War in Afghanistan (2001–present

)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The War in Afghanistan (2001–present) refers to the intervention by NATO and allied forces in the Afghan political struggle, following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, to dismantle the al-Qaeda terrorist organization and to remove from power the Taliban government, which at the time controlled 90% of Afghanistan and hosted al-Qaeda leadership. U.S. President George W. Bush demanded that the Taliban hand over Osama bin Laden and expel the alQaeda network which was supporting the Taliban in its war with the Afghan Northern Alliance. The Taliban recommended that bin Laden leave the country [citation needed] but declined to extradite him without evidence of his involvement in the 9/11 attacks. The United States refused to negotiate and launched Operation Enduring Freedom on 7 October 2001 with the United Kingdom and later joined by Germany and other western allies, to attack the Taliban and al-Qaeda forces in conjunction with the Northern Alliance.[23][24] The U.S. and allies drove the Taliban from power and gradually built new military bases near major cities across the country. However, most al-Qaeda and Taliban members escaped to neighboring Pakistan or retreated to rural or remote mountainous regions. In December 2001, the U.N. Security Council established the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), to oversee security in the country and train the Afghan National Security Forces. At the Bonn Conference in December 2001, Hamid Karzai was selected to head the Afghan Interim Administration, which after a 2002 loya jirga in Kabul became the Afghan Transitional Administration. In the popular elections of 2004, Karzai was elected the president of the new permanent Afghan government, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.[25] In 2003, NATO assumed leadership of ISAF, included troops from 43 countries, with NATO members providing the core of the force.[26] Only a portion of U.S. forces in Afghanistan operate under NATO command; the rest remained under direct American command. Mullah Omar reorganized the Taliban movement and in 2003 launched insurgency against the Afghan government and ISAF forces.[27][28] Though vastly outgunned and outnumbered by NATO forces and the Afghan National Army, the Taliban insurgents, most notably the Haqqani Network and Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin, have waged asymmetric warfare with guerilla raids and ambushes in the countryside, suicide attacks against urban targets, and turncoat killings against coalition forces. The Taliban exploited the weak administration of the Afghan government, among the most corrupt in the world, to reassert influence across rural areas of southern and eastern Afghanistan. NATO countries responded in 2006 by increasing troops for operations to "clear and hold" villages and "nation building" projects to "win hearts and minds".[29][30] While NATO forces continued to battle the Taliban insurgency, the war expanded into neighboring North-West Pakistan.[31] In 2004, the Pakistani Army began to clash with local tribes

War in Afghanistan
Part of the conflict in Afghanistan and the Global War on Terrorism

Clockw ise from top-left: British Royal Marines take part in the clearance of Nad-e Ali District of Helmand Province; two F/A-18 strike fighters conduct combat missions over Afghanistan; an anti-Taliban fighter during an operation to secure a compound in Helmand Province; A French soldier patrols a valley in Kapisa Province; U.S. Marines prepare to board buses shortly after arriving in southern Afghanistan; Taliban fighters in a cave hideout; U.S. soldiers prepare to fire a mortar during a mission in Paktika Province.

Date Location Status

7 October 2001 – present (12 years, 3 weeks and 5 days) Afghanistan Conflict ongoing Fall of the Taliban government in Afghanistan Destruction of al-Qaeda camps Establishment of new Afghan government Taliban insurgency War in North-West Pakistan Killing of Osama bin Laden Return of more than 5.7 million Afghan refugees from Pakistan and Iran[1]

Belligerents
Coalition:
ISAF

Insurgent groups: Al-Qaeda Taliban

United States

hosting al-Qaeda and Taliban militants. The U.S. military launched drone attacks in Pakistan in order to kill leaders of the insurgent groups. This resulted in the start of an insurgency in Waziristan in 2007. On 2 May 2011, U.S. Navy SEALs killed Osama bin Laden in Abbotabad, Pakistan. About three weeks later, NATO leaders endorsed an exit strategy for removing their soldiers from Afghanistan. In the meantime, UN-backed peace talks got under way between the Afghan government and the Taliban.[32] As of 2013, tens of thousands of people were killed in the war, mostly militants and ordinary civilians. In addition, over 4,000 ISAF soldiers and civilian contractors as well as over 10,000 Afghan National Security Forces also died.[33]
2001

United Kingdom Germany Italy France Canada Australia Georgia Poland Romania Turkey Afghanistan 2001 United States United Kingdom Australia Northern Alliance Iran

Haqqani network Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin Lashkar-eJhangvi[2] Other groups [3]

Contents
1 Historical background 1.1 Origins of Afghanistan's civil war 1.2 Warlord Interregnum (1992-1996) 1.3 Taliban Emirate vs Northern Alliance 1.3.1 Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan 1.3.2 Change in U.S. policy toward Afghanistan 1.3.3 Northern Alliance on the eve of 9/11 1.4 September 11, 2001 Attacks 2 Declaration of war 2.1 The case for war 2.2 Legal basis for war 3 History of the conflict 3.1 2001: Overthrow of the Taliban 3.1.1 Air campaigns 3.1.2 Battle of Mazar-i Sharif 3.1.3 Fall of Kabul 3.1.4 Fall of Kunduz 3.1.5 Battle of Qala-i-Jangi 3.1.6 Consolidation: the taking of Kandahar 3.1.7 Battle of Tora Bora 3.1.8 Diplomatic and humanitarian efforts 3.1.9 International Security Assistance Force 3.2 2002: Operation Anaconda 3.2.1 Post-Anaconda operations 3.3 2003–2005: Renewed Taliban insurgency 3.4 2006: NATO in southern Afghanistan 3.5 2007: Coalition offensive

Al-Qaeda Taliban

Commanders and leaders
Barack Obama David Cameron Hamid Karzai Formerly: George W. Bush Tony Blair Gordon Brown Mohammed Omar Ayman al-Zawahiri Jalaluddin Haqqani Formerly: Osama bin Laden
(KIA)

Strength
ISAF: 87,207[4] Afghan National Security Forces: 380,586[5] Taliban: 25,000 (tentative estimate) Al-Qaeda: 50-100 Haqqani network: 4,000-15,000[8][9][10]
[6][7]

Casualties and losses
Coalition: Killed: 3,372 (USA: 2,271,
UK: 444, CAN: 158, FRA: 86, GER: 54, Others: 359)[11]

No reliable estimate[21] but reports suggest high number compare to coalition forces

Wounded: 23,500+ Missing/captured (U.S.): 1 Contractors: Killed: 1,143[12][13] Wounded: 15,000+*[12][13] Afghan Security Forces: 10,086+ killed[14][15][16] Afghan Northern Alliance: 200 killed[17][18][19][20] Total killed: 14,449+

3.6 2008: Reassessment and renewed Civilians killed: 16,725–19,013 (2001–2013)[22] Further information: Civilian casualties in the War in commitment Afghanistan (2001–present) 3.6.1 Taliban attacks on supply lines through Pakistan 3.6.2 Coalition issues with Pakistan 3.7 2009: Southern Afghanistan 3.7.1 Northern Distribution Network 3.7.2 Increase in U.S. troops 3.7.3 Kunduz airstrike amidst Kunduz Province campaign 3.7.4 Operation Khanjar and Operation Panther's Claw 3.7.5 Taliban's gains 3.8 2010: American/British offensive and Afghan peace initiative 3.8.1 Troop surge 3.8.2 Wikileaks disclosure 3.8.3 Pakistan and U.S. tensions 3.9 2011: U.S. and NATO drawdown 3.9.1 Battle of Kandahar 3.9.2 Death of Osama bin Laden 3.9.3 Withdrawal 3.9.4 2011 U.S.-NATO attack in Pakistan 3.10 2012: Strategic Agreement 3.10.1 Reformation of the United Front (Northern Alliance) 3.10.2 High-profile U.S. military incidents 3.10.3 Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement 3.10.4 NATO Chicago Summit: Troops withdrawal and longterm presence 3.11 2013: Withdrawal 3.11.1 Karzai-Obama-Meeting 3.11.2 Security handover from NATO to Afghan forces 4 Post 2014 presence plans for NATO and the United States 5 Impact on Afghan society 5.1 Civilian casualties 5.2 Refugees 5.3 Drug trade 5.4 Public education 6 War Crimes 6.1 Taliban War Crimes 6.2 Northern Alliance War Crimes 6.3 U.S. War Crimes 7 Cost of war 8 Risk of a failed state 9 Capacity of Afghan security forces 10 Insider attacks 11 International reactions 11.1 Public opinion in 2001 11.2 Development of public opinion 11.3 Afghan opinions 11.4 Protests, demonstrations and rallies 12 Human rights abuses

12.1 Taliban 12.2 White phosphorus use 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Historical background
Origins of Afghanistan's civil war
The breakdown of Afghanistan's political order began with the overthrow of King Zahir Shah by his cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan in a bloodless coup in 1973. Daoud Khan, who had served as prime minister since 1953, continued to promote economic modernization, emanicipation of women and Pashtun nationalism, which was threatening to neighboring Pakistan, with its own restive Pashtun population. In the mid-1970s, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto began to encourage Islamic leaders from Afghanistan such as Burhanuddin Rabbani and Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, to fight against the Daoud Khan regime. In 1978, Daoud Khan was killed in a coup by Afghan's Communist Party, his former partner in government, known as the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). The PDPA pushed for socialist Soviet troops in 1986, during the Soviet w ar transformation of Afghan society by abolishing arranged marriages, in Afghanistan promoting mass literacy and reforming land ownership, which undermined the traditional tribal order and provoked opposition from Islamic leaders across rural areas of the country. The PDPA's crackdown was met with open rebellion, including Ismail Khan's Herat Uprising. The PDPA itself was beset by leadership differences and weakened by another an internal coup on September 11, 1979 when Hafizullah Amin ousted Nur Muhammad Taraki. The Soviet Union, sensing PDPA weakness, intervened militarily three months later, to depose Amin and install another PDA faction led by Babrak Karmal. The entry of the Soviet Union into Afghanistan in December 1979 prompted its Cold War rivals, the United States, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and China to support rebels fighting against the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan In contrast to the secular and socialist government, which controlled the cities, the religiously-motivated Mujahadeen held sway in large swathes of the countryside. Beside Rabbani, Hekmatar, Khan, other mujahedin commanders included Jalaluddin Haqqani, The CIA worked closely with Pakistan's Inter-Service Intelligence, the to funnel foreign support for the mujahedin to rebel groups across Afghanistan. The war also attracted Arab volunteers, known as "Afghan Arabs", including Osama Bin Laden. After the withdrawal of the Soviet military from Afghanistan in May 1989, the PDPA regime under Najibullah held on against the Mujahedeein until 1992 when the collapse of the Soviet Union deprived the regime of aid, and the defection of Uzbek general Abdul Rashid Dostum cleared the approach to Kabul. With the political stage cleared of Afghan socialists, the remaining Islamic warlords vied for power. By then Bin Laden had left the country. The United States' interest in Afghanistan also diminished.

Warlord Interregnum (1992-1996)
Main article: Civil war in Afghanistan (1992–96) In 1992, Rabbani became president of the Islamic State of Afghanistan but this regime fought with other warlords for control of Kabul. In late 1994, Rabbani's defense minister, Ahmad Shah Massoud defeated Hekmatyr in Kabul and ended bombardments of the capital.[34][35][36] Massoud tried to initiate a nationwide political process with the goal of national consolidation. Other warlords maintained their fiefdoms such as Ismail Khan in the west and Dostum in the north.

In 1994, Mullah Omar, a Pashtun mujahedeen, who taught at a madrassa in Pakistan, returned to Kandahar and

In 1994, Mullah Omar, a Pashtun mujahedeen, who taught at a madrassa in Pakistan, returned to Kandahar and founded the Taliban. His followers were religious students, known as the Talib and they sought to end warlordism through strict adherence to Islamic law. By November 1994, the Taliban had captured all of Kandahar Province. They declined the government's offer to join in a coalition government and marched on Kabul in 1995.[37] The Taliban declined.[37]

Taliban Emirate vs Northern Alliance
Main article: Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001) The Taliban's early victories in 1994 were followed by a series of defeats that resulted in heavy losses.[38] Pakistan provided strong support to the Taliban.[39][40] Analysts such as Amin Saikal described the Taliban as developing into a proxy force for Pakistan's regional interests, which the Taliban deny.[39] The Taliban started shelling Kabul in early 1995 but were driven by back by Massoud.[35][41] On 27 September 1996, the Taliban, with military support by Pakistan and financial support by Saudi Arabia, seized Kabul and founded the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.[42] They imposed their fundamentalist interpretation of Islam in areas under their control, issuing edicts forbidding women to work outside the home, attend school, or to leave their homes unless accompanied by a male relative.[43] According to the Pakistani expert Ahmed Rashid, "between 1994 and 1999, an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 Pakistanis trained and fought in Afghanistan" on the side of the Taliban.[44][45]

Ahmad Shah Massoud (right) w ith Pashtun antiTaliban leader and later Vice-President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Haji Abdul Qadir

Massoud and Dostum, former arch-enemies, created a United Front, commonly known as the Northern Alliance against the Taliban.[46] In addition to the Tajik forces of Massoud and the Uzbek forces of Dostum, the United Front included Hazara factions and Pashtun forces under the leadership of commanders such as Abdul Taliban fighters Haq and Haji Abdul Qadir. Former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf Abdul Haq received a limited sent thousands of Pakistani troops to fight w ith number of defecting Pashtun Taliban.[47] Both agreed to work together the Taliban and Bin Laden against the forces of with the exiled Afghan king Zahir Shah.[45] International officials who met Massoud. with representatives of the new alliance, which the journalist Steve Coll referred to as the "grand Pashtun-Tajik alliance", said, "It's crazy that you have this today ... Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazara ... They were all ready to buy in to the process ... to work under the king's banner for an ethnically balanced Afghanistan."[48][49] The Northern Alliance received varying degrees of support from Russia, Iran, Tajikistan and India. The Taliban captured Mazar-i-Sharif in 1998 and drove Dostum into exile. The conflict was brutal. According the United Nations (UN), the Taliban, while trying to consolidate control over northern and western Afghanistan, committed systematic massacres against civilians.[50][51] UN officials stated that there had been "15 massacres" between 1996 and 2001.[50][51] The Taliban especially targeted the Shiite Hazaras.[50][51] In retaliation of the execution of 3,000 Taliban prisoners by Uzbek general Abdul Malik Pahlawan in 1997, the Taliban executed about 4,000 civilians after taking Mazar-i-Sharif in 1998.[52][53]

Bin Laden's so-called 055 Brigade was responsible for mass-killings of Afghan civilians.[54] The report by the United

began to draft a formal finding for President George W. officials pressed the Taliban to surrender bin Laden. and the European Union provided no support to Massoud for the fight against the Taliban.[64] CIA lawyers. He grew close to Mullah Omar and moved Al Qaeda's operations to eastern Afghanistan. It would be the first in a decade to seek to influence the course of the Afghan war in favor of Massoud.[37][54][55][56] Many of the Pakistanis were recruited from madrassas.000 and 20. with the Northern Alliance confined to northeast corner of Afghanistan. U. allegedly presented a plan to incoming Bush administration official Condoleezza Rice in January 2001.S.[50][51] By 2001. especially from the Frontier Corps.000 men passed through these facilities before 9/11. Subsequently.S. but also from the army providing direct combat support. the U. invasion of Afghanistan. Pakistan began a "Berlin-like airlift to resupply and re-equip the Taliban". Embassy bombings were linked to bin Laden.[63] The U. The Taliban repeatedly rebuffed their demands. which demanded the Taliban surrender Osama bin Laden for trial in the U."[40] According to the U.S. Clarke.[54] A 1998 document by the U.S. policy toward Afghanistan During the Clinton administration.[60] Their efforts built many of the relationships with Afghan leaders that proved essential in the 2001 U. President Bill Clinton ordered missile strikes on militant training camps in Afghanistan. as long as he controlled an area the size of his hat.S.Bin Laden's so-called 055 Brigade was responsible for mass-killings of Afghan civilians. al-Qaeda was able to use Afghanistan as a place to train and indoctrinate fighters. Osama Bin Laden was forced to leave Sudan and arrived in Jalabad. and later an official in the Bush administration. Massoud responded that.000-3.S.S.S.[58] While alQaeda maintained its own camps in Afghanistan. authorizing a new covert action program in Afghanistan. for instance. A smaller number were inducted into al-Qaeda.[48] Richard A. working with officers in the Near East Division and Counter-terrorist Center. he would continue to defend it from the Taliban. coordinate with other jihadists. Osama bin Laden was indicted for his involvement in the embassy bombings. These teams planned several operations but did not receive the order to execute from President Clinton. the Taliban controlled as much as 90% of the country. By 2001 the change of policy sought by CIA officers who knew Massoud was underway. tended to favor Pakistan and until 1998-1999 had no clear policy toward Afghanistan. Bush’s signature.S.S.S. policy toward Afghanistan changed after the 1998 U. most of whom were sent to fight for the Taliban against the United Front.000-30. An estimated 10.[37] Around the same time.[61] U. the international community imposed sanctions on the Taliban. chair of the Counter-Terrorism Security Group under the Clinton administration. top foreign policy officials in the Clinton administration flew to northern Afghanistan to try to persuade the United Front not to take advantage of a chance to make crucial gains against the Taliban.[59] After the August 1998 U. State Department confirmed that "20–40 percent of [regular] Taliban soldiers are Pakistani. embassy bombings."[40] The document said that many of the parents of those Pakistani nationals "know nothing regarding their child's military involvement with the Taliban until their bodies are brought back to Pakistan. import weapons. the other Pakistani nationals fighting in Afghanistan were regular soldiers.S.000 Pakistanis and 2. The 9/11 Commission in the US reported found that under the Taliban. Afghanistan. At the time. calling for bin Laden to be surrendered. In 1999. State Department's Robin Raphel told Ahmad Shah Massoud to surrender to the Taliban. Fighting alongside Taliban forces were some 28. and the United Nations enacted sanctions against the Taliban via United Nations Security Council Resolution 1267. In 1999 both the U. He had founded AlQaeda in the late 1980s to support the mujahdeen's war against the Soviets but became disillusioned by infighting among warlords. State Department report and reports by Human Rights Watch.[40][57] Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan In August 1996.[54] The report by the United Nations quotes eyewitnesses in many villages describing "Arab fighters carrying long knives used for slitting throats and skinning people". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Special Activities Division paramilitary teams were active in Afghanistan in the 1990s in clandestine operations to locate and kill or capture Osama bin Laden.[62] The only collaboration between Massoud and the US at the time was an effort with the CIA to trace Osama bin Laden following the 1998 bombings. In 1997.[60] Change in U. and plot terrorist actions. and close all terrorist bases in Afghanistan.000 Al Qaeda militants.S. it also supported training camps of other organizations. the U.[61][61] They insisted it was the time for a cease-fire and an arms embargo. financed with Saudi money. .

after some of its passengers and flight crew attempted to retake control of the plane. Four commercial passenger jet airliners were hijacked.[78] Ground Zero in New York follow ing the attacks of September 11.[69] On this visit to Europe.[70] That part of the Pashtun-TajikHazara-Uzbek peace plan did eventually develop. which the hijackers had redirected toward Washington. Virginia.[78] According to the New York State Health Department. Nearly 3.[71][72] In early 2001. soil being imminent. or the U. soil. the US would provide covert military aid to anti-Taliban groups. destroying nearby buildings and damaging others.[66] As a consequence. Capitol. whoever is . with other ethnic leaders. including firefighters and police personnel. The hijackers crashed a third airliner into the Pentagon in Arlington. Massoud officially brought together this new alliance in a meeting in Northern Afghanistan to discuss "a Loya Jirga.[74][75] Massoud died in the helicopter taking him to a hospital. the Taliban's foreign minister.C to target the White House. in the Takhar Province of Afghanistan. D.. addressed the European Parliament in Brussels. No flights had survivors.[48] The Bush administration agreed on a plan to start giving support to the anti-Taliban forces of Ahmad Shah Massoud.According to later reporting. al-Qaeda carried out four coordinated attacks on U. In the areas under his control. Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil. have died as of June 2009. the Taliban would not be able to sustain their military campaign for up to a year. he warned that his intelligence had gathered information about a large-scale attack on U. who sought to create a democratic form of government in Afghanistan. 2001 Declaration of war The case for war On 11 September.(see video (http://www. Massoud set up democratic institutions and signed the Women's Rights Declaration. Massoud.[69] In late 2000.youtube.S. The fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville. The funeral. "the deputies agreed that the United States would seek to overthrow the Taliban regime through more direct action. was attended by hundreds of thousands of mourning Afghans. Massoud was critically wounded in a suicide attack by two Arabs posing as journalists.com/watch?v=t78N6Q5VD60))[69] He said that the Taliban and al-Qaeda had introduced "a very wrong perception of Islam" and that without the support of Pakistan and Osama bin Laden. killing everyone on board and thousands working in the buildings. If the Taliban refused.S.C.[73] On 9 September 2001. held in a rural area. A meeting of the Bush administration's top national security officials agreed that the Taliban would be presented in negotiations with a final ultimatum to hand over Osama bin Laden and other leading alQaeda operatives. many civilians had fled during those years to areas under his control. in rural Pennsylvania. "denounce[d] the terrorist attack. D.S. to settle political turmoil in Afghanistan".[76][77] The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. asking the international community to provide humanitarian help to the people of Afghanistan."[65] Northern Alliance on the eve of 9/11 Ahmad Shah Massoud was the only leader of the United Front in Afghanistan. 2001 Attacks Main article: September 11 attack s On the morning of 11 September 2001. September 11. If both those options failed. Both buildings collapsed within two hours from fire damage related to the crashes. just outside Washington. Among those in attendance was a Pashtun named Hamid Karzai. died in the attacks. 836 responders. estimates range up to one million people fleeing the Taliban.000 people.[67][68] In total. or a traditional council of elders. who detonated a bomb hidden in their video camera during an interview in Khoja Bahauddin. a change in US policy was concluded in August 2001. including the 19 hijackers.

w hen the Taliban United States. ISI Director Mahmoud told U. "in the near future" release "a document that will describe quite clearly the evidence ."[79] The following day.[90] "If the Americans provide evidence.[84] ."[88] White House spokesperson Ari Fleischer rejected the response. linking [bin Laden] to this attack. "denounce[d] the terrorist attack.[95] Mullah Omar was noncommittal. why do you not apply it to Afghanistan?"[90] On 23 September. If you use the principle.[90] "In America.[95] The U. "They w ill hand over the terrorists or they w ill share in their fate. Zaeef reiterated the demand for evidence of bin Laden's involvement in repeatedly denied having any role.S."[91] The evidence was not made public but instead shown to Pakistan's government whose leaders later stated that the materials they had seen "provide[d] sufficient basis for indictment in a court of law.[94] On 28 September. Taliban representatives in Pakistan reacted to the U. he denied having any involvement in a statement issued on September 17 and by interview on September 29. saying the time for talk had ended and it was time for action. the 9/11 attacks. demanded that the Taliban surrender all known al-Qaeda associates in Afghanistan. but they do not provide evidence. warned that a U. government remained opposed to any negotiations with the Taliban.S. Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil.S. "jihad becomes an order for all Muslims. the Taliban's foreign minister. President George W.S.S. Osama bin Laden eventually took responsibility for the 9/11 attacks. His deputy Suhail Shaheen.[82][83] The State Department. issued a fatwa. and calling on the United Nations and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation to conduct an independent investigation of "recent events to clarify the reality and prevent harassment of innocent people. if I think you are a terrorist.[87] The same day. Abdul Salam Zaeef said on 13 September that the Taliban would consider extraditing bin Laden if there was solid evidence linking him to the attacks.S. response In the days and w eeks immediately with defiance. a grand council of over 1.[90] Zaeef said the Taliban were ready." he said. Mahmud Ahmed conveyed these demands to Mullah Omar and the senior Taliban leadership. with Taliban leaders.[81] Though in 2004. invasion would sought evidence of his involvement share in the same fate that befell Great Britain and the Soviet Union in previous in the attacks."[86] Mahmoud reported that the Taliban leadership was in "deep introspection" and waiting for the recommendation of a grand council of religious clerics that was assembling to decide the matter. Secretary of State Colin Powell told NBC's Meet the Press that the U.[90] "This is an international principle.S. Afghanistan would revert to warlordism.[93] On 24 September. Bush demanded that the Taliban deliver Osama bin Laden and destroy bases of Al-Qaeda. for war with the [90] follow ing 9/11. whose response was "not negative on all points. demanded the Taliban deliver Osama bin Laden and destroy bases of al Qaeda. which had convened at the request of the Taliban leadership to decide the fate of bin Laden. . President Bush called the attacks more than just "acts of terror" but "acts of war" and resolved to pursue and conquer an "enemy" that would no longer be safe in "its harbors."[88] The fatwa went on to warn that should the United States not agree with its decision and invade Afghanistan.S. Ambassador to Pakistan that while the Taliban was "weak and illprepared to face the American onslaught".On 11 September."[92] Pakistan ISI chief Lieutenant General Mahmud Ahmed shared information provided to him by the U. we will cooperate with them. in an address to Congress. President Bush. is it properly justified that you should be punished without evidence?" he asked. "real victory will come through negotiations" for if the Taliban were eliminated. in a memo dated 14 September.[85] On 18 September. provide intelligence on him and his affiliates. and expel all terrorists from Afghanistan. . the director of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence. if necessary. Osama bin Laden [90] centuries. he led a delegation of eight Pakistani religious leaders to persuade Mullah Omar to accept having religious leaders from Islamic countries examine the evidence and decide bin Laden's fate. expressing sadness for the deaths in the 9/11 attacks. government would. U.000 Muslim clerics from across Afghanstan. Congress on 20 September 2001. U. urging bin Laden to leave their country.[89] On 21 September.S. whoever is behind it."[80] The Taliban ambassador to Pakistan.[95] In an address to a joint-session of the U." he said.[86] On 20 September.

