required. 3 pce.8 7. 2 pce.5 6.9 Depth [m] 82 109 70 94 82 109 70 94 84 3. 2 pce.2 4. Table 9 Sizing table ground probe Heat pump type Heating output (0/35) [kW] Refrigeration capacity [kW] Ground probe 32 x 2. 2 pce. 1 pce.2 5.9 13.2 3.4 7. WPC 5 cool WPC 7 cool WPC 10 cool WPC 13 cool WPF 5 WPF 7 WPF 10 WPF 13 WPF 16 5.4 7. The resulting cooling capacity is illustrated in the following table.

The heating water of the area heating system or cooling ceiling cooled by this process flows through the floor/ceiling of the rooms to be cooled.2 Passive cooling operation with WPC cool The brine circulates in cooling mode via the additional heat exchanger.2 Passive cooling operation with WPF The brine circulates in cooling mode via the additional heat exchanger. The cooling operation remains switched off during DHW heating. Consequently. passive and active cooling subject to demand.4 Active cooling operation WPF and WPC Active cooling requires the cooling module WPAC 1 (with integral brine circulation pump) or WPAC 2 (without integral brine circulation pump). Stage: Cooling though running source pump and running compressor. The water at the higher temperature flows directly into the indirect coil of the DHW cylinder.COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4. The compressor will only be started if DHW is required.3 4. 4. after cooling at stage 1 for 30 minutes. thereby lowering the temperature of the floor/ceiling. the actual flow temperature is still higher than the required flow temperature. The heating water of the area heating system or the cooling ceiling cooled by this method flows through the floor/ceiling of the rooms to be cooled and thereby lowers the area temperature of the floor/ceiling. heat is transferred from the hotter to the colder medium.1 WPC cool operating modes Heating mode WPC cool Environmental heat is extracted from the ground via the heat exchanger on the heat source side. 4. together with the energy drawn by the compressor drive. to the heating water by the heat exchanger on the heating water side. 2. The cooling operation remains switched off during DHW heating. 1. The DHW cylinder is integrated into the WPC cool.3. Stage: Cooling through running source pump. 18 . Any energy extracted is transferred. 4. Stage 2 will be added if. Cooling with the WPAC is controlled in two stages from passive to active cooling. Heat is transferred from the hot to the cold medium. The water at the higher temperature level flows directly into the indirect coil of the DHW cylinder. The compressor will only be started if DHW is required.3. The modules are comprised of the following: Four 3-2-way valves switch the circulation over between heating. The DHW is heated via the internal indirect coil inside the DHW cylinder.2.

The heating water leaving the fan convector must be routed through the evaporator to extract the heat from the heat transfer medium.h.COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS Figure 6 WPAC 1 layout for WPF (l. heating 4. The return from the fan convectors is routed through the condenser back outside again into the ground probes.1 Minimum flow rate for active cooling The minimum flow rate on the side to be cooled corresponds to the minimum flow rate in heating mode. relative to the minimum flow rate on the source side in heating mode. 4. a second. the valves are positioned so that the heating water leaving the fan convector is routed through the evaporator and the brine circuit of the ground probes through the condenser.h. The minimum flow rate on the source side in cooling mode must be halved.) The WPMi heat pump manager controls the system. The evaporator must receive a volume flow on account of the pipework. 19 .4. additional source pump or a low loss header is required. The compressor will be running. cooling = 0. 4.5 4.5.heating & & Source side: V min.) and WPAC 2 for WPC (r. without the compressor running. For heat pumps with a higher output range.5.2 Active cooling With active cooling. Active cooling is currently only possible with fan convectors or ceiling cassettes.cooling = V min. & & The following applies: Cooling side (inside the building): V min.5 ⋅ Vmin. The source pump is adequate for cooling operation up to the brine|water heat pump WPF 13. brine is routed via changing the valve positions so that the brine cooled by the ground flows directly into the fan convector.1 Valve positions Passive cooling During passive cooling.

we need to differentiate between the two possible cooling stages.5. Figure 7 Operating mode of a brine|water heat pump with passive and active cooling function 20 . The cooling output is immediately switched off in case of DHW demand. In cooling mode stage 2 (source pump ON.COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4. The cooling output is. compressor OFF). only switched off if the required flow temperature and the set room temperature are achieved.3 Cooling and DHW demand For active cooling. cooling and DHW heating can operate in parallel. in that case. and DHW heating is activated if the system is in cooling mode stage 1 (source pump ON. compressor ON).

