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Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden


St. Louis :Missouri Botanical Garden Press,1914http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/702

v.65 (1978): http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/13997


Page(s): Page 242, Page 243, Page 244, Page 245, Page 246, Page 247, Page 248, Page 249, Page 250, Page 251, Page 252, Page 253

Contributed by: Missouri Botanical Garden Sponsored by: Missouri Botanical Garden

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FIGURE 23. Neriacanthus grandiflorus Leonard. Habit (X ). [After Mori & Kallunki 6196 (MO).]

Piedra on Rio dos Bocas 5-8 km from Escuela, 730-770 m, Croat 25919 (MO). NW of Santa Fe 2 km from Escuela Agricola Alto de Piedra, cloud forest on ridge below summit of Cerro Tute, Mori & Kallunki 5293 (MO). NW of Santa Fe 8.8 km from Escuela Agricola Alto de Piedra, Pacific slope, hillside above stream, Mori & Kallunki 6196 (MO). Trail up E side of Cerro Tute, 1200 m, Witherspoon et al. 8869 (MO). 24. ODONTONEMA Odontonema Nees, Linnaea 16: 300. 1842. TYPE: O. lucidum Nees. Thyrsacanthus Nees in Mart., Fl. Bras. 9: 97, pl. 13. 1847. TYPE: T. barlerioides Nees. Herbs or shrubs. Leaves often large with the cystoliths visible on both the surfaces, sessile to petiolate. Inflorescences in terminal panicles or thyrses with inconspicuous bracts. Flowers white, red or yellow, 5-merous; calyx with equal, subulate segments; corolla bilabiate, the upper lip 2-lobed, the lower 3-lobed; stamens 2, exserted or extending to the mouth, the anthers 2-celled with the

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cells parallel and blunt at the base, staminodes 2. Capsules clavate, bearing

4 seeds. This genus has about 40 species and is found only in the New World Tropics. a. Leaves under 10 cm long; inflorescences in racemes with most flowers borne singly ----------------- - ------ ------------. 4. 0. microphyllus aa. Leaves to over 15 cm long; inflorescences thyrsoid or in racemes with the flowers in fascicles. b. Leaves under 5 cm wide; corolla to 2.5 cm long ------. ------ 3. 0. longifolium bb. Leaves over 8 cm wide; corolla over 2.5 cm long. c. Inflorescences terminating in a narrow, flowerless tip; corolla to 2.8 cm long ...----_.. -------_.------------------------- 2. O. flagellum cc. Inflorescences flowering to the tip; corolla to 3.0 cm or more long. d. Inflorescences with the lateral axes in dichasia; corolla to 3.0 cm long ---------.------------- 1. O. callistachyum dd. Inflorescences with the flowers in pseudowhorls, not lateral dichasia; corolla over 3 cm long .........--------------- ---- 5. 0. strictum 1. Odontonema callistachyum (Schlecht. & Cham.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 494. 1891. Justicia callistachya Schlecht. & Cham., Linnaea 6: 370. 1831. TYPE: Mexico, Schiede (B?, not seen). Thyrsacanthus callistachyus (Schlecht. & Cham.) Nees in DC., Prodr. 11: 326. 1847. Suffrutescent herb to 2 m tall; stems subquadrangular, glabrous to puberulous. Leaves elliptic to elliptic ovate, 15-30 cm long and 4-12 cm wide, apically acuminate with the tip often curved to one side, basally attenuate, glabrous above, puberulous beneath along the midrib and the major costa, the cystoliths visible on both surfaces, more so above, the margins entire to crenulate; petioles wanting or to 1 cm long. Inflorescences in terminal thyrses to 30 cm long, the lateral peduncles to ca. 5 mm long, the flowers in fascicles, each fascicle subtended by a subulate, keeled, puberulous bract 2-3 mm long, the flowers mostly borne in dichasial cymes, each subtended by a similar, though slightly smaller, more triangular bract; rachises subtomentose to tomentose; pedicels 3-6 mm long, puberulous to tomentose. Flowers with the calyx 5-merous, the segments equal, subulate, keeled, puberulous, 2-3 mm long; corolla red, bilabiate, funnelform, often curved to one side, to 3.0 cm long, 5 mm wide at the throat and 2 mm wide at the base, the tube puberulous on both surfaces, the upper lip 6-7 mm long, 4.5 mm wide at the base, 2-lobed, the lobes ovate, 4.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, apically obtuse, the lower lip of 3 lobes, each 7-8 mm long, 2 mm wide, apically obtuse; stamens extending to or just beyond the notch of the upper lip, the filaments villous, the staminodes to 3.5 mm long, the apex slightly enlarged, curved and apiculate, the sterile anthers puberulous, the filaments glabrous. Capsule not observed. This species is found in rain forests at lower elevations of Mexico and Central America. COCL: La Mesa, above El Valle, Dwyer 11902 (MO). Ca. 8 mi N of El Valle de Anton, Luteyn & Kennedy 1694 (DUKE). COLON: Rio Guanche, D'Arcy 9718 (MO). DARtN:

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Camp Summit between Morti and Sasardi, 1800 ft, Child & Duke 10690 (MO). Near Cerro Pirre base camp on Rio Perasenico, 200-500 m, Gentry & Clewell 7053 (MO). Manene to mouth of Rio Cuasi, Kirkbride & Bristan 1388 (MO). Between Tres Bocas and Cerro Campamiento on Cuasi-Cana Trail, Kirkbride & Duke 1346 (MO). PANAMA: Cerro Azul, near Goofy Lake, Dwyer 2076B (MO). Capira, NE side of Cerro Trinidad, 800 m, Foster 2107 (DUKE). Cerro Campana, Luteyn & Kennedy 1800 (DUKE). Cerro Azul, 2000 ft, Tyson 2180 (MO). Cerro Campana, 2000 m, Weaver & Foster 1680 (DUKE). SAN BLAS: Lower Rio Ailigandi, Duke 9321 (MO). 2. Odontonema flagellum (Oerst.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 494. 1891. Thyrsacanthus flagellum Oerst., Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kj0benhavn 1854: 146. 1855. TYPE: Costa Rica, Oersted (C, not seen). Shrub to 2.5 m; stem quadrangular, sparingly puberulous in young portions. Leaves elliptic to 34 cm long, 10.5 cm wide, apically acuminate, basally attenuate, glabrous to slightly puberulous at the costa above, puberulous at the costa and the veins beneath, the cystoliths numerous, more visible above than beneath, the margins crenulate to nearly entire; petioles short and winged, mostly 0.5 cm or less, puberulous to glabrate. Inflorescences racemose to 50 cm long, flowers in fascicles of 2 or 3 toward the bottom, single toward top, the top ending in a narrowed, flagellate tip; bracts subulate, keeled to 5.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide at base, apically acuminate, 3-nerved, puberulous, ciliolate; bracteoles subulate, keeled, to 4 mm long, 1 mm wide at base, puberulous; rachis quadrangular, puberulous to glabrate; peduncle quadrangular, to 6 cm long, puberulous. Flowers with the calyx reddish margined when dry, the 5 equal, subulate segments to 3.5 mm long, 1 mm wide at the base, sparingly puberulous; corolla dark to brilliant rcd to 2.8 cm long, funnelform and curved to one side, 6 mm wide at the mouth, 2 mm wide at the base, the tube glabrous on both the surfaces, bilabiate, the upper lip 5 mm long, 4 mm wide at base, 2-lobed, lobes 2 mm long, apically obtuse and ciliolate, the lower lip 3-lobed, the lobes slightly shorter than those of the upper lip, 3 mm wide at the base, apically obtuse and ciliolate, all lobes with glandular hairs inside; stamens reaching the corolla mouth or slightly exserted, the staminodes ca. 6 mm long, curved and pointed at the apex. Capsules clavate, 1.8 cm long, 4 mm wide at the widest point, 1.2 mm wide at the base, glabrous; seeds elliptic, 5 mm long, 3 mm wide, flattened, 1 mm thick, surface reddish brown when dry, muricate. This species is found in forests of Costa Rica and western Panama. BOCAS DEL TORO: 10-15 mi inland S of mouth of Changuinola River, Lewis et al. 882 (MO). Chiriquicito to 5 mi S along Rio Guarumo, Lewis et al. 2034 (MO). Almirante near road to Chiriqui, McDaniel 5054 (MO). Almirante Bay, Western River, Wedel 21 (MO). Chiriqui Lagoon, Wedel 1009, 1318, 2023, 2327, 2774 (ail MO). CHIRIQUi: Woods above Alto Lino, 4000-4500 ft, Maurice 843 (US). COLN: Rio Guanche, 1-4 km upstream from Portobelo Road, tropical wet forest, 0-100 m, Gentry 8763 (MO). PANAMA: Along trail to top of Cerro Campana, Mori & Kallunki 2481 (MO).