S. Congress (i. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld urged a broader military response to the 9/11 attacks.S.S. government's "strong suit" which should instead use "the vastness of our military and humanitarian resources.[97] But Pakistan's president Pervez Musharraf blocked the plan because he could not guarantee bin Laden's safety. following other decisions that overturned some Bush executive positions in the war on terror.[98] The British Prime Minister Tony Blair called on the Taliban to "surrender the terrorists or surrender power. such as the United Nations Charter. aerial bombing campaign began. not war.S. government refused to negotiate and instead focused on building a new government around former Afghan King Zahir Shah. the U.S.. the Jamaat-i-Islami. offered to hand over bin Laden if the U.S. as the U. which was signed on 18 September 2001 by President Bush.S. Secretary of State Colin Pow ell told Meet the Press on 23 September 2001. The U.[97] On 2 October. "the Afghan people need food. government dismissed the request for proof as "request for delay or prevarication". how ever.[109] The United Nations Charter. dropped the condition to see evidence and offered to send bin Laden to a third country in return for a halt to the bombing."[98] He pleaded. the State Department gave the Pakistani government one last message to the Taliban: Hand over all al-Qaeda leaders or "every pillar of the Taliban regime will be destroyed. w as not made public prior to the outbreak of w ar. the Taliban offered to try bin Laden in an Afghan court.[100] The U. Muttawakil."[99] Mullah Omar warned that unlike the former King's government which was overthrown in 1973 and surrendered."[96] On 1 October.[96] In a memo to President Bush on September 30. the country or the region. was exploring ways to broaden the military response beyond Afghanistan. Mullah Omar agreed to a proposal by Qazi Hussain Ahmad. the Taliban's third ranking leader.[98] On 5 October."[101] The same day. Department of Defense under Secretary Donald Rumsfeld.S. on 14 October. the On 30 September 2001. the head of Pakistan's most important Islamic party. Armed Forces against those responsible for the 9/11 attacks. for its part.S. provides that all UN member states must settle their international disputes peacefully and no member nation can use military force except in self-defense. Rumsfeld argued "finding a few hundred terrorists in the caves of Afghanistan. need aid. though subject to effective repeal by any subsequent act of the U."[98] The U. Congress passed legislation titled Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists. President Bush rejected the offer as nonnegotiable. It authorized the use of U.[108] Military lawyers responsible for prosecuting detainees also had questioned some of the policies. going beyond regime change in Afghanistan to "another key State (or tw o) that support terrorism.[104] US officials also rejected this offer. and time is running out. the Taliban "would just retreat to the mountains" and continue to fight." was not the U. to which all the Coalition countries are signatories.S. provided what it called "solid evidence" of his guilt. President Bush ignored questions about the Taliban's offer and said instead "Full warning had been given. government w ould release evidence linking Osama bin Laden to the 9/11 attacks."[102] A week into the bombing campaign."[99] On 7 October.[107] U. need shelter. Supreme Court in 2008. NATO commander George Robertson said the evidence was "clear and compelling. that the U. bin Laden indicated that the Taliban had no knowledge of his plans for the 9/11 attacks.[105] At that time. are part of the law of the land.S."[106] In 2007.[103] On 16 October. so long as the U. and such internal disagreements were revealed years later in the press. some Afghan experts said the United States failed to recognize the Taliban's need for a "face saving formula. Abdul Kabir.Meanwhile the U." to strengthen the domestic opposition in "terrorist-supporting states" and achieve regime change in "Afghanistan and another key State (or two) that supports terrorism.S. Constitution states that international treaties. did not seek a declaration of war by Congress.S. government provided evidence of his guilt and halted the bombing campaign. "We do not want to compound the problems of the people. It thus defined them as outside the protections of the Geneva Convention and due process of law. On 14 September 2001. Zaeef appealed the United States to negotiate. The evidence. and labeled Taliban troops as supporters of terrorists rather than soldiers.S.S. to have bin Laden taken to Pakistan where he would be held under house arrest in Peshawar and tried by an international tribunal." Legal basis for war .e. This position was later overruled by the U. The Bush administration. the Taliban foreign minister. that are ratified by the U.

In addition.S. They interpreted self-defense to be actions that were "instant.-led military campaign in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom). Air Force Combat Controllers w ith Northern Alliance troops on horseback The U. al-Qaeda's number three at the time. more than two months after the U. Such critics have said that.S. Canada and Australia also deployed forces. On 7 October 2001. medicine. at Kandahar (home of the Taliban's Supreme Leader Mullah Omar).S. Army Special Forces from the 5th Special Forces Group and other units from USSOCOM. The United Kingdom.S. Al Jazeera. women and children of Afghanistan". airstrikes were reported in Kabul (where electricity supplies were severed). the UNSC authorized the creation of an International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to take all measures necessary to fulfill its mandate of assisting the Afghan Interim Authority in maintaining security.[112] Command of the ISAF passed to NATO on 11 August 2003. no bombing campaign would constitute self-defense. overwhelming. who was one of the most wanted. He was killed by bombing at his Kabul home between 14–16 November 2001. in particular the Northern Alliance.-led invasion argue that U.S. Army Special Forces and U.[110] The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) did not authorize the U. U. These forces worked with Afghan opposition groups on the ground.-led attack began. at the airport.[113] History of the conflict 2001: Overthrow of the Taliban Further information: 2001 in Afghanistan On 7 October 2001. They were soon joined by U.[118] Bin Laden released a prerecorded videotape before the attacks in which he condemned any attacks against Afghanistan. President Bush confirmed the strikes on national television and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair also addressed the UK. following the US invasion of Iraq in March of that year. the Arabic satellite news channel. They said these attackers had no proven connection to Afghanistan or the Taliban rulers. reported that the tapes were received shortly before the attack.[110][111] Critics maintain that the bombing and invasion of Afghanistan were not legitimate self-defense under Article 51 of the UN Charter because the 9/11 attacks were not “armed attacks” by another state.S."[110] On 20 December 2001. access and overflight permission. was able to track Mohammed Atef. teams from the CIA's Special Activities Division (SAD) were the first U. British and American special forces worked jointly to take Herat in November 2001. but were perpetrated by non-state actors. and supplies would be dropped to "the starving and suffering men."leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant" or "last in time" canon of statutory interpretation).S.[115][116][117] John How ard former Australian Prime Minister w as one of the major supporters for the invasion of Afghanistan At 17:00 UTC.S. and not a war of aggression.[119][120] This was one of America's first and largest victories during the early stages of the war. and no moment for deliberation.[114] On the ground. along with his guard Abu Ali al-Yafi'i and six others. Bush stated that Taliban military sites and terrorist training grounds would be targeted. even if a state had made the 9/11 attacks. forces to enter Afghanistan and begin combat operations. government launched military operations in Afghanistan. and several other countries provided basing.S. CNN released exclusive footage of Kabul being bombed to American broadcasters at approximately 5:08 pm 7 October 2001. food. and in the city of Jalalabad. Air campaigns .N. Defenders of the legitimacy of the U. the U. leaving no choice of means. Security Council authorization was not required since the invasion was an act of collective self-defense provided for under Article 51 of the UN Charter.

Examples of the U.Bombers operating at high altitudes well out of range of antiaircraft guns bombed at Afghan training camps and Taliban air defenses. would advance after the cohesiveness of the Taliban forces was disrupted by American air power. but so were all the other countries in the world.S. control. most Taliban training sites were severely damaged. and no battlefield successes were achieved."[121] “ Having begun the war with the greatest imaginable reservoir of moral authority. Italy.S. and often stood on top of bare ridgelines where U. Jalalabad. to address the United Nations. military had a limited presence on the ground. Army Special Forces could easily spot them and call in close air support. the Mideast.S.S. thereby cutting off Taliban supply lines and enabling the flow of equipment from the countries to the north.[122][123][124] The Tora Bora Mountains lie roughly east of Afghanistan's capital Kabul. Two weeks into the campaign. the allied forces attacked front lines with daisy cutter bombs. and intelligence officers with a military background. and Kandahar. operated throughout the campaign with no losses due to Taliban air defenses. bombing campaign rumblings began to reach Washington from Europe."[121] Fighters from al-Qaeda took over security in the Afghan cities. the U. while other U. including Apache helicopter gunships from the 101st Combat Aviation Brigade. Japan and other countries. Having begun the war with the greatest imaginable reservoir of moral authority. U.S. The Taliban fighters had no previous experience with American firepower.[122][123][124][125] . According to author Stephen Tanner. He said that not only was the U. the U. propaganda pamphlets "where the wreckage of the World Trade Center still smoldered with [121] dropped over Afghanistan. Northern Alliance troops would seize Mazari Sharif. Northern Alliance commanders began to see the substantive results that they had long hoped for on the front lines. The next stage of the campaign began with carrier based F/A-18 Hornet fighter-bombers hitting Taliban vehicles in pinpoint strikes. and Pakistan where Musharraf had requested the bombing to cease. including commitments of material help from Germany. France. The strikes initially focused on the area in and around the cities of Kabul. which weakened the ability of the Taliban forces to communicate. The campaign focused on command. and communication targets. the line facing the Afghan Northern Alliance held. U. Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the War against the Taliban[121] President George W. was on the verge of letting it slip away through high-level attacks using the most ghastly inventions its scientists could come up with. Areas most targeted During the early months of the war.S.S. demonstrating the instability of the Taliban regime. Bush went to New York City on 10 November 2001. underground fires". was on the verge of letting it slip away through high-level attacks using the most ghastly inventions its scientists could come up with. For the first time in years. followed by an attack on Kabul itself. in danger of further attacks by the 9/11 terrorists. the Northern Alliance demanded the air campaign focus more on the front lines. and the Taliban's air defenses were destroyed.S. and by AC-130 gunships. the U. American intelligence analysts believed that the Taliban and al-Qaeda had dug in behind fortified networks of wellsupplied caves and underground bunkers. The plan was that Special Forces. Within a few days.S. which is close to the border with Pakistan. At the beginning of November. Navy cruisers and destroyers launched several Tomahawk Cruise Missiles. The Northern Alliance and their Central Intelligence Agency/Special Forces advisers planned the next stage of their offensive. aircraft.S. would serve as liaisons with Afghan militias opposed to the Taliban. But. ” —Stephen Tanner. and a Northern Alliance march on Kabul seemed possible. Tanner writes: "His words had impact. Most of the world renewed its support for the American effort. "After a month of the U. Taliban frontal positions were devastated. planes began cluster bombing Taliban defenses. By 2 November. The area was subjected to a heavy continuous bombardment by B-52 bombers.

withdrew from the city. Taliban forces fled from the city of Kabul.[140] Fall of Kabul Main article: Fall of Kabul On the night of 12 November. took part in the push into the city of Mazari Sharif in Balkh Province by the Northern Alliance. including the key city of Herat.[133][138] The American-backed forces now controlling the city began immediately broadcasting from Radio Mazar-i-Sharif.[128][129] and seized the city's main military base and airport. swept across the Pul-i-Imam Bukhri bridge. U. had fallen. not only because it is the home of the Shrine of Hazrat Ali or "Blue Mosque".S. a thousand American 10th Mountain Division personnel were airlifted into the city. A group of about twenty hardline fighters hiding in the city's park were the only remaining defenders.[131] since the U.[133] The fall of the city was a "body blow"[133] to the Taliban and ultimately proved to be a "major shock". After a bloody 90-minute battle.S.S. Taliban forces. who had held the city since 1998. Central Command (CENTCOM) had originally believed that the city would remain in Taliban hands well into the following year.S. Special Operations Forces (namely Special Forces Operational Detachment A595.S. burned foliage.[141] The fall of Kabul marked the beginning of a collapse of Taliban positions across the map.S. including the key city of Jalalabad. but also because it is the location of a significant transportation hub with two main airports and a major supply route leading into Uzbekistan./NATO forces and the Northern Alliance. forces and the Northern Alliance also began to diverge in their objectives. which had threatened more than six million people with starvation. Many of those in most urgent need lived in rural areas to the south and west of Mazar-i-Sharif.[134] and any potential battle would be "a very slow advance". .The U.[126] It would also enable humanitarian aid to alleviate Afghanistan's looming food crisis.[135] Following rumors that Mullah Dadullah was headed to recapture the city with as many as 8. the Northern Alliance was pressuring for more support in their efforts to finish off the Taliban and control the country. was continuing the search for Osama bin Laden. While the U. and the burnt-out shells of Taliban gun emplacements and positions were there to greet them. By the time Northern Alliance forces arrived in the afternoon of 13 November. Local Pashtun commanders and warlords had taken over throughout northeastern Afghanistan. This Taliban group was killed in a 15-minute gun battle. precisely because its capture would confirm them as masters of all Afghanistan.000 Taliban fighters. These missions allowed massive shipments of humanitarian aid to be immediately shipped to hundreds of thousands of Afghans facing starvation on the northern plain.[126][127] On 9 November 2001. now the Americans held their own airport in the country which allowed them to fly more frequent sorties for resupply missions and humanitarian aid. only bomb craters. triggering jubilant celebrations among the townspeople whose ethnic and political affinities are with the Northern Alliance. Army Special Forces on 10 November. under the command of generals Abdul Rashid Dostum and Ustad Atta Mohammed Noor. Within 24 hours. CIA paramilitary officers and United States Air Force Combat Control Team[130][131][132] on horseback and using Close Air Support platforms. which provided the first solid foothold from which Kabul and Kandahar could be reached. upon arriving into the city w ith Northern Alliance fighters The Taliban had spent three years fighting the Northern Alliance for Mazar-i-Sharif. After these forces were neutralized Kabul was in the hands of the U.[127][133] U. Northern Alliance forces. Taliban holdouts in the north. leaving under the cover of darkness.[139] including an address from former President Burhanuddin Rabbani. all the Afghan provinces along the Iranian border. being heavily outnumbered and having had little more than a telescope to shield them.[136][137] While prior military flights had to be launched from Uzbekistan or Aircraft carriers in the Arabian Sea. a sacred Muslim site. the former Taliban Voice of Sharia channel on 1584 kHz. meeting some resistance. Battle of Mazar-i Sharif Further information: Fall of Mazar-i-Sharif The battle for Mazari Sharif was considered important.

S. Shortly before the surrender.mainly Pakistani volunteers. during this airlift. pressured Taliban forces from the east and cut off the northern Taliban supply lines to Kandahar. including an armory stocked with small arms and crew-served weapons.[147] A total of 86 of the Taliban prisoners survived. Pakistani aircraft arrived to evacuate intelligence and military personnel who had been in Afghanistan to aid the Taliban's ongoing fight against the Northern Alliance. a loyalist of the former Afghan king. ferried in by CH-53E Super Stallion helicopters and C-130s. set up a Forward Operating Base known as Camp Rhino in the desert south of Kandahar on 25 November. after nine days of heavy fighting and American aerial bombardment./NATO forces. al-Qaeda and Taliban forces. This was the coalition's first strategic foothold in Afghanistan. marking the first American combat death in the war.S. who soon seized the southern half of the complex. as well as a bombing airstrikes. and by 16 November. nearly 1. U. once a medieval fortress. and Gul Agha Sherzai. enlisting and paying local warlords to join the fight and planning an attack on the Tora Bora complex. led by Hamid Karzai. ground forces occurred a day after Rhino was captured when 15 armored vehicles approached the base and were attacked by helicopter gunships. Taliban fighters surrendered to Northern Alliance forces on 25 November – 26 November. and around 50 Northern Alliance soldiers were killed. Finally. Army Special Forces and Northern Alliance. and was coming under increasing pressure. the siege of Kunduz that began on 16 November was continuing. Johnny Micheal Spann. led by foreign fighters. Nearly 3. taking their weapons and opening fire. the day that Taliban fighters holding out in Kunduz surrendered and were being herded into the Qala-I-Janghi fortress near Mazar-I-Sharif. bombers began bombing the mountain fortress. the Taliban had been forced back to their heartland in southeastern Afghanistan around Kandahar. the governor of Kandahar before the Taliban seized power.000 Taliban fighters. Nearly 10. to prepare for a stand against the Northern Alliance and U. the Taliban's last stronghold in northern Afghanistan was besieged by the Northern Alliance. CIA and Special Forces operatives were already at work in the area. Kandahar. Nearly 2. By then. Around the same time. a few Taliban attacked some Northern Alliance guards. the airstrikes U. on the Pakistan border 50 kilometers (30 mi) southwest of Jalalabad. was killed. The revolt was finally put down after seven days of heavy fighting between a Special Boat Service unit along with some U. This incident soon triggered a widespread revolt by 300 prisoners. Marine w ith the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit leads a leatherneck to a security position after seizing a Taliban forw ard-operating base 25 November 2001 Consolidation: the taking of Kandahar By the end of November. Marines. with the possible inclusion of Osama bin Laden. the Taliban's birthplace.000 al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters fortified themselves in positions within bunkers and caves. The squashing of the revolt marked the end of the combat in northern Afghanistan. However. including Taliban and al-Qaeda troops.S. A U. One American CIA paramilitary operative who had been interrogating prisoners.S. AC-130 gunships and other aircraft took part providing strafing fire on several occasions. destroying many of them.S. The first significant combat involving U. had regrouped and were concentrating their forces in the Tora Bora cave complex. Meanwhile.000 tribal fighters.[144][145][146] Battle of Qala-i-Jangi On 25 November. it is alleged that up to five thousand people were evacuated from the region. Army Special Forces w ith Hamid Karzai in Kandahar province .000 U. The threat of the Northern Alliance loomed in the north and northeast. By 16 November. and was the stepping stone to establishing other operating bases. fell back to the northern city of Kunduz to make a stand.S.[143] Fall of Kunduz Main article: Airlift of Evil Just as the bombardment at Tora Bora was stepped up.[142] By 13 November. refused to surrender and continued to put up resistance. was its last remaining stronghold. Meanwhile.S. where local Northern Alliance warlords were now firmly in control.

included "Condemning the Taliban for allowing Afghanistan to be used as a base for the export of terrorism by the al-Qaeda network and other terrorist groups and for providing safe haven to Osama bin Laden. and the majority of the Taliban fighters had disbanded. On 12 December. the al-Qaeda forces agreed to a truce to give them time to surrender their weapons. it was generally understood that by then major al-Qaeda and Taliban leaders had fled across the border into Pakistan. Battle of Tora Bora Main article: Battle of Tora Bora Al-Qaeda fighters were still holding out in the mountains of Tora Bora. backed by Delta Force. No American or British deaths were reported. Diplomatic and humanitarian efforts After the Taliban fled Kabul in November 2001 and left their stronghold. and in this context supporting the efforts of the Afghan people to replace the Taliban regime".K. Facing defeat.S. The Taliban were not included. The Afghan tribal forces under Gul Agha seized the city of Kandahar while the U. the southern city of Kandahar. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1378 of 14 November 2001. Omar. the last cave complex had been taken and their defenders overrun. however. government rejected any amnesty for Omar or any Taliban leaders. Omar slipped out of the city of Kandahar with a group of his hardcore loyalists and moved northwest into the mountains of Uruzgan Province. had fallen.S. The meetings of various Afghan leaders here were organized by the United Nations Security Council. Observers included representatives of neighbouring and other involved major countries. The border town of Spin Boldak was surrendered on the same day. In retrospect. while an anti-Taliban tribal militia steadily pushed bin Laden back across the difficult terrain.[148] To help provide security to support this Afghan Interim Authority. Kandahar. in December 2001. marking the end of Taliban control in Afghanistan. a political process towards a new constitution and choosing a new Afghan government. along with an unknown number of antiTaliban tribal fighters. Shortly thereafter on 7 December. special operations troops and air support pressed ahead against fortified al-Qaeda positions in caves and bunkers scattered throughout the mountainous region. in December 2001 the United Nations hosted the Bonn Conference in Germany. probably initiated by a rear guard buying time for the main force's escape through the White Mountains into the tribal areas of Pakistan. however. He was last reported seen driving off with a group of his fighters on a convoy of motorcycles. tribal forces backed by British and U. including the United States. the U.S.S. Participants included representatives of four Afghan opposition groups. where Mullah Omar was holed up. reneging on the Taliban's promise to surrender their fighters and their weapons. It is almost unanimously believed that they had already slipped away into the tribal areas of Pakistan to the south and east. the fighting flared again. On 6 December. It is estimated that around 200 of the al-Qaeda fighters were killed during the battle. base. Air strikes on Tora Bora By 17 December. Again. to escape.S. the Taliban leader. The result was the Bonn Agreement which created the Afghan Interim Authority that would serve as the “repository of Afghan sovereignty” and outlined the so-called Petersberg Process. al-Qaeda and others associated with them. the last Taliban-controlled city.continued to pound Taliban positions inside the city. the United Nations authorized an international force – . Nevertheless. remained defiant although his movement only controlled 4 out of the 30 Afghan provinces by the end of November and called on his forces to fight to the death. many believe that the truce was a ruse to allow important al-Qaeda figures. Marines took control of the airport outside and established a U. and U. UK Special Forces and withering air strikes by the U. including Osama bin Laden. forces continued into January. A search of the area by U.S. Other members of the Taliban leadership fled into Pakistan through the remote passes of Paktia and Paktika Provinces. but no sign of bin Laden or the al-Qaeda leadership emerged. To fill the political void.

98 Azerbaijan .238 Croatia .179 Finland .-led invasion.000) Canada .125 Norway .155 Portugal .400 Italy . troops making up about half its force.40 Singapore .500 Bulgaria .55 Bosnia & Herzegovina . ISAF assumed command of the south of the country.S. and by 5 October 2006.253 Sweden .1.595 Georgia . there were fears that the invasion and resultant disruption of services would cause widespread starvation and refugees.093 Current deployment (1 to 1.[152] On 11 August 2003. The United Nations World Food Programme temporarily suspended activities within Afghanistan at the beginning of the bombing attacks but resumed them after the fall of the Taliban. Dunford.096 Turkey .000 or more) ISAF total .1.53 Mongolia .162 New Zealand . of the east.330 United States .4.45 Montenegro .9.215 Poland .305 Australia . the United Nations authorized an international force – the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) – with a mandate to help the Afghans maintain security in Kabul and surrounding areas.245 Lithuania .415 Hungary .550 Netherlands .568 France .S.To help provide security to support this Afghan Interim Authority..1.[150] the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) includes soldiers from 46 countries with U.611 Republic of Korea .158 Estonia . General Joseph F.453 Czech Republic .350 Slovakia .1. NATO assumed political command and coordination of ISAF. Its mandate did not extend beyond this area for the first few years.[149] on 20 December 2001.79 Tonga .739 Romania . International Security Assistance Force Main article: International Security Assistance Force Operating under U.419 Belgium .240 Albania .561 Spain . Jr.221 Macedonia .[153] International Security Assistance Force troop deployment Current deployment (1. Before the U.39 United Arab Emirates . to secure Kabul.000 United Kingdom .1.46 Armenia .950 Denmark .1.S.4.100.[152] On 31 July 2006.000 Germany .94 Slovenia .68.[151] ISAF had initially been established as a stabilization force by the UN Security Council Logo of ISAF.35 Command structure Regional Command Capital Regional Command North Regional Command West Regional Command South Regional Command East .

000 by the beginning of March 2002. also began reconstituting some of his militia forces in support of the anti-U.12 Greece .62 mm PK machine gun around his body as ATF personnel help secure a compound in Helmand Province in Afghanistan. U. They used "hit and run" tactics. were entrenched into caves and bunkers in the hillsides at an altitude that was largely above 10.000 m). allied to Afghan militia intelligence sources soon picked up on this buildup in Paktia province and prepared a massive push to counter it. who used small arms. The coalition casualties stemmed from a friendly fire incident that killed one soldier. Mullah Saifur Rehman.[154] An Anti-Taliban Forces (ATF) fighter w raps a bandolier of ammunition for his 7. The number of U. Canadian soldiers from 3PPCLI move into the hills to search for al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters after an air assault onto an objective north of Qualat.S.United Arab Emirates . opening fire on the U.3 Iceland . Meanwhile. Al-Qaeda forces began regrouping in the Shahi-Kot mountains of Paktia province throughout January and February 2002. and mortars. the downing of two helicopters by rocket-propelled grenades and small arms fire that killed seven soldiers. Following a Loya jirga or grand council of major Afghan factions. an interim Afghan government was established in Kabul under Hamid Karzai.2 2002: Operation Anaconda Main article: 2002 in Afghanistan Further information: Operation Anaconda and Tarnak Farm incident Following Tora Bora. and former exiles.000 according to some estimates and that they were receiving reinforcements. the Taliban and al-Qaeda had not given up. rocket-propelled grenades. eight Americans and seven Afghan soldiers had been killed and reportedly 400 opposing forces had also been killed in the fighting. and Afghan forces and then retreating back into their caves and bunkers to weather the return fire and persistent U.S. It turned out that the guerrillas numbered between 1. bombing raids. Kandahar airport also became an important U.S.000. allies consolidated their position in the country.10 Luxembourg . base area.26 El Salvador . On 2 March 2002.7 Austria .3 Malaysia . . several hundred guerrillas escaped the dragnet heading to the Waziristan tribal areas across the border in Pakistan. January 2002.S.S. forces being inserted into what was coined as "Objective Ginger" that resulted in dozens of wounded. Several outposts were established in eastern provinces to hunt for Taliban and al-Qaeda fugitives. U.S. A Taliban fugitive in Paktia province. The intention of the insurgents was to use the region as a base area for launching guerrilla attacks and possibly a major offensive in the style of the Mujahideen who battled Soviet forces during the 1980s.S. commanders initially underestimated the Taliban and al-Qaeda forces as a last isolated pocket numbering fewer than 200. tribal leaders. and the pinning down of U. The Mujahideen forces.S.S-led coalition troops operating in the country would eventually grow to over 10.000–5. fighters.000 feet (3.26 Ukraine .35 Latvia .S. U. They totalled over 1. U.[155] However. Afghan forces and their U.9 Ireland . and Afghan forces launched an offensive on al-Qaeda and Taliban forces entrenched in the mountains of Shahi-Kot southeast of Gardez.S. Afghanistan. forces established their main base at Bagram airbase just north of Kabul. To compound the situation for the coalition troops. By 6 March.

the Canadian Joint Task Force 2. Meanwhile.[159] Most of the recruits were drawn from the madrassas or religious atop degraded w eaponry scheduled for schools of the tribal areas of Pakistan. forces throughout mid-2002. Post-Anaconda operations Following the battle at Shahi-Kot. They established a new mode of operation: gathered into groups of around 50 to launch attacks on isolated outposts and convoys of Afghan soldiers.S. Marines searching for Taliban fighters in the spring of 2005. Zabul. 2004 in Afghanistan.[156] 2003–2005: Renewed Taliban insurgency Main article: Taliban insurgency Further information: War in NorthWest Pak istan. to be deployed. who are highly trained in mountain warfare. through rocket attacks on bases and improvised explosive devices.[157] During September. the remnants of the Taliban gradually began to regain their confidence Map detailing the spread of the Neotalibanand started to begin preparations Insurgency in Afghanistan 2002–2006 to launch the insurgency that Mullah Muhammad Omar had promised during the Taliban's last days in power.S.S. Taliban forces remained in hiding in the rural regions of the four southern provinces that formed their heartland. In the wake of Operation Anaconda The Pentagon requested British Royal Marines. from which they regained their strength and later began launching cross-border raids on U. still regularly crossed the border from their sanctuaries in Pakistan to fire rockets at U. who during the summer of 2002 numbered in the hundreds. They conducted a number of missions over several weeks with varying results. and 2005 in Afghanistan After managing to evade U. forces and their Afghan allies and melted away into the caves and tunnels of remote Afghan mountain ranges or across the border into Pakistan during operations. The Taliban.S-led coalition. the German KSK. Kandahar. . These included the Australian Special Air Service Regiment. consisting of a C-4 compound. numbering between 5 and 25 men. Guerrilla units.S. The will of the Pakistani paramilitaries stationed at border crossings to prevent such infiltration was called into question.[160] The Taliban gradually reorganized and reconstituted their forces over the winter. sit report. Taliban forces began a recruitment drive in Pashtun areas in both Afghanistan and Pakistan to launch a renewed "jihad" or holy war against the Afghan government and the U. The area around the U. and non-governmental organizations. police. according to Afghan sources and a United Nations Charges . as well as Afghan National Army troops. were created in the mountainous tribal areas of Pakistan by the summer of 2003. and Pakistani military operations proved of little use. and Uruzgan. forces by the summer months of 2002. 2003 in Afghanistan. bases and ambush American convoys and patrols. special forces from several western nations were also involved in operations.S. U.25lb M112 Demolition terrorist tactics. Major bases. it is believed that the al-Qaeda fighters established sanctuaries among tribal protectors in Pakistan. forces in the strategy were attacked indirectly. Small mobile training camps were established along the border with Pakistan by al-Qaeda and Taliban fugitives to train recruits in guerrilla warfare and A number of 1. Afghan militia forces working with the U. a few with as many as 200 men. from which the Taliban had originally destruction.S.S-led coalition. arisen. preparing for a summer offensive. avoided combat with U.[158] U. or militia and then breaking up into groups of 5–10 men to evade subsequent offensives. the New Zealand Special Air Service and Norwegian Marinejegerkommandoen. Pamphlets distributed in secret during the night also began to appear in many villages in the former Taliban heartland in southeastern Afghanistan that called for jihad.During Operation Anaconda and other missions during 2002 and 2003.S. Helmand Province. base at Shkin in Paktika province saw some of the heaviest activity.