6 Hydraulics WPF Legend: TA = Temperature sensor outside TA = Temperature sensor flow TA = Temperature sensor return TW = Temperature sensor DHW FEK = remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor Figure 8 Hydraulic diagram .Passive cooling with WPF without WPAC 1 21 .Heating with WPF without WPAC 1 Figure 9 Hydraulic diagram .COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4.

7 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 1 Legend: TA = Temperature sensor outside TM = Temperature sensor mixer TR = Temperature sensor return TW = Temperature sensor DHW FE7 = Remote control with room temperature sensor FEK = Remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor Figure 10 Hydraulic diagram .Heating with WPF and WPAC 1 Figure 11 Hydraulic diagram .Active cooling with WPF and WPAC 1 22 .Passive cooling with WPF and WPAC 1 Figure 12 Hydraulic diagram .COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4.

COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4.Heating and cooling with WPC cool without WPAC 2 Key: TA = Temperature sensor outside FEK = Remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor 23 .8 Hydraulics WPC cool Figure 13 Hydraulic diagram .

9 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 2 Key: TA = Temperature sensor outside TM = Temperature sensor mixer TR = Temperature sensor return TW = Temperature sensor DHW FE7 = Remote control with room temperature sensor FEK = Remote control with room temperature and humidity sensor Figure 14 Hydraulic diagram .Heating with WPC and WPAC 2 Figure 15 Hydraulic diagram .Active cooling with WPC and WPAC 2 24 .Passive cooling with WPC and WPAC 2 Figure 16 Hydraulic diagram .COOLING WITH BRINE|WATER HEAT PUMPS 4.

4 m³/h 5. The average groundwater temperature in cooling mode is approx.4 m³/h 4.6 m³/h 3. Any energy extracted is transferred.COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS 5 COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS 5. 25 .9 kW 8.2 5.2 kW 3 1.1 Sizing The volume of groundwater that can be utilised to remove heat is determined in accordance with the volume of groundwater required by the heat pump. If required. to the heating water by the heat exchanger on the heating water side. The heating water is routed via the buffer cylinder into the underfloor heating system and the indirect coil in the DHW cylinder. 3 The system will be sized for heating operation.5 m³/h 2. The temperature differential between the groundwater and the cooling water is approx. together with the energy drawn by the compressor drive.2 kW 14.1 Operating modes Heating operation Heat is extracted from the groundwater via the heat pump heat exchanger on the heat source side.2.1 m³/h 2.2 kW 10. a higher cooling capacity can be achieved with a larger well pump.1 kW 18. 5 K. Table 9 Sizing table groundwater Heat pump type Cooling output Groundwater volume WPW 7 WPW 10 WPW 13 WPW 18 WPW 22 M 5. 15 °C.

2.3 Active cooling operation Theoretically at least.2 Passive cooling operation The cool groundwater is routed through the additional heat exchanger when cooling is required. The cooling operation is switched off during DHW heating.COOLNG WITH WATER|WATER HEAT PUMPS 5. Active cooling using hydraulic changeover is not feasible. 26 .2. Heat is transferred from the hotter to the colder medium. The heating water of the area heating system or cooling ceiling cooled by this process flows through the floor/ceiling of the rooms to be cooled. The water at the higher temperature flows directly into the indirect coil of the DHW cylinder. The cooled heating water can also be routed through a fan convector or ceiling cassettes. 5. The compressor will only be started if DHW is required. active cooling is possible with a reversible water|water heat pump. thereby lowering the temperature of the floor/ceiling.