3. Odontonema longifolium (Oerst.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 494. 1891. Thyrsacanthus longifolius Oerst., Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kj0benhavn 1854: 145. 1854. TYPE: Nicaragua, Oersted (C, not seen). Herb to 2 m tall; stem subquadrangular, puberulous. Leaves elliptic oblong, to 16 cm long and 3.5 cm wide, apically acuminate, basally attenuate, glabrous

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above and beneath, the cystoliths visible on both the surfaces, the margins entire, the upper leaves sessile, entire or slightly undulate, the lower leaves with short petioles to ca. 4 mm long. Inflorescences in a terminal thyrse to 7 cm long, lateral axes in dichasia, the rachis and the pedicels puberulous; one bract subtending each flower and each peduncle, subulate, keeled, to ca. 5 mm long and 0.6 mm wide at the base, puberulous. Flowers with 5-lobed calyx, the lobes equal, subulate, to 2.5 mm long, 0.5 mm wide at base, puberulous; corolla bright red, bilabiate to ca. 25 mm long, 2.5 mm wide at the base, 6 mm wide at the mouth, puberulous outside and inside the tube, the upper lip ca. 11 mm long and 7.5 mm wide at the base, 2-lobed, the lobes 3 mm long, apically acute, the lower lip 11 mm long, 5 mm wide, 3-lobed, the lobes oblong, apically acute, both the lobes with small glandular hairs inside, puberulous outside; stamens exserted, the anthers puberulous, the filaments glabrous, the staminodes coalesced to the filaments of the fertile stamens and emerging from them about one third of the distance up the filament, the free portion of staminode ca. 1.5 mm long, sparingly ciliolate, slightly enlarged apically; ovary at anthesis ca. 3 mm long, beaked with a globose base, glabrous. Capsules not seen. This species is found at edges of forest along streams and rivers. CANAL ZONE: Along streams, drowned forest of Quebrada Ancha, 70 m, Dodge & Steyermark 17043 (MO). 6-8 mi N of Gamboa, Gentry 3357 (MO). COLON: Near Peluca, on Rio Boquern, ca. 27 km from Transisthmian Highway, Dressler 4263 (MO). Alrededores de Salamanca, Lezcano 41 (MO). DARIN: Summit Camp, between Sasardi and Morti, ca. 400 m, Duke 10032 (MO). Teotuma, Hansteina, ca. 100 m, Duke 10072 (MO). Forest 1-3 mi N of Paya, Duke & Kirkbride 14009 (MO). Rio Areti, Duke & Nickerson 14908 (MO). Rio Pirre, trail up river from house of Bartolo, Kennedy 2879 (MO). 4.5 km S of El Real, Mori & Kallunki 5417 (MO). PANA~MA: Semiswampy floodplain near bridge over Rio Buenaventura, near Portobelo, Foster & Kennedy 1792 (DUKE). Tributary of Rio Chagres, 5 mi SW of Cerro Brewster, ca. 1000 ft, Lewis et al. 3437 (MO). Gorgas Memorial Labs yellow fever

research camp, ca. 25 km NE of Cerro Azul on Rio Piedras, 550 m, Mori & Kallunki 3381, 3471 (both MO). Banks of Mamoni River above Chepo, 20-25 m, Pittier 4726 (US). SAN BLAS: Sasardi, frequent along San Blas rivers, ca. 20 m, Duke 10134 (US). VERAGUAS: On road from Santa F to Calovebora (Panamian Highway 35), 16 km from Santa F, on Atlantic slope near Rio Caloveborita, Mori et al. 6676 (MO). 4. Odontonema microphyllus Durkee.12 TYPE: Panama, Kennedy 2762 (MO). -FIG. 24. Shrub to 1.5 m tall, often decumbent; stems subquadrangular in younger portions, glabrous to puberulous, appearing jointed at the internodes. Leaves elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 3-5 cm long and 1-1.7 cm wide, apically acuminate, basally attenuate, glabrous on both sides, the cystoliths minute, visible only on the upper surface, the margins entire to undulate; petioles short, 2-4 mm long, pubescence that of the stem. Inflorescences in loose, terminal racemes to 7 cm " Odontonema microphyllus Durkee, sp. nov. Frutex ad 1.5 m altus, saepe decumbens; foliis ellipticis ad ovato-ellipticis, 3.5 cm longis, 1.0-1.7 cm latis, utrinque glabris, cystolithis minutis, tantum supra manifestis, marginibus integris vel undulatis; petioles brevis, 2-4 cm longis; inflorescentibus terminalibus, racemis laxis ad 7 cm longis constantibus, bracteis plerumque floribus solitariis, interdum geminis gerentibus; pedicellis 3-6 cm longis; corolla rubra vel miniata ad 2.3 cm longa, 6 cm lata; staminibus incisura labii supremi leviter superantibus.