S. troops and heavy American aerial bombardment advanced upon Taliban positions within the mountain fortress.. In July. supported by U. In late August 2005. forces at the Adi Ghar cave complex 15 miles (24 km) north of Spin Boldak. a NATO International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) started to replace the U. Taliban fighters decided it would be the An Apache helicopter provides protection perfect area to make a stand against the Afghan government and the from the air. Omar named a 10-man leadership council for the resistance. Norwegian and French combat aircraft and helicopters.[161] 18 rebels were reported killed and no U. Canada and the Netherlands. as the newly deployed NATO troops battled resurgent militants. Over 220 people. As a result. Afghanistan . As the summer continued. along with troops and helicopters from Australia. NATO's focus in southern Afghanistan was to form Provincial Reconstruction Teams with the British leading in Helmand Province while the Netherlands and Canada would lead similar deployments in Orūzgān Province and Kandahar Province respectively.[160] Al-Qaeda forces in the east had a bolder strategy of concentrating on the Americans and catching them when they could with elaborate ambushes. nongovernmental organization and humanitarian workers." Dozens of Afghan government soldiers. After a one-week battle.300 British. and rocket attacks. and several U. Besides using guerrilla attacks.S. October 2005 coalition forces.S. 2006: NATO in southern Afghanistan Main article: Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2006 Further information: 2006 in Afghanistan From January 2006. The first sign that Taliban forces were regrouping came on 27 January 2003.S. Army soldier from 10th Mountain Division.[166] Air support was provided by U. 300 from Australia. British. Canadian and Dutch commanders.S. The first isolated attacks by relatively large Taliban bands on Afghan targets also appeared around that time. with himself at the head. the attacks gradually increased in frequency in the "Taliban heartland. Taliban fighters began building up their forces in the district of Dai Chopan. NATO operations have been led by British. in charge of Zabul province operations. The initial force consisted of roughly 3.-led forces in 2001. The site was suspected to be a base to funnel supplies and fighters from Pakistan.[167] Southern Afghanistan faced in 2006 the deadliest spate of violence in the country since the ousting of the Taliban regime by U. troops of Operation Enduring Freedom in southern Afghanistan. with the purpose of rooting out Taliban forces. were killed in August 2003 as Taliban fighters gained strength. In January 2006. Operation Mountain Thrust was launched on 17 May 2006. assigned to various Taliban commanders such as the key Taliban leader Mullah Dadullah.963 from the Netherlands.[165] and 150 from Estonia. Dai Chopan district is a remote and sparsely populated corner of southeastern Afghanistan composed of towering..S.300 Canadian. including several dozen Afghan police. patrols Aranas. soldiers died in the raids.S. Afghan government forces backed by U. The British 16th Air Assault Brigade (later reinforced by Royal Marines) formed the core of the force in Southern Afghanistan. during Operation Mongoose. launched Operation Medusa in an attempt to clear the areas of Taliban fighters. coalition forces began preparing offensives to root out the rebel forces.[163] 1. ambushes. A U.[160] Five operational zones were created.S. Over the course of the summer.S.000 guerrillas regrouping. perhaps the largest concentration of Taliban militants gathered in the area since the fall of the regime. with up to 1. Dutch.To coordinate the strategy. Local Taliban figures voiced opposition to the incoming force and pledged to resist it.[162] 2. Taliban forces were routed with up to 124 fighters (according to Afghan government estimates) killed. rocky mountains interspersed with narrow gorges. a district in Zabul Province that also straddles Kandahar and Uruzgan and is at the very center of the Taliban heartland. Canadian Forces.[164] 290 from Denmark. casualties reported. British. when a band of fighters allied with the Taliban and Hezb-i-Islami were discovered and assaulted by U. Dutch and Danish forces.

at least 12 civilians were killed and 33 were injured by US and British troops during a patrol in U. young Afghan men angry at bombing raids or fighting to get money.[168] Other major operations during this period were Operation Achilles (March – May) and Operation Lastay Kulang. On 16 August 2007. On 18 September 2006 Italian special forces. Operation Mountain Fury and Operation Falcon Summit. In 2007. Approximately Sw edish Army medic in the Mazar-e Sharif region. but the Taliban were not completely defeated. Italian forces killed at least 70 Taliban. The fighting for NATO forces was intense throughout the second half of 2006.A combined force of Dutch and Australians launched a successful offensive between late April to mid July 2006 to push the Taliban out of the Chora and Baluchi areas in order to secure already present forces who were constructing a new base. officials. The situation in RC-W has deteriorated. were conducted to keep up the pressure on the Taliban in the hopes of blunting their expected spring offensive. such as Operation Silver and Operation Silicon. .700 (committed until 2009). troops to the country. where Dutch and Australian ISAF forces are deployed. full-time insurgents". north of Kajaki.S.[175] During the last days of October. On 12 May 2007. Of that number. Hotspots include Badghis in the very north and Farah in the southwest. 2007: Coalition offensive Main article: Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2007 Further information: 2007 in Afghanistan In January and February 2007. according to an Observation Post Chuck Norris in Dangam.S. the Times reported.S. Seven soldiers have been charged with war crimes. NATO has been successful in achieving tactical victories over the Taliban and denied areas to them. eleven other Taliban fighters were killed in the same firefight.000 to 3.000 are highly motivated.500 additional U. The 120 member Marine unit responsible for the attack was asked to leave the country because the incident damaged the unit's relations with the local Afghan population. "only 2. about 80 Taliban fighters were killed in a 24 hour battle with forces from the U.[170][171] On 4 March 2007.000 fighters fielded at any given time. of Task Force 45 and the airborne troopers of the 'Trieste' infantry regiment of the Rapid Reaction Corps composed of Italian and Spanish forces. On 28 October 2007.[174] Later in March 2007. the Bush Administration sent more than 3. Further NATO operations included the Battle of Panjwaii. according to Afghan and U. Canadian forces surrounded around 300 militants near Arghandab and killed at least 50 of them. ISAF forces killed Mullah Dadullah. NATO forces achieved tactical victories over the Taliban at the Battle of Chora in Orūzgān Province. eight civilians including a pregnant woman and a baby died when Polish soldiers shelled the village of Nangar Khel. The rest are part-timers. more foreign fighters were showing up in Afghanistan than ever before. This was said to have stopped a potential Taliban offensive on Kandahar. in Farah province.[169] Further operations. took part in 'Wyconda Pincer' operation in the districts of Bala Buluk and Pusht-i-Rod. a Taliban commander in charge of leading operations in the south of the country. Marines in Shinwar district in Nangrahar province of Afghanistan[172] as Helmand Province the Americans reacted to a bomb ambush.-led coalition in Afghanistan's Helmand province. The event has become known as [173] the Shinwar Massacre. and NATO had to continue operations into 2007. The UK ministry of defence announced its intention to bring British troop levels in the country up to 7. The strength of Taliban forces was estimated by Western officials and US Army paratroopers navigate to analysts at about 10.S. Paktika Province. During the summer. 30 October report in The New York Times . made up of alienated. British Royal Marines mounted Operation Volcano to clear insurgents from firing points in the village of Barikju.

[179] Taliban forces were forced to pull out of Musa Qala. the war spilled over on to Pakistani territory for the first time when heavily armed commandos. believed to be U. French troops suffered their worst losses in Afghanistan in an ambush. making 2008 the deadliest year for American troops in Afghanistan since the start of the war. It's been that way for some time. 2008: Reassessment and renewed commitment Main article: Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2008 Further information: 2008 in Afghanistan Admiral Mike Mullen. the UK lost its 100th serviceman killed in the war since 2001. the federal government announced disconnection of supply lines to the allied forces stationed in Afghanistan through Pakistan for an indefinite period. The foreign ministry in Islamabad called the incursion "a gross violation of Pakistan's territory". with the aim bringing electricity to the region. and they often bring skills such as the ability to post more sophisticated videos on the Internet or bombmaking expertise. . militants killed two U.S. . However. losses to 113. a coordinated Taliban attack was launched on a remote NATO base at Wanat in Kunar province." the 10.500 U. supported by British forces. They tend to be more fanatical and violent. The Taliban confirmed his death.030 – a rise of 230 personnel.000 troops from Iraq in the coming months and a further increase of up to 4. Afghan units were the principal fighting force. troops in Afghanistan from 26. On 19 August.S. On 13 June. Mawlawi Abdul Manan.643 more troops. an airstrike which targeted a Taliban commander in Herat province killed 90 civilians. particularly for the UK.607 in January to 48. troops in Afghanistan increased by over 80% with a surge of 21.[176] On 2 November 2007. Late August saw one of the largest operations by NATO forces in Helmand province.S. According to local residents.[178] The Battle of Musa Qala took place in December 2007. usually from Pakistan. Operation Eagle's Summit."[180] In the first five months of 2008.[181] In September 2008. most of the dead were civilians. Focus on Afghanistan second. bringing the total number of U. making it the deadliest year for Americans in Afghanistan. after he was caught trying to cross into Afghanistan from neighboring Pakistan. landed by helicopter and attacked three houses in a village close to a known Taliban and Al-Qaeda stronghold. Chechnya.[191] The year was also the deadliest for several European countries in Afghanistan.S.250 in June.[188][189] On 6 September. troops in Afghanistan. death toll for 2007 to 100. who suffered a . Afghan security forces killed a top-ranking militant. Staff Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[190] On 11 September. Mullen stated that "my priorities .S. said that while the situation in Afghanistan is "precarious and urgent.100 to 300 full-time combatants are foreigners. Uzbekistan. This brought the total number of U. British prime minister Gordon Brown announced the number of British troops serving in Afghanistan would increase to 8. causing a major embarrassment for NATO in one of its operational centres in the country.S. in an apparent reaction to the recent cross-border attack. troops in the eastern part of the country.000 additional troops needed there would be unavailable "in any significant manner" unless withdrawals from Iraq are made.[186] Later in the month.[183] The same month. Taliban fighters demonstrated their ongoing strength. liberating all prisoners in Kandahar jail. The attack killed between seven and twenty people.[177] On 10 November 2007. Army Special Forces.[185] On 13 July 2008. various Arab countries and perhaps even Turkey and western China.[187] On 3 September.[184] A 7th SFG Special Forces medic in Kandahar Province in September 2008. condemning the attack. This attack brought the U. given to me by the commander in chief are: Focus on Iraq first.S. President Bush announced the withdrawal of over 8. Pakistan responded furiously. the number of U.[182] In June 2008. 400 of whom were Taliban prisoners of war. the Taliban ambushed a patrol in eastern Afghanistan. The well-planned operation freed 1200 prisoners.

6 May 2009 A further split occurred when American troops apparently landed on Pakistani soil to carry out an operation against militants in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province but ‘Pakistan reacted angrily to the action.[197] Coalition issues with Pakistan Main articles: Pak istan's role in the War on Terror and Pak istan–United States sk irmishes An unnamed senior Pentagon official told the BBC that at some point between 12 July and 12 September 2008. Pakistani troops shot towards ISAF helicopters.[194][195] These incidents included the hijacking of a NATO convoy carrying supplies from Karachi to Afghanistan in Peshawar. a joint operation of Afghan officials. which belonged to American troops. NATO and the DEA. the U. there were multiple incidents of major theft. despite tensions between Pakistan and the U. the Taliban apparently had severed remaining ties with al-Qaeda. as of early 2009. and arson attacks against NATO supply convoys in Pakistan.similar level of casualties to the USA with the loss of 108 personnel. the Pakistan military stated that it had issued orders to "open fire" on American soldiers who crossed the Pakistan border in pursuit of militant forces.S.S.[200] However.[201] By the end of 2008.[203] In a meeting with General McChrystal. robbery.000 Pakistani soldiers on its side of the border with Afghanistan to monitor and address militant activities. which asked for a full explanation into the incident. Barack Obama w ith Hamid Karzai and Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari. in particular the Federally Administered Tribal Regions (FATA) and Balochistan.[199] On 25 September 2008. drone attacks were up 183% since 2006.[11] Taliban attacks on supply lines through Pakistan In November and December 2008.[202] According to senior U. raids against militants in Pakistan.000 soldiers to police the Afghanistan side of the border. saying 20 innocent villagers had been killed by US troops’.[citation needed] Burning hashish seized in Operation Albatross.. there are perhaps fewer than 100 members of al-Qaeda remaining in Afghanistan. Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari was quick to deny that shots were fired but instead insisted that the Pakistani troops shot flares to warn the Americans that they were in Pakistani airspace. Pakistan noted that it has 140. has continued to increase the use of remotely piloted drone aircraft in Pakistan's border regions. military intelligence officials. and they denied that American helicopters were in Pakistani airspace.[192][193][194] Transport companies south of Kabul have also been reported to pay protection money to the Taliban.[193] the torching of Cargo trucks and Humvees east of the Khyber pass in Pakistan[196] and a half-dozen raids on depots with NATO supplies near Peshawar which destroyed 300 cargo trucks and Humvees in December 2008. Pakistani military officials urged international forces to keep their fight on the Afghan side of the border to prevent militants from fleeing into Pakistan. and Khyber Border Coordination Center Northern Distribution Network . while the Coalition only has 100. Bush issued a classified order to authorize U. Military operations of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present)#2009 Operations. This caused confusion and anger in the Pentagon.S.S.[198] In September. President George W. Pakistan however said it would not allow foreign forces onto its territory and that it would vigorously protect its sovereignty.[204] 2009: Southern Afghanistan Further information: 2009 in Afghanistan.

military in Afghanistan travels through Baku. work began on the establishment of a Northern Distribution Network (NDN) through Russia and several Central Asian republics. however. ambassador in Kabul sent two classified cables to Washington expressing deep concerns about . General David McKiernan. Marines. troops In January. it was announced that 17. Uzbekistan president Islam Karimov announced that the airport in Navoi.212 miles (5. is again working with the government of Uzbekistan. Russia.Main article: NATO logistics in the Afghan War#Northern Distribution Network In response to the increased risk of sending supplies through Pakistan. Bush and increased by Barack Obama.S.500 from the 7.000 additional troops. Apart from usage of Azerbaijani airspace by U.[207] On 11 May 2009. Troops. U. In July 2009.S. had called for as many as 30. over one-third of all of the nonlethal equipment including fuel.[216] The U. forces from Karshi-Khanabad airbase.[205] The first shipment along the NDN route left on 20 February from Riga.[208] By 2011. Afghan Federal Guards also fought along with U. officially handles logistics at the site. the U. clothing. NBC News reported that a classified assessment of the war in Afghanistan by General McChrystal included his conclusion that a successful counterinsurgency strategy would require 500.[206] By comparison.[212][213] Azerbaijan.169 km) to the Uzbek town of Termez on the Afghanistan border. Originally only non-lethal resources were allowed on the NDN. after a visit to the region by General Petraeus.S. The troops were the first wave of an expected surge of reinforcements originally ordered by George W. Initial permission for the U.S. forces were not involved in the shipment of supplies.000 U. commanders have stated their hope that 100 containers a day will be shipped along the NDN. Instead. effectively doubling the number of troops currently in the country.S. currently 140 containers a day are shipped through the Khyber Pass.S. human rights advocates are concerned that the U.000 U. military to move troop supplies through the region was given on 20 January 2009. a Stryker Brigade with about 4. following the 2005 Andijon massacre and subsequent expulsion of U. 2nd Infantry Division. including further assistance to turn the Navoi airport into a major regional distribution center for both military and civilian ventures. other European ports include Poti.S. and the 5th Brigade.[214] Increase in U. which is currently involved in overhauling Navoi's airport. troops and weapons could use the country's airspace to reach Afghanistan.S.[209] A U. Air Force. Russian authorities announced that U. which is often accused of violating human rights.S. fires his w eapon during a battle w ith insurgent forces in Barge Matal.S. shortly before a visit by President Obama to Moscow. South Korea's Korean Air. the NDN handled about 40% of Afghanistan-bound traffic. 32nd Infantry Regiment.000 additional troops would be deployed to the country in two brigades and additional support troops. Army in Afghanistan.[218] In November. and food used by the U.[217] U.[206] In addition to Riga.[211] Nevertheless. Army soldier w ith 1st Battalion.S.000 U. Latvia. Uzbekistan was being used to transport non-lethal cargo into Afghanistan.S. U.S. Army soldiers patrol the Korangal Valley in Kunar province.S. Georgia and Vladivostok. the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade of about 3.[210] Additionally. officials have promised increased cooperation with Uzbekistan. commander in Afghanistan. On 23 September. about 3.000 of the 7.[207] U.S.[215] In mid-February. also provided its airspace and airports for transportation of vital supplies for the U. Due to the still unsettled relationship between Uzbekistan and the U.S.S. during Operation Mountain Fire on 12 July 2009.S.000 troops and five years of fighting. 10th Mountain Division. which has sent its peacekeeping forces to be a part of ISAF. then traveled 3. Army soldiers.S. compared to 30% through Pakistan. soldiers from the 3rd Brigade Combat Team of the 10th Mountain Division moved into the provinces of Logar and Wardak.S.

In November. where the secondary aim will be achieved first. Afghan and American soldiers have been moving into towns and villages along the Helmand River[225] to secure the civilian population from the Taliban. Iraq. the top U. In an interview with CNN's Christiane Amanpour. Ambassador Karl W.S. a retired three-star general who in 2006–2007 commanded U.S.[220][221] On 1 December 2009.S. We're going to be with the people. troops in Afghanistan. We're doing this very differently. Gen.[225] Operation Panther's Claw was aimed to secure various canal and river crossings to establish a permanent International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) presence in the area. killing Up to 179 people including over 100 Afghan civilians.S.S. Ambassador Eikenberry repeatedly cautioned that deploying sizable American reinforcements would result in “astronomical costs” – tens of billions of dollars – and would only deepen the dependence of the Afghan government on the United States. U. Army soldiers w atch the surrounding hills for insurgents during a three-hour gun battle in Kunar province. July 2.S. President Barack Obama announced at the U.[225] On 25 June 2009.S. set to take place on 20 August. We're going to walk to work. There was no formal American response. Karzai said there is an "urgent need" for negotiations with the Taliban. Military Academy in West Point that the U. ambassador in Kabul sent two classified cables to Washington expressing deep concerns about sending more U.[224] Operation Khanjar and Operation Panther's Claw Main articles: Operation Strik e of the Sword and Operation Panther's Claw U.S. Army soldiers fire mortar rounds at suspected Taliban fighting positions in Nuristan province. during the Kunduz Province Campaign a devastating NATO air raid was conducted 7 kilometres to the southwest of Kunduz where Taliban fighters had hijacked civilian supply trucks. briefing by Major General Michael T. “The Taliban retains [the] required partnerships to sustain support. Afghan President Hamid Karzai made a public plea to the U. On 26 November 2009." Those incidents . Taliban's gains According to a 22 December 2009. will be sending 30. saw protests on 2 December in response. the U.[226] About 4000 U. Antiwar organizations in the U.”[230] The 23-page briefing states that "Security incidents [are] projected to be higher in 2010. which will be staged on the Helmand River.[229] Initially. Marines from the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade[225] and 650 Afghan soldiers [227] are currently involved in Operation Khanjar. 2009.S. Khanjar follows a British-led operation named Operation Panther's Claw in the same region. A secondary aim was to bring security to the Helmand Valley in time for presidential elections.S. — Brig.[223] Kunduz airstrike amidst Kunduz Province campaign On 4 September. commander of the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade. responded quickly.S. Lawrence D. Flynn. The main objective of the operation is to push troops into insurgent strongholds along the river.[222] Many protesters compared the decision to deploy more troops in Afghanistan to the expansion of the Vietnam War under the Johnson administration.[228] Officials call it the Marines' largest operation since the 2004 invasion of Fallujah. and made it clear that the Obama administration had opposed such talks.[219] In subsequent cables. We're not going to drive to work. to engage in direct negotiations with the Taliban leadership. American officials announced the launch of Operation Khanjar ("strike of the sword"). intelligence officer in Afghanistan. and cities throughout the U. The first aggressive phase will last 36 hours. fuel legitimacy and bolster capacity. troops to Afghanistan until President Hamid Karzai's government demonstrates that it is willing to tackle the corruption and mismanagement that has fueled the Taliban's rise. Nicholson.000 more troops to Afghanistan. also expressed frustration with the relative paucity of funds set aside for spending on development and reconstruction in Afghanistan. Eikenberry.S.

[235] Former Taliban fighters return w eapons as part of a reintegration program The Taliban's claim of disrupting 20 August elections is largely disputed. and asking to see their fingers.[239] After Karzai's alleged win of 54 per cent.[234] Calling the Taliban a "very aggressive enemy".[240] In December. 2010: American/British offensive and Afghan peace initiative Further information: 2010 in Afghanistan In their public statements U.[233] the militants have aggressively spread their influence into the north and west Afghanistan. used by the Central Intelligence Agency to gather information and to coordinate drone attacks against Taliban leaders. One U. the newly appointed U. even though both candidates vowed not to incite violence in case of a loss.[236] causing many outlets to hail the elections as a success. stopping buses.[241] Afghan President Hamid Karzai also started peace talks with Haqqani network groups in March 2010. a major route in Afghanistan on election day. Hamid Karzai and Abdullah Abdullah.S. claimed victory in the election. The chief observer of the European Union election mission. No one wants anything to do with us.S. and there are fears that a results dispute can turn violent.000 dedicated soldiers.[232] On 10 August 2009. strategy in the months to come is to stop their momentum and focusing on protecting and safeguarding the Afghan civilians.S. killed at least six CIA officers and was a major setback for the agency's operations in the region.000 votes had to be discounted for Karzai. over 400. almost as many as before 9/11 and more than in 2005.[244] According to the Afghan government. and stepped up their attack in an attempt to disrupt 20 August presidential polls. dollars during the previous eight years as a result of the fight against militancy. Amid claims of widespread fraud." And a report on U. said that the Taliban had gained the upper hand. many nations criticizing the elections as "free but not fair". Pakistan's President Asif Ali Zardari said that Pakistan has lost over 35 billion U.[242] and there were other peace initiatives including the Afghan Peace Jirga 2010. Army report read: "It seems to always be this way when we go there [to meet civilians]. an attack on Forward Operating Base Chapman. Stanley McChrystal. In southern Afghanistan where the Taliban holds the most sway. The Taliban released a video days after the elections. General Philippe Morillon. media was asked to not report on any violent incidents.[231] NATO intelligence at the time also indicated that the Taliban had as many as 25. cars. The Guardian newspaper reported that the campaign to "win hearts and minds" of Afghan civilians by U.S. officials had previously praised Pakistan's military effort against the militants during its offensive in South Waziristan in November 2009. they went on to say they may pardon the voters because of the Holy month of Ramadan[238] The Taliban also attacked towns with rockets and other means of indirect fire. he added that the U. there was a low voter turnout and sporadic violence directed at voters and security personnel. even though some estimates give the voter turn out as much less than the expected 70 percent. Making the real turnout of the elections much lower than the official numbers. said the election was "generally fair" but "not free". Marine Corps Sergeant exits an Italian meeting up with school representatives mentioned students throwing rocks at Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter. and many more with hundreds of thousands of votes and polling ballots being accused of fraud.[237] Western groups and election observers had difficulty accessing the southern regions of Afghanistan. approximately 900 Taliban were killed .S. claiming over 135 incidents of violence. where at least 9 Afghan civilians and 14 security forces were killed in attacks intended to intimidate voters. however. being talked to by a Taliban militant. 30 soldiers and not welcoming their arrival. troops has been proving more difficult than expected. filming just up the road between Kabul and Kandahar. In July 2010.S. according to the briefing. The video went on to showing ten men who had voted. which would prevent a run off with his rival. Reports also suggest that the turnout was lower than the last election. both of the top contenders. Abdullah Abdullah.S. as has been reported on several November 2010 [243] occasions elsewhere. commander in Afghanistan. In a continuation of the Taliban's usual strategy of summer offensives. while also calling it "hard work".are already up by 300 percent since 2007 and by 60 percent since 2008.

