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CHEMISTRY

QUESTIONSHEETS

A2 TOPIC 18

EQUILIBRIA II

A2BACK
Level

Questionsheet

EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT KC

17 marks

Questionsheet

CALCULATION OF KC

19 marks

Questionsheet

HOMOGENEOUS EQUILIBRIA CALCULATIONS INVOLVING KC

15 marks

Questionsheet

CALCULATION OF KP (HOMOGENEOUS EQUILIBRIA)

16 marks

Questionsheet

USE OF KP TO DETERMINE EQUILIBRIUM PARTIAL PRESSURES

16 marks

Questionsheet

HETEROGENEOUS EQUILIBRIA

14 marks

Questionsheet

TEST QUESTION I

17 marks

Questionsheet

TEST QUESTION II

10 marks

Questionsheet

TEST QUESTION III

15 marks

Questionsheet

10

TEST QUESTION IV

13 marks

Authors
Trevor Birt
Donald E Caddy
Sam Goodman
Andrew Jones
Editor
John Brockington

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The Curriculum Press Unit 305B The Big Peg 120 Vyse Street Birmingham B18 6NF

A2 Level

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TOPIC 18 Questionsheet 1

EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT Kc
a) The reaction A(aq) + B(aq) C (aq) is endothermic, and at room temperature both forward and reverse
reactions are relatively slow. A and B are both colourless, whilst C is a deep blue colour.
(i)

Write an expression for the equilibrium constant Kc for this reaction.

[1]
(ii) What would be the effect on the value of Kc of each of the following?
Increasing temperature .............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................... [2]
Adding more A at constant temperature ...................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(iii)

What would you see if more C were added at room temperature?


...................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................... [3]

b) In an industrial process involving a reversible gas phase reaction, the following yields are obtained under
different operating conditions.
Temperature / K
300

500

Pressure / atm

Yield / %

100

35

300

60

100

300

12

Use these data to state, with reasons, whether the reaction


(i)

is exothermic or endothermic.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(ii) has more or fewer moles of gaseous product than reactant.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
TOTAL(Continued...)
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A2 Level

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TOPIC 18 Questionsheet 1 Continued

EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT Kc
c) With reference to the process described in b), what would be the effect (if any) on the value of Kc of each of
the following?
(i)

Changing the conditions from 300 K and 100 atm to 500 K and 100 atm.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Changing the conditions from 300 K and 100 atm to 300 K and 300 atm.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Introducing a catalyst at 300 K and 100 atm.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]

TOTAL / 17

A2 Level

TOPIC 18

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Questionsheet 2

CALCULATION OF KC
a) 0.1 mol of PCl3 and 0.1 mol Cl2 were heated in a 2 dm3 flask at constant temperature. When equilibrium had
been established, 0.05 mol PCl5 was obtained: PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) PCl5(g)
(i)

Write an expression for Kc for this reaction.


[1]

(ii) Calculate the concentrations of all three components at equilibrium.

[4]
(iii) Calculate the value of Kc.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) The synthesis of ammonia is given by the equation: N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
At 750 K and 900 atm, 3 mol hydrogen and 1 mol nitrogen reacted to give an equilibrium mixture containing
1.5 mol of ammonia.
(i)

Calculate the number of moles of nitrogen and hydrogen that have reacted.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) Hence calculate the number of moles of nitrogen and hydrogen at equilibrium.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(iii) Calculate the volume of the equilibrium mixture from the total number of moles present.
(Use R = 0.0821 dm3 atm K-1 mol-1)
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(iv) Now calculate the molar concentration of each gas at equilibrium.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(v) Write an expression for the equilibrium constant, Kc.
[1]
(vi) Calculate the value of Kc at 750 K.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
TOTAL / 19

A2 Level

TOPIC 18

Questionsheet 3

HOMOGENEOUS EQUILIBRIA CALCULATIONS INVOLVING Kc


a) How many moles of ethanol must be mixed with 3 mol of ethanoic acid at 373 K to produce 2 mol of ethyl
ethanoate? (At this temperature, Kc for the reaction CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O = 4.0 )
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
b) The silver cation, Ag+, reacts with thiosulphate ions, S2O32-, to form a complex ion:
Ag+(aq) + 2S2O32-(aq) [Ag(S2O3)2]3-(aq)
At 298 K the equilibrium constant Kc for this reaction is (numerically) 1 x 1013.
(i)

