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Summary

The action covers a single day from around 8:30 am to midnight, in August 1912 at the seaside Connecticut home of the Tyronesthe semi auto!iogra"hical re"resentations of #$%eill himself, his older !rother, and their "arents at their home, &onte Cristo Cottage' #ne theme of the "lay is addiction and the resulting dysfunction of the family' All three males are alcoholics and &ary is addicted to mor"hine' (n the "lay the characters conceal, !lame, resent, regret, accuse and deny in an escalating cycle of conflict )ith occasional des"erate and sincere attem"ts at affection, encouragement and consolation'*citation needed+

Synopsis
Act I
,ames Tyrone is an aging actor -./ yrs0 )ho had !ought a 1vehicle1 "lay for himself and had esta!lished a re"utation !ased on this one role )ith )hich he had toured for years' Although it had served him )ell financially, !y the time of the "lay$s o"ening, he is resentful of the fact that his having !ecome so identified )ith this character has severely limited his sco"e and o""ortunities as a classical, es"ecially 2ha3es"earean, actor' 4e is a )ealthy man, !ut his money is all tied u" in "ro"erty )hich he hangs on to in s"ite of im"ending financial hardshi"' 4is dress and a""earance are sho)ing signs of his strained financial circumstances, !ut he moves and s"ea3s )ith the hallmar3 attri!utes of a classical actor of the declamatory tradition in s"ite of his sha!!y attire' 4is )ife &ary has recently returned from treatment for mor"hine addiction and has "ut on )eight as a result' 2he is loo3ing much healthier than the family has !een accustomed to, and they remar3 fre5uently on her im"roved a""earance' 4o)ever, she still retains the haggard facial features of a long time addict' (n common )ith many recovering addicts, she is restless and an6ious and suffers from insomnia, not made any easier !y her hus!and and children$s loud snoring' 7hen 8dmund, her younger son, hears her moving around at night and entering the s"are !edroom, he !ecomes very alarmed' (t )as the room that his mother used to satisfy her mor"hine addiction' 4e 5uestions her a!out it indirectly' 2he reassures him that she 9ust )ent there to get a)ay from her hus!and$s snoring' (n addition to &ary$s "ro!lems, the )hole family is )orried a!out 8dmund$s constant coughing' The family fears that he might have tu!erculosis, and this an6iety has "laced them all under additional stress' They are an6iously a)aiting the diagnosis of his condition' 8dmund is more concerned a!out the effect a "ositive diagnosis might have on his mother than on himself' The constant "ossi!ility that she might rela"se )orries him sic3er than he already is' #nce again, he indirectly s"ea3s to his mother a!out her addiction' 4e as3s her to 1"romise not to )orry yourself sic3 and to ta3e care of yourself1' 1#f course ( "romise you1, she "rotests, !ut then adds -$)ith a sad !itterness$0, 1:ut ( su""ose you$re remem!ering ($ve "romised !efore on my )ord of honor1'

Act II
,amie and 8dmund taunt each other a!out stealing their father$s alcohol and )atering it do)n so he )on$t notice' They s"ea3 a!out &ary$s conduct' ,amie !erates 8dmund for leaving their mother unsu"ervised' 8dmund !erates ,amie for !eing sus"icious' :oth, ho)ever, are dee"ly concerned that their mother$s mor"hine a!use may have resurfaced' ,amie "oints out to 8dmund that they had concealed their mother$s addiction from him for ten years' ,amie e6"lains to 8dmund that his naivet; a!out the nature of the disease )as understanda!le !ut deluded' They discuss the u"coming results of 8dmund$s tests for tu!erculosis, and ,amie tells 8dmund to "re"are for the )orst' Their mother a""ears' 2he is distraught a!out 8dmund$s coughing, )hich he tries to su""ress so as not to alarm her, fearing anything that might trigger her addiction again' 7hen 8dmund acce"ts his mother$s e6cuse that she had !een u"stairs so long !ecause she had !een 1lying do)n1, ,amie loo3s at them !oth contem"tuously' &ary notices and starts !ecoming defensive and !elligerent, !erating ,amie for his cynicism and disres"ect for his "arents' ,amie is 5uic3 to "oint out that the only reason he has survived as an actor is through his father$s influence in the !usiness' &ary s"ea3s of her frustration )ith their summer home, its im"ermanence and sha!!iness, and her hus!and$s indifference to his surroundings' 7ith irony, she alludes to her !elief that this air of detachment may !e the very reason he has tolerated her addiction for so long' This frightens 8dmund, )ho is trying des"erately to hang on to his !elief in normality )hile faced )ith t)o emotionally horrific "ro!lems at once' <inally, una!le to tolerate the )ay ,amie is loo3ing at her, she as3s him angrily )hy he is doing it' 1=ou 3no)>1, he shoots !ac3, and tells her to ta3e a loo3 at her gla?ed eyes in the mirror'