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long, pedicels mostly one per bract with occasional pairs, each 1 or occasional pair subtended by a single subulate bract, ca. 1 mm long, 0.5 mm wide at the base; bracteoles, 2 per flower, immediately inside each bract and of similar shape and size; rachis glabrous to puberulous; pedicels 3-6 mm long, the pedicels puberulous. Flowers with the calyx segments subulate, 2-3 mm long, 0.5 mm wide at base, ciliolate; corolla red or red-orange, bilabiate, funnelform, often curved to one side, to 2.3 cm long, 6 mm wide at the throat and 2 mm wide at the base, puberulous outside, mostly glabrous inside except for a few short glandular hairs on the inner surface of the lobes, upper lip 5 mm long, 5 mm wide at the base, 2-lobed, the lobes ovate, 3 mm long, ca. 3 mm wide at the base, the lower lip 3-lobed, each lobe ovate, 5.5 mm long, 3 mm wide at base, apically obtuse; stamens extending to just beyond the notch of the upper lip, the anthers 2 mm long, the filaments glabrous, the staminodes 2.5-3 mm long, apically apiculate and curved to one side, glabrous. Capsules 4-seeded, clavate, 2 cm long, 4 mm broad, 4 mm thick, minutely puberulous; seeds oval, flattened, 3 mm long, 2.5 mm wide ca. 1 mm thick, the surface roughened. This species grows in low forests and mountain slopes. COLON: Santa Rita, abandoned lumber road N of Agua Clara rain gauge, Kennedy 2762 (MO). PANAMIA: Cerro Jefe, Duke 8004, 9457 (both MO); Dwyer 8368 (MO); Gentry 2877 (MO). La Eneida, Cerro Jefe region, 750 m, Maas & Dressler 694 (MO). E slope of Cerro Jefe, 2700 ft, Tyson 3375 (MO). Edge of forest along the Carti Road between about 10-12 km from its intersection with the Panamanian Highway beyond Chepo, Wilbur & Luteyn 19528 (DUKE). Slopes of Cerro Jefe beyond Cerro Azul ca. 5.5 mi on road to La Eneida, 2700-3000 ft, Wilbur & Teeri 13639 (DUKE). Slopes of Cerro Jefe beyond Cerro Azul between 4-8 mi in mostly heavily wooded slopes, Wilbur & Weaver 11378 (DUKE). Forested slopes of Cerro Jefe, Wilbur et ai. 11323 (DUKE). Slopes of Cerro Jefe between Cerro Azul and La Eneida ca. 15 mi NE of Panama City, Wilbur et al. 15543 (DUKE). 5. Odontonema strictum (Nees) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 494. 1891. Thyrsacanthus strictus Nees in DC., Prodr. 11: 324. 1847. TYPE: Honduras, Armstrong (not seen). Suffrutescent, to 2.5 m high; stems subquandrangular, glabrous to sparingly pilose. Leaves elliptic to oblong elliptic, to 32 cm long, 9 cm wide, apically acuminate with the tip often curved to one side, basally narrowed to a rounded base, 5-8 mm wide, both the surfaces glabrous, numerous, minute cystoliths visible on the upper epidermis, the lower leaves sessile, the upper leaves with short, glabrous petiole to 4 mm long. Inflorescences in terminal racemes to 14 cm long, the rachis glabrous to puberulous, quadrangular, the flower clusters to ca. 1.5 cm apart on the lower rachis, arranged in pseudowhorls; bracts subulate, length variable, 8-25 mm long, mostly 10 mm or less, 2 mm wide at the base, keeled, acuminate, the surface sparingly puberulous, ciliolate, one bract frequently subtending 2 or 3 flowers each bearing a smaller bract and with triangular bracteoles ca. 1.0 mm long, 1.0 mm wide at the base, sparingly puberulous, <.FIGURE 24. Odontonema microphyllus Durkee. Habit (x% ). [After Kennedy 2762 (MO).]