Write an expression for Kc and state its units.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) At equilibrium, the concentration of the complex ion was 0.1 mol dm-3, whilst that of the thiosulphate
ion was 0.001 mol dm-3. Calculate the concentration of free silver ions in the solution.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
c) 0.1 mol each of SO3(g), SO2(g) and O2(g) are introduced into a 1 dm3 container at a temperature at which, for
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g), Kc = 2.0 10-6 mol-1 dm3. Show that the mixture is not at equilibrium.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
d) In the gas phase, hydrogen and iodine react to produce an equilibrium mixture containing hydrogen iodide:
H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g)
The equilibrium constant, Kc, for this reaction is 54.0 at 700 K. If the concentration of hydrogen gas is trebled,
calculate the change in the hydrogen iodide concentration.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
TOTAL / 15

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A2 Level

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TOPIC 18 Questionsheet 4

CALCULATION OF Kp (HOMOGENEOUS EQUILIBRIA)


a) (i)

Define the term partial pressure, as applied to mixtures of gases.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Calculate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in a mixture of gases containing 4.4 g carbon dioxide
and 5.6 g carbon monoxide, if the total pressure is 1.05 atm.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
b) In the gas phase, PCl5 undergoes thermal dissociation: PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)
At a certain temperature, and a total pressure of 3 atm, 60% of the PCl5 originally present has dissociated
when equilibrium is attained. Calculate:
(i) the partial pressures of the three gases at equilibrium.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
(ii) the value of Kp at this temperature.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
c) The vapour of ethanoic acid consists partly of dimers, (CH3COOH)2, as well as monomers, CH3COOH.
The equilibrium constant Kp for the reaction (CH3COOH)2(g) 2CH3COOH(g) is 0.53 atm at 350 K and
1 atm pressure.
(i)

What would you expect to happen to the value of Kp as the temperature increases? Give your reasons.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(ii) At another temperature, but still at 1 atm pressure, the partial pressure of the dimer is 0.2 atm.
Calculate the value of Kp.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
TOTAL / 16

A2 Level

TOPIC 18 Questionsheet 5

USE OF Kp TO DETERMINE EQUILIBRIUM PARTIAL PRESSURES


a) Experiment shows that the relative molecular mass of dinitrogen tetraoxide at 60 0C and a pressure of 1 atm
is 58.0; not 92.0 as indicated by the formula. The cause is thermal dissociation: N2O4(g) 2NO2(g)
(i)

Calculate the degree of thermal dissociation () at 60 0C.

....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) Hence calculate the partial pressure of each gas in the mixture.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
(iii) Now calculate the value of Kp.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) At 55 0C, Kp for this equilibrium has a value of 4/3 . Suppose that 1 mol of N2O4 is heated at this temperature,
again at a pressure of 1 atm.
(i) Write down expressions for the partial pressures of each gas in terms of the degree of thermal
dissociation () at 55 0C.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
(ii) Substitute these partial pressures and the value for Kp in the equilibrium expression and hence find the
value of .
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(iii) Hence calculate the partial pressures of N2O4 and NO2 in equilibrium with each other under these
conditions.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]

TOTAL / 16

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A2 Level

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TOPIC 18 Questionsheet 6

HETEROGENEOUS EQUILIBRIA
a) For the reaction CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g) the total pressure at equilibrium at 1200 K is 4 atm, and at
1300 K is 15.9 atm.
(i) Write an expression for Kp and give the values at each temperature.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(ii) Comment on your answers and state whether the dissociation is exothermic or endothermic.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
b) At 1300 K, Kp = 204 atm for the following reaction: C(s) + H2O(g) CO(g) + H2(g) ; H = +147 kJ mol-1
(i) Write an expression for Kp.

[1]
(ii) If the partial pressure of carbon monoxide is 4 atm, what is the total pressure in the system?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
c) Ammonium aminomethanoate was heated in a closed vessel until the following equilibrium was established
at a certain temperature: NH2COONH4(s) 2NH3(g) + CO2(g). The total pressure at equilibrium was
1.56 atm.
(i) What were the partial pressures of the two gases?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(ii) Calculate Kp at this temperature.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]