Act III
The third act o"ens )ith &ary and Cathleen returning home from their drive to the drugstore )here &ary has sent Cathleen in to "urchase her mor"hine "rescri"tion' %ot )anting to !e alone, &ary does not allo) Cathleen to go to the 3itchen to finish dinner and offers her a drin3 instead' &ary does most of the tal3ing and discusses her love for fog !ut her hatred of the foghorn and her hus!and@s o!vious o!session )ith money' (t is o!vious that &ary has already ta3en some of her A"rescri"tion'B 2he tal3s a!out her "ast in a Catholic convent and the "romise she once had as a "ianist and the fact that it )as once thought that she might !ecome a nun' 2he also ma3es it clear that )hile she fell in love )ith her hus!and from the time she met him, she had never ta3en to the theatre cro)d' 2he sho)s her arthritic hands to Cathleen and e6"lains that the "ain in her hands is )hy she needs her "rescri"tion C an e6"lanation )hich is untrue and trans"arent to Cathleen' 7hen &ary do?es off under the influence of the mor"hine, Cathleen e6its to "re"are dinner' &ary a)a3es and !egins to have !itter memories a!out ho) much she loved her life !efore she met her hus!and' 2he also decides that her "rayers as a do"e fiend are not !eing heard !y the Dirgin, !ut still decides to go u"stairs to get more drugs, !ut !efore she can do so, her son, 8dmund, and her hus!and, ,ames, return home' Although !oth men are drun3, they !oth reali?e that she is !ac3 on mor"hine although &ary attem"ts to act as if she is not' ,amie, the other son, has not returned home, !ut has elected instead to continue drin3ing and to visit the local

)horehouse' After calling ,amie, 1ho"eless failure1 &ary )arns that his !ad influence )ill drag his !rother do)n as )ell' After seeing the condition that &ary is in, her hus!and e6"resses the regret that he !othered to come home and attem"ts to ignore her as she continues her remar3s )hich include !laming him for ,amie@s drin3ing, noting that the (rish are nota!ly stu"id drun3s' Then, as so often ha""ens in the "lay, &ary and ,ames try to get over their animosity and attem"t to e6"ress their love for one another !y remem!ering ha""ier days' 7hen ,ames goes to the !asement to get another !ottle of )his3ey, &ary continues to tal3 )ith her son, 8dmund' 7hen 8dmund reveals that he has consum"tion -tu!erculosis0, &ary refuses to !elieve it, and attem"ts to discredit Er' 4ardy, due to her ina!ility to face the reality and most im"ortantly severity of the situation' 2he accuses 8dmund of attem"ting to get more attention !y !lo)ing everything out of "ro"ortion' (n retaliation, 8dmund reminds his mother that her o)n father died of tu!erculosis, and then, !efore e6iting, he adds ho) difficult it is to have a 1do"e fiend for a mother'1 :y herself, &ary admits that she needs more drugs and ho"es that someday she )ill AaccidentallyB overdose, !ecause she 3no)s that if she did so on "ur"ose, the Dirgin )ould never forgive her' 7hen ,ames comes !ac3 )ith more alcohol he notes that there )as evidence that ,amie had attem"ted to "ic3 the loc3s to the )his3ey ca!inet in the cellar as he had done !efore' &ary ignores this and !ursts out that she is afraid that 8dmund is going to die' 2he also confides to ,ames that 8dmund does not love her !ecause of her drug "ro!lem' 7hen ,ames attem"ts to console her, &ary again accuses herself for giving !irth to 8dmund, )ho a""ears to have !een conceived to re"lace a !a!y &ary and ,ames lost !efore 8dmund@s !irth' 7hen Cathleen announces dinner, &ary indicates that she is not hungry and is going to lie do)n' ,ames goes in to dinner all alone, 3no)ing that &ary is really going u"stairs to get more drugs'