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acuminate; peduncle quadrangular, mostly glabrous, to 3.5 cm long; pedicels short, mostly glabrous, to 1 cm long, frequently borne in clusters of 3. Flowers with the calyx segments reddish when dry, equal, subulate, to 3.0 mm long, 1.0 mm wide at the base, acuminate, sparingly puberulous, sparingly ciliolate; corolla scarlet, bilabiate, funnelform, often curved to one side, to 3.5 cm long, 7 mm wide at the throat, 3 mm wide at the base, the tube glabrous on both surfaces, the upper lip 7.5 mm long, 6 mm wide at base, 2-lobed, the lobes ovate, 4.5 mm long, 3 mm wide, acuminate, ciliolate, glandular-hairy inside, the lower lip of 3 lobes, each ca. 7 mm long, 3 mm wide, oblong ovate, apically obtuse, ciliolate, the glandular hairs covering the inner surface of all the lobes; stamens extending to the notch of the upper lip, the staminodes 0.5-1 mm long, somewhat keeled and curved at the apex. Capsules clavate, to 2 cm long, 5 mm wide at the widest point, 2 mm wide at the base; seeds flattened, semiorbicular, 3 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, 1 mm thick, the surface heavily muricate. This species is found in forests of Central America. BOCAS DEL TORO: Forest above RR stop at Milla 7.5 at edge of creek, Croat & Porter 16251 (MO). Rio Terib, mostly secondary growth near Quebrada Lukulon, ca. 300 ft, Kirkbride & Duke 517 (MO). Nievecita, 0-50 m, Woodson et al. 1812 (MO). CANAL ZONE: Forest along small unnamed quebrada entering lake at 70 m level, Rio Indio, Dodge & Allen 17303 (MO). Forest along banks of Quebrada La Palma and canyon of Rio Chagres, 70-80 m, Dodge & Allen 17382 (MO). CHIRIQUi: Woods around and above Alto Lino, 4000-4500 ft, Maurice 843 (US). San Bartolo Limit, 20 km W of Puerto Armuelles, 400-600 m, in forest, Busey 540 (MO). Bajo Mono, Boquete District, 4500 ft, David 490 (MO). cocL: El Valle de Anton, along Rio Indio trail, 500-700 m, along streams, Allen & Hunter 312 (MO). El Valle, 600-1000 m, Allen 1226 (MO). North rim of El Valle de Anton, 600-1000 m, Allen 1670 (F). Road to El Cope from Interamerican Highway, Burch et al. 1381 (MO). Cloud forest near La Mesa, Croat 13356 (MO). La Mesa, Dwyer & Duke 8266 (MO); Gentry 6829 (MO); Kennedy et al. 3023 (MO); Lewis et al. 2611 (MO). 2 mi N of Cerro Pilon, ca. 900 m, Liesner 715 (MO). Foot of Cerro Pil6n above El Valle de Anton, 2000 ft, rain forest, Porter et al. 4410 (MO). Above Penonom, Bismark, 2000-3000 ft, Williams 590 (NY). DARIN: Between Upper Rio Membrillo and Camp 7 on the construction road to San Blas 100-800 m, Duke 10915 (MO). Can, Williams 746 (NY). PANAMA: Cerro Campana along trail to summit, Croat 17168 (MO). Cerro Campana, lower slopes above FSU cabin, 850 m, Croat 22771 (MO). Forests along headwaters of Rio Corso off Rio Pacora, 500 m, Duke 11910 (MO). On trail to Cerro Campana, Kirkbride & Hayden 278 (MO). Cerro Campana, Lewis