[245] Due to increased use of IEDs by insurgents there was a significant increase in the number of injured coalition soldiers. service members of the Royal Air Force Regiment stop on a road w hile conducting a combat mission near Kandahar Airfield. losing one limb or more or suffering major injury to their genital and pelvic areas. accounts of civilian casualties caused by Coalition Forces. This combination worked well in Iraq and is largely credited with the success of that surge. Marines w ith Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) destroy an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) cache in Southern Shorsurak. with the 101st Airborne Division as the main effort. troops continued in early 2010.S. more than doubled the 50 drone attacks that occurred in 2009. mainly Americans. with 9.S.S. Helmand province in June 2010.[254] Hundreds more insurgent leaders were killed or captured as 2010 came to a close. had resulted in the capture or killing of more than 900 low and mid-level Taliban commanders. Insurgent operations increased "dramatically" in two-thirds of Afghan provinces. the commander of NATO forces in Afghanistan. and we’re not going to let go. and "covered up". 2010 saw the most insurgent attacks of any year since the war began.[256][257] This force grew to over 3.[259] They were also important factors in both the "counterterrorism plus" and the full "counter-insurgency" options discussed by the Obama administration in the December 2010 review. The reports also included many references to other incidents involving civilian casualties like the Kunduz airstrike and Nangar Khel incident.S. The number of strikes in 2010.S.[247][248] Overall. peaking in September at more than 1. with U. troops in Afghanistan will outnumber those in Iraq for the first time since 2003.[257] These units have not only been highly effective in operations against the Taliban and al-Qaeda forces in Afghanistan.[249] Troop surge Deployment of additional U.000 soldiers by 2010 and is considered one of the "best Afghan fighting forces".[257] According to Woodward book Obama's War. including their elite paramilitary officers from Special Activities Division (SAD).[260] Wikileaks disclosure Main article: Afghan War documents leak On 25 July 2010. 115.731 classified documents from the Wikileaks organization was made public.[253] General David Petraeus characterized the damage Special Forces were inflicting on the insurgents this way: "We’ve got our teeth in the enemy’s jugular now. the release of 91. According U.K. Marines w ith Bravo Company. The documents cover U. 300 Taliban commanders and 800 foot soldiers were killed.in operations conducted during 2010. 6th Marine Regiment return fire on Taliban forces in Marjeh in February 2010 U. From July 2010 to October 2010.[253] There were 700 air strikes in September 2010. 1st Battalion. according to the U. military special operations forces.[258] but have expanded their operations into Pakistan. 2 January 2010 ."[255] The CIA created what would be called Counter-terrorism Pursuit Teams (CTPT) at the beginning of the war.500.[252] The surge in troops also meant a sixfold increase in Special Forces operations.[261] Some of these documents included sanitised.000 in place before the end of March and another 18. military incident and intelligence reports from January 2004 to December 2009. from a request by General McChrystal. alone versus 257 in all of 2009.000 expected by June.S.[250] The CIA. The Pentagon anticipated that U. planned to increase teams of operatives.S. military.000 of the planned 30.[251] The CIA also increased its campaign using Hellfire missile strikes on Al-Qaeda in Pakistan. U. Afghanistan. Firebase Lilley as one of the nerve centers for the covert war conducted by the CIA's SAD.[246] Beginning in May 2010 NATO special forces began to concentrate on surgical operations to capture or kill specific Taliban leaders which as of March 2011.[262] The leaked documents also contain reports of Pakistan collusion with the Taliban.

31 March 2011 . conducted by the CIA and U. between Medina and Mecca. tensions Main articles: Pak istan–United States sk irmishes and Pak istan–United States relations Tensions between Pakistan and the U. Navy SEALs. the Pakistani Taliban attacked the NATO convoys carrying supplies.[265] 2011: U. Army National Guard soldiers patrol the villages in the Bagram Security Zone. officials announced that al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden was killed in a Special Operation (code-named Operation Neptune Spear) to kill or capture Osama Bin Laden.S.S. At least eight locations were attacked: the governor's compound.S.[266] On 7 May 2011.S. and NATO drawdown Further information: 2011 in Afghanistan and Withdrawal of U. 23 March 2011 Australian and Afghan soldiers patrol the poppy fields in the Baluchi Valley Region. three police stations and two high schools. 8 May 2011. the Taliban unleashed a major assault on government buildings throughout the city.S.S. Around 12:30 pm local time.S. 30 April 2011. that Taliban would launch their Spring offensive throughout the country. and a embarrassment for the Western-backed Afghan government. piloted aircraft that was pursuing Taliban forces near the Afghan-Pakistan border but for unknown reasons opened fire on two different Pakistan border posts.S. Pakistan closed the Torkham ground border crossing to NATO supply convoys for an unspecified period."[263] Pakistan and U. The BBC's Bilal Sarwary called it "the worst attack in Kandahar province since the fall of the Taliban government in 2001. This incident followed the recent release of a video allegedly showing uniformed Pakistan soldiers executing unarmed civilians. troops from Afghanistan Battle of Kandahar See also: Battle of Kandahar The Battle of Kandahar was part of an offensive named after the Battle of Bad'r that took place on 13 March 624. Crowds gathered outside the White House in Washington.[267] The battle continued onto a second day. April 2010 U.S. in Pakistan. the NDS headquarters. the Taliban launched a major offensive on Government buildings in Kandahar. The troops were attacked by a U.to Der Spiegel. U. Soldiers return fire during a firefight w ith Taliban forces in Kunar Province."[268] Death of Osama bin Laden Main article: Death of Osama bin Laden On 2 May 2011. In retaliation for the strike. the mayor's office. USA" after the news emerged. were heightened in late September after several Pakistan Frontier Corps soldiers were killed and wounded.[264] After the Torkham border closing. DC. The Taliban said their goal was to take control of Kandahar city.[269] Withdrawal U. "the documents clearly show that the Pakistani intelligence agency Inter-Services Intelligence (usually known as the ISI) is the most important accomplice the Taliban has outside of Afghanistan. chanting "USA. killing several of the drivers and destroying around 100 tankers. The Battle followed an announcement. and President Barack Obama addressed the nation and the world from the East Room of the White House to tell the world of the operation.

Task Force Red Bulls. with support among the youth mobilizing about 10. 29 March 2011 and ordered Americans to leave Shamsi Airfield. Abdul Rashid Dostum and Haji Mohammad Mohaqiq in what many analysts have described as a reformation of the military wing of the United Front (Northern Alliance) to oppose a return of the Taliban to power.000 soldiers by the end of 2012.[270] In July 2011 Canada withdrew all of its combat troops. only 80. U.[271] France has announced that it would withdraw roughly 1. the Spanish Prime Minister has announced the withdrawal of troops beginning in 2012 with a target of up to 40 percent of the current force withdrawing by the end of the first half of 2013.-NATO attack in Pakistan Main article: 2011 NATO attack in Pak istan On the Peak of Tensions after "Operation Neptune Spear".S. Kabul Province. however it has not yet specified numbers or dates.000 Taliban "enemy initiated" attacks. has created a new movement. and has transitioned to a training role. The remaining troops will continue to operate in Kapisa.[275] Norway announced it had started a withdrawal of its near 500 troops. Amrullah Saleh. while speaking to the national and international media from abroad on Monday. “This could have serious consequences in the level and extent of our cooperation.000 U. NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said the attack was ‘tragic’ and ‘unintended’. and complete withdrawal by 2014.000 left are participating in the war.[284][285][286] In January 2012. the National Front of Afghanistan raised concerns about the possibility of a secretive and untransparent deal between the US.000 people in an anti-Taliban demonstration in the capital Kabul in May 2011. w hile conducting a dismounted patrol. Congressman Louie Gohmert wrote. discuss plans to maneuver into Pacha Khak village.[282][283] Former head of intelligence.000 soldiers remaining in Afghanistan at that point. Basej-i Milli (Afghanistan Green Trend). troops. remaining around 28. with 3.S.[272][273][274] Belgium announced they would withdraw half of their force starting January 2012. Several hundreds would gradually come back at the end of 2011 and in the beginning of 2012.[276] Equally. an accidental.[277] 2011 U. much of the political wing has reunited under the National Coalition of Afghanistan led by Abdullah Abdullah becoming the main democratic opposition movement in the Afghan parliament. Pakistan and the Taliban during a widely publicized meeting in Berlin.[281] Meanwhile. We strongly condemn the attacks and reserve the right to take action. 7 April 2011 2012: Strategic Agreement Further information: 2012 in Afghanistan Taliban attacks continued at the same rate as they did in 2011.000 troops would be withdrawn by the end of 2011 and an additional 23.[279] Reformation of the United Front (Northern Alliance) In late 2011 the National Front of Afghanistan (NFA) was created by Ahmad Zia Massoud. Pakistan blocked NATO supply drives through Tangi Valley. killing 24 Pakistani soldiers.000 troops will leave the country by the summer of 2012. and their complete withdrawal is expected by the end of 2014 or earlier if the security in this district is considered good enough.On 22 June 2011.” said DG ISPR Major General Athar Abbas. "This (regret) is not good enough. After the withdrawal of 10. other NATO countries announced reductions in troop numbers. President Obama addressed the nation from the White House and announced that 10.S. when the Afghan National Army takes control of the Surobi district. direct attack on Pakistan's armed forces by ISAF forces occurred on 26 An Australian service light armored vehicle November 2011. yet are being entirely disregarded by the Obama and Karzai Administrations in . Following suit.[278] Soldiers from 34th Infantry Division. and would be completely out of Afghanistan by 2014. "These leaders who fought with embedded Special Forces to initially defeat the Taliban represent over 60-percent of the Afghan people. The United Kingdom has stated that it will gradually start withdrawing some of its troops.

the U. Army soldiers prepare to conduct security checks near the Pakistan border.[301] provides the long-term framework for the relationship between Afghanistan and the U. after the US president had arrived in Kabul as part of unannounced trip to Afghanistan on the first anniversary of Osama bin Laden's death. after the drawdown of U.negotiations. forces in the Afghanistan war. military incidents in Afghanistan”[293] also included the 2012 Afghanistan Quran burning protests and the Panjwai shooting spree.[295] raised the question whether discipline within U. if all parties to the conflict are involved in the process.-Afghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement. as part of the Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement. troops is breaking down.[303] On 7 July 2012.[305] . and therefore effective. The present negotiations with the Taliban fail to take into account the risks.]. Provincial Reconstruction Team at the ceremony for a new road. as it excludes anti-Taliban Afghans.S.[302] The Strategic Afghan Army units neutralizes an IED in Partnership Agreement went into effect on 4 July 2012 according to an Sangin.S. January 2012 High-profile U.S.S.S.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton arrived to Kabul to meet with President Karzai. and Afghanistan launched negotiations for a bilateral security agreement. officially entitled the "Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the United States of America". President Barack Obama signed a strategic partnership agreement between the two countries.[280] ” Ahmad Zia Massoud (left).S.[290][291] Besides an incident involving US troops who posed with body parts of dead insurgents and an video apparently showing a US helicopter crew singing "Bye-bye Miss American Pie" before blasting a group of Afghan men with a Hellfire missile[297][298][299] these “high-profile U.[300] The U. designated Afghanistan a major non-NATO ally after U.-Afghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement U. The present form of discussions with the Taliban is flawed. military incidents Beginning in January 2012 incidents involving US troops [289][290][291][292][293][294] occurred which were described by The Sydney Morning Herald as “a series of damaging incidents and disclosures involving American troops in Afghanistan [. Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement Main article: U. It must be recalled that the Taliban extremists and their Al-Qaeda supporters were defeated by Afghans resisting extremism with minimal human embedded support from the United States and International community.[296] undermined "the image of foreign forces in a country where there is already deep resentment owing to civilian deaths and a perception among many Afghans that US troops lack respect for Afghan culture and people"[297] and strained the relations between Afghanistan and the United States.[304] On 11 November 2012.S."[287] After the meeting with US congressmen in Berlin the National Front signed a joint declaration stating among other things: “ If the Taliban are imposed on Afghanistan.S. as part of the Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement. Afghan President Hamid Karzai and U.S.”[289] These incidents created fractures in the partnership between Afghanistan and the NATO troops operating in the country.[288] —National Front Berlin Statement. Helmand announcement by US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on 8 July 2012 at the Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan.. He is now the chairman of the National Front of Afghanistan "We firmly believe that any negotiation with the Taliban can only be acceptable. the U. February 2012 On 2 May 2012. then as Vice President of Afghanistan. sacrifices and legitimate interests of the Afghans who ended the brutal oppression of all Afghans.S..S.S. shaking hands w ith a U. there will be resistance.

000 foreign troops by the end of December 2014.S. we are going to be able to say that the sacrifices that were made by those men and women in uniform has brought about the goal that we sought. troops in Afghanistan.S. which is to de-capacitate al-Qaeda. forces are no longer fighting. train and assist the Afghan security forces including the Afghan Special Operations Forces. that it will be the task of the Afghan forces to provide for the Afghan people in security and protection.[312] Soldiers from the Michigan National Guard and the Latvian army patrol through a village Both leaders also agreed that the United States would hand over full control [312][316] in Konar province.[314] He also said any U. Rhodes said that leaving no troops “would be an option that we would consider. 2012 Afghan President Karzai and U.[318] Following the handover. Deputy national security adviser Benjamin J. "The international forces.S.”[313] Obama also stated that he will determine the pace of U. to make sure that they can’t attack us again."[312] “We achieved our central goal. training and assisting the Afghan security forces [307][308] and then withdraw most of the 130.[311] "What's going to happen this spring is that Afghans will be in the lead throughout the country.S." Karzai .” Obama added.[313][314] According to Obama any agreement on troop withdrawals must include an immunity agreement in which US troops are not subjected to Afghan law. of Afghan prisoners and prisons to Afghanistan and to pull out [316][317] American troops from Afghan villages in spring 2013. That doesn't mean that coalition forces including U. "They will still be fighting alongside Afghan troops.S.[306] A new and different NATO mission will then advise. President Obama agreed to accelerate the handover of combat operations from NATO to Afghan forces by spring 2013 rather than summer 2013.[318][319][320][321] The International Security Assistance Force formally handed over control of the last 95 districts to Afghan forces at a ceremony attended by President Hamid Karzai and NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen at a military academy outside Kabul.[307][309] 2013: Withdrawal Karzai-Obama-Meeting In a visit to the United States by Afghan President Hamid Karzai in January 2012 the United States stated that it is open to withdrawing all of its troops by the end of 2014." Obama said." the Afghan president said. the American forces.[306] while shifting at the same time from combat to a support role of advising. advising role. It does mean though that Afghans will have taken the lead and our presence. where 80 percent of Afghanistan's population of nearly 30 million lives." Karzai replied.S. troops from Afghanistan On 21 May 2012 the leaders of the NATO-member countries endorsed an exit strategy during the 2012 NATO Summit in Chicago.”[310] On January 11.[312] NATO troops will focus on training.” adding that “the president does not view these negotiations as having a goal of keeping U.S. to dismantle them. and Withdrawal of U. or have come very close to achieving our central goal. assisting.S. Before the handover they were responsible for 312 districts nationwide.[25] The NATO-led ISAF Forces will hand over command of all combat missions to Afghan forces by the middle of 2013. 2011 NATO attack in Pak istan. will be no longer present in the villages. “At the end of this conflict.[315] "I can go to the Afghan people and argue for immunity for U. when needed. in a way that Afghan law will not be compromised. U.[319] "Our security and defense forces will now be in the lead. troops in Afghanistan in a way that Afghan sovereignty will not be compromised.NATO Chicago Summit: Troops withdrawal and longterm presence Further information: 2012 Chicago Summit. Afghan forces will have the lead for security in all 403 districts of Afghanistan's 34 provinces. We will be in a training. mission in Afghanistan beyond 2014 would focus solely on counterterrorism operations and training Afghan security forces. 2013 the handover of security from NATO to Afghan forces was completed.[316] Security handover from NATO to Afghan forces On June 18. but also fighting alongside them. combat troops drawdown and their withdrawal from Afghanistan by the end of 2014 after consultations with commanders on the ground. the nature of our work will be different. advising and assisting their Afghan counterparts.[311] meaning Afghan forces will take the lead in combat operations.

" Rasmussen added. the Taliban controlled 96% of Afghanistan's poppy fields and made opium its largest source of taxation. nearly all of it on war.[335] Taxes on opium exports became one of the mainstays of Taliban income and their war economy. Those with direct personal experience make up 60% of the population. The U. "Ten years ago.[329] Refugees Since the coalition intervention in 2001. there were no Afghan national security forces.[321] Rasmussen stated that the focus of ISAF forces will shift fom combat to support and that by the end of 2014 Afghanistan will be fully secured by Afghans. more than 5."[335] In the New York Times .7 million refugees have returned to Afghanistan[1][330][331] but 2.021 civilians were killed in the ongoing insurgency.[326] In 2011 a record 3.777 civilians were known to have been killed in 2010.550 internally displaced persons within Afghanistan." he said. now you have 350. 100.[331][333][334] Drug trade Further information: Opium production in Afghanistan From 1996-1999.[335] According to Rashid. "drug money funded the weapons."[318] Rasmussen said that by taking the lead in security on Tuesday. "They are doing so with remarkable resolve. a 25% increase over the 447.2 million Afghans remained refugees in 2013[332] and in January. Wahidullah Sabawoon."[318] The security transition signaled an important shift. "From here. according to Nicholas Kristoff. execute or lead those operations." He added that the Taliban had come to .462 non-combatants died" in the first six months of 2011. In total. When people see security has been transferred to Afghans. After the handover. and most others also report suffering a range of serious hardships.[318] Post 2014 presence plans for NATO and the United States NATO and the United States are as of November/December 2012 planning their precise configuration of their post 2014 presence.S.[319] "We will continue to help Afghan troops in operations if needed.. and coalition forces are in the process of closing bases and shipping out equipment. improved healthcare resulting from the war has saved hundreds of thousands of lives.547 IDPs in January. but we will no longer plan. ammunition and fuel for the war.[322][323] For details regarding this presence and its planning process please see Withdrawal of U..S.[324] A UN report in June 2011 stated that 2. According to a report by the United Nations.000 NATO forces will play a supporting and training role. with insurgents being responsible for 75% of the civilian casualties.[325] Another United Nations report issued in July 2011 said "1. almost everyone (96%) has been affected in some way – either personally or due to the wider consequences of armed conflict. 2012[332] a figure reflected by Amnesty International when it reported that hundreds of Afghans were forced to flee their homes everyday during 2012. declared the Taliban had no annual budget but that they "appeared to spend US$ 300 million a year. and by the end of 2014 our combat mission will be completed. Afghan forces were completing a five-stage transition process that began in March 2011. troops from Afghanistan.[327] Very few people in Afghanistan have been unaffected by the armed conflict there.000 Afghan troops and police. the Taliban were responsible for 76% of civilian casualties in Afghanistan in 2009. 2013 the UN estimated that there were 547. but estimates for specific years or periods have been published by a number of organizations.[25] Impact on Afghan society Civilian casualties Main article: Civilian casualties in the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) There is no single official figure for the overall number of civilians killed by the war since 2001. the fifth successive annual rise. a formidable force.-led International Security Assistance Force is slated to end its mission by the end of 2014. with insurgents being responsible for 80% of the deaths. the Finance Minister of the United Front. as Afghan soldiers and police take the lead in the fight against armed groups. they support the army and police more than before.[328] However. all security responsibility and all security leadership will be taken by our brave forces.said.

Afghanistan had regained its position as the world’s No.[341][342] War Crimes Regional security risks and levels of opium poppy cultivation in 2007–2008.S. where between 250 and 3. arson."[335] In September 2001 .[339] In 2009.2 million students that were attending school in 2001.[337] Many observers say the ban . terrorism. most of which is processed into heroin and sold in Europe and Russia. the BBC reported that "UN findings say an opium market worth $65bn (£39bn) funds global terrorism.171 hectares.[336] At this juncture Omar passed a decree banning the cultivation of opium. hotels and schools. bombings of civilian targets. Taliban War Crimes In 2011 the New York Times reported that the Taliban was responsible for 3/4 of all civilian deaths in the War in Afghanistan. Northern Alliance War Crimes In December 2001 the Dasht-i-Leili massacre took place.S. These crimes have included massacres of civilians. the UN mentioned the "existence of significant stocks of opiated accumulated during previous years of bumper harvests.increasingly rely on three sources of money: "poppy.[350] U. Additional common crimes include theft. including 3.000 of them girls."[340] Opium production levels for 2005–2007 Public education As of 2013. War Crimes . use of torture and the murder of prisoners of war.[335] Soon after the 2001 U. Reports also place U.[335] In 2002.2 million Afghan students in school.000 Taliban fighters who had surrendered.which came in a bid for international recognition at the United Nations . with less than 50. the Pakistanis and bin Laden.was only issued in order to raise opium prices and increase profit from the sale of large existing stockpiles. aid workers. ground troops at the scene of the massacre. Throughout the War in Afghanistan war crimes have been committed by both sides in the conflict.the Convoy of Death investigated these allegations and claimed that mass graves of thousands of victims were found by United Nations investigators [349] and that the Bush administration blocked investigations into the incident.[345] The Taliban has claimed responsibility for attacks on various civilian targets such as markets. 1 opium producer and was producing 90% of the world’s opium. and production dropped to an estimated 74 metric tonnes from poppy cultivation on 1. and the destruction of property.[338] By 2005. were shot and/or suffocated to death in metal truck containers whilst being transported by Northern Alliance forces. – the Taliban allegedly authorized Afghan peasants to sow opium again."[335] By 2000 Afghanistan accounted for an estimated 75% of the world's supply and in 2000 grew an estimated 3276 tonnes of opium from poppy cultivation on 82.[335] The year 1999 had yielded a record crop and had been followed by a lower but still large 2000 harvest.[335] The trafficking of accumulated stocks by the Taliban continued in 2000 and 2001.000 people every year. This is up from the 1.before the 11 September attacks against the U. and kills 100. caters to 15 million addicts. there are 8.S. led invasion of Afghanistan opium production increased markedly.2 million girls.[346][347][348] The Irish documentary Afghan Massacre .[343][344] In 2013 the UN stated that the Taliban had been placing bombs along transit routes which is a war crime.685 hectares.S.

P. Afghanistan.On June 21. which are widespread inside Afghanistan.000 to 84. describing the trauma as comparable to being run over by a bus.000-page United States Army report concerning the homicides of two unarmed civilian Afghan prisoners by U. a prisoner at a US base 10 miles south of Asadabad. becoming the world's second most-corrupt country ahead of just Somalia.8 billion. and it is expected to be at 102. Habibullah and Dilawar. Cost of war The cost of the war reportedly was a major factor as U. On Sunday. the military charged five members of the platoon with murder of three Afghan civilians in Kandahar province and collecting their body parts as trophies in what came to be known as the Maywand District murders. Justin Stoner.[354] The estimate for the cost of deploying one U.000 for fiscal year 2011. During the summer of 2010. soldier in Afghanistan is over US$1 million a year.7 billion a month. in Kunar Province. a lack of resources.) in Bagram. and too much focus on Afghanistan instead of the region. which caused their deaths.[359] In the same month. Nine of the victims were children. impeding an investigation.S. Military coroners ruled that both the prisoners' deaths were homicides. United States Army Staff Sergeant Robert Bales was taken into custody and charged with 16 counts of premeditated murder. The projected total cost relating to Afghanistan from inception to the fiscal year 2011 is expected to be $468 billion. The prisoners. Autopsies revealed severe trauma to both prisoners' legs. 11 March 2012. "The United States and other Western nations that have borne the brunt of the cost of the Afghan war have been conspicuously absent from the bidding process on Afghanistan’s mineral deposits. Afghanistan slipped three places in Transparency International's annual index of corruption perceptions. officials considered drawing down troops in 2011. Petraeus also insisted that the challenges faced in Afghanistan are more complicated than the ones that were faced in Iraq during his tour and to turn around the recent events this would require removing militant sanctuaries and strongholds. lack of coordination. 2) The total operational cost for Afghanistan from the beginning of the conflict in 2001 through 2006 only slightly exceeds the amount spent in 2010 alone – $93. murdered Abdul Wali. a CIA contractor and U.S. too much focus on the central government at the expense of local and provincial governments. Defense Department spending on Afghanistan has increased 50%.[358] GI fits shoes for Afghan children in Zabul Province In November 2009.[357] Observers also have argued that An Afghan market teems w ith vendors and the mission in Afghanistan is hampered by a lack shoppers on 4 February 2009 of agreement on objectives. Central Command General David H. Afghanistan.S. Army Ranger." expressed opposition to an . and eleven of the dead were from the same family.4 billion to $6.[355] In a 2011 news story. Seven soldiers were charged. Afghanistan. The New York Times obtained a 2. the Kandahar massacre occurred when sixteen civilians were killed and six wounded in the Panjwayi District of Kandahar Province.[351][352] In 2005. leaving it to mostly to regional powers. During that time. troop strength has gone from 44. He cited the recent uptick in attacks in Afghanistan and in neighboring Pakistan. the CSM reported. Malalai Joya. seven soldiers were charged with crimes such as hashish use. armed forces in 2002 at the Bagram Theater Internment Facility (also Bagram Collection Point or B. The American and International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) authorities apologized for the incident and promised a thorough and quick investigation."[356] Risk of a failed state In a 2008 interview. 2003 David Passaro.[353] A March 2011 Congressional Research Service report notes the following about Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) Afghanistan: 1) following the Afghanistan surge announcement in 2009. were chained to the ceiling and beaten. Petraeus. insisted that the Taliban were gaining strength. Passaro was found guilty of one count of felony assault with a dangerous weapon and three counts of misdemeanor assault. In addition.C.S.S. the then-head U. He was sentenced to serve 8 years and 4 months in prison. and attacking the whistleblower Spc. a former member of the Afghan Parliament and the author of "Raising My Voice. going from $4.000.