Act IV
At midnight, 8dmund comes home to find his father "laying solitaire' 7hile the t)o fight and drin3, they also have an intimate, tender conversation' ,ames e6"lains his stinginess, and also reveals that he ruined his career !y staying in an acting 9o! for money' After so many years "laying the same "art, he lost his talent for versatility' 8dmund tal3s to his father a!out sailing and his as"iration to one day !ecome a great )riter' They hear ,amie coming home drun3, and ,ames leaves to avoid fighting' ,amie and 8dmund converse, and ,amie confesses that although he loves 8dmund more than anyone else, he )ants him to fail' ,amie "asses out' 7hen ,ames returns, ,amie )a3es u", and they fight ane)' &ary, lost in her mor"hine dreams of the "ast, comes do)nstairs' 4olding her )edding go)n, she 3neels and "rays, )ith her hus!and and sons silently )atching her'

Characters
,ames Tyrone, 2r' -./ yrs0 Foo3s ten years younger and is a!out five feet eight !ut a""ears taller due to his military li3e "osture and !earing' 4e is !road shouldered and dee" chested and remar3a!ly good loo3ing for his age )ith light !ro)n eyes' 4is s"eech and movement are those of a classical actor )ith a studied techni5ue, !ut he is un"retentious and not tem"eramental at all )ith 1inclinations still close to his hum!le !eginnings and (rish farmer for!ears1' 4is attire is some)hat thread!are and sha!!y' 4e )ears his clothing to

the limit of usefulness' 4e has !een a healthy man his entire life and is free of hang u"s and an6ieties e6ce"t for fear of 1dying in the "oorhouse1 and o!session )ith having money' 4e has 1strea3s of sentimental melancholy and rare flashes of intuitive sensi!ility1' 4e smo3es cigars and disli3es !eing referred to as the 1#ld &an1 !y his sons' &ary Cavan Tyrone -/G yrs0 The )ife and mother of the family )ho la"ses !et)een self delusion and the ha?e of her mor"hine addiction' 2he is medium height )ith a young graceful figure, a trifle "lum" )ith distinctly (rish facial features' 2he )as once e6tremely "retty and is still stri3ing' 2he )ears no ma3e u" and her hair is thic3, )hite and "erfectly coiffed and she has large, dar3, almost !lac3, eyes' 2he has a soft and attractive voice )ith a 1touch of (rish lilt )hen she is merry1' ,ames A,amieB, ,r' -33 yrs0 The older son, has thinning hair, an a5uiline nose and sho)s signs of "remature disintegration' 4e has a ha!itual e6"ression of cynicism' 4e resem!les his father' 1#n the rare occasions )hen he smiles )ithout sneering, his "ersonality "ossesses the remnant of a humorous, romantic, irres"onsi!le (rish charm C the !eguiling ne$er do )ell, )ith a strain of the sentimentally "oetic1' 4e is attractive to )omen and "o"ular )ith men' 4e is an actor li3e his father !ut has difficulty finding )or3 due to a re"utation for !eing an irres"onsi!le, )omani?ing alcoholic' 4is father and he argue a great deal a!out this' 8dmund -23 yrs0 The younger and more intellectually and "oetically inclined son, is thin and )iry, he loo3s li3e !oth his "arents !ut more li3e his mother' 4e has her !ig dar3 eyes and hy"ersensitive mouth in a long narro) (rish face )ith dar3 !ro)n hair and red highlights from the sun' Fi3e his mother, he is e6tremely nervous' 4e is in !ad health and his chee3s are sun3en' Fater he is diagnosed )ith tu!erculosis' 4e is "olitically inclined )ith socialist leanings' 4e traveled the )orld !y )or3ing in the merchant navy and caught tu!erculosis )hile a!road' Cathleen 1The second girl1, she is the summer maid' 2he is a 1!u6om (rish "easant1, in her early t)enties )ith red chee3s, !lac3 hair and !lue eyes' 2he is 1amia!le, ignorant, clumsy )ith a )ell meaning stu"idity1' 2everal characters are referenced in the "lay !ut do not a""ear on stage: 8ugene Tyrone A son !orn !efore 8dmund )ho died of measles in infancy' 4e )as infected !y ,amie )ho )as seven at the time and had !een told not to enter his room !ut diso!eyed' &ary !elieves that ,amie had the intent of hurting 8ugene' :ridget A coo3 &cHuire A real estate agent )ho has advised ,ames Tyrone in the "ast' 2haughnessy A tenant on a farm o)ned !y the Tyrones' 4ar3er