et al. 3042 (MO). Tributary of Rio Chagres, 5 mi SW of Cerro Brewster, ca. 1000 ft, sandy and rocky river banks, Lewis et al. 3440 (MO). La Eneida, Cerro Jefe region, 750 m, Maas & Dressler 683 (MO). Cerro Campana, above Su Lin Motel, rain forest, Porter et al. 4279 (MO). Cerro Campana, low cloud forest near the summit, Smith & Smith 3368 (F). VERAGUAS: Santa F, forested slopes of Cerro Tute, 2500 ft, Allen 4401 (MO). Primary forest on Caribbean slope above Rio Primero Brazo 5 mi NW of Santa F, 700-1200 m, Croat 23117 (MO). 3-5 mi N of Santa F, 500-1000 m, Gentry 2958 (MO). Primary forest, 700-1200 m on Caribbean slope above Rio Primero Brazo 5 mi NW of Santa F, Liesner 833 (MO). PROVINCE UNKNOWN: Duke 6160 (MO). 25. PSEUDERANTHEMUM Pseuderanthemum Radlk., Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Mnchen 13: 282. 1883. TYPE: E. alatum Nees. Herbs or small shrubs. Leaves ovatc or elliptic. Inflorescences in terminal or axillary spikes, racemes or panicles; 1 bract and 2 bracteoles subtending

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each flower or flower cluster. Flowers with the calyx segments 4 or 5, subulate; corolla white, blue, purplish or pink, the tube narrow, the limb spreading, the 5 lobes subequal; stamens 2, included or exserted, the staminodes 2, minute, the anther cells basally obtuse or acute. Capsules long stipitate; seeds 2 or 4. This genus has 120 species from Old and New World Tropics. a. Leaves basally cordate or subcordate; inflorescences racemose ---_ 2. P. cordatum aa. Leaves basally rounded and/or attenuate; inflorescences in panicles or spikes. b. Inflorescences in spikes; rachis of inflorescence puberulous or glandular puberulous. c. Calyx glabrous; flowers clustered in pseudowhorls on the rachis--------------------------- 3. P. cuspidatum cc. Calyx glandular puberulous; flowers borne singly and alternating on the rachis ----------------------- 4. P. standleyi bb. Inflorescences in panicles; rachis of inflorescence glabrous --_- 1. P. atropurpureum 1. Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum (Bull) Bailey, Gentes Herb. 1: 130. 1923.

Eranthemum atropurpureum Bull. Gard. Chron. 1: 619. 1875. TYPE: Cultivated in England, Bull (not seen). Shrubs or small trees to 4 m high; stems subquandrangular toward the apex, glabrous except for a tuft of hair at or near the stipular ring. Leaves elliptic ovate, to 10 cm long and 6 cm wide, apically acute to apiculate, basally attenuate, the cystoliths nearly punctiform, greenish beneath and dark purple above, glabrous, the margins entire; petioles ca. 1.5 cm long, glabrous. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, in thyrsoid panicles with the flowers in subsessile fascicles of mostly 3 flowers; pedicels, peduncles and rachis glabrous, the pedicels to 5 mm long, the peduncles to 7 mm long and the rachis to 13 cm long, the lower bracts spatulate, ca. 7 mm long and 3 mm wide, the upper bracts progressively smaller and linear, all the bracts ciliolate. Flowers with 5-merous calyx, the lobes subulate, to 3 mm long, 1 mm wide at the base, ciliolate; corolla white with magenta spots in the throat, the tube cylindrical, to 10 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, the limb to 20 mm broad, the lobes elliptic, to 8 mm long, 5 mm wide, apically rounded, the margins ciliolate; stamens exserted, attached just below the mouth of the corolla, the filaments glabrous, the staminodes ca. 0.5 mm long, the anther cells acute at the base; ovary glabrous. Capsules not observed. This species is frequently cultivated in tropical America and sometimes escapes. It is probably native in Polynesia. CANAL ZONE: Hospital grounds at Anc6n, 20-80 m, cultivated, Pittier 3961 (US). Mount Hope Cemetery, Standley 28845 (US). COLON: Guaira, mainland opposite Isla Grande, D'Arcy 4047 (MO). PANAMA: Piria, ca. 150 m, Duke 14443 (MO). 2. Pseuderanthemum cordatum (Nees) Radlk., Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. K1. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Mnchen 13: 286. 1883.-FIG. 25. Eranthemum cordatum Nees in Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulphur 147. 1844. TYPE: Chile (not seen). Herbs to small shrub 1 m tall; stems erect, terete. Leaves ovate, to 20 cm long, 12 cm wide, apically acuminate, basally subcordate, glabrous, cystoliths

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FIGURE 25. Pseuderanthemum cordatum (Nees) Radlk.-A. Habit (X%).-B. Inflorescence (XI).-C. Capsule (X1%). [After Kennedy 2655 (MO).]