Eight years is enough to know better about the corrupt. train and retain soldiers.S. 1 April 2010 at Camp Morehead in the outer regions of Kabul.[368] Afghan Commandos practice infiltration techniques.000 soldiers by October 2010. Occupation will never bring liberation. widespread illiteracy. and lack of discipline.S.[366] U. who was one of a team of U."[366] In addition.[363] U.S. getting fired on." said Capt. military presence in Afghanistan and concern about the future of her country. training efforts were drastically slowed by the corruption. “Eight years ago. President Barack Obama's revised Afghanistan strategy.expansion of the U. so they lay down. Afghan soldiers often found improvised explosive devices and snipped the command wires instead of marking them and waiting for U. human rights... Haqqanis] but not the master of proxies.S.[369] U.S. officers who tried to stop Afghan soldiers from stealing. my people are that fed up. I couldn’t get them to shoot their weapons. By May 2010 the Afghan Army had accomplished this interim goal and was on track to reach its ultimate number of 171.. A 2010 report published by the London School of Economics says that Pakistan's ISI has an "official policy" of support to the Taliban. mafia system of President Hamid Karzai. the Taliban and warlords continue their crimes.S.[366] Death threats were leveled against U.[365] The transfer of security responsibilities could not happen unless the Afghan government and the coalition could recruit. vanishing supplies. trainers Marines and Afghan National Army soldiers reported missing vehicles.[363] At the time. trainers frequently removed the cell phones of Afghan soldiers hours before a mission for fear that the operation would be compromised.. The Americans said this just allows the insurgents to return and reconnect them.S. and on the ground. former director of Afghanistan's intelligence service.. The question is what does Pakistan’s army want to achieve .[371] American trainers often spent large amounts of time verifying that Afghan rosters were accurate – that they are not padded with "ghosts" being "paid" by Afghan commanders who quietly collected the . The Afghan Army was plagued by inefficiency and endemic corruption.[364] This increase in Afghan troops was intended to allow the U. which is the Pakistan army.[366] "They don’t have the basics."[362] (see video (http://vimeo. Soldiers unload humanitarian aid for distribution to the tow n of Rajan Kala.”[360] Pakistan is playing a central role in Afghanistan.S. It is better that they leave my country.S." the report states. weapons and other military equipment. forces to come to detonate them. and NATO – under the banner of women’s rights.S. occupation forces bomb and kill civilians . the U.[361] Amrullah Saleh. and Hungarian mentors tasked with training Afghan soldiers. criticised: "We talk about all these proxies [Taliban..S.[367] Some were suspected of collaborating with the Taliban against the Americans. My people are crushed between two powerful enemies. 5 December 2009 Capacity of Afghan security forces Further information: Afghan National Army#Current status The plan to transfer security responsibility to Afghan forces is the centerpiece of U.S. and it is impossible to bring democracy by war. the Afghan National Army had severely limited fighting capacity. The ISI provides funding and training to the Taliban. 9 out of 10 soldiers in the Afghan National Army could not read. discipline and adequate reinforcements. soldiers had been found cowering in ditches rather than fighting. and take cover in Marja on 13 February 2010 outright theft of fuel provided by the U.[361] "Pakistan appears to be playing a double-game of astonishing magnitude.[366] Even the best Afghan units lacked training. without them we will face massacre and disaster and God knows what type of a future Afghanistan will have.[370] U.S. to begin withdrawing American forces in July 2011. and democracy – occupied my country and pushed us from the frying pan into the fire.000 by 2011.com/18018836)) U.S. From the sky. Michael Bell. national interest but . In one new unit in Baghlan Province. policy called for boosting the Afghan National Army to 134. "I ran around for an hour trying to get them to shoot.? They want to gain influence in the region"[362] About the presence of foreign troops in Afghanistan he stated: "[T]hey fight for the U.

Germany (60%). according to NATO officials. Defense Department and the Inspector General for Reconstruction in Afghanistan. and NATO troops out of Afghanistan as soon as possible. pluralities want U.[378][379] An Ipsos-Reid poll conducted between November and December 2001 showed that majorities in Canada (66%). In 2011. Czech Republic (64%).[372] Desertion has been a significant problem in the Afghan Army. Only in three out of the 24 countries – the U.[375] A quarter of the officers quit every year. France (60%). insurgent forces in Afghanistan began using a tactic of insider attacks on ISAF and Afghan military forces. and India – did majorities favor military action in Afghanistan.K. One in every four combat soldiers quit the Afghan Army during the 12-month period ending in September 2009. making the Afghan government’s goals of substantially building up the police force even harder to achieve.[374] Attempts to build a credible Afghan police force were faltering badly. incompetence an even bigger one. in the first 11 months of 2012. often within the security of ISAF military bases and Afghan government facilities.S. Switzerland (87%). mostly American. Out of the 47 countries surveyed. Lithuania (83%). Panama (80%).[377] A large-scale 37-nation poll of world opinion carried out by Gallup International in late September 2001 found that large majorities in most countries favored a legal response. the poll found many clear majorities that favored extradition and trial instead of military action: in the United Kingdom (75%). Australia (60%). Police officers in Afghanistan are largely illiterate. Italy (58%). China (52%). Israel.S. and the U. over a military response to 9/11: Only in three countries out of the 37 surveyed – the U.[375] Taliban infiltration is a constant worry.bogus wages.[381] In 32 out of 47 countries.S. or pretending to belong to. and Britain (48%) – did public opinion lean more toward keeping troops there until the situation has stabilized. (50%). Taliban personnel or sympathizers belonging to.[383][384] .S. for example.[381][382] A 24-nation Pew Global Attitudes survey in June 2008 similarly found that majorities or pluralities in 21 of 24 countries want the U. In the other 34 countries surveyed. They are widely accused of demanding bribes. Mexico (94%). polls indicated that about 88% of Americans and about 65% of Britons backed military action in Afghanistan.[381] In 41 of the 47 countries.S. in the form of extradition and trial. Israel (59%). France (67%).S. 21 insider attacks killed 35 coalition personnel. In the attacks. Spain (52%). even as they acknowledge that the force would be a crucial piece of the effort to have Afghans manage their own security so American forces could begin leaving. and other countries. and NATO to remove their troops from Afghanistan as soon as possible. the Pew Global Attitudes Project found international opposition to the war. and Kenya (60%).[375] Insider attacks Beginning in 2011. (50%). Approximately 17 percent of them test positive for illegal drugs. according to data from the U.. the Afghan military or police forces would suddenly attack ISAF personnel. clear majorities wanted this war over as soon as possible. (65%) approved of U.[376] International reactions Main article: International public opinion on the war in Afghanistan Public opinion in 2001 When the invasion began in October 2001.[373] The Afghan National Police provides support to the Afghan army. and Turkey (70%) opposed them.[380] Development of public opinion See also: International public opinion on the war in Afghanistan In a 47-nation June 2007 survey of global public opinion. 4 had a majority that favoured keeping foreign troops: the U. Ghana (50%). South Korea (50%). Forty-six insider attacks killed 63 and wounded 85 coalition troops. Majorities in 7 out of 12 NATO member countries say troops should be withdrawn as soon as possible. airstrikes while majorities in Argentina (77%).S.

A September 2008 poll found that 56% of Australians opposed the continuation of their country's military involvement in Afghanistan. military effort was going very well or fairly well and only 44% supporting NATO troop presence in Afghanistan. and NATO troops as soon as possible while 44% favor maintaining the troops in Afghanistan until the situation is stabilized. The new survey shows little change since then – 50% favor removing U. 36% of Americans approved of Obama's handling of Afghanistan. while 40 percent favored decreasing them. including 19% of Republicans.S.[398] In December 2009. military presence in the country – down from 78% in 2005. should "mind its own business" internationally and let other countries get along the best they can. there was little change in the American public's views about Afghanistan.S. only 32 percent of Americans favored increasing U. The poll indicated that 63% of Afghans were at least somewhat supportive of a U.Since that June 2008 global survey. including 70% who were strongly opposed. with about 50% saying that the U.[392] A slight plurality of Americans favored troop increases. believed that the U. However the idea of permanent U.[395] 22 June 2007 demonstration in Québec City against the Canadian military involvement in Afghanistan. forces would help stabilize the security situation in the southern provinces. many Afghan tribal heads and local leaders from the Pashtun south and east – the heartland of the . while 44% favored reducing it. while 33% wanted them removed as soon as possible. 49 percent. troops to stay until the situation has stabilized. while 42% support it. military's presence.S.S. people said they preferred the current government to Taliban rule. Almost half of Americans. troops would help the situation. military bases vexes many people in Afghanistan. But opinions varied widely across Afghanistan at the time. Just 29% of Democrats favor any troop increases while 57% want to begin reducing troops. That figure was an increase from 30 percent who said that in December 2002.S. 69% of Afghans surveyed thought it was at least mostly good that the U..S. in the U.[391] Public opinion was divided over Afghan troop requests. 31% of independents. public opinion in Australia and Britain has also diverged from that in the U.S. additional U.S. 24% thought it was mostly or very bad – up from 9% in 2005. and a majority of Australians and Britons now want their troops to be brought home from Afghanistan.[397] Afghan w omen w ait outside a USAIDIn a June 2009 Gallup survey.[396] According to a May 2009 BBC poll. 39%–44% wanting reduction. military came in to remove the Taliban – a decrease from 87% of Afghans surveyed in 2005. however.S.[394] In an April 2011 Pew Research Center poll. a majority of Americans continued to see a rationale for the use of military force in Afghanistan. with 42%–47% favoringat least some troop increases to satisfy the military's requests.[385][386][387] A November 2008 poll found that 68% of Britons want their troops withdrawn within the next 12 months. 17 July 2009 Recent polls of Afghans have found strong opposition to the Taliban and significant support of the American military presence. a September 2008 Pew survey found that 61% of Americans wanted U.[388][389][390] On the contrary.S. while those in the West largely disagreed that more U. residents in the troubled South were mostly mixed or uncertain. about half of Afghan respondents felt that supported health care clinic. Coalition fatalities per month since the start of the w ar.. and 7–9% wanting no changes in troop levels.S.[393] In a December 2009 Pew Research Center poll. Just 18% supported increasing the U.S. Afghan opinions Canadian Forces personnel carry the coffin of a fallen comrade onto an aircraft at Kandahar Air Field. By an 82%–4% margin. and 54% of Democrats. 90% of Afghans surveyed opposed the presence of Taliban fighters. troops in Afghanistan.S.

" said Muhammad Qasim. Bush in October 2001 and every year since. NATO pointed to the victims of NATO air strikes in Farah province in May 2009.[411] White phosphorus use White phosphorus has been condemned by human rights organizations as cruel and inhumane because it causes .S. NATO has alleged that the Taliban have used civilians as human shields. "We can solve them by providing jobs and development and by using local leaders to negotiate with the Taliban. a lawmaker and close associate of Mr. for example. Afghan protesters took to the streets for three straight days and blocked traffic on a highway that links Kabul and Kandahar. said of the Taliban's tactics.S. These were not human shields.[406][407] Human rights abuses Main article: Human rights in Afghanistan There have been multiple accounts of human rights violations in Afghanistan. NATO stated that it had evidence that the Taliban forced civilians into buildings likely to be targeted by NATO aircraft involved in the battle.[29] According to Amnesty International."[410] (NATO has not provided this intelligence to the public. during which the Afghan government claims up to 150 civilians were killed. Ghazni residents insisted that the dead were civilians.)[citation needed] The increase in Taliban power has also led to increased human rights violations against women in Afghanistan. the Taliban were responsible for 76% of civilian casualties in Afghanistan in 2009. demonstrations and rallies Further information: Opposition to the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) and Protests against the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) The war has repeatedly been the subject of large protests around the world starting with the large-scale demonstrations in the days leading up to the official launch of Operation Enduring Freedom under George W.[409] Some religious leaders have condemned Taliban terrorist attacks and said these kinds of attacks are against Islamic ethics. NATO's Afghanistan commander. on 20 March 2010. "This will only increase the distance between Afghans and their government. in January 2009.[402][403] The deaths of Afghan civilians caused directly and indirectly by the U. The Afghans were demonstrating in response to the deaths of four men in a NATO-Afghan raid in the village of Ghazni.C. a tribal elder from the southern province of Kandahar. a national campaign for non-violent solutions in Afghanistan built around a documentary film by director and political activist Robert Greenwald."[400] In late January 2010.[401] Protests. D.[404] New organizations have arisen to oppose the war.S. Amnesty International said that up to 756 civilians were killed in 2006 by bombs.[324] The Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIGRC) called the Taliban's terrorism against the Afghan civilian population a war crime. We have intelligence that points to this. a spokesman for General McKiernan. the Taliban commit war crimes by targeting civilians. troop withdrawals. according to the U. State Department. many Afghan tribal heads and local leaders from the Pashtun south and east – the heartland of the Taliban insurgency – called for U. Brave New Foundation launched Rethink Afghanistan. As an example. including killing teachers. these were human sacrifices." said Gulbadshah Majidi. Karzai.[408] Taliban According to a report by the United Nations. "I don't think we will be able to solve our problems with military force. US Lieutenant Colonel Greg Julian. Many protesters consider the bombing and invasion of Afghanistan to be unjustified aggression. and NATO bombing campaigns is also a major underlying focus of the protests. when they draw Taliban attacks civilians will end up being killed. "This was a deliberate plan by the Taliban to create a civilian casualty crisis. mostly on roads or carried by suicide attackers belonging to the Taliban."[399] "If new troops come and are stationed in civilian areas.[29] During the conflict. abducting aid workers and burning school buildings.[405] Dozens of organizations planned (and eventually held) a national march for peace in Washington.In December 2009.

–Afghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement Withdrawal of U. Fox News. 6. Colonel Gregory Julian.longwarjournal.Afghanistan (http://www.org 2.Threat Matrix (http://www.S.S.com/world/2013/09/08/pakistan-militantspreparing-for-afghanistan-civil-war/). The Long War Journal.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/CTC-Haqqani-Report_Rassler-Brown-Final_Web.[412] In May 2009. 9.org/threatmatrix/2009/08/pakistans_most_wanted_look_at. Don. the overall commander of U.pdf).foxnews.[413][414] US forces used white phosphorus to screen a retreat in the Battle of Ganjgal when regular smoke munitions were not available. Retrieved 2 August 2011. troops from Afghanistan Lists: List of Afghanistan War (2001-present) documentaries List of aviation accidents and incidents in the War in Afghanistan List of civilian casualties of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) List of military operations in the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) List of modern conflicts in the Middle East Ethnic conflict References 1.php) 7.S.[416] See also Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979–1989) Criticism of the War on Terror Opposition to the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) U.isaf.huffingtonpost. ^ a b 2012 UNHCR country operations profile .ctc. Bill (31 August 2009). Retrieved 2 September 2009. ^ Roggi. There are cases that have been confirmed of white phosphorus burns on the bodies of civilians wounded in Afghanistan caused by clashes between U. 4. ^ How many al Qaeda operatives are now left in Afghanistan? . ^ Rassler.usma. ^ Pakistan militants preparing for Afghanistan civil war (http://www. government response to the September 11 attacks 2012 Afghanistan Quran burning protests Afghanistan–United States relations U.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_topics/20120418_120418Backgrounder-ANSF-en. ^ "Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF)" (http://www.pdf) (PDF). Harmony Program (Combating Terrorism Center). NATO. Vahid Brown (14 July 2011).S. ISAF. confirmed that Western military forces in Afghanistan use white phosphorus to illuminate targets or as an incendiary to destroy bunkers and enemy equipment.S.nato. ^ Sirajuddin Haqqani dares US to attack N Waziristan. 3 December 2012. 18 April 2012.unhcr. a spokesman for General McKiernan. Published: September 24. claims at least 44 instances in which militants have used white phosphorus in weapons or attacks.longwarjournal. The U. "Pakistan's most-wanted: look at who isn't listed" (http://www.org/threatmatrix/archives/2011/04/how_many_al_qaeda_operatives_a.pdf) (PDF).[415] The Afghan government later launched an investigation into the use of white phosphorus munitions.html) 8.php). and Taliban forces near Bagram. ^ Al Qaeda In Afghanistan Is Attempting A Comeback (http://www. 5. 3.int/images/stories/File/Placemats/2013-08-01%20ISAF%20Placemat-final. and NATO forces in Afghanistan. "The Haqqani Nexus and the Evolution of al-Qaida" (http://www. Public Multimedia Inc.White phosphorus has been condemned by human rights organizations as cruel and inhumane because it causes severe burns. ^ "International Security Assistance Force (ISAF): Key Facts and Figures" (http://www.com/2012/10/21/al-qaeda-afghanistancomeback_n_1997994. by Reuters. Retrieved 1 August 2013.S. 2011 .org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/page? page=49e486eb6) unhcr. Retrieved on 2013-10-29.

^ Terry McCarthy/Kunduz (18 November 2001). ISBN 978-817049-306-8.pk/story/259314/sirajuddin-haqqani-dares-us-to-attack-n-waziristan/) 10.net/news/asia/2011/01/201111072951940489.jp). .nytimes. Pakistan Balks at Crackdown" (http://www. Bush and Blair tell Taliban – We're ready to go in – PM|Planes shot at over Kabul"" (http://www.postgazette. ^ Varun Vira and Anthony Cordesman "Pakistan: Violence versus Stability: A Net Assessment" (http://www. Center for Strategic and International Studies. 13 January 2011.org/military/library/news/2001/12/mil011209-29caacd9.co.september11). Retrieved 2 August 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2008.uk/world/2001/oct/07/politics. Jerome (30 September 2010). ^ a b "OEF: Afghanistan: Fatalities By Year" (http://icasualties.org/article/afghan-civilians). "Friendly fire kills 3 GIs" (http://www. V. ^ Starkey. ^ a b "U. The Scotsman (Edinburgh). Slip-Sliding on a Yellow Brick Road: Stabilization Efforts in Afghanistan. Time.com/? id=w7fmg1cCjskC&dq=Afghanistan+and+the+troubled+future+of+unconventional+warfare&q=Al+Qaeda). 14 October 2009. DOI: http://dx. New York Times.gov.html).scotsman. '^ "NATO Chief Promises to Stand by Afghanistan" (http://www. 2011 (http://tribune. 22 December 2009.af 26. debates Afghanistan policy.org. BBC.com. ^ a b c "AIHRC Calls Civilian Deaths War Crime" (http://www.dol. Vernon (6 December 2001). Retrieved 9 February 2010.com. Caroline.propublica. "Karzai's Taliban talks raise spectre of civil war warns former spy chief" (http://news. ^ Wyatt.google.com/headlines/20011206war1206p4. Retrieved 2 October 2008.tolonews.com/en/afghanistan/1591-aihrc-calls-civiliandeaths-war-crime). 23. Traynor. Patrick.nytimes.htm). Retrieved 2 August 2011. ^ "While U.. 12.htm).html).uk/blogs/theeditors/2010/01/reporting_afghanistan_casualti. ^ Morello. Retrieved 30 June 2013. "Reporting Afghanistan casualties" (http://www.scribd. London: Guardian News and Media.time. Post-gazette. Projects. Ian.aljazeera.S.org/tables/contractor_casualties). Wintour. Christian Miller (23 September 2009). Taliban beefs up" (http://www.guardian.org/publication/10551/).asp). 21. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 1(1):4-19. Dol.gov/owcp/dlhwc/dbaallnation. Costs of War. Published: September 24. The New York Times.org/10. "VOA News Report" (http://www. The Editors. ^ "US Bombs Wipe Out Farming Village" (http://rawa. ^ Rothstein. 16. 18. Loeb. Globalsecurity.com/2009/12/15/world/asia/15haqqani. icasualties.rnw.org/us-bomb. "A Volatile State of Siege After a Taliban Ambush – Printout – TIME" (http://www. 13. ^ Vulliamy.htm). 29. Retrieved 2 August 2011.htm).org.bbc.com.globalsecurity. 11. 24. 9 September 2005. 14 December 2009.com/doc/70694522/Pakistan-Violence-Versus-Stability). Retrieved 9 February 2010.com/time/printout/0. Retrieved 24 May 2012. ^ "Canada in Afghanistan: 2001" (http://afghanistan. Government Private Contract Worker Deaths and Injuries" (http://projects. "After the September Eleventh Terrorist attacks on America.com/world/Karzai39s-Taleban-talks-raise-spectre. Rawa.co.aspx). ^ "The Taliban Resurgence in Afghanistan" (http://www. ^ Sirajuddin Haqqani dares US to attack N Waziristan. 28.5334/sta.com/2009/12/23/world/asia/23afghan.cfr. 19.com/canada-in-afghanistan-2001/). Tolonews. Kamal (7 October 2001).6557817.mcclatchydc. by Reuters. ^ a b c Felbab-Brown. Retrieved 14 September 2013.9. Afghanistan: and the troub led future of unconventional warfare By Hy S.org.S. Hy S (15 August 2006).S. Ahmed.doi. 22. 30.html).nationalpost.nl/english/bulletin/violence-kills-100-afghan-policeevery-month-govt). ^ a b T. ^ John Pike (9 December 2001). ^ "Police killed in Afghan bombing" (http://english.com/227/story/77193. Mcclatchydc. 15. ^ "Rebuffing U.184982. Department of Labor – Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) – Defense Base Act Case Summary by Nation" (http://www. "Afghan Civilians" (http://costsofwar. 25 July 2011. 25.org.propublica. "U. ^ Brown University Watson Institute for International Studies (27 February 2001).html). 14.S. 2012.00. National Post. 27.org/OEF/ByYear. Rothstein (http://books. 17. Carol. ^ "Violence kills 100 afghan police every month" (http://www. Ed. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 31. Retrieved 7 June 2013.html).8816. "It's time for war. 20.

Wars of Afghanistan. ^ "II. Afghanistan. BACKGROUND" (http://www.youtube.htm). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA. 53.hrw.htm).com/2001-1012/news/0110120312_1_taliban-fighters-massacres-in-recent-years-mullah-mohammed-omar). 48. 38. ^ a b c Steve Coll. George Washington University.uk/news/datablog/2010/aug/10/afghanistan-civilian-casualtiesstatistics 34.org. p. ^ a b Peter Tomsen said that up until 9/11. Retrieved 12 October 2001.org/reports98/afghan/Afrepor0-01. 39.unhcr. 25 July 2011. 43. Afghanistan Justice Project. from the Soviet Invasion to Septemb er 10. ^ Human Rights Watch (November 1998). Amnesty International. Tauris & Co Ltd. 352.com/watch?v=EvYglyjbHkI)) 47. PublicAffairs. p. UNHCR.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jly2. ^ a b c "Afghanistan resistance leader feared dead in blast" (http://www. hrw. http://www. 36. 40. "Taliban massacres outlined for UN" (http://articles. ^ "Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001" (http://www. 3ae6aab050.pdf). along with thousands of regular Pakistani armed forces personnel. 54. Penguin Press HC. "INCITEMENT OF VIOLENCE AGAINST HAZARAS BY GOVERNOR NIAZI" (http://www. London New York. Webster University Press. 41. 45.org/refworld/country.org/warcrimesandcrimesagainsthumanity19782001.org. Chicago Trib une.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/1340244/Afghanistan-resistance-leader-feared-dead-in- .html?_r=0 33. ^ (data from United Nations Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA)). ^ UNHCR (February 1999). AFG. 2011. Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival (2006 1st ed. ISBN 978-1-58648-763-8.nytimes. 1998. 51. PublicAffairs.B. 44. AFGHANISTAN: THE MASSACRE IN MAZAR-I SHARIF.amnesty. ^ a b Amin Saikal. 14. I.org/en/library/asset/ASA11/015/1995/en/6d874caaeb2a-11dd-92ac-295bdf97101f/asa110151995en. or around. Pakistani military and ISI officers. The New Statesman. Aqcha (Jawzjan province) including predominant tribal/ethnic group and who is currently in control" (http://www. 50. Retrieved 2012-11-19.htm#17).co. 558. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader. 288.co. 52.telegraph. The Guardian. ISBN 978-1-58648-763-8. 2001 (23 February 2004 ed. ^ a b c d Newsday (2001). p.gwu.icrc. 32.chicagotribune.html "Afghanistan: Situation in. ^ a b c d "Documents Detail Years of Pakistani Support for Taliban.org/library/documents/reports/talibans-war-on-women. 46. ^ "The Taliban's War on Women. The Afghanistan wars. Retrieved 2012-1119. Human Rights Watch. newsday.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB227/index. ^ (see video (http://www.papillonsartpalace.afghanistanjusticeproject.com/2013/09/11/world/asia/pakistan-taliban-commander. ^ a b "AFGHANISTAN: FURTHER INFORMATION ON FEAR FOR SAFETY AND NEW CONCERN: DELIBERATE AND ARBITRARY KILLINGS: CIVILIANS IN KABUL" (http://www. p. Peter (2011). Extremists" (http://www. A Health and Human Rights Crisis in Afghanistan" (http://physiciansforhumanrights.Tomsen. "Confidential UN report details mass killings of civilian villagers" (http://www. ^ "Afghanistan: escalation of indiscriminate shelling in Kabul" (http://www.).html). 2005. William (2009). 1995.youtube. ISBN 1-85043-437-9. ^ a b c d Marcela Grad (1 March 2009).com/international-politics/2011/11/haq-afghanistan-taliban-kabul). 49.). Retrieved 27 December 2007. and Bin Laden.htm#P186_38364).). 2005).0.htm#P81_13959). Physicians for Human Rights.com/watch?v=zzPcMB9SQz0) 42. p. Ghost Wars (New York: Penguin. ^ a b c d Newsday (October 2001). ^ Maley. International Committee of the Red Cross. p. 2007. ^ http://www.. Afghanistan civilian casualties: year by year. Wars of Afghanistan. 565. ISBN 978-0-230-21313-5.guardian. had been involved in the fighting in Afghanistan.Studies. ^ "The lost lion of Kabul" (http://www. ^ see video (http://www. ^ Coll. Palgrave Macmillan.newstatesman. Peter (2011). 310. 2011.org/reports98/afghan/Afrepor0-03. 16 November 1995.hrw. 37.com/massacre. 35. IRBC. 322. month by month. ^ Tomsen.pdf).