A friend of ,ames Tyrone, 1the 2tandard #il millionaire1, o)ns a neigh!oring farm to 2haughnessy )ith )hom he gets into conflicts' Eoctor 4ardy The Tyrones$ "hysician, )hom the other family mem!ers don$t thin3 much of. Ca"tain Turner The Tyrones$ neigh!or' 2mythe A garage assistant )hom ,ames hired as a chauffeur for &ary' &ary sus"ects he is intentionally damaging the car to "rovide )or3 for the garage' The mistress A )oman )ith )hom ,ames had had an affair !efore his marriage, )ho had later sued him causing &ary to !e shunned !y her friends as someone )ith undesira!le social connections' &ary$s father Eied of tu!erculosis. ,ames$s "arents and si!lings The family immigrated to the Inited 2tates )hen ,ames )as 8 years old' T)o years later the father a!andoned the family and returned to (reland )here he died after ingesting rat "oison' (t )as sus"ected suicide !ut ,ames refuses to !elieve that' 4e had t)o older !rothers and three sisters'

History of the play[edit]


I"on its com"letion in 19G2, #$%eill had a sealed co"y of the "lay "laced in the document vault of "u!lisher Jandom 4ouse, and instructed that it not !e "u!lished until 2/ years after his death' A formal contract to that effect )as dra)n u" in 19G/' 4o)ever, #$%eill$s third )ife Carlotta &onterey transferred the rights of the "lay to =ale Iniversity, s3irting the agreement' The co"yright "age of =ale editions of the "lay states the conditions of Carlotta$s gift: All royalties from the sale of the =ale editions of this !oo3 go to =ale Iniversity for the !enefit of the 8ugene #$%eill Collection, for the "urchase of !oo3s in the field of drama, and for the esta!lishment of 8ugene #$%eill 2cholarshi"s in the =ale 2chool of Erama' The "lay )as first "u!lished in 19/., three years after its author$s death'

Autobiographical content
&onte Cristo Cottage, setting of the "lay, in 2008 (n 3ey as"ects, the "lay closely "arallels 8ugene #$%eill$s o)n life' The location, a summer home in Connecticut, corres"onds to the family home, &onte Cristo Cottage, in %e) Fondon, Connecticut -the small to)n of the "lay0, and in real life the cottage is today made u" as it may have a""eared in the "lay' The family corres"onds to the #$%eill family, )hich )as (rish American, )ith three name changes: the family name 1#$%eill1 is changed to 1Tyrone,1 the name of the earldom granted to Conn #$%eill !y 4enry D(((K the names of the second and third sons