COOLING WITH AIR|WATER HEAT PUMPS 6 COOLING WITH AIR|WATER HEAT PUMPS Information regarding the sizing. operating modes and the hydraulic layout for active cooling with reversible air|water heat pumps will be available mid 2007. 27 .

the outside temperature must be higher than the selected value. can be reduced by up to 1 °C. WPF with integral controller and WPW with integral controller. the average outside temperature is calculated over a period of 24 hours. the operation requires the analog remote control unit with room temperature sensor FE 7 or the digital remote control unit FEK with room temperature sensor and humidity sensor. the WPM II offers no cooling function. The freely selectable standard setting was factory-set to summer mode 1 and a changeover at 20 °C.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi 7 SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi The cooling operation can only be regulated with the heat pump manager WPMi. Cooling via heating surfaces is only possible with the FEK. Three adjustable parameters are available for the summer mode. The heat pump automatically changes over to summer mode if the average outside temperature is higher than 20 °C. WPC cool. In addition. Summer mode 1 for lightly built constructions. Currently. The outside temperature from which the changeover from heating to summer mode occurs. if the heat pump stops and restarts again straight away after the outside temperature value has been changed. In this mode. The WPMi is fitted as standard to the following heat pumps: WPC. Figure 17 FE 7 and FEK (from left to right) For cooling. In this mode. For this. A separate remote control unit is required for each circuit in systems with two heating circuits. The changeover from heating mode to summer mode is subject to the outside temperature. the average outside temperature is calculated over a period of 48 hours. the heat pump manager WPMi must be in Summer mode. This enables a check during commissioning whether the changeover from winter to summer mode functions correctly. the average outside temperature is calculated over a period of 72 hours. 28 . In this mode. The heat pump manager is in summer mode.

in this example of heating water to the floor surface. Generally.30 °C 10 °C – 25 °C +1 K – +5 K 1 . A lower flow temperature must be selected for fitted carpets.26 °C).3 Flow temperature Apart from the set room temperature. the customer can also change the flow temperature. the internal temperatures should only be approx. as the heat transfer coefficient of carpeted floors is lower than that of tiles.4 Flow temperature hysteresis The control circuit requires a hysteresis to prevent a counter-action when minute control deviations occur.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi 7. The hysteresis specifies the possible deviation from the set value. The heat transfer coefficient describes the resistance of a material to thermal conduction and is therefore a measure for the speed of the heat transfer. 3 to 6 K below the outside temperature (relative to a setting range of 22 . and large hysteresis (5 K) for a system with quicker responses.1 Standard settings Control unit setting parameters for cooling: - Set room temperature Flow temperature Flow temperature hysteresis (in this case a "+ hysteresis") Dynamic Table 10 Standard setting and setting ranges for the WPMi Standard setting Set room temperature Flow temperature Flow temperature hysteresis Dynamic 25 °C 15 °C 5K 10 Setting range 20 °C . Recommendation: - Floor tiles. the set room temperature should be changed subject to the outside temperature. the recommended setting of the hysteresis subject to the heat transfer coefficient is: Small hysteresis (2 K). For a system with slow responses. 29 . flow temperature 20 °C.2 Set room temperature For cooling.10 7. Carpet. 7. with cooling. 7. flow temperature 15 °C.