moderately distributed, visible on both the surfaces, the margins undulate to crenulate; petioles to 9 cm long, glabrous. Inflorescences in terminal racemes

to 50 cm long, 2 cm wide; rachis terete, puberulous; bracts triangular to subulate, to 2 mm long, 1 mm wide basally, puberulous; pedicels borne in clusters of up to 6 at the base of the inflorescence to 1 at the top, 1-2 mm long, puberulous, the clusters to 3 cm apart at the base of the inflorescence. Flowers with the calyx 5-merous, the segments linear, 10-25 mm long, 0.5 mm wide, mi-

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nutely puberulous glandular; corolla light to dark purple, puberulous, the tube cylindrical, 1.5-4 cm long, ca. 1.25 mm in diameter expanding to 3 mm around the ovary, the lobes of the limb oval, to 9 mm long, 4 mm wide; stamens exserted to ca. 6 mm beyond the mouth, the staminodes minute, barely discernible. Capsules to 16 mm long, 5 mm wide, 2 mm thick, puberulous; seeds 2, orbicular, flattened, 4 mm in diameter, roughened. This species is found along stream banks and other shady moist habitats at lower elevations in central Panama. CANAL ZONE: Drowned forest of Quebrada Ancha, 70 m, Steyermark & Allen 17103 (MO). COLON: Disturbed forest of steep hill behind Portobelo, Croat & Porter 15604 (MO). Rio Guanche, D'Arcy 9695 (MO). Near Peluca, km 25.6 from Transisthmian Hwy. on the road to Nombre de Dios, upstream on tributary to Rio Boqueron, Kennedy 2655 (MO). PROVINCE UNKNOWN: Boca de Cup, Williams 684 (NY). 3. Pseuderanthemum cuspidatum (Nees) Radlk., Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Kl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., Mnchen 13: 286. 1883. Eranthemum cuspidatum Nees in Benth., Pl. Hartw. 148. 1839. TYPE: Mexico, Hartweg (K, not seen). Herbs to 40 cm tall; stems erect, subquadrangular, glabrous to puberulous, the hairs restricted to 2 lines in some. Leaves ovate, 4-20 cm long, 2-10 cm wide, apically acuminate, basally rounded and then long attenuate, glabrous to sparingly strigose above, puberulous beneath, mostly on the costa and the veins, the cystoliths dense, more prominent above, the margins entire to crenulate; sessile or with unwinged petioles to ca. 5 mm long, pubescent as on the stem. Inflorescences in lax, terminal spikes to 14 cm long, the rachis puberulous; bracts subulate, to 3 mm long, 1.25 mm wide basally, ciliolate; bracteoles similar though smaller; lowermost pair of bracts suborbicular, to 2 cm long, 1.5 cm wide; flowers sessile, solitary or in clusters of up to 5 in pseudowhorls of up to 1 cm apart on the rachis. Flowers with the calyx 5-merous, the segments subulate, to 3 mm long, 0.5 mm wide, glabrous; corolla purplish, glabrous, tube cylindrical,

to 4 cm long, 1 mm in diameter, lobes of the limb elliptic, ca. 8 mm long, 5 mm broad; stamens barely exserted, the filaments 2.5 mm long, staminodes 0.5 mm long. Capsules 12-16 mm long, 3 mm wide, 1.5 mm thick; seeds 4, orbicular, flattened, 2 mm diameter, roughened. This species grows along stream banks and adjacent to forests at lower elevations in southern Mexico, Central America and northern South America. CANAL ZONE. Madden Dam, second growth, Ebinger 881 (MO, US). DARIN: Can, 2000 ft, Williams 784 (NY). PANAMA: Upper Tapia River, Cornman 2032 (US). Alhajuela, Chagres River, Killip 3215 (US). Alhajuela, Paul 493 (US); Pittier 2357 (US). PROVINCE UNKNOWN: Duke 1523 (MO). 4. Pseuderanthemum standleyi Leonard, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 18: 1246. 1938. TYPE: Costa Rica, Standley & Valerio 49481 (US, not seen). Herbs to 40 cm tall; stems terete, puberulous along 2 lines. Leaves ovate lanceolate, to 8 cm long, 3 cm wide, apically acuminate, basally attenuate, gla-