are reversed -18ugene1 )ith 18dmund1 C in real life, 8ugene )as the third -youngest0 child, )ho corres"onds to the character of 18dmund1 in the "lay0K and #$%eill$s mother, in real life &ary 8llen 18lla1 Luinlan, is renamed to &ary Cavan. The ages are all the actual ages of the #$%eill family in August 1912' (n real life, 8ugene #$%eill$s father, ,ames #$%eill, )as a "romising young actor in his youth, as )as the father in the "lay, and did share the stage )ith 8d)in :ooth, )ho is mentioned in the "lay' 4e achieved commercial success in the title role to Eumas$ The Count of Monte Cristo, "laying the title role a!out .000 times, and he had !een critici?ed as 1selling out1'*1+ 8ugene$s mother &ary did attend a Catholic school in the &id)est, 2aint &ary$s College, of %otre Eame, (ndiana' 2u!se5uent to the date )hen the "lay is set -19120, !ut "rior to the "lay$s )riting -19G1CG20, 8ugene$s older !rother ,amie did drin3 himself to death -c' 19230' As to 8ugene himself, !y 1912 he had attended a reno)ned university -Mrinceton0, s"ent several years at sea, and suffered from de"ression and alcoholism, and did contri!ute to the local ne)s"a"er, the New London Telegraph, )riting "oetry as )ell as re"orting' 4e did go to a sanatorium in 1912C13 due to suffering from tu!erculosis -consum"tion0, )hereu"on he devoted himself to "lay)riting' The events in the "lay are thus set immediately "rior to 8ugene !eginning his career in earnest'

Summary
Long Day's Journey into Night is one of 8ugene #$%eill$s later "lays' 4e )rote it for his )ife on the occasion of their 12th )edding anniversary in 19G0' The "lay )as )ritten in "art as a )ay for #$%eill to sho) the )orld )hat his family )as li3e and in )hat sort of environment he )as raised' #$%eill )anted to create a "lay that )ould lay forth his o)n !ac3ground in a forgiving nature, )hich is )hy he strove not to !ias the "lay against any one character' The drama is very similar to #$%eill$s family situation as a young man, !ut more im"ortantly, it has !ecome a universal "lay re"resenting the "ro!lems of a family that cannot live in the "resent, mired in the dar3 recesses of a !itter, trou!led "ast' :ecause of its dee"ly "ersonal nature, #$%eill re5uested that the "lay !e "u!lished "osthumously, )hich meant that the "lay )as not revealed to the )orld until #$%eill$s death in 19/.' To !e sure, #$%eill has al)ays !een seen as one of the greatest American "lay)rights' 4e )as the only American dramatist to !e a)arded the %o!el Mri?e, an honor not !esto)ed u"on either Arthur &iller or Tennessee 7illiams, t)o other great American "lay)rights' 4e )on the Mulit?er Mri?e for four "lays, including Long Day's Journey into Night. 4is other !est 3no)n "lays are The Ice an Co eth, Mourning !eco es "lectra, #h $ilderness%, &trange Interlude, and The 'airy #pe. #$%eill )as a huge :road)ay success during his o)n adult life' <or information on )hat his childhood )as li3e, one does !est to read Long Day's Journey into Night and e6amine the character of 8dmund, )ho is "artly auto!iogra"hical' #$%eill )as the son of a :road)ay actor and a mother )ho disli3ed :road)ay' 4e suffered from tu!erculosis, )hich caused him to have a nervous !rea3do)n early in life' 4e )as !orn in 1888, !ut he did not achieve success as a "lay)right until his 30th "lay, !eyond the 'ori(on, a""eared in 1920'

Around the same time, his father died, )hich devastated #$%eill, )ho had admired his father tremendously des"ite their differences' After achieving success in 1920, #$%eill remained a dominant figure of American theater throughout his life' 4e had numerous "ersonal "ro!lems, including failed marriage, !ut he )as most ca"tivated !y his trou!les and e6"eriences gro)ing u", !efore he found fame' The early "art of his life is the su!9ect of Long Day's Journey into Night, )hich )ill forever remain #$%eill$s good!ye to the )orld the "lay that sho)ed America )ho #$%eill )as and )here he came from'