2007.sc6739. Retrieved 2012-11-19. 55. 2006 64.)."Tomsen. p. ^ Steve Coll. 72. 67.doc. 73. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (1 March 2009 ed. 67 60.google. p.htm). ^ "Inside the Taliban" (http://www.nytimes. Jean-Pierre and Ghazaleh. . 65. Gwu.com/episode/inside-the-taliban-3274/Overview). Wars of Afghanistan. 720.pdf).org/reports/2001/afghan2/Afghan0701-02.telegraph. The New York Times (Afghanistan). 76. London: Ahmed Rashid in the Telegraph.guardian. ISBN 978-1-58648-763-8. The Guardian (London). 2004. 66 59.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/AAEC001272/council-ofafghan-opposition?popup=1).foxnews. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA. 2000. Making sense of suicide missions. Retrieved 27 August 2010.com/watch?v=t78N6Q5VD60). Webster University Press. p.uk/world/2004/mar/24/september11. John F. north-south divide. ^ a b "9 Years Later. and Karzai. ISBN 978-0-19-929797-9. 15 October 1999.gwu. 2001.). 11 September 2001. Haq.gov/report/911Report. Steve (2004). ^ Keppel.youtube.com/2002/09/09/world/threats-responses-assassination-afghans-toomark-day-disaster-hero-was-lost. p.corbisimages. "Al Qaeda. U. ^ Marcela Grad. Killing the Cranes: A Reporter's Journey Through Three Decades of War in Afghanistan (3 August 2011 ed.edu.hrw..com/politics/2010/09/09/report-responders-died-ground-zero-illnesses/). 56. ^ a b Coll. Penguin Press HC. ^ "Taliban Foe Hurt and Aide Killed by Bomb" (http://www.html). Nearly 900 9/11 Responders Have Died.org/News/Press/docs/1999/19991015. 66.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB97/tal32. Peter (2011).un. 11 September 2001". ^ 9/11 Commission Report (http://www.com/b ooks?id=ToYxFL5wmBIC).com/2001/09/10/world/taliban-foe-hurt-and-aidekilled-by-bomb. and Bin Laden. The New York Times (Afghanistan). Milelli. Afghanistan. Congressman Dana Rohrabacher. FOX News. 68. National Geographic Society. 69. Webster University Press. 2001 (2004 ed. "THREATS AND RESPONSES: ASSASSINATION. ^ Senior diplomat and Afghanistan expert Peter Tomsen wrote: "The ‘Lion of Kabul’ [Abdul Haq] and the ‘Lion of Panjshir’ [Ahmad Shah Massoud] . Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59420-007-6. James. 58. 2001.pdf).youtube. p. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA.S. Afghans. ^ Edward Girardet. Al Qaeda in its own words. ^ Rashid 2000. ^ "Security Council demands that Taliban turn over Osama bin Laden to appropriate authorities" (http://www. Too. United Nations. Afghanistan. ^ 9/11 Commission Report (http://www.html). Retrieved 12 September 2010.house. Harvard University Press. ^ a b c "9/11 Represented a Dramatic Failure of Policy and People" (http://rohrabacher. p. State of War: The Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration. ^ Risen. 77. ^ "Pakistan's support of the taliban" (http://www. Retrieved 27 August 2010. Survivors Fight for Compensation" (http://www. (9 September 2002).co. 70. National Geographic. 78. 71. 75.). p. ^ Julian Borger (24 March 2004). Afghanistan’s three leading moderates. 63.. 566. Corbis. Mark a Day of Disaster: A Hero Was Lost" (http://www. In Diego Gambetta. ^ "Council of Afghan opposition" (http://www.gov/911-representeddramatic-failure-policy-and-people). Pascale (2008).9-11commission. 416. 11 September 2010. ^ Burns.usa2). ^ "Inside the Taliban" (http://channel.com/watch?v=xpQI6HKV-ZY&feature=related).html). p. and Bin Laden. Massoud. Penguin Press. 2007. 2001. PublicAffairs.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/1340244/Afghanistan-resistance-leader-feared-dead-inblast.gov/report/911Report. ^ "Defense Intelligence Agency" (http://www. 61.pdf). 10 September 2001. from the Soviet Invasion to Septemb er 10.(http://www. 74. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (1 March 2009 ed.9-11commission. from the Soviet Invasion to 10 Septemb er 2001 (http://b ooks.nytimes. Oxford University Press. ^ Marcela Grad. "Bush team 'agreed plan to attack the Taliban the day before September 11'" (http://www. 310. Human Rights Watch. 62.html).co. Gilles. ^ a b c "Massoud in the European Parliament 2001" (http://www. Stephen (2006). ISBN 978-0-674-02804-3. EU media. ^ Holmes. 91 57. could transcend the Pashtun—non-Pashtun. 65.nationalgeographic.).

uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/1358464/Patrick) 2001-10-04 . attacks" CNN (http://edition. World.com/2001/WORLD/europe/09/11/trade.reaction/) 200109-11 80. 2001. "U. "Deputy Secretary Armitage-Mamoud Phone Call – September 18.S.telegraph.washingtonpost.au/international/2001-09-13/afghanistans-militia-may-consider-extradition-ofbinladen/547054) 2001-09-13 82. Top Secret/Close Hold" Document 13. Secret" Document 11.html) 2001-09-22 91. Confidential.pbs.centre." September 30. Department of State.nytimes. U. ^ a b c d e f g John F. Embassy (Islamabad).com International . ^ "Afghanistan's militia may "consider" extradition of bin-Laden" Radio Australia (http://www. 2008.latimes.S. The National Security Archive (http://www. Archives. Retrieved on 2013-10-29. Cable.binladen.com/wpsrv/nation/specials/attacked/transcripts/bushaddress_092001. Business.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB358a/) Accessed 201304-26 96.S.org/newshour/updates/terrorism/july-dec01/bush_speech_9-12. "Strategic Thoughts. 2001.S.S. "A NATION CHALLENGED: THE TALIBAN. 2001.cnn. Cable.com. ^ "Specials Attacked Transcripts: Bush Address" (http://www. 2001.com/2001/US/09/16/inv. ^ "Full text of President Bush's public remarks during a Cabinet meeting Wednesday. 88. Cable. Burns.com/usama_interview_ummat.gwu. No!' and Invoke Fates of Past Foes" (http://www. (http://www.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB358a/) Accessed 2013-04-26 95.denial/) 200101-17 83. Memorandum for the President.robert-fisk. Retrieved June 14. ^ a b Bishop. ^ CNN. No. 2001. Clerics Answer 'No.0500/index. 2001" PBS Newshour (http://www. ^ "World shock over U. Archived from the original (http://www.capecodonline. Sept.gwu.com/2001/sep/21/news/mn-48175) 2001-0921 90.cnn. ^ "Usama bin Laden Says the Al-Qa'idah Group had Nothing to Do with the September 11 Attacks" (http://web.co.html).gwu.attack/) 2001-09-20 85.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/central/09/17/afghan. 23.S. evidence against bin Laden" Houston Chron.gwu. "Mahmud Plans 2nd Mission to Afghanistan" September 24.radioaustralia.html) 92.org/web/20080516041810/http://www. Retrieved 2012-11-19. The Washington Post. ^ "Text: NBC's 'Meet the Press' With Tim Russert" Sept. Gameplan for Polmil Strategy for Pakistan and Afghanistan.cnn.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB358a/) Accessed 2013-04-26 97. "Mahmud on Failed Kandahar Trip" September 29.cnn.com/usama_interview_ummat. Sports. 84.pakistan. 12. The National Security Archive (http://www. dismisses the move" (http://articles.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB358a/) Accessed 2013-04-26 87.Breaking. Department of State. The National Security Archive (http://www. 2 pp.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB358a/) Accessed 2013-04-26 86. Secret/NODIS" Document 6. ^ "Bin Laden says he wasn't behind attacks" CNN (http://archives. The National Security Archive (http://www. Confidential" Document 12.robert-fisk.htm) on May 16. Ummat Karachi.america.washingtonpost. The National Security Archive (http://www. Entertainment and Video News (http://archives.html). Embassy (Islamabad). 2001." September 18.uk/world/2001/sep/20/afghanistan." September 14.gwu. ^ "U.cnn. Department of State. "Pakistan-blocks-bin-Laden-trial. Document 9. Cable.co.S.AFTER THE ATTACK Policy: Religious council's edict is applauded in the region. ^ U. ^ Bush: 'Justice will be done' (http://archives. ^ a b U.under.S. ^ Dudley Altus. ^ a b " The Taliban clerics' statement on Bin Laden" Guardian (http://www. ^ Tyler Marshall.html Pakistan blocks bin Laden trial" The Telegraph (http://www. ^ a b c U.79.com/2001/US/09/20/gen. "Afghan Clerics Urge Bin Laden to Go -.september115) 2001-09-20 89.com/2001/09/22/world/nation-challenged-taliban-clerics-answer-no-no-no-invoke-fatespast-foes. 2008.net. 94.archive. ^ a b "The Office of the Secretary of Defense.com/wpsrv/nation/specials/attacked/transcripts/nbctext092301.dll/article?AID=/20011005/NEWS01/310059920&cid=sitesearch) 2001-1005 93. 2001 (http://www.com/apps/pbcs. "Pakistan satisfied with U.guardian.html) 2001-09-12 81.htm).

^ Rory McCarthy.stm).whywar. "New offer on Bin Laden" (http://www.law. Ghost Wars 118. "12 .chron. 2005 116.html) 2001-10-03 99. European Journal of International Law.html). Stephen (2002)." October.+the+U. News. "Diplomats Met With Taliban on Bin Laden:Some Contend U.sfgate. ^ Shireen M.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N01/708/55/PDF/N0170855. "NATO. 7 October 2001.guardian. CNN. ^ Gary Schroen.S.nytimes. ^ a b c d Tanner. Retrieved 2 October 2008.edu/forum/forumnew36.cnn. ^ " U. ^ "Taliban 'will try bin Laden if US provides evidence'" (http://www.Times (http://www. ^ "australianpolitics. Retrieved 14 June 2012.co. accuses Taliban of betrayal (http://www.co.reuters. Ex-Chief Prosecutor Joins Defense" (http://www.un.html). Huffington Post.#v=onepage&q&f=false).co.html). 119. 2001.un.cnn.com/disp/story.S. ^ a b c Professor Marjorie Cohn (6 November 2001). Over bin Laden" N. ^ a b c d Douglas Frantz.co.html).pitt. 106.php) 2001-10-03 100.bbc.com/? id=8BVIKsDbdKYC&pg=PA300&lpg=PA300&dq=Afghanistan:+A+Military+History+Having+begun+the+war+with+the+gre atest+imaginable+reservoir+of+moral+authority. rejects Taliban offer to try bin Laden" CNN (http://archives. Guardian. The National Security Archive (http://www.australianpolitics.terrorism11).pentagon/).S.co. ^ Associated Press. Houston Chronicle.uk/1/hi/world/americas/7470405.S.(http://www. Retrieved 17 July 2012. "A Nation Challenged: The Afghans. ^ David B.uk. ^ "Ods Home Page" (http://daccessdds.com (http://www. Retrieved 17 July 2012.+was+on+the+verge+of+letting+it+slip+away+through+highlevel+attacks+using+the+most+ghastly+inventions+its+scientists+could+come+up+with.taliban/) 2001-10-07 102. Jurist. "New offer on Bin Laden" (http://www.mpl/special/terror/front/1136330.org/au/journals/MelbJIL/2003/3. Al-Qa'ida member recalls US bombardment.org. ^ "Security Council Resolutions 1368 (2001) and 1373 (2001): What They Say and What They Do Not Say" (http://austlii.Ottaway & Joe Stephens.com/saved%20pages/Prior_Knowledge/US_met_taliban. Taliban Say They Want to Negotiate With the U. "Blair warns Taliban / Tough talk from Britain's leader makes attack look likely soon" SFGate.com" (http://archives.bbc.guardian. Afghanistan and the Region" (http://www.terrorism). Mazari (2008).The Americans" (http://books.ips.com/article/2007/11/29/ukbinladen-europe-idUKL2912911920071129?pageNumber=2&virtualBrandChannel=0) 2007-11-29 108. Institute of Policy Studies.gwu.htm) 2001-10-29 107. Retrieved 27 September 2007. Missed Its Chance" Wash. 24 June 2008<!. Retrieved 2 October 2008. ^ Firouz Sedarat.com/news/2003/10/29/alqaidam. ^ Coll (2004). Department of State. ^ World News Connection. ^ "archives.huffingtonpost. Jawb reaker 117.com" (http://www.pk/the-muslim-world/1052-natoafghanistan-and-the-region.terrorism5) 2001-10-14 104.com/news/article/Blair-warns-Taliban-Tough-talk-from-Britain-s-2872139.cnn.pdf?OpenElement). 112. "Bombing of Afghanistan Is Illegal and Must Be Stopped" (http://jurist.guardian.uk/world/2001/oct/17/afghanistan.com/2001/10/03/world/nation-challenged-afghans-taliban-say-they-wantnegotiate-with-us-over-bin-laden.shtml).telegraph. 28 March 2008.uk/world/2001/oct/17/afghanistan.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB358a/) Accessed 2013-04-26 103. "Message to Taliban.guardian. "Bin Laden urges Europe to quit Afghanistan" Reuters (http://uk.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/1358464/Patrick) 2001-10-04 98. First In: An Insider's Account of How the CIA Spearheaded the War on Terror in Afghanistan. ^ Berntsen and Pezzulla (2005). 110.htm). Post (http://www.html).org. Retrieved 2 October 2008.com/news/2001/01-10-07.com/2001/US/10/07/ret.us. Guardian. 114. 109. Retrieved 27 September 2007. 101. 113. 17 November 2001 121. "Taliban confirms death of Osama bin Laden's military chief in US strike" (http://www. ^ "Court rules on Guantanamo inmate" (http://news. ^ "U.uk/world/2001/oct/05/afghanistan. ^ Rory McCarthy in Islamabad. Secret/Nodis/Eyes Only" Document 16. ^ "Bush rejects Taliban offer to hand Bin Laden over" Guardian (http://www.co.com/2001/US/10/07/ret.Y. 115.attack. ^ a b Edward Epstein. ^ "Andy Worthington: Guantanamo's Shambolic Trials: Pentagon Boss Resigns. . Retrieved 2012-11-19.google.infowars.– 10:26 UK -->. Cable.uk/world/2001/oct/14/afghanistan.co. 29 October 2003 120.terrorism11) 200110-16 105.com/andy-worthington/guantanamos-shambolic-tr_b_88719. Daccessdds. 111.S.

"Inside Tora Bora: The Final Hours?" (http://www. Danger Close.asp?cp1=1). In War We Trust. ^ "msnbc. Sean M. Retrieved 27 September 2007. Spring 2004 135. 145. James. Josh.183885.com" (http://www.com/news/664935. ^ Clandestine Radio Watch.foreignaffairs.world. United Nations. 124.htm). Taliban: Key city has fallen (http://www. ^ The Guardian.ca/world/story/2001/11/07/mazar011107. Retrieved 2 August 2011. ^ Tyrangiel. ISBN 1585446246247. 150 139. 1 June 2002 130. ^ Maloney.org/News/Press/docs/2001/sc7212.html). Time. Paul.com/2001/11/10/top2. The Battle for Mazar-i-Sharif (http://query. ^ "UN Security Council resolution 1378 (2001)" (http://www. .cbc. pp. Retrieved 27 September 2007.army. ^ "Fronlines". ^ "Leadership: General Joseph F. Afghanistan: From here to eternity? (http://www. 148. 26 November 2001. Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the War against the Talib an (2009 ed. 134.time.msnbc. 4 November 2009. "Afghanistan: Seizure of Kabul Catches World by Surprise" (http://insnews. 146.doc. 122. ^ Wolfowitz.org/world/focus/1101/kabul. George.com/stories/111001/ter_cityfall.NewYorker. 7 November 2001.S. "The Liberation of Mazar e Sharif: 5th SF group conducts UW in Afghanistan".mil/speeches/speech. 10 November 2001 136. 128. 126. jets hit suspected bin Laden camp". 147. Alexandra.govexec. "Our Man in Kabul" (http://www. Steve.htm) INS News.pdf). ^ Poolos. "Taking a spin in Tora Bora". Dunford. 24–25 132.html) Time Magazine 16 December 2001 144. 149.1001390-1.terrorism1). Dawn. Fox News Channel.00. 125. "Inside the Battle at Qala-i-Jangi" (http://www. United States of America: Da Capo Press. Mazar falls to Alliance: Taliban says they're regrouping (http://www.shtml).mil/au/awc/awcgate/ssi/crane_hydra. Retrieved 27 September 2007.schoechi. "Rebels: Mazar-i-Sharif is Ours" (http://www.co.mil/professionalwriting/volumes/volume2/october_2004/10_04_1.level+attacks+using+the+most+ghastly+inventions+its+scientists+could+come+up+with.cjonline.nato. ^ Khan.time. Retrieved 2 August 2011.188521. 15 December 2002 129. Asia Times. Building a Presence (http://www. Ismail. ^ Dobbins. Retrieved 10 February 2013. BBC News.com/fact/content/articles/020128fa_FACT).com/features/1202/1202s4. ^ Dolan. 7 November 2001 141. ^ Logo of ISAF. Chris J. Canada: CBC. Retrieved 2 August 2011. ^ "Kunduz celebrates end of siege" (http://news. ^ "New Yorker.bbc. Mazar-e Sharif. Retrieved 9 April 2007.html). "Waging a Deadly Stalemate on Afghanistan's Front Line".00.#v=onepage&q&f=false).9171. Retrieved 13 April 2012. Afghan Balkh radio from Balkh Province. "Massive American Bombing on Taliban Front Lines".nytimes.time. Massachusetts. 2 August 2002 131. ^ Special Warfare Journal.int/about-isaf/leadership/general-joseph-f. inDari 10. New York Times. p.. p.com/time/nation/article/0. ^ a b c d Karon. ^ a b "U.com/articles/65669/james-dobbins/our-man-in-kabul? page=show) Foreign Affairs.de/crw/crw088e. ^ a b Call. 15 October 2001.html) 140.com/time/nation/article/0. ^ a b New York Times.com" (http://www. Time Magazine.reaction. Tony (9 November 2001). 1 November (via BBCM via DXLD 1–169) (http://www. ISBN 978-0-306-81826-4. ^ Topeka Capital Journal.com/gst/fullpage. Taliban lose grip on Mazar i Sharif (http://www.af.html? res=9A00E4D61438F933A25752C1A9679C8B63&n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/Subjects/F/Food). Speech on 14 November 2001 (http://www. 2005. ^ Crane.report1.).au.aspx?speechid=497) 133.uk/world/2001/nov/07/afghanistan.com/time/magazine/article/0. 10 November 2001 137.html).defenselink. Cambridge.co. 300. Colby Free Press.-dunfordjr.htm). 13 November 2001 143.00.8599. Facing the Hydra: Maintaining Strategic Balance while Pursuing a Global War Against Terrorism (http://www.isaf. M. ^ a b "Opposition troops closing in on Mazari Sharif" (http://www.stm). 10 November 2001 127.htm). ^ Pepe Escobar (7 December 2001). 123. May 2002 138. ^ Cahlink.guardian. 150.html). ^ a b Refet Kaplan (5 November 2001). Conrad. ^ Alex Perry (8 April 2007). ^ a b David Rohde (28 October 2001).8599. 142.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1677157.html).dawn. Pashto writing: ‫( ﮐﻤﮏ او ھﻤﮑﺎری‬Komak aw Hamkari) meaning "Help and Cooperation". Jr" (http://www.un.

htm). New York Times. CNN. CNN.stm).jr. ^ "mod.bbc.html –) 152.cnn.org" (http://www. Retrieved 27 September 2007. ^ "centcom.co. 159.int" (http://web.mod.nato. Retrieved 27 September 2007. BBC News.S.S. ^ "Operation Anaconda entering second week" (http://archives.com/2003/0627/p06s01wosc.archive. 153. 171.org/news/2003/02/14/16788-1.int/ISAF/index.int/ISAF/index. Retrieved 27 September 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2007.html). Retrieved 27 September 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2007. 165. BBC News. remains on trail of bin Laden.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4983540. Retrieved 28 February 2007. BBC News.stm). ^ "Taleban vow to defeat UK troops" (http://news.war.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/DefencePolicyAndBusiness/1400ExtraUkTroopsToDeployToAfghani stan.mod.mil/sites/uscentcom1/CoalitionPages/Denmark.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/MarinesClearTalibanFromKeyAfghanDamvideo. 4 March 2002. Retrieved 27 September 2007.centcom.html). ^ Tohid. Retrieved 28 February 2007. Nato. 160.facts/index. htm). ^ International Security Assistance Force Factsheet (http://www.htm).uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/BritishAndAfghanTroopsLaunchOperationSilicon.cnn.csmonitor.nato.int/isaf/topics/chronology/index.co. Retrieved 27 September 2007.html?related).htm). Carlotta (13 November 2004). "Taliban appears to be regrouped and well-funded" (http://www.com/2003/0508/p01s02-wosc.htm). 161. ^ Gall. 170. Scott (8 May 2003). ^ "mod. Retrieved 28 February 2007. Archived from the original (http://www.mod.html). Retrieved 27 September 2007.csmonitor.com/2002/US/03/08/ret.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/central/03/04/ret.int/isaf/docu/epub/pdf/index.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5057154. ^ "Canada set for longer Afghan stay" (http://news. ^ a b "ISAF Chronology" (http://www. 8 March 2002. "Taliban regroups – on the road" (http://www.org/web/20070811211200/http://www.globalsecurity.htm).org/web/20080107125509/http://www.co. Christian Science Monitor.html).afnorth.php?F=1221120&C=landwar).afnorth. lives" (http://archives. Retrieved 28 February 2007.centcom.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4984880. Retrieved 27 September 2007. 158. ^ "mod.defensenews. .stm).whereabouts/index. 151. ^ "U. 154.com/story. Owias and Baldauf. 162. ^ "Operation Anaconda costs 8 U. 164. 156. Retrieved 27 September 2007.html).mod.archive. 1 May 2006.intellnet.fighting/index. ^ "Leaflet War Rages in Afghan Countryside" (http://www.bbc.uk" (http://www.nato.org/military/library/news/2003/02/mil-030211-afps01.cnn. ^ "UK troops take over Afghan duties" (http://news.co. 157. Retrieved 27 September 2007.bbc. 8 May 2006.uk" (http://www. 163.mil/sites/uscentcom1/CoalitionPages/Denmark.htm) on 7 January 2008. 155.html). 168. ^ "globalsecurity.mil" (http://web.uk/DefenceInternet/FactSheets/OperationsFactsheets/OperationsInAfghanistanBritishForces. ^ "afnorth.stm).nato. 167.html?res=9F05E5DB173FF930A25752C1A9629C8B63).html). ^ "defensenews.bbc. Christian Science Monitor. Owias (27 June 2003).nato.htm) on 11 August 2007. BBC News. CNN.afghan. Retrieved 27 September 2007.ht m). Retrieved 28 February 2007. 169.osama. ^ "Australia outlines Afghan force" (http://news.com/gst/fullpage. 166.uk" (http://www. "Asia: Afghanistan: Taliban Leader Vows Return" (http://query. Archived from the original (http://www.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4961368. ^ "mod. Retrieved 2 August 2011.uk" (http://www. Retrieved 10 February 2013. Associated Press. Taliban leader" (http://archives.nytimes.com/2002/US/03/14/ret. 7 June 2006.int. 16 May 2006. ^ a b c Tohid. 14 February 2003.com" (http://www. 14 March 2002.

12 December 2008" .co.com/wpdyn/content/article/2007/03/23/AR2007032301721. Marine unit killed Afghan civilians" (http://www. Retrieved 1 December 2011.stm).stm). 7 December 2008" (http://edition. Retrieved 17 July 2012. Research Services Report for Congress.html). Retrieved 2 October 2008.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7075659.stm). 9 June 2008. "Obama Shifts the Foreign Policy Debate" (http://www. BBC News.bbc. ^ "Pakistan fury over 'US assault'" (http://news.cnn. ^ a b "Police: Militants destroy NATO trucks. Retrieved 9 December 2007.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22633. Retrieved 1 December 2011.washingtonpost. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 30 October 2007.usa) Retrieved on 1 October 2008 183.pdf) (PDF).violence/). ^ US deaths in Afghanistan makes 2008 deadliest year (http://washingtontimes. 187.co.html? nav=hcmodule&sid=ST2008072203343&pos=).co. News. ^ Pakistan reacts with fury after up to 20 die in 'American' attack on its soil (http://www.uk.000 troops from Iraq' The Guardian. CBC News.stm). Last Updated:. Retrieved 6 January 2010. CNN.S. 185. BBC News. 182.guardian. ^ nytimes.S.bbc. The New York Times. ".co. Retrieved 9 April 2010.co.bbc.uk/world/2008/sep/04/pakistan) The Guardian Retrieved on 12 September 2008 189. ^ "Marines' Actions in Afghanistan Called Excessive" (http://www.stm). Retrieved 2 August 2011. ^ "6 U.co. ^ "Battle 'kills dozens of Taleban'" (http://news.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7065984.mod. "Foreign Fighters of Harsher Bent Bolster Taliban". CNN.bbc.Retrieved 27 September 2007.co. David. 10 November 2007. ^ "Pentagon inquiry finds U.co.S. 'Bush announces withdrawal of 8. ^ "Marine Unit Is Told To Leave Afghanistan" (http://www.com/2007/0416/p99s01duts.nato. BBC News.bbc.cbc. p. 184. BBC News. Retrieved 9 November 2007. ^ ""Time is now right" for retaking Musa Qaleh – Browne" (http://www. 178.com (http://www. 4 September 2008.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7597529. Last Updated:. 174.html).stm). ^ "U.ca/world/story/2008/06/13/afghanistanprison. Jonathan Weisman (23 July 2008).com/2007/10/30/world/asia/30afghan. A08. 176.csmonitor.cnn. CNN. 14 June 2008.UK troops in huge turbine mission – BBC – 2 September 2008" (http://news. ^ "Insurgent attack frees hundreds from Kandahar prison" (http://www. 172. Washington Post.bbc.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/22/AR2008072202942_2. ^ Leithead.co. 19 August 2008.co. 179. Retrieved 29 July 2008.uk/1/hi/uk/7593901. ^ "Afghan forces 'kill top militant'" (http://news. ^ "Brown in tribute to Afghan dead" (http://news.html). 188. 173.bbc. Alastair (2 September 2008). troops die in Afghan ambush" (http://www.clashes/index. The New York Times. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 190.nytimes.com/2007/04/15/world/Asia/15afghan. Forces in Afghanistan" (http://fas.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/7456551. 177.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7443331. Retrieved 2 October 2008.asp?Id=17051) Retrieved on 12 September 2008 191.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/timeIsNowRightForRetakingMusaQalehBrowne. ^ Karen DeYoung.html? n=Top/News/World/Countries%20and%20Territories/Pakistan) Rodhde. 7 December 2008. 193. ^ The Guardian. ^ "Extra UK troops for Afghanistan" (http://news. [1] (http://www. 16 June 2008. News.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/12/07/pakistan.html? pagewanted=2&_r=1). Defence News.uk.washingtonpost.stm). ^ "Militant attack burns NATO supply containers.co.thenews.pk/top_story_detail. 175. 186. 181. 24 March 2007.com/news/2008/sep/11/us-deaths-inafghanistan-makes-2008-deadliest-year/) Washington Times Retrieved on 14 September 2008 192. BBC News.com. British Ministry of Defence. 7 December 2007.bbc.bbc.Afghan ambush kills French troops – 19 August 2008" (http://news.com.guardian.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7569942. ^ ". Cnn.nytimes.uk/world/2008/sep/09/iraq. The Washington Post. ^ Pakistan cuts supply lines to Nato forces (http://www. Retrieved 2 August 2011.html). 180. Zein Basravi.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/11/10/afghanistan.ht m).

timesonline. Retrieved 2 October 2008.nytimes.nytimes. Archived from the original (http://articles. BBC News.com/Top_News/Special/2010/02/18/Pakistani-militaryoutpacing-coalition/UPI-21281266506747/). UPI. BBC News. 209.economist. 208. ^ Baker. ^ "Ambassador Explores Commercial Developments in Navoi" (http://uzbekistan.gov/pe051309.co. Student Pulse. 12 December 2008 (http://www. Retrieved 1 December 2011. ^ "Pakistani military outpacing coalition?" (http://www. CNN. The New York Times (Khyber Pass. a NATO Supply Line Is Choked. The Economist. ^ Nic Robertson.Peshawar (Pakistan).cnn.Khyber Pass. Retrieved 5 December 2011.org/departments/insightb/articles/eav051109a.msn.cfm? story_id=13240686). CNN. ^ Tynan. The New York Times (Afghanistan. ^ "Pakistan: Shoot GIs on cross-border raids – Pakistan – MSNBC. Taliban surpasses al-Qaeda" (http://www.Pakistan. ISN Security Watch.shtml).uk/tol/news/world/asia/article5327683. Richard Oppel. John CK (27 May 2009).stm).shtml).nato/).bbc.com.webcitation. 197.studentpulse. Retrieved 1 December 2011. ^ "US Ambassador Norland Promises to Increase Cooperation with Tashkent" (http://www.html?_r=1&hp). ^ a b Daly. 210. 4 June 2009.stm).com/2009/01/21/world/asia/21pstan. 194. 5 March 2009.saudi.bbc. 213.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/12/12/pakistan. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 18 February 2010. seek peace" (http://edition.com/id/26735196/). 211. CNN. ^ a b "To Afghanistan.193. 203.isn. 202.org/departments/news/articles/eav031809d. Win in Afghanistan?" (http://www. ^ a b "Police: Militants destroy NATO trucks. Deirdre (11 May 2009). Msnbc. Retrieved 2 August 2011. Richard A.html). 18 March 2009. 205. U.msn.org/63iEkFhnQ). Salman Masood.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/10/06/afghan.nytimes.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7611721. 12 December 2008" (http://edition. Retrieved 6 April 2010.org/departments/news/articles/eav060409a. "U. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 200. ^ "Pakistan fires on Nato aircraft" (http://news. 201.com/2011-11-29/asia/world_asia_afghanistan-military-railroad_1_pakistani-routesfreight-trains-roll-afghanistan?_s=PM:ASIA) on 5 December 2011. New York Times.S.com/articles/3/can-the-uswin-the-war-in-afghanistan). to Fly Arms to Afghanistan" (http://www.html).eurasianet. 11 December 2008. CNN Senior International Correspondent. EurasiaNet. ^ "Attacks expose weakness of key Afghanistan supply route. 207.co. 212.washingtonpost.upi. "Russia Opens Route for U.S.S. "Sources: Taliban split with al Qaeda. Joshua. "Amid Taliban Rule.shtml).nytimes.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/11/10/AR2009111019644.cnn.html).msnbc.Pakistan.violence. "Second-Chance Logistics" (http://www.google. 25 September 2008. ^ Taliban Hits NATO Supply Route. Peter (3 July 2009). "Can the U. ^ "'Another US strike' hits Pakistan" (http://news. Google. 206.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jheCBRSIqJ3lvfPFgDsCsdwNVqbA). 196. Richard A.com/world/asia/displaystory.ethz.com/2009/02/04/world/asia/04pstan. ^ Partlow. (20 January 2009).co.ece) 195. ^ Oppel.S. CNN. 24 December 2008" (http://www.com/2008/12/25/world/asia/25khyber. 199. on the slow train" (http://www. ^ "Afghanistan's northern neighbours: Road blocks" (http://www. In Afghanistan.eurasianet.ch/isn/Current-Affairs/SecurityWatch/Detail/?ots591=4888CAA0-B3DB-1461-98B9-E20E7B9C13D4&lng=en&id=100609). EurasiaNet.html) 11 November 2009 204. ^ Oppel.Afghanistan). 29 November 2011. 12 September 2008.Russia). 13 May 2009.html) 198.talks/?iref=mpstoryview). "Karimov Gives Washington the Air Base it Needs for Afghan Operations" (http://www.eurasianet. ^ Turin. Retrieved 2 August 2011.usembassy.com (United Press International). 12 December 2008. Zein Basravi. 16 September 2008. secures new supply routes to Afghanistan" (http://www. Retrieved 9 February 2010. The Times. NYT 3 February 2009 (http://www. Embassy in Uzbekistan. Retrieved 22 November 2009. ^ "Northern Distribution Network Delivers" (http://www.cnn. (24 December 2008). ^ a b Taleban tax: allied supply convoys pay their enemies. EurasiaNet. . AFP" (http://www.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7635893. NYT.com" (http://www. Dustin (23 March 2009).com/2009/07/04/world/europe/04russia.