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brous to sparingly strigose above, puberulous beneath mostly at the costa and the veins, the cystoliths dense, moderately prominent on both the surfaces, the margins undulate; petioles short, 1-3 mm long, puberulous. Inflorescences in terminal spicate panicles and in axillary spikes, the spikes lax to 9 cm long, the rachises glandular puberulous; bracts and bracteoles subulate, to ca. 3 mm long, 0.5 mm wide basally, glandular puberulous; pedicels mostly borne singly or in clusters of 2, alternate on the rachis. Flowers with the calyx 5-merous, segments narrowly subulate, to 5 mm long, 0.5 mm wide, glandular puberulous; corolla purplish, sparingly and minutely puberulous, the tube ca. 15 mm long, 1 mm in diameter, lobes of the limb elliptic, ca. 7 mm long, 3.5 mm wide, apically obtuse; stamens included, the staminodes slightly longer than the filaments. Capsules ca. 15 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, 2 mm thick, glabrous; seeds 4, oblique, flattened, 3 mm long, 2 mm wide, roughened. This species grows in moist thickets and open areas at elevations above 1,000 m in Costa Rica and adjacent Panama. A Mexican specimen, Hinton 8865 (MO), has been observed. CHIRIQUi: Jaremillo, Boquete District, 5000 ft, Terry 1284 (MO). 26. RAZISEA

Razisea Oerst., Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kj0benhavn 1854: 142. 1854. TYPE: R. spicata Oersted. Shrub. Leaves mostly glabrous elliptic. Inflorescences are in terminal and axillary thyrses which superficially resemble spikes, the bracts and the bractlets small and inconspicuous; flowers either sessile or pedicellate. Flowers with the calyx 5-merous with equal lobes, the corolla bilabiate, the upper lip narrow, the lower lip broad and 3-lobed at the tip; stamens 2, exserted, the filaments flattened, the anthers 1-celled; style exserted, the stigma 2-parted. Capsules clavate, 4-seeded. The genus consists of one species. 1. Razisea spicata Oerst., Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kj0benhavn 1854: 142. 1855. TYPE: Costa Rica, Oersted 1500 (C, not seen).-FIG. 26. A shrub to 2 m tall; stems quadrangular in the young portions, glabrous. Leaves elliptic to slightly ovate, to 22 cm long and 8.5 cm wide, apically acuminate, basally attenuate, glabrous above, glabrous to puberulous along the midrib and the costa beneath, cystoliths numerous and visible on both the surfaces, the margins entire to slightly crenate, the petioles varying from subsessile to 4 cm long, glabrous. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary thyrses to 27 cm long; rachis puberulous to sericeous, the bracts one per flower, small, subulate, to 3 mm long, 1 mm wide at the base, puberulous, the bractlets 2, subulate, slightly smaller than the bracts; pedicels borne singly and in fascicles of 2 or 3, puberulous, to 3 mm long. Flowers with the calyx 5-merous, the lobes equal, linear, to 5 mm long, 0.5 mm wide at the base, puberulous; corolla bright red, funnelform, ascending, slightly curved to one side, to 4 cm long, to 9 mm wide at the mouth, 2

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DURKEE-FLORA OF PANAMA (Family 177. Acanthaceae)

FIGURE 26. Razisea spicata Oerst. Habit (X12). [After Wedel 2574 (MO).] mm wide at the base, glabrous, bilabiate, the upper lip linear to 8 mm long, 4 mm wide at the base, apically rounded, ciliolate, the lower lip with 3 small acute lobes at the tip, the lobes about equal, 1 mm long, the lower lip, when open forming an oblique angle from the upper lip; stamens exserted, the filaments to 4.5 cm long, glabrous, the anther cell to 3 mm long, the base rounded. Capsules (Leonard 1938) to 17 mm long; glabrous, seeds roughened. This species is found in rain forests of Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia. Capsules were not seen on Panamanian specimens.

BOCAS DEL TORO: Along road between Almirante and Ojo de Agua 3-6 km W of Almirante, 30-200 m, Croat 38202 (MO). Changuinola Valley, Dunlap 111 (US). Rio Terib, between Quebrada Treglo and Puerto Palenque, 90-105 m, Kirkbride & Duke 535 (MO). Rain forest by river, Chiriquicito to 5 mi S along Rio Guarumo, Lewis et al. 2033 (MO).

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