Characters
The "lay is set in the summer home of the Tyrone family, August 1912' The action !egins in the morning, 9ust after !rea3fast' 7e learn as the first act unravels that &ary has returned to her family recently after receiving treatment in a sanatorium for mor"hine addiction' 8dmund, mean)hile, has in recent )ee3s !egun to cough very violently, and )e learn later on in the "lay that, as Tyrone and ,amie sus"ect, he has tu!erculosis' Throughout the course of the "lay, )e slo)ly find out that &ary is still addicted to mor"hine, much to the disa""ointment of her family mem!ers' The gradual revelation of these t)o medical disasters ma3es u" most of the "lay$s "lot' (n !et)een these discoveries, ho)ever, the family constantly revisits old fights and o"ens old )ounds left !y the "ast, )hich the family mem!ers are never una!le to forget' Tyrone, for e6am"le, is constantly !lamed for his o)n stinginess, )hich may have led to &ary$s mor"hine addiction )hen he refused to "ay for a good doctor to treat the "ain caused !y child!irth' &ary, on the other hand, is never a!le to let go of the "ast or admit to the "ainful truth of the "resent, the truth that she is addicted to mor"hine and her youngest son has tu!erculosis' They all argue over ,amie and 8dmund$s failure to !ecome successes as their father had al)ays ho"ed they )ould !ecome' As the day )ears on, the men drin3 more and more, until they are on the verge of "assing out in Act (D' &ost of the "lot of the "lay is re"etitious, 9ust as the cycle of an alcoholic is re"etitious' The a!ove arguments occur numerous times throughout the four acts and five scenes' All acts are set in the living room, and all scenes !ut the last occur either 9ust !efore or 9ust after a meal' Act ((, 2cene i is set !efore lunchK scene ii after lunchK and Act ((( !efore dinner' 8ach act focuses on inter"lay !et)een t)o s"ecific characters: Act ( features &ary and TyroneK Act (( Tyrone and ,amie, and 8dmund and &aryK Act ((( &ary and ,amieK Act (D Tyrone and 8dmund, and 8dmund and ,amie' The re"etitious "lot also hel"s develo" the notion that this day is not remar3a!le in many )ays' (nstead, it is one in a long string of similar days for the Tyrones, filled )ith !itterness, fighting, and an underlying love'

Act I, Part One

Summary The play begins in August, 1912, at the summer home of the Tyrone family. The setting for all four acts is the family's li ing room, !hich is a"#acent to the $itchen an" "ining room. There is also a staircase #ust off stage, !hich lea"s to the upper% le el be"rooms. It is &'() am, an" the family has #ust finishe" brea$fast in the "ining room. *hile +amie an" ,"mun" linger offstage, Tyrone an" -ary enter an" embrace, an" -ary comments on being please" !ith her recent !eight gain e en though she is eating less foo". Tyrone an" -ary ma$e con ersation, !hich lea"s to a brief argument about Tyrone's ten"ency to spen" money on real estate in esting. They are interrupte" by the soun" of ,"mun", !ho is ha ing a coughing fit in the ne.t room. Although -ary remar$s that he merely has a ba" col", Tyrone's bo"y language in"icates that he may $no! more about ,"mun"'s sic$ness than -ary. /e ertheless, Tyrone tells -ary that she must ta$e care of herself an" focus on getting better rather than getting upset about ,"mun". -ary imme"iately becomes "efensi e, saying, 0There's nothing to be upset about. *hat ma$es you thin$ I'm upset10 Tyrone "rops the sub#ect an" tells -ary that he is gla" to ha e her 0"ear ol" self0 bac$ again. ,"mun" an" +amie are hear" laughing in the ne.t room, an" Tyrone imme"iately gro!s bitter, assuming they are ma$ing #o$es about him. ,"mun" an" +amie enter, an" !e see that, e en though he is #ust 2( years ol", ,"mun" is 0plainly in ba" health0 an" ner ous. 2pon entering, +amie begins to stare at his mother, thin$ing that she is loo$ing much better. The con ersation turns spiteful, ho!e er, !hen the sons begin to ma$e fun of Tyrone's lou" snoring, a sub#ect about !hich he is sensiti e, "ri ing him to anger. ,"mun" tells him to calm "o!n, lea"ing to an argument bet!een the t!o. Tyrone then turns on +amie, attac$ing him for his lac$ of ambition an" la3iness. To calm things "o!n, ,"mun" tells a funny story about a tenant name" Shaughnessy on the Tyrone family lan" in Irelan", !here the family's origins lie. Tyrone is not amuse" by the anec"ote, ho!e er, because he coul" be the sub#ect of a la!suit relate" to o!nership of the lan". 4e attac$s ,"mun" again, calling his comments socialist. ,"mun" gets upsets an" e.its in a fit of coughing. +amie points out that ,"mun" is really sic$, a comment !hich Tyrone respon"s to !ith a 0shut up0 loo$, as though trying to pre ent -ary from fin"ing out something. -ary tells them that, "espite !hat any "octor may say, she belie es that ,"mun" has nothing more than a ba" col". -ary has a "eep "istrust for "octors. Tyrone an" +amie begin to stare at her again, ma$ing her self%conscious. -ary reflects on her fa"e" beauty, recogni3ing that she is in the stages of "ecline. As -ary e.its, Tyrone chastises +amie for suggesting that ,"mun" really may be ill in front of -ary, !ho is not suppose" to !orry "uring her reco ery from her a""iction to morphine. +amie an" Tyrone both suspect that ,"mun" has consumption 5better $no!n to"ay as tuberculosis6, an" +amie thin$s it un!ise to allo! -ary to $eep fooling herself. +amie an" Tyrone argue o er ,"mun"'s "octor, 7oc 4ar"y, !ho charges ery little for his ser ices. +amie accuses Tyrone of getting