TOTAL / 14

A2 Level

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TOPIC 18 Questionsheet 7

TEST QUESTION I
An organic acid, R-COOH, and an alcohol, R-CH2OH, were mixed in a mole ratio of 1:1, the total volume of the
mixture being 100 cm3. An immediate sample of 10 cm3 of this mixture was taken, added to 100 cm3 of 1 molar
sodium hydroxide, and the resulting mixture required 19.6 cm3 of 1 molar HCl for neutralisation. After equilibration
for 24 hours at 298 K, 10 cm3 aliquots of the remaining mixture were withdrawn, added to 50 cm3 of 1 molar
sodium hydroxide, and again titrated with 1 molar HCl; the mean titre in this case was 23.2 cm3.
Calculate:
a) the number of moles of acid in the initial 10 cm3 of mixture withdrawn.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
b) the number of moles of alcohol in this sample.
....................................................................................................................................................................... [1]
c) the number of moles of acid present in 10 cm3 of sample withdrawn at equilibrium.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
d) the number of moles of alcohol present in this sample at equilibrium.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]

e) the value of the equilibrium constant, Kc.


...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [6]

TOTAL / 17

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TOPIC 18 Questionsheet 8

A2 Level

TEST QUESTION II
Nitrogen and oxygen react at high temperatures to form nitrogen monoxide: N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g)
a) Write an expression for the equilibrium constant Kp for this reaction.

[1]
The following table shows how the value of Kp changes with temperature, and the effect of different partial
pressures of nitrogen and oxygen upon that of nitrogen monoxide at each temperature.

Temperature / K

1750
2000
2250
2500
2750

Kp 104

1.20
4.00
12.00
26.50
60.00

Partial pressure of NO / atm 102


p(N2) = 0.8 atm
p(O2) = 0.2 atm

p(N2) = 0.8 atm


p(O2) = 0.05 atm

0.40
0.80
1.40
2.20
3.00

0.20
0.40
0.70
1.10
1.50

b) Explain, giving reasons, the conditions which should be used to give the best yield of NO.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [6]
c) Why are the values in the last column half of those in the third?
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]

TOTAL / 10

A2 Level

TOPIC 18

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Questionsheet 9

TEST QUESTION III


Triiodide ions exist in equilibrium with iodine and iodide ions when iodine and potassium iodide are mixed
together in aqueous solution according to the equation:
I3-(aq) I2(aq) + I-(aq)
a) An equilibrium mixture at 25 C was found to contain 1.04 g triiodide ions, 0.33 g iodine and 0.16 g iodide
ions in 400 cm3 of water. Calculate the number of moles of each species present in the equilibrium mixture.
Moles of I3- ........................................................................................................................................................
Moles of I2 ........................................................................................................................................................
Moles of I- .................................................................................................................................................... [3]
b) (i)

Write an expression for the equilibrium constant, Kc, for the above equilibrium.

[1]
(ii) Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant, Kc.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
c) In two more experiments, various amounts of iodine and potassium iodide were mixed together in 400 cm3
and left at 25 C for different times. The concentrations of each component were found to be as follows.
Experiment

[I3-(aq)] / mol dm-3

[I2(aq)] / mol dm-3

[I-(aq)] / mol dm-3

0.34

0.04

0.03

0.13

0.02

0.01

Show by calculation which (if either) of these experiments had reached equilibrium.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [3]
d) The reaction I3-(aq) I2(aq) + I-(aq) was found to have a positive enthalpy change. State and explain how the
equilibrium constant would change if:
(i) the temperature of the reaction was increased.
Effect on Kc ..............................................................................................................................................
Explanation ...............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................... [3]
(ii) the concentration of I-(aq) ions was increased.
Effect on Kc ..............................................................................................................................................
Explanation ...............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................... [2]
TOTAL / 15

A2 Level

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TOPIC 18 Questionsheet 10

TEST QUESTION IV
Solid carbon reacts with carbon dioxide at high temperatures according to the equation:
C(s) + CO2 2CO(g)
At 1000 K, the equilibrium mixture was found to contain 0.84 g carbon monoxide and 0.66 g carbon dioxide.
Kp = 2.0 atm.
a) (i)

Calculate the number of moles of each gas present in the equilibrium mixture.
Moles of CO(g) ...................................................................................................................................... [1]
Moles of CO2(g) .................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Calculate the mole fraction of each gas present in the equilibrium mixture.
Mole fraction of CO(g) .............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................... [1]
Mole fraction of CO2(g) ............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Write an expression for the equilibrium constant, Kp, for the above equilibrium.
[1]
(iv) Calculate the total pressure of the equilibrium mixture at 1000 K.
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [4]
b) Assuming that the temperature remains constant, predict the effect on the partial pressure of CO(g) at
equilibrium of:
(i)

increasing the total pressure.

...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]
(ii) introducing additional C(s).
...........................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................... [2]

TOTAL / 13