only the heating circuit pump is enabled.5 K (hysteresis for the dynamic of value 1). 7. [°C] Parquet Laminate Natural stone Carpet Cork Marble Clay 15 15 20 20 2 1 5 4 15 15 20 Hysteresis [K] 2 2 4 7.1 Source pump The source pumps starts when the control variable is smaller than the actual flow temperature.6. 30 . Values between 1 and 10 can be selected. set to 1.5 Dynamic (active cooling only) The dynamic parameter enables a choice to be made as to how quickly the compressor is started in case of active cooling. For the first 60 seconds. The control variable is different for each distribution system.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi Table 11 Recommended values for flow temperature and flow temperature hysteresis Flow temp. switches the compressor ON as soon as the source pump has been running for 10 minutes and the current flow temperature is higher than the selected flow temperature plus the flow temperature hysteresis plus 0. Quick reacting system The dynamic. The heating circuit pump and the control unit cooling output are switched ON.6 Control characteristics of the passive cooling The cooling mode is started when the actual room temperature is ≥ 25 °C. Interpolation is applied between the values 1 and 10. 7. Slow reacting system The dynamic set to 10 switches the compressor ON after the source pump has been running for 30 minutes and the current flow temperature is higher than the selected flow temperature plus the flow temperature hysteresis plus 2 K (hysteresis for the dynamic of value 10).

the control variable is equal to the selected flow temperature.6. the source pump must run for at least 5 minutes. 7. Control variable = selected flow temperature if the selected flow temperature + hysteresis > dew point temperature + 2 K (see example case 1) Control variable = dew point temperature + 2 K if the selected flow temperature + hysteresis < dew point temperature + 2 K (see example case 2) Here is an example by way of an explanation: The user has selected a flow temperature of 15 °C plus a flow temperature hysteresis of 5 K. the source pump switches OFF subject to the standard settings.3 °C.7 Control characteristics of the active cooling The active cooling is controlled in the same way as passive cooling and is only supplemented by starting of the compressor and a simultaneous changeover of the valves.1. during this minimum runtime of 5 minutes. 18. 31 . DHW heating is demanded.1. This ensures that at least once.4 °C 16.1 Fan convectors For fan convectors. At a flow temperature < 15 °C.SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi 7.6.4 °C < 20 °C: Control variable = selected flow temperature + hysteresis = 20 °C Case 2: Relative humidity in the room: 90 % This results in a dew point temperature at 20 °C and 90 % relative humidity of 18. If. 15.4 °C (see Table 8). the cooling mode immediately switches over to DHW heating.3 °C > 20 °C: Control variable = dew point temperature + 2 K + hysteresis = 18.3 °C + 2 K = 20. Case 1: Relative humidity in the room: 75 % The dew point temperature at 20 °C and a relative humidity of 75 % is 15.4 °C + 2 K = 16. The following applies: Control variable = selected flow temperature 7.3 °C + 2 K + 5 K = 25. only cool water enters the cooling system to achieve a cooling effect at all.3 °C 20.3 °C Independent of the flow temperature. As a result a flow temperature of 20 °C is calculated.2 Heating surfaces The dew point of the heating surfaces is also monitored.

7. In this case.1 Compressor If. the actual flow temperature is still higher than the control variable plus hysteresis. the 2 K is a fixed control hysteresis that should not be confused with the flow temperature hysteresis. after 30 minutes of passive cooling (the source pump has been running for 30 minutes).SETTING PARAMETERS OF AND CONTROL WITH THE WPMi 7. The compressor switches OFF if the room temperature is lower than the set room temperature – 2 K. the compressor starts and the valves change over. 32 .

then the following components from the Stiebel Eltron product range are brine resistant: - Pumps Valves Expansion vessels Safety valves Overflow valves. Therefore ensure that the individual components concerned are resistant to brine. the seals of which are made from PTFE. ensure that only cast pumps (condensate forming between the casing and the stator) or rotary pumps are used. Brine must only be topped up with a ready-mixed solution. When selecting the pump. If the correct glycol:water concentration was filled into the system and the brine contains corrosion inhibitors (25 to 33 %).BRINE RESISTANCE 8 BRINE RESISTANCE With active cooling. Table 12 Possible temperature differentials during heating and cooling Temperature differentials Heating Passive cooling Active cooling 5 – 15 °C 5 – 25 °C 5 – 50 °C 33 . are suitable for water:glycol mixtures without restrictions. If the system is run with brine expect a 1.5-fold pressure drop. The expansion vessel on the brine side may possibly be sized larger in brine|water heat pumps in cooling mode on account of the temperature differentials. fill the distribution system with a water:glycol mixture (brine).