the cheapest "octor, !ithout regar" to 8uality, simply because he is a penny% pincher. Tyrone retorts that +amie al!ays thin$s the !orst of e eryone, an" that +amie "oes not un"erstan" the alue of a "ollar because he has al!ays been able to ta$e comfortable li ing for grante". Tyrone, by contrast, ha" to !or$ his o!n !ay up from the streets. +amie only s8uan"ers loa"s of money on !hores an" li8uor in to!n. +amie argues bac$ that Tyrone s8uan"ers money on real estate speculation, although Tyrone points out that most of his hol"ings are mortgage". Tyrone accuses +amie of la3iness an" critici3es his failure to succee" at anything. +amie !as e.pelle" from se eral colleges in his younger years, an" he ne er sho!s any gratitu"e to!ar"s his father9 Tyrone thin$s that he is a ba" influence on ,"mun". +amie counters that he has al!ays trie" to teach ,"mun" to lea" a life "ifferent from that !hich +amie lea"s. :ommentary O'/eill's opening stage "irections imme"iately gi e the au"ience some clues as to !hat the Tyrone family is li$e. The boo$shel es, for instance, sho! that the family is both e"ucate" an" !orl"ly9 there are boo$s by a !i"e range of famous ,uropean authors. The Irish literature on the boo$shelf clues us in to the family's pri"e in its Irish heritage. The character "escriptions also foresha"o! some of the play's conflicts. -ary is "escribe" as "ecaying, yet she stills retains a 0youthfulness she has ne er lost.0 *e see that she is in a transition perio" in her life, on the erge of becoming an ol" !oman. The "escription of Tyrone an" his shabby, utilitarian clothes suggests his financial pru"ence. 4e has ob iously ta$en care of himself, because he loo$s ten years younger than his age. In fact, Tyrone "oes not seem to be affecte" physically by the passage of time9 he maintains the "igestion of a 2;% year%ol", for instance. 4is imper ious bo"y may support the i"ea that Tyrone has not change" ery much throughout his life "espite -ary's continual efforts to ma$e him reform some of his attitu"es an" habits. /otice that O'/eill uses stage "irections more than many other play!rights to pro i"e insight into !hat the characters ought to loo$ li$e an" !hat their central interests are. It is also important !hen beginning the play to notice that O'/eill "oes not con"emn any one of these characters more than any other. Instea", he feels a great sympathy for all four Tyrones, as he !rote to his !ife in 19<) !hen he complete" the play. All the characters ha e se ere faults, an" all are capable of great cruelty. At the same time, they are all part of one family that has staye" together throughout many years of har"ship, an" they can all be ery lo ing an" compassionate. One cannot single out any particular character as the protagonist or antagonist9 one can instea" see the themes that create strife in the family an" the !ays the family men"s itself !hen it falls into "isor"er. There are t!o ma#or health problems in the play, !hich !ill slo!ly be unco ere" o er the course of the four acts, but they are both hinte" early on. The first is ,"mun"'s consumption. *e see that he is ha ing coughing fits in the morning, an",