CNN. ^ a b c d Chandrasekaran.000 for Civilian Bombing Victims" (http://www.Edition2.dallasnews.html) 224.nydailynews.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/11/AR2009111118432_2. 221.net/text/news.html) New York Daily News 2 July 2009 228. "Staying Power: The U.htm?csp=34). intelligence briefing: Taliban increasingly effective" (http://www.chicagotribune. Retrieved 27 May 2010. Wilson.washingtonpost.defensestudies. 230. ^ O'Hanlon.html).blogs. 215.pdf) (PDF).blogs.htm). Marines launch Operation Khanjar – largest military offensive since 2004 battle of Fallujah" (http://www.aspx). DeYoung. "U. Retrieved 9 February 2010. ^ a. 217. ^ Matthias Gebauer (6 August 2010). Amanpour. The Washington Post.710439. Retrieved 9 February 2010.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/isaf-state-of-the-insurgency-231000-dec. ^ "Slide 1" (http://www.org/content/matthew_bryza_azerbaijan_us_ambassador_washington_armenia/24437637.brookings.edu/articles/2010/0825_afghanistan_ohanlon.com/articles/ap/2009/02/17/america/NA-USAfghanistan.story?track=rss).html).cnn. Retrieved 9 February 2010.com/sharedcontent/dws/news/nation/stories/DNafghanlbj_06met. Karen (15 January 2007).washingtonpost. Michael E. 5 February 2010.mod. Retrieved 2 August 2011. Ambassador To Azerbaijan Leaving Post" (http://www.S. 220. ^ Page. envoy resists troop increase. Rajiv (2 July 2009).com/2010/WORLD/asiapcf/01/25/afghanistan. ^ "Obama OKs 17. "Obama's Afghanistan decision evokes LBJ's 1965 order on Vietnam buildup" (http://www.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/3ScotsLaunchMassiveAirAssault. UK Ministry of Defence.com/news/nationworld/sns-ap-as-afghan-surge-begins. ^ "Tom Andrews: Classified McChrystal Report: 500.1518.ART. 222. "Germany to Pay $500.html?iref=allsearch).com/news/national/2009/07/02/2009-0702_us_military_launches_operation_khanjar__largest_military_offensive_since_. Rajiv. 223. Susan (16 February 2009). ^ Newest US troops in Afghanistan seeing combat in dangerous region south of Kabul (16 February 2009).asp?idnews=49701). ^ "Anti-war Leaders Blast Escalation of Afghanistan War" (http://www.00. "Obama OKs adding Afghanistan forces" (http://www. Ipsnews.com/news/world/2009-02-17-afghanistan-forces_N. 231. "U. Retrieved 9 February 2010.taliban/index.php). Stephanie. 24 September 2009. 216.com/tom-andrews/classified-mcchrystal-rep_b_298528.org/2009/12/1/anti-war-leadersblast-escalation-afghanistan-war).com. ^ "3 SCOTS launch massive air assault" (http://www. ^ By Peter Bergen. 218. Retrieved 2 July 2009. BBC News. ^ Gaskell. Retrieved 9 August 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2012.html? hpid=topnews&sid=ST2009111201583). USA Today.S. 29 March 2009. .html). ^ Richard Solash (29 December 2011). 225.S.cnn. Mission in Afghanistan Beyond 2011" (http://www. 226.Embassy in Uzbekistan. "U.0. 23 June 2009 229. "Newest US troops in Afghanistan seeing combat in dangerous region south of Kabul" (http://ww. The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 9 February 2010.fightbacknews.State. Greg.000 Troops Will Be Required Over Five Years in Afghanistan" (http://www.cnn. cites Karzai as problem" (http://www. International Herald Trib une. ^ Jaffe.usatoday.S.2351712.iht.4ba1fa7. 214. 1 December 2009. Fight Back! News.net. "Marines Deploy on Major Mission" (http://www. Der Spiegel.washingtonpost. ^ "IPS Inter Press Service" (http://ipsnews. ^ "UK forces in major Afghan assault". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 232.S. CNN National Security Analyst (25 January 2010). Huffington Post. "U.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/07/01/AR2009070103202_pf. September/October 2010. ^ "Amanpour: Blog Archive – Right after interviewing Karzai" (http://amanpour. Chicago Trib une.com/2009/12/06/right-afterinterviewing-karzai/).000 more US troops for Afghanistan" (http://www.com/wpdyn/content/story/2009/07/11/ST2009071102862. "A Fight for Ordinary Peace" (http://www. ^ Chandrasekaran. 219.o.huffingtonpost. Retrieved 9 February 2010.html?sid=ST2009071102862) Washington Post 12 July 2009 227. The Washington Post.de/international/germany/0. 13 May 2009. Scott.spiegel.rferl.html).

22 August 2009 238.com. USA Today.S.bloomberg. 249. 25 March 2010.upi. "U.com/article/SB124986154654218153. ^ Salahuddin.reuters.blogs.latimes. 240. 242. UPI.233. 245.aljazeera. "CIA expanding presence in Afghanistan" (http://www. but not free: EU" (http://www. Tom.cn/90001/90777/90851/6894010. 254. ^ a b Eric Schmitt (26 December 2010).html) AlJazeera. 239.S. 27 July 2007 234. 253. ^ Tony Capaccio (31 January 2011). "Taliban Fighters Appear Blunted in Afghanistan" (http://www. ^ "Karzai holds peace talks with insurgents" (http://tvnz. USA Today.S. Retrieved 6 April 2010. 7 April 2011. "Losses In Pakistani Haven Strain Afghan Taliban". Retrieved 28 July 2010. ^ Miller. ^ Perry.S.com/news/2011-01-31/u-s-said-to-reduce-civilian-deaths-after-increasing-cia-pakistanstrikes. Carlotta. People's Daily Online. troops ambushed" (http://www.html). Retrieved 6 April 2010.aljazeera. New York Times. 246.html).net/news/asia/2009/08/200982485130209178.wsj. Said to Reduce Civilian Deaths After Increasing CIA Pakistan Strikes" (http://www.uk/world/2010/jul/26/us-battle-hearts-minds-afghanistan). 11 August 2009 235. TVNZ. ^ Adam Levine (15 October 2010). The New York Times (Washington).html).co. 18 November 2009. Los Angeles Times. 248.story?page=2). "Afghan leader sees peaceful poll. 247. "What the numbers say about progress in Afghanistan" . Xinhua. 6."Taliban Now Winning" (http://online. 243. Sayed and Tait.peopledaily. ^ Vanden Brook. Retrieved 3 February 2011. ^ Gall. Security Advisor. Paul.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-afghan-intel20-2009sep20.net.aljazeera. p.com/article/topNews/idUSTRE57E0D620090822) Reuters. ^ "Voters targeted after Afghan polls" (http://english. Peter.htm). "An Uncharacteristically Upbeat General in Afghanistan" (http://atwar. p.html?_r=2&ref=world). Retrieved 17 July 2012. ^ Dreazen. Pakistani president discuss fight against militancy" (http://english. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 24 August 2009.com/article/newsOne/idUSSP513120070127) Reuters. ^ "Kabul urges polls attacks blackout" (http://english. "Afghan election fair. Jude (20 August 2009). 252. "U. 8 March 2011. Rod (24 January 2011). UPI. United Press International.reuters. ^ Sheerin. Bloomberg.net/news/asia/2009/09/200991015456247534.S. "Afghan war logs: How the US is losing the battle for hearts and minds" (http://www. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 22 March 2010. ^ "U.1. English. Retrieved 31 January 2011.upi.com (United Press International). 10 August 2009 237.html) AlJazeera. Tom (7 March 2011). ^ "U. Tom.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8209279. 244.html#articleTabs%3Darticle) Wall Street Journal 10 August 2009 236. Troops In Afghanistan Suffer More Critical Injuries".nytimes.com/Top_News/Special/2009/11/18/US-praises-Pakistanimilitary-efforts/UPI-87491258576112/).bbc.net/news/asia/2009/08/200981821718308671.: Raids have taken out 900 Taliban leaders" (http://usatoday30. "U. "As it happened: Afghan election 2009" (http://news. p. Yochi J.com/article/worldNews/idUSTRE57A30D20090811) Reuters. The Guardian (London). Adam and Shalizi. ^ Simon Tisdall (26 July 2010). and Spiegel. "U.co.nytimes.com/news/world/afghanistan/2011-03-08-taliban08_ST_N. ^ "'Fraud proof' found in Afghan polls" (http://english. New York Times.co. ^ Entous.aljazeera. Greg (20 September 2009). 251. 1 April 2011.guardian.0. ^ "Taliban warn of summer offensive" (http://www. Retrieved 6 April 2010.stm).1183243.com .: Raids Have Taken Out 900 Taliban Leaders".nz/world-news/karzai-holds-peace-talks-insurgents3428064). Hamid. Retrieved 6 April 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2012. 4.S.com/2011/01/24/an-uncharacteristically-upbeat-general-in-afghanistan/). praises Pakistani military efforts" (http://www.reuters. ^ Nordland.usatoday. ^ "Afghan troop numbers to eclipse Iraq soon" (http://www. 12 February 2010.com/Top_News/Special/2010/03/25/Afghan-troopnumbers-to-eclipse-Iraq-soon/UPI-69781269532547/). 11 September 2009 241. Los Angeles Times. BBC News. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 250. Reuters.com/2010/12/27/world/asia/27policy. ^ Vanden Brook.

Greg (23 September 2010). 12 July 2011. Associated Press. Craig.blogs.html). Retrieved 26 July 2010. Simon and Schuster. Retrieved 28 July 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2011. "Paramilitary force is key for CIA" (http://www. 257.de/international/world/0. ^ Willsher. The New York Times (Kabul). Retrieved 31 January 2011.html) 266. Susanne.html). 271.00. The Washington Post. 270. Jane. 264. ^ "Taliban Attack Afghan Government Offices in South" (http://www.latimes. Eric (25 July 2010).uk/news. The Guardian (Washington).com/2011/06/23/world/asia/23prexy. 263.nytimes. BBC News (BBC).nytimes.bbc. 2010 page 160 261. Retrieved 2 August 2011.html). Retrieved 7 May 2011. NYTimes. Retrieved 2 August 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2010.com/html/nationworld/2012971667_wars23.washingtonpost.nytimes. Retrieved 17 September 2011. The New York Times. Bob Woodward. 12 July 2011.vancouversun.com/interactive/world/warlogs.html). The Seattle Times.smh. 268. Goetz. ^ "Afghanistan : Sarkozy confirme le retrait de 1 000 soldats français d'ici à fin 2012 (french)/ Sarkozy confirms that 1.fr. News. Rosenbach. "Taliban Say Offensive Will Begin Sunday" (http://www. "Signaling Tensions. Miller. ^ Perlez. Articles. The Guardian (London).cnn. ^ Rubin. 267. Cooper. 256. ^ Rod Nordland (24 January 2011).nytimes.smh. "The War Logs – Interactive Feature" (http://www. Schmitz.guardian. ^ a b c Whitlock. 7 May 2011. London: Telegraph. Mark.com/2011/01/24/an-uncharacteristically-upbeat-general-in-afghanistan/). Retrieved 8 May 2011. Alissa J.au/breaking-news-world/belgium-to-halve-troops-inafghanistan-20110626-1glxr. ^ Nick Hopkins (21 June 2011). "What the numbers say about progress in Afghanistan" (http://politicalticker.com/2010/10/01/world/asia/01peshawar. 265. Der Spiegel. ^ [2] (http://www.000 troops from Afghanistan by end of 2012" (http://www.spiegel.uk/news/world-south-asia-13325855).com/aponline/2011/05/07/world/asia/AP-ASAfghanistan. 272. ^ Landler. ^ "Belgium to halve troops in Afghanistan" (http://news. ^ Adam Levine (15 October 2010).html?hp). 2 May 2011. Simon and Schuster. NYTimes (NYTimes).com. Craig (22 September 2010). ^ Ob ama's War. Gregor Peter (25 July 2010). 258. ^ Declan Walsh (4 March 2007). ^ "French troops Afghanistan: Nicolas Sarkozy announces France to withdraw 1. BBC (BBC). Hans.1518. 8 May 2011. . (1 May 2011). Koelbl.bbc. ^ Ob ama's War. 274. 262.html). John. "Afghanistan withdrawal: UK to 'make up' its own mind | Politics" (http://www. Bob Woodward.com. Simon and Schuster. ^ Schmitt. Matthias. The New York Times. Bob Woodward.au. Kim (24 June 2011).uk/politics/2011/jun/21/afghanistan-withdrawal-uk-troops).lemonde.blogs. "Obama Will Speed Pullout From War in Afghanistan" (http://www.co.708314-5.nytimes.uk/news/world-us-canada-13256676). Hoyng. Pakistan Shuts NATO Route" (http://www.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/09/22/AR2010092206141.html). Cooper. Retrieved 2 May 2011. "Book tells of secret CIA teams staging raids into Pakistan" (http://seattletimes.000 soldiers will be withdrawn by the end of 2012" (http://www. ^ Ob ama's War. 26 June 2011.latimes.nwsource.uk/world/2010/jul/26/afghanistan-war-logs-us-marines).com/2010/10/15/what-the-numbers-say-about-progress-in-afghanistan/?hpt=T). 275. "An Uncharacteristically Upbeat General in Afghanistan" (http://atwar.telegraph. "French troops Afghanistan: France to gradually withdraw troops from Afghanistan – Los Angeles Times" (http://articles.co. Retrieved 17 September 2011.co.html?_r=1&hp).com.254. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 255. 273.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/8631547/Nicolas-Sarkozy-announces-France-towithdraw-1000-troops-from-Afghanistan-by-end-of-2012.guardian. 2010 page 367 260.co.com/news/Taliban+ramp+attacks+against+NATO/3636093/story.com/2011/jun/24/world/la-fg-france-afghanistan-20110624).html). "Afghanistan war logs: How US marines sanitised record of bloodbath" (http://www. Retrieved 31 January 2011. ^ "Al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden dead – Obama" (http://www.com/2011/05/01/world/asia/01afghan. ^ Gebauer.co. 2010 page 8 259. Marcel. Helene (30 September 2010).html). ^ "Afghanistan: Taliban's Kandahar raid into second day" (http://www. Helene (22 June 2011).co.fr/asie-pacifique/article/2011/07/12/nicolas-sarkozyen-visite-eclair-en-afghanistan_1547587_3216. 269. The New York Times. "Explosive Leaks Provide Image of War from Those Fighting It: The Secret Enemy in Pakistan" (http://www. The Guardian (London). Lemonde.html). ^ Whitlock.nytimes.

276. ^ "Afghan Northern Alliance Allies Betrayed by Obama Administration.gov/News/DocumentSingle.com/politics/2013/02/26/us-military-report-showing-drop-in-taliban-attacks-found-to-beincorrect/). ^ "Spain withdraw its troops from Afghanistan in 2015" (http://www.org/dynamic/stories/U/US_INSURGENT_ATTACKS_ERROR? SITE=AP&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2013-02-26-11-03-49).no/forsiden/politikkSamfunn/article2169255.afghanistan-20110626-1glxr. Reuters. ANF: If Taliban Imposed. Retrieved 6 May 2012. The News International. BBC News. ^ "Obama calls for Afghan body abuse punishment" (http://www. "APNEWSBREAK: Taliban Attacks Not Down After All" (http://hosted.html). ^ "Rep. "Photos of Soldiers Posing With Body Parts Add Strain to a Taxed Relationship" (http://atwar.outlookafghanistan.html). Tolo TV.bbc. Alissa J. 292. The Huffington Post. 288. ^ a b The New York Times (18 April 2012). New York Times. ^ "There is more to peace than Taliban" (http://www. BBC Persian.nytimes.net/news? post_id=3175).com/atimes/South_Asia/NA12Df01.html). Jennifer Griffin. 286.com/watch?v=vZMVeRD1koY). Associated Press.khaama. 29 November 2011. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013.shtml). 2012. (5 May 2011).co.au.com/2012/04/18/photos-of-soldiers-posing-with-body-parts-add-strain-to-ataxed-relationship/?ref=asia). Retrieved 2 August 2011. ^ a b "U.uk/news/world-asia-21594010). Retrieved 6 May 2012. ^ a b Wright.ap. 291. did not fall in 2012: NATO" (http://www. "Norge trapper ned i Afghanistan" (http://www. The New York Times.aspx? ID=10610&Cat=13). 281.bbc.uk/persian/afghanistan/2011/05/110504_l42_vid_afghan_opposition. ^ "Nato attack can have grave consequences: DG ISPR" (http://www. Retrieved 2 August 2011.reuters.dn. ^ Rubin. Jessica (19 April 2012). Fox News. 12 January 2012. There will be Resistance" (http://www. ^ Robert Burns (26 February 2013). 282. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 24 November 2010. Phil Stewart (26 February 2013).foxnews.au/opinion/political-news/leaders-condemn-us-troops-in-bodyparts-photos-201204191x8av. Associated Press.com.wired. 27 June 2011. Rohrabacher Leads Bipartisan Delegation's Afghanistan Strategy Session With National Front Leaders in Berlin" (http://rohrabacher. ^ "Afghan opposition says new parliament can check Karzai" (http://www. BBC. ^ "Anti-Taliban rally" (http://www. Retrieved 7 May 2012. Wired. Retrieved 4 March 2013.reuters.smh. January 9.aspx?DocumentID=274224).house. ^ "2010 Afghan Parliamentary Election: Checks and Balances of Power" (http://www.thenews.youtube. ^ NTB (25 June 2011).huffingtonpost. Reuters/The Huffington Post. DN. Reuters. 290.ytwhw.com/article/2013/02/26/us-usa-afghanistan-idUSBRE91P14F20130226). 278. 284.com/dangerroom/2013/02/taliban-attacks/).atimes. Soldiers Pose With Bodies Of Suicide Bombers In Afghanistan" (http://www. "Thousands of Afghans Rally in Kabul" (http://www.gov/News/DocumentSingle. Retrieved 4 March 2013. . 277.html).S. Outlook Afghanistan. 26 June 2011.com. Khaama Press.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. "'Data-Entry Error' Led Military to Falsely Claim Taliban Attacks Are Down" (http://www.smh. 283. 285.house. Spencer (26 February 2013). 18 April 2012.html). Ytwhw. ^ "Govt Opposition Warn of Taking to Streets" (http://www. Retrieved 20 April 2012. Asia Times. Justin Fishel (26 February 2013). 5 May 2011. 18 April 2012.nytimes.co. "Leaders condemn US troops in body-parts photos" (http://www.blogs. "US military acknowledges reported drop in Taliban attacks was incorrect" (http://www.aspx?DocumentID=274226). Congressmen in Berlin" (http://gohmert.com/2011/05/06/world/asia/06afghanistan. 289.com/article/idUSTRE6AN2TM20101124).com/2011/0627/Spain-withdraw-its-troopsfrom-Afghanistan-in-2014. ^ "Ahmad Zia Massoud.bbc. The Sydney Morning Herald. 279. Ackerman. Retrieved 2 August 2011.com/2012/04/18/us-soldiers-suicide-bomber-photo_n_1433785. 5 May 2011.ece). 280. 9 January 2012. News.S. "Nato admits 'error' in claim of fall in Taliban attacks" (http://www. "Afghan insurgent attacks misreported. Meet with U.co. 9 December 2010. Condé Nast.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.uk/news/world-asia-17764485).no. 287. Retrieved 4 March 2013.html).com/?p=1302).com.

Quentin.com/sweet/2012/05/us-afgan_strategic_agreement_r.blogs. Reuters. NewsRoomAmerica. ^ a b "NATO sets "irreversible" but risky course to end Afghan war" (http://ca. 21 May 2012. "Dismantling US bases as the Taliban fight on" (http://www.defencetalk. 303. ^ Thom Shanker. Retrieved 10 September 2012.diplonews. ^ Elise Labott and Mike Mount (22 May 2012).com/2012/07/07/world/asia/us-afghanistan-ally-status/index. Briefing transcript" (http://blogs. "Obama Signs Pact in Kabul.S. mission in Afghanistan?" (http://edition. CNN. helicopter strike blasts an Afghan man to pieces.reuters. Scribd.I. "NATO leaders agree on framework to wind down Afghan mission" (http://www.html? _r=2&ref=barackobama). CNN. "Press Releases: Intervention at the Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan" (http://www. Mark (1 May 2012). Daniel (5 July 2012).S. ^ a b Emma Graham-Harrison (6 July 2012).co.cnn.'s and Remains Fuel Fears of Ebbing Discipline" (http://www.nytimes.com/story/260678. Retrieved 20 June 2012.uk/news/article-2169418/US-helicopter-strike-blasts-Afghan-manpilot-sings-Bye-bye-Miss-American-Pie.html). ^ "Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the United States of America" (http://www.scribd.2012.com/2012/05/02/world/asia/obama-lands-in-kabul-on-unannounced-visit.com/2013/01/09/world/asia/us-is-open-to-withdraw-afghan-force-after-2014. Defence Talk . Retrieved 8 July 2012. "How will leaked photos impact U. ^ Scott Wilson and Karen DeYoung (21 May 2012). "U.. ^ Anissa Haddadi (6 July 2012).S. "Images of G. CNN. ^ a b "Chicago NATO Summit 2012 Declaration" (http://www.com/2012/05/21/us/nato-summit/index. Graham Bowley (18 April 2012). Turning Page in Afghan War" (http://www. 18 April 2012.nytimes.html?iid=article_sidebar).html).ibtimes. Retrieved 6 May 2012.com.co.co. Retrieved 22 May 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012. military in Afghanistan" (http://news.cnn. International Business Times. 300. Retrieved 6 May 2012. CNN.html?ref=asia).com/2012/04/19/world/asia/us-condemns-photo-of-soldiers-posing-with-body-parts. ^ a b "Photos just latest issue hounding U. Reuters. Is Open to Withdraw Afghan Force After 2014" (http://www. ^ Sommerville.com/2012/04/18/world/afghanistan-voices/index. 309. 298. 302.htm). Retrieved 4 May 2012. 15 November 2012. "'Bye-bye. 297.php).com/feeds/free/15_November_2012_187. 307. Ashley (19 April 2012).com/world/national-security/obama-other-nato-leaders-begin-crucial-summit-onafghanistan/2012/05/21/gIQArWJYfU_story.uk/news/world-asia17769678). . designates Afghanistan a major ally.-Afgan strategic agreement: Roadmap to Chicago NATO Summit. bye Miss American Pie'" (http://www. ^ "Afghanistan.co. Retrieved 4 May 2012. "NATO accepts Obama timetable to end war in Afghanistan by 2014" (http://edition.dailymail. Retrieved 8 July 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2012. "The moment a U.newsroomamerica. Retrieved 10 September 2012.com/article/topNews/idCABRE84J02C20120521?sp=true). ^ Sweet.html).cnn.nytimes. 296. Retrieved 4 May 2012. Gordon (8 January 2012). Retrieved 6 May 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012. BBC. 305. ^ Landler. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 21 May 2012. 310. "U. as the pilot sings 'Bye. The Daily Mail.html?hpt=hp_t3). ^ CNN Wire Staff (7 July 2012). ^ Mark Landler and Michael S. Chicago Sun-Times.S. The Guardian. ^ Fantz. 294.uk/articles/360264/20120706/pilots-sings-bye-miss-american-pie-missile.com/2012/04/18/photos-justlatest-issue-hounding-u-s-military-in-afghanistan/). ^ Bates. "US Helicopter Pilot Sings 'American Pie' as Missile Blows up 'Innocent Afghan Farmer' [VIDEO]" (http://www.suntimes.uk/world/2012/jul/06/bye-bye-american-pie-afghanistan). NATO.guardian. The New York Times.bbc. 295.. ^ Clinton.Global Defense. 299. US launch negotiations on Bilateral Security Agreement (BSA)" (http://www. Aerospace & Military Portal. "U.com/doc/92057506/Afghan-US-Strategic-Pact-Full-Text).S.S. 304. Lynn (1 May 2012). DiploNews. Miss American Pie' – then US helicopter appears to fire on Afghans" (http://www. 306.html). 301. Retrieved 6 May 2012.washingtonpost.cnn.html?hpt=wo_c2). The New York Times. The New York Times.com/chicago-nato-summit-2012-declaration42672/^^). The Washington Post. creates defense ties" (http://edition. Hillary (8 July 2012). 293.html). 308.