1 WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE Wiring diagram Figure 18 Hydraulic diagram WPF Figure 19 Connection diagram WPF 34 .WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE 9 9.

WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE Figure 20 Hydraulic diagram WPC cool Figure 21 Connection diagram WPC cool 35 .

WPF with WPAC 1 36 .WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE Figure 22 Hydraulic diagram .Cooling WPF with WPAC 1 Figure 23 Connection diagram .

Such distribution strips enable the connection of room temperature controllers and actuators in the individual rooms. they are equipped with an input for changing over between cooling and heating mode.2 Distribution strip/zone valve For the changeover from heating to cooling mode with area heating systems and the associated opening of actuator valves in the heating circuits in the rooms to be cooled. In addition. 37 .WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE 9. Figure 24 Distribution strip heating/cooling The following overviews explain how the wiring of the rooms that require cooling and those that do not should be carried out. special distribution strips are available.

WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE Figure 25 Connection diagram for the wiring of the distribution strip with room thermostat 1 2 3 K H L N Room thermostat. room 1 Cooling Heating Phase Neutral conductor 38 . heating and cooling Valves. heating only Room thermostat.

heating and cooling Room 2. heating and cooling Room 3.WIRING CHANGEOVER COOLING MODE Figure 26 Example of a connection diagram for the wiring of the distribution strip 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SP cool distributor strip Room 1. heating only Single room thermostat (on site) FEK digital remote control Heating circuit distributor WPMi heat pump manager 39 .

40 . Table 13 Overview of the advantages and disadvantages Brine|Water heat pump Advantages - Water|Water heat pump - Reversible Air|Water heat pump - Passive and active cooling are possible Low flow temperature possible (active cooling) Passive cooling adequate due to constant heat source temperature Low installation costs for the heat source Flow temperatures up to 7 °C possible - - - Constant flow temperature Low operating costs as only the well pump operates (in passive cooling) - Low operating costs as only the brine circulation pump operates (in passive cooling) - Disadvantages - High installation costs for the heat source Flow temperature subject to the ground probe temperature (in passive cooling) - High installation costs for the heat source Check the heat exchanger compatibility with groundwater - Cooling only possible from outside temperatures of 15 °C - - - Only active cooling is possible High operating costs as pumps and compressor operate - In summary it can be said that. with a brine|water heat pump passive and active cooling is feasibly. With reversible air|water heat pumps. passive cooling may frequently be adequate.COMPARISON COOLING WITH DIFFERENT HEAT PUMPS 10 COMPARISON COOLING WITH DIFFERENT HEAT PUMPS The advantages and disadvantages of the heat pump types for use in passive and active cooling are compared in the following table. With a water|water heat pump. only active cooling is technically feasible.

/5/ Free ventilation is easily achieved with domestic ventilation systems. Cooling/tempering is therefore unacceptable for hygienic reasons. air-conditioning with dehumidification would be feasible. is that pure cooling raises the relative humidity. For this.5 W/(m³/h). In such equipment. Also. however. condensate is created when cooling the air. resulting in the temperature falling below the dew point and consequently in condensation. making the water wall suitable for dehumidification and cooling. 11. air-conditioning systems with direct evaporation Split air-conditioning units are an alternative to the extraction of cooling loads. If the circulating water is cooled below the dew point. where the offices are air-conditioned with treated air. The specific cooling capacity is approx. these units do not provide a simple cooling of the air. This can be easily realised if the room to be cooled is equipped with ventilation openings in opposing walls (windows. One problem.4 Water wall Water walls represent a simple option for reducing the room temperature in summer. a corresponding heat exchanger can be integrated into the central ventilation unit. contains several banks for treating the air. wall outlets).2 Free cooling Free cooling represents an alternative that requires no mechanical drive for cooling the buildings. One disadvantage is the additional installation effort (internal and external equipment. particularly on hot days. condensate is created on the water surface. 11. these units are serviced regularly. A classic office air-conditioning system.5 to 2. 41 .ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS 11 ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS 11. In other words.3 Air duct Apart from fan convectors or area heating systems there is the possibility of utilising air ducts in existing domestic ventilation systems as an alternative distribution system for cooling purposes.1 VRF systems. ventilation flaps). This enables effective night ventilation by cross venting. 1. this must be drained away. However. which is not required for cooling with an existing area heating system. There are units for humidifying and dehumidifying the air as well as those for boosting the heating. The cooling capacity is hampered by the low temperature differential between day and night temperatures. 11.

i. The heat pump has become a favourite heating system since oil and gas prices have constantly risen in cost. has come to be considered recently as heat pumps have found increasing favour as heating system. 400 hours at full cooling utilisation) Example 3: Shop 500 m² (cooling 45 kW.e. 700 hours full cooling utilisation) Cooling foodstuffs with active or passive cooling is not feasible due to the limits of use. the use of heat pumps for cooling purposes. Example 1: Residential building 150 m² (cooling load 6 kW. The alternative.ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS 11. 42 . buildings are almost always cooled with split air-conditioning units. 15 rooms. these are also shown in Table 14. as the ground probe significantly regenerates the ground in summer. off periods and control equipment.5 Cost consideration Today. 4 rooms. The combined use for cooling and heating improves the efficiency of heat pumps with ground probes in heating mode. The additional use for cooling or tempering is attractive because of the low level of addition costs for the cooling systems and the very low costs for generating the cooling capacity. chillers or VRF systems (variable refrigerant flow). 150 hours at full cooling utilisation) Example 2: Office building 300 m² (cooling load 25 kW. The following cost consideration compares three typical application examples for cooling.

0 VRF-controlled air-conditioning systems 3. 15 rooms. 4 rooms.a.0/p.000 €9.5/p.a.0 Room airconditioning units 3. cooling Energy costs Annual cooling costs - 4 Example: Residential building 150 m² (cooling load 6 kW. 150 hours at full cooling €2.a.5. €4189.1 Recommendations Given the energy and annual cooling costs.a.000 €100. €6423. 700 hours full cooling utilisation) Assumptions for the cost consideration The investment outlay for the devices is based on manufacturer's details plus conventional installation costs.a. an office building and a shop /1/ Heat pump Passive cooling Active cooling 5. €5.000 €45.5/p.0/p. €27.a.000 €1243. In office buildings.3/p.8 Performance factors in cooling mode 15.0/p.5/p.0/p. €6222. €7.a. €40.a.95 % is based on an amortisation period of 10 years with an interest rate of 5 %.5/p.a. €25.000 €220. Unusual €9.a. The electricity tariff for passive cooling with heat pump and cooling with room air-conditioning units and VRF systems is €0.0/p. as the compressor operation is not required.ALTERNATIVE SYSTEMS AND COST CONSIDERATIONS Table 14 Cost comparison for different cooling systems using the examples of a residential building.000 €395.0/p. The annuity with an annuity factor of 12.a.0/p. 400 hours at full cooling utilisation) Example: Shop 500 m² (cooling 45 kW. €926. 4 Only the pump operation for the brine and heating circuit are taken into account.000 €693.0/p.a. €962. 11. as well as the different cooling loads.15/kWh. For the additional costs in connection with the cooling with heat pumps it is assumed that a heat pump heating systems with ground probes is already installed.5/p.a. Unusual Example: Office building 300 m² (cooling load 25 kW.0 utilisation) Additional investment.8/p.000 €315.a. we recommend the use primarily of passive cooling in detached houses. 43 . €45.0/p.a. passive and active cooling and in small businesses primarily the active cooling is recommended.000 €500.a. €268.a.a. €4. €4385. €30.a. €1210.0/p. cooling Energy costs Annual cooling costs Additional investment.000 €19. The electricity tariff for active cooling with heat pump is €0.0/p.0/p.0/p. €618.a. €3457.11/kWh. cooling Energy costs Annual cooling costs Additional investment.