U. The New York Times. ^ DeYoung. Retrieved 6 August 2011.html). Michael R. 12 January 2013.aljazeera.asp?NewsID=39036&Cr=Afghan&Cr1). 323. Retrieved 12 January 2013. The New York Times. "Afghan civilian death toll reaches record high" (http://www. 25 June 2011.com/politics/karzai-meets-obama-to-discuss-us-drawdown-inafghanistan/2013/01/11/b50c72ec-5c03-11e2-9fa9-5fbdc9530eb9_story. 315. BBC News. 327.co.com/world/national-security/us-reducing-plans-for-large-civilian-force-in-post-2014afghanistan/2012/12/05/67c7d9a8-380f-11e2-8a97-363b0f9a0ab3_story. 18 June 2013.. News Centre. Retrieved 23 June 2013. The Washington Post. insurgents responsible for most casualties – UN" (http://www. Retrieved 12 January 2013.washingtonpost. ^ a b Scott Wilson and David Nakamur (11 January 2013). 12 January 2013.co. 19 June 2013. 320.dw.uk/news/world-south-asia-13914252). 318.S. 11 January 2012. ^ Damien Pearse and agencies (4 February 2012).story).aljazeera. "Obama announces reduced U.org/Web/eng/siteeng0. ^ Afghanistan. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 314. 326.com/blogs/talibanresponsible-76-deaths-afghanistan-un).S.uk/news/world-us-canada20993047). reducing plans for large civilian force in post-2014 Afghanistan" (http://www. ^ a b Christi Parsons and Kathleen Hennessey (11 January 2013).S. 321.nytimes.html#).nytimes. Retrieved 25 June 2011. Al Jazeera English.globalpost. Retrieved 12 January 2013. "U.nsf/htmlall/views-from-field-report240609/$File/Our-World-Views-from-Afghanistan-I-ICRC. 14 July 2011.guardian.html?hp). by ICRC and Ipsos 329.co. 18 June 2013.0. Ponders Afghan Role After 2014" (http://www.html?_r=3&). Al Jazeera English. Deutsche Welle. 312. The Weekly Standard. ^ a b c d e "Bomb blast hits Afghanistan on security handover day" (http://www.com/2013/01/12/opinion/is-this-the-afghan-wars-lastchapter.html) The New York .de/bomb-blast-hits-afghanistan-onsecurity-handover-day/a-16888374).weeklystandard. 317. Retrieved 26 November 2012. 328. ^ a b c "US troops will end 'most' Afghanistan combat this spring" (http://www. "Obama Accelerates Transition of Security to Afghans" (http://www. (26 Novemember 2012). Nathan (18 June 2013). Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 5 December 2012. ^ "Afghan civilian deaths rise. ^ Mark Landler and Michael S. 325. ^ Gordon. Retrieved 12 January 2013.icrc.latimes. Global Post.pdf) .cnn. U.com/2013/01/11/us/obama-karzaimeeting/?hpt=hp_t1).html?hpid=z1). ^ a b Hodge. Retrieved 4 February 2012.wsj.com/news/politics/la-pn-obama-karzai-afghanistan-20130111.com/news/asia/2013/06/20136184484852774.un.com/2012/11/26/world/asia/us-planning-a-force-to-stay-in-afghanistan. ^ a b "UN: Taliban Responsible for 76% of Deaths in Afghanistan" (http://www.html).311. Al Jazeera English. Opinion survey 2009 (http://www. 316. 11 January 2012. ^ a b c d "Obama. Karzai agree to accelerate military transition" (http://edition. Retrieved 12 January 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2013. "Time Slipping.N.com/2002/02/01/opinion/a-merciful-war. The Wall Street Journal. ^ a b "The Afghan War's Last Chapter?" (http://www. Retrieved 12 January 2013. Agence France-Presse.bbc. BBC News US & Canada. Gordon (11 January 2013). "Obama moves up deadline for Afghans to take lead security role" (http://www. ^ "US to speed up Afghan troop transition" (http://www. The Washington Post. The New York Times.com/news/americas/2013/01/201311185310956108. 10 August 2010.nytimes. 319. ^ Kristof. ^ "Afghanistan: Attack on Logar hospital kills dozens" (http://www. ^ "Karzai announces Afghan security handover" (http://www.com/dispatch/news/afp/130618/karzaiannounces-afghan-security-handover).washingtonpost.bbc. Karen (5 December 2012).nytimes.7048110.html). 313. The Los Angeles Times. role in Afghanistan starting this spring" (http://www. "Blast Mars Day of Security Handover in Kabul" (http://online.org/apps/news/story." (http://www. "A Merciful War. ^ a b c "Deadly blast marks Afghan security handover" (http://www.com/2013/01/12/world/asia/us-can-speed-afghan-exit-obama-says.uk/world/2012/feb/04/afghan-civilian-death-toll-record).html?pagewanted=all). London: Guardian.com/article/SB10001424127887323566804578552593026745674. CNN. 324. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 322. Nicholas D.

com/dangerroom/2013/02/afghanistan-civilians/ 346.19. http://www.isaf. says Amnesty. ^ a b Numbers taken from UNHCR. 2002-05-02. Michael D.org/pages/49e486eb6. London: The Guardian. ^ Harding. ^ Dasht-e-Leili Photos. "A Merciful War.guardian. Afghan Rights Groups Shift Focus to Taliban. 2012 331.com/2002/02/01/opinion/a-merciful-war.S. http://www... Pierre-Arnaud (2010). Independent Online. http://costsofwar. ^ a b c d e f g h i Chouvy. Wired.int/article/isaf-releases/afghanistan-thenand-now.stm). http://www.go. 339. ISBN 9780-495-90655-1.bbc. Elsevier. Shannon L Blanton (2011). the vaccination campaign will save at least 35.webcitation.html). Warns Taliban of ‘War Crimes’. in a country where virtually no one had been vaccinated against the disease in the previous 10 years. Afghanistan Gets Safer for Civilians as U. 230. Because measles often led to death in Afghanistan.php%3Fset_id%3D1%26click_id%3D3%26art_id%3Dqw1020329461747 B212&date=2009-08-07).unhcr. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 343. 52ff. for example. Drugs in Society: Causes. Concepts and Control. (2010).guardian. ^ "As possible Afghan war-crimes evidence removed. The Organized Crime Community: Essays in Honor of Alan A. ^ "Is Afghanistan's Drug Trade Paying Al Qaeda?" (http://abcnews. 11 October 2012. ^ NYTIMES. Cengage.co. 130. ABC News." 330. Charles W.nato. Physicians for Human Rights. report finds: About half a million Afghans who fled homes because of violence are living in desperate conditions.org/en/news/afghans-fleeing-war-find-misery-urban-slums-2012-02-23 334.. The Guardian. 21 October 2009.html). ed.html). 2012.N. 338. 341. ^ "Starved. 2011. BY SPENCER ACKERMAN02. 2011. the U. Retrieved 2009-08-07.N. ^ ISAF Spokesman Discusses Progress in Afghanistan (http://www. ^ "Afghanistan riddled with drug ties" (http://www. Opium: uncovering the politics of the poppy. Nicholas D. ^ “This is a war crime and people will be held responsible in the future for this war crime.12 GMT . 342. "Now aid is pouring in and lives are being saved on an enormous scale.uk/world/2012/feb/23/afghan-refugees-amnesty-report 335.org/issues/mass-atrocities/afghanistan-war-crime/dasht-e-leili-photos. Springer. ^ Lyman. That would mean 112.co. Amnesty International. p. Frank Bovenkerk. p.php? set_id=1&click_id=3&art_id=qw1020329461747B212) on 2009-08-07. Archived from the original (http://www.1310:15 AM. Christian Science Monitor. . 345.329.lukeharding). http://www.za%2Findex. Francisco E.. hurt and buried alive in Afghanistan" (http://www. ^ Kegley.” said Ján Kubiš. Retrieved 1 December 2011. BBC News.co.Heidi J. "Afghan Massacre Haunts Pentagon" (http://www. 309. Thursday 23 February 2012 13. Retrieved 27 September 2007. ^ Afghan refugees abandoned by their own government.nytimes.co. International Security Assistance Force/NATO.” http://www. has vaccinated 734. 347. Larson of Unicef says that if all goes well.. silent" (http://www. pp.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8319249.amnesty.unhcr. U. accessed 2012 Feb 19 349.org/cgibin/texis/vtx/page?page=49e486eb6 332. Costs of War. Luke (2002-09-14). (2006). ^ Afghans fleeing war find misery in urban slums.000 fewer children and 7. ISBN 978-1-4377-44507. ^ Successes and challenges in Afghan girls' education (http://www.org/query? url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. Feb.iol.com/International/story?id=79842&page=1).co.co. Block .org/article/afghan-refugees. July 25. ^ Thourni.com/2011/02/10/world/asia/10afghanistan.wired. ^ Kristof.uk/world/2002/sep/14/afghanistan.bbc.html) The New York Times. Unicef. http://www.’s man in Afghanistan.500 fewer pregnant women dying each year.za/index.uk/news/world-asia-19911341) BBC News.com/2005/0513/p01s04-wosc. 2002.mcclatchydc.csmonitor.nytimes. February 1. By ROD NORDLAND Published: February 9.html).com/336/story/57649. 336. 337. ^ "Afghan opium fuels 'global chaos'" (http://news. ISBN 978-0-387-39019-2. 340. p. child and maternal mortality rates will drop in half in Afghanistan over the next five years. “2011 UNHCR Country Operations Profile—Afghanistan.000 children against measles over the last two months. ^ a b 2013 UNHCR country operations profile .Afghanistan." (http://www. World Politics: Trend and Transformation.000 children's lives each year.html?_r=0 344.html 333.. Sheberghan Prison and Pit Locations at Dasht-e-Leili (http://physiciansforhumanrights. Retrieved 27 September 2007. ^ Afghan Refugees. Harvard University Press. 348.iol.

com/Top_News/US/2009/12/09/US-trainers-bemoanAfghan-corruption/UPI-51821260383357/). 352.ksg.csbaonline. 366.pdf). CSMonitor.com/18018836).S.stripes. news from Iraq" (http://www. Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center" (http://belfercenter. "Cost of Wars a Rising Issue as Obama Weighs Troop Levels" (http://www.com/nlsearch/we/Archives? p_product=RLOB&p_theme=rlob&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=%28Passaro%20will%20serve%2 08%20years%20for%20beating%29&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced0=%28%22Passaro%20will%20serve%208%20years%20for%20beating%22%29&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10 &p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no). Michael E. ^ "US blocked probes into Afghan prisoner killings" (http://www. 359. ^ What Mr.transparency.org.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/12/02/AR2009120203472. Big Challenges Remain" (http://www1.edu/opinions/2010/0519_afghan_army_ohanlon. Transparency. 362. ^ "Research .google. Retrieved 9 February 2010. Amrullah Saleh speech" (http://vimeo.harvard. Changing the Game.nytimes. AFP.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/2010.html) The Washington Post. "Suspended Afghan MP Malalai Joya wants NATO's mission to end" (http://www. ^ a b Al Pessin (9 December 2009).349.S.org.csmonitor. 361. Dianna (9 December 2009). [4] (http://www. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 363.pdf) 356. ^ "Afghanistan: Changing the Frame.com. 350.net/mritems/Documents/2010/6/13/20106138531279734lse-isitaliban. Straight. Retrieved 9 February 2010. Travis (12 November 2009). Afghanistan and Anti-Terrorism Operations" (http://costofwar.straight. ^ "U. silent" (http://www.com/en/). 28 December 2011 357.html) on unknown date. 360. 364. .com.-Why-didn-t-the-US-bid)".mcclatchydc. Belfercenter. Retrieved 2 August 2011. The Brookings Institution. 14 September 2009.com. 353.html). Retrieved 26 March 2013. ^ The New York Times: International.com/2008/10/01/world/asia/01petraeus. Retrieved 17 July 2012.CPI . "Passaro will serve 8 years for beating" (http://nl.html). ^ "Illiteracy undermines Afghan army – Air Force News. 9 December 2009. 367. ^ Lupick.html?partner=rssnyt&emc=rss) Retrieved on 1 October 2008 358. 'Insurgents in Afghanistan Are Gaining. Retrieved 12 December 2010. Archived from the original (http://www. Elizabeth (14 February 2007). ^ Weigl.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5g2bWSZ_qHnwdWmM9oXsbYHuDVbRg).com/article. ^ Dunbar. U.upi.washingtonpost. trainers bemoan Afghan corruption" (http://www. Retrieved 9 February 2010. ^ Cooper.voanews. UPI.edu. 365. 354.com/World/AsiaSouth-Central/2011/1228/China-wins-700-million-Afghan-oil-and-gas-deal.asp?section=104&article=66544). ^ a b "Discussion Papers" (http://english. ^ a b c d e Cahn. 355.com/news/2009/09/ap_afghan_army_illiteracy_091409/). Why didn't the US bid? (http://www. Obama changed.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2009/cpi_2009_table).06. 368.airforcetimes. Retrieved 17 July 2012.google.com/newspapers? id=9wtPAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ESAEAAAAIBAJ&dq=passaro%208%20years&pg=6945%2C3814390). 19 May 2010.newsbank. 10-07-2009. "Troops fear corruption outweighs progress of Afghan forces" (http://www. (http://www. New York Times. Stripes. ^ [3] (http://www.aljazeera.nytimes.com/2011/06/22/us/politics/22costs. "Afghan Forces Could Start to Lead Soon.html).newsobserver.com/336/story/57649.29-Analysis-of-the-FY2011-Defense-Budget. Petraeus Says' New York Times. Air Force Times. Helene (21 June 2011). "Passaro Sentenced To 8-plus Years" (http://news. ^ "Cost of Iraq.Overview" (http://www. 351. 3 December 2009.edu/publication/18911/afghanistan. ^ "China wins $700 million Afghan oil and gas deal.ksg. ^ a b "Jamestown Foundation Terrorism Conference 2010.com/english/news/asia/Gates-Visits-Troops-in-Afghanistan-78851682. Journalist's Resource. "A Bright Spot Among Afghan Woes" (http://www. The News and Observer. Voice of America.com/497/story/543038. ^ "As possible Afghan war-crimes evidence removed.harvard.brookings. 2010. Star News.aspx).com.html). 12-11-2008.com/article-270310/vancouver/afghan-activist-wants-natos-mission-end). McClatchy Newspapers. Andrea (14 February 2007). ^ O'Hanlon.

nytimes.php?ReportID=260).google. Daily News (New York). ^ "Government losing support for Afghanistan campaign" (http://www.html).com/article/ALeqM5iDAlDVoYEb9h6trv1wYV55GKVVSA). Retrieved 9 April 2010. 370. Retrieved 3 August 2011.au/news/local/news/general/australianslose-faith-in-afghan-war-effort/1320931. ^ "America and the War on Terror" (http://www.8. Retrieved 9 February 2010. "June 2008 Pew Global Attitudes Project Survey" (http://pewglobal.canberratimes. 11 October 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2011. BBC News. (Associated Press). Retrieved 17 July 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 378.net. Daniel (30 September 2008). Retrieved 9 February 2010. "AP IMPACT: An insider attack: Trust cost 2 lives (http://news. Retrieved 3 August 2011. ^ [5] (http://ipsnews.S. Pewglobal. 382.asp?idnews=4939) 374. 387.org.pubID. 12 November 2008.org/reports/display. The New York Times. Globalpolicy. Retrieved 27 September 2007.html)" Yahoo! News.au/national/opposition-mounts-against-afghan-war-20080929-4qew.pubID. Retrieved 3 August 2011.116" (http://pewglobal.comw. ^ Survey Reports (12 June 2008). 375.html). ^ Filkins. ^ "Corruption.nytimes. Published 24 July 2008. 5 December 2012 377. The Age (Australia).org/pda/0201strangevic.com/news/world/2009/12/13/2009-1213_afghan_training_a_tough_cell_trust_is_most_difficult_issue_for_us_troops. surge is big.net/news. Angus-reid. With Raw Recruits.aei. ^ Survey Reports (27 June 2007). 386. ^ "Britons Would Leave Afghanistan in 2009" (http://www. Google.S.au/news/stories/2008/09/29/2377129. p. "24-Nation Pew Global Attitudes Project Survey p.22819/pub_detail.npr. Robert..msn.armytimes. ^ 4:39 pm ET (5 December 2009). ^ a b c Nordland. ^ Survey Reports (12 June 2008).org/publications/filter.theage.com.aspx). indiscipline slow Afghan training – Army News. 379. Rod.all. AEI Public Opinion Study.29" (http://pewglobal.php? storyId=121559123&ps=cprs). 385. Retrieved 9 February 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2011. MSNBC. "With Troop Pledge. P. 383. Afghan Police Buildup Falters. 13 November 2008.org/reports/display.nydailynews. . 376.org/reports/pdf/256.com. Vast Challenge To Expand Afghan Forces" (http://www.com/2009/12/02/world/asia/02afghan. ^ "Most Britons wanted troops out of Afghanistan: poll" (http://afp. Army Times.all. Retrieved 27 September 2007.asp). 390.msnbc. Retrieved 3 August 2011. Pewglobal.2009.org/templates/story/story. 13 December 2009. (http://www.pdf) (PDF). "U.com/2010/02/03/world/asia/03afghan. ^ "America and the War on Terror" (http://www.globalpolicy.org.asp). 157 381. New Demands on Afghans" (http://www.abc.com/news/2009/10/ap_training_afghans_100809/). Retrieved 3 August 2011.org/reports/display. 369.htm?section=world). ^ "Strange Victory: A critical appraisal of Operation Enduring Freedom and the Afghanistan war" (http://www. 372. NPR. Pewglobal. 389. 373.org.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7725228.S. 2008-11-22.angusreid. "Global Unease With Major World Powers" (http://pewglobal. ^ Burns. ^ "Training Afghanistan troops gets tough for U.org/empire/media/2001/1121opinion. ^ "Australians lose faith in Afghan war effort" (http://www.php?ReportID=260). ^ Flitton.com/ap-impactinsider-attack-trust-cost-2-lives-073706461. "Opposition mounts against Afghan war" (http://www. 371.com/polls/view/32241/britons_would_leave_afghanistan_in_2009).aei.org/publications/filter.php? ReportID=256).org. ^ "Britons call for troop withdrawal" (http://news.stm). 24 July 2008. 388.co. ^ "World Opinion Opposes the Attack on Afghanistan" (http://www.html?pagewanted=1) The New York Times. Afghan army is crucial – Afghanistan" (http://www. 2 February 2010. ^ "For U.24.htm). 380.html).bbc. 384. news from Iraq" (http://www.com/id/34290420).html).com. troops as trust issues worsen" (http://www.22819/pub_detail. p. AEI Public Opinion Study. ^ a b c "47-Nation Pew Global Attitudes Survey p. Dexter (2 December 2009). Retrieved 9 February 2010.yahoo.

yahoo.wsj.htm). ^ Views on Iraq and Afghanistan (http://people-press. 407. International Herald Trib une. Yaroslav (11 September 2010). ^ Straziuso. 393.S. ^ "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices" (http://www. ^ epaper. Protesters oppose sending more troops to Afghanistan.com/article/SB125960550353170023.com.com (http://epaper. Retrieved 9 December 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2010.poughkeepsiejournal. 6 December 2009. "Karzai Aides.wsj. Bill (12 May 2009). Poughkeepsiejournal. Retrieved 3 August 2011.S.html). 24 April 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2010.com" (http://online.org/web/20070514111954/http://news. 400. 11–05–09.. p. The New York Times. Anand (1 December 2009). ^ "U.com. Jason (11 May 2009).: Afghan Militants Use White Phosphorus" . ^ "Anti-war protesters arrested outside West Point.shtml) 402. Gertz.com/Global/story. 3 December 2009.com/words/latest-news/protesters-oppose-sending-more-troops-afghanistan) Louisville Courier-Journal. bases? Afghans see an election issue" (http://www. Pephost. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 399. Pew Research Center Pub lications. 411. ^ Stelter.COM Local Vermont News. 394. 2 December 2009" (http://www. Sara A.com/article/SB10001424052748703720004575476913015061570. "Released on Web.nytimes.pdf) (PDF).wcax. ^ "Afghan Poll 2009" (http://news. 412.orlandosentinel. 395. ^ "Enduring Freedom:Abuses by U. 408.-More-SupportIncreasing-Troops-Afghanistan.php)..org/site/PageServer?pagename=M20_homepage). Seen as Less Important. 405.uk/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/05_02_09afghan_poll_2009.com/s/nm/20070419/wl_nm/afghan_rights_dc_2) on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 9 February 2010. China as More Powerful: Overview – Pew Research Center for the People & the Press" (http://people-press.hrw.com/poll/124490/In-U.391. Gallup. ^ "Goal of Libyan Operation Less Clear to Public" (http://people-press. ^ Adams. ^ "20 March – Anti-War March on Washington:" (http://www.michaelmoore. Harold J. ^ Trofimov. Retrieved 3 August 2011.org/pubs/1400/public-divided-over-afghanistan-troop-requests-still-sees-rationale-for-war). "Karzai Divides Afghanistan in Reaching Out to Taliban" (http://online. ^ Gopal.aspx). ^ "Anti-war protesters arrested outside West Point – WCAX.S. Washington Times. The Wall Street Journal.archive.state. ^ "Public Divided Over Afghan Troop Requests. 27 April 2005. Retrieved 3 August 2011.html). ^ "Taliban attack civilians to spread fear: Amnesty" (http://web. Gallup.com/aponline/2010/03/21/us/politics/AP-US-Anti-war-Protest. The New York Times.com/poll/123335/Nearly-Half-Afghans-Think-Troops-Help.html).com/articles/2005/04/26/news/kabul.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_MIDDLENexttoWhatsNewsTop).asp?S=11603057).gallup.aspx). ^ "Permanent U. 1. 30 September 2009.com/news/2009/may/12/ousted-commanders-aide-blames-deaths-on-taliban/). Brian (23 March 2009). a Film Stays Fresh" (http://www. 403. ^ "Gallup poll" (http://www. Forces in Afghanistan" (http://www. ^ Carter. "Afghan commander's aide blames deaths on Taliban" (http://washingtontimes.com.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2003/27943. "U. Retrieved 3 August 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2010.S. Archived from the original (http://news.orlandosentinel.com/OS/OS/2010/01/24/ArticleHtmls/24_01_2010_004_010. More Support for Increasing Troops in Afghanistan" (http://www.yahoo. Pew Research Center. 04–05–11. But Still Sees Rationale for War" (http://pewresearch. Weather and Sports" (http://www. 409.org. 25 November 2009.bbc.gallup. Reuters.org/report/?pageid=1384) 392. 410.org/reports/2004/afghanistan0304/). 397. 396. Retrieved 9 February 2010. BBC News.S.com/s/nm/20070419/wl_nm/afghan_rights_dc_2). ^ "US Anti War Protest" (http://www.org/2011/04/05/goal-of-libyan-operation-lessclear-to-public/). The "Wall Street Journal". (http://www. 401. 398.com.org. Tribal Leaders Say Surge Is Wrong Strategy – WSJ.com/article/20091202/NEWS01/91201047/1006).iht.S. Wcax. People-press. Retrieved 11 September 2010.pephost. 404. 406. ^ "In U.com/2009/03/23/movies/23gree.org/report/569/americas-place-in-the-world).nytimes.co.

guardian. Reuters India. ^ Straziuso.uk (London). (19 April 2009).mcclatchydc. Associated Press.html). Retrieved 2 December 2009.412. "'We're pinned down:' 4 U. Retrieved 2 December 2009. Richard W. . a Sprint to Escape Taliban Zone" (http://www.co.history.bbc.000 documents on Wikileaks (http://wardiary.rferl. 416. ^ Synovitz.army.wikipedia. Landay. Marines die in Afghan ambush" (http://www. McClatchy. "Investigation Launched Into White Phosphorus Claims In Afghanistan" (http://www. 414. Retrieved 2 December 2009. (2004).wikileaks. "U. ^ Chivers.S.html). Further reading Stewart. New York Times.: Afghan Militants Use White Phosphorus" (http://www.org/) Retrieved from "http://en.uk/world/2009/may/11/taliban-phosphorus-attacks-afghanistan). Brown.guardian. C.uk/news/world-south-asia-12024253) as provided by BBC 75. Ron (13 May 2009). Inc.mil/brochures/Afghanistan/Operation%20Enduring%20Freedom. J.org/content/Investigation_Launched_Into_White_Phosphorus_Claims_In_Afghanistan/1731117. p. Operation Enduring Freedom (http://www. 46.nytimes. By using this site.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-39498520090508?sp=true).S. External links Afghanistan profile ..html?_r=1&ref=world&pagewanted=all).php?title=War_in_Afghanistan_(2001–present)&oldid=579250047" Categories: War in Afghanistan (2001–present) 21st century in Afghanistan Wars involving France Wars involving Poland Wars involving Germany Wars involving the United Kingdom Wars involving the United States This page w as last modified on 29 October 2013 at 09:14. 415. Retrieved 2 December 2009. a non-profit organization. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.A chronology of key events (http://www.reuters. Jason (11 May 2009).org/w/index. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.co. United States Army. BG John S. ^ Jonathan S. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.co. additional terms may apply.com/2009/09/08/75036/were-pinned-down-4-us-marines. Radio Free Europe/Radio Lib erty.htm). 413. ^ "EXCLUSIVE – Afghan girl's burns show horror of chemical strike" (http://in.com/2009/04/20/world/asia/20ambush. 8 May 2009. "Pinned Down.