The following influencing factors are taken into consideration: - Cooling load due to solar irradiation through windows.COOLING LOAD CALCULATION FORM Table 15 Overview application options passive/active cooling Passive cooling Detached house Office building Active cooling Office building Small business 12 COOLING LOAD CALCULATION FORM The cooling load activation form enables an estimate of the cooling load for one room respectively to be made. skylights and doors Cooling load due to external and internal walls and floors Cooling load due to the ceiling Cooling load due to electrical devices Cooling load due to occupants 44 .

cooling = 0. Are all components resistant to brine? Are all pipe runs insulated in a vapour diffusion-proof manner? Must application limits be taken into consideration? The brine increases the pressure drop. Minimum flow rates. heating - - - 45 . on the source side: ½ the minimum flow rate as for heating. All lines and fittings must be made from corrosion resistant material. The expansion vessel on the brine side may need to be sized larger for cooling since the temperature differentials are greater. active cooling: On the cooling side: The same minimum flow rate as for heating. Use only a circulation pumps that are resistant to brine and condensate. cooling = Vmin. What cooling source is available? Check the compatibility of the heat exchanger when cooling with a water|water heat pump. This must be taken into account when sizing the pumps. & & The following applies: Cooling side (inside the building): V min.5-fold pressure drop. allow for a 1. heating & & Source side: V min.5 ⋅ Vmin.CHECK LIST 13 CHECK LIST - What is the purpose of the heat pump? What heat source is to be used with the heat pump? What is the required cooling capacity? Carry out a cooling load calculation. Topping up with brine only as ready-mixed solution.

und Heizboden /7/ Sponsel. p. Christian. publisher C. Karlsruhe 1989. Rainer. Freymark. Müller GmbH. Krone. Wirtschaftlichkeit von Eisspeichern. 2005/2006 72nd issue. Arnd. Technologien zur energieeffizienten Raumkühlung: passiv-hybrid-aktiv. 62 /3/ h-x diagram. Berlin /2/ Handbuch der Klimatechnik.2. energetische und wirtschaftliche Bewertung passiver und aktiver Kühlsysteme mit Sole/Wasser-Wärmepumpen. No. http://www. Hilligweg. 72. published 4th Forum Wärmepumpen 2006. chapter 3 Physiologische Grundlagen p. Schramek.de/hx-diag. TGA Fachplaner 4-2003 46 .F. 1 Grundlagen. Energieeffiziente Raumkühlung.3-7 Kombinierter Kühl. Behaglichkeitsfeld. Taschenbuch für Heizung und Klimatechnik. Oldenbourg Industrieverlag Munich 2005. Der Gesundheitsingenieur.BIBLIOGRAPHY 14 BIBLIOGRAPHY /1/ Brugmann. Protokollband 31 /6/ Recknagel.pdf (11/06) /4/ Leusden. 1134 3. 1951 /5/ Pfluger. vol.bosy-online. Technische. Sprenger.

38 Dynamic. 11 Ground probes. 29 47 . 17 Passive cooling. cooling and tempering. 31 Fan convectors. 22 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 1. 25 Operating modes WPC cool. 8 Reversible heat pump.KEYWORD INDEX 15 KEYWORD INDEX Active cooling. 10 Groundwater. 13 Area heating (underfloor). 44 Cooling via hydraulic changeover. 12 Hours at full utilisation for providing cooling. 18 Operating modes WPF. 4 Comparison of cooling with different heat pumps. 14 Hydraulics WPC cool. 5 h-x diagram and dew point temperature. 23 Hydraulics WPF with WPAC 2. 13 Brine resistance. 34 Ceiling cassettes. 40 Cooling load calculation form. 17 Cooling with water|water heat pumps. 7 Area heating (ceiling). 14 Comfort. 12 Air-conditioning. 10 WPMi. 24 Hydraulics WPF. 28 Cooling with brine|water heat pumps. 26 Distribution strip/zone valve. 8 Air. 14 Ground collectors. 10 Cooling with air|water heat pumps.

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