e en though -ary insists that he has merely a ba" col", !e !ill learn later on that he is un"oubte"ly inflicte" !ith tuberculosis an" !ill ha e to li e in a sanatorium in or"er to be cure". The secon" problem in the play is -ary's a""iction to morphine, !hich began !hen a "octor prescribe" the "rug to her after she ga e birth to ,"mun" as a means of stopping her intense pain. As this play opens, -ary has #ust returne" from a long treatment program "esigne" to brea$ her a""iction. She sho!s signs of reco ering%%she is gaining !eight again%%but !e !ill learn later on in the play that she has 8uic$ly become a full%blo!n morphine a""ict once again. These t!o problems an" ho! each character reacts to them pro i"e a me"ium for bringing out the family's most cruel an" painful conflicts. It is ob ious from the first, for instance, that one of -ary's central fla!s is her refusal to a"mit that there is a problem !ith herself or ,"mun". She lies to her family countless times about being cure", an" she chastises them for suspecting her. She also !ill not accept that ,"mun" is really sic$. 4er husban" an" sons, not !ishing her to get !orrie" !hile she is suppose"ly reco ering, help her "elu"e herself by $eeping ,"mun"'s sic$ness from her as best they can. -ary, !e see, li$es to li e in a fantasy !orl", an" the morphine helps her accomplish that. *e also see that ba" si"e of Tyrone through these conflicts !hen !e learn that he may be partly responsible for -ary's initial a""iction, ha ing refuse" to pay the high costs for a goo" "octor, hiring instea" a cheap 8uac$ !ho sol e" -ary's pain !ithout regar" to the long%term conse8uences. Tyrone, !e !ill see later, is also o erly hesitant about spen"ing money on a goo" "octor to treat ,"mun"'s illness. The t!o boys ha e their o!n problems as !ell, most of !hich !ill be fleshe" out more in upcoming scenes. Act I, Part T!o Summary Tyrone an" +amie continue their "iscussion about ,"mun", !ho !or$s for a local ne!spaper. Tyrone an" +amie ha e hear" that some e"itors "isli$e ,"mun", but they both ac$no!le"ge that he has a strong creati e impulse that "ri es much of his plans. Tyrone an" +amie agree also that they are gla" to ha e -ary bac$. They resol e to help her in any !ay possible, an" they "eci"e to $eep the truth about ,"mun"'s sic$ness from her, although they reali3e that they !ill not be able to "o so if ,"mun" has to be committe" to a sanatorium, a place !here tuberculosis patients are treate". Tyrone an" +amie "iscuss -ary's health, an" Tyrone seems to be fooling himself into thin$ing that -ary is healthier than she really is. +amie mentions that he hear" her !al$ing aroun" the spare be"room the night before, !hich may be a sign that she is ta$ing morphine again. Tyrone says that it !as simply his snoring that in"uce" her to lea e9 he accuses +amie once again of al!ays trying to fin" the !orst in any gi en situation. =et!een the lines, !e begin to learn that -ary first became a""icte" to morphine 2( years earlier, #ust after gi ing birth to ,"mun". The birth !as particularly painful

for her, an" Tyrone hire" a ery cheap "octor to help ease her pain. The economical but incompetent "octor prescribe" morphine to -ary, recogni3ing that it !oul" sol e her imme"iate pain but ignoring potential future si"e effects, such as a""iction. Thus !e see that Tyrone's stinginess 5or pru"ence, as he !oul" call it6, has come up in the past, an" it !ill be referre" to many more times "uring the course of the play. -ary enters #ust as Tyrone an" +amie are about to begin a ne! argument. /ot !ishing to upset her, they imme"iately cease an" "eci"e to go outsi"e to trim the he"ges. -ary as$s !hat they !ere arguing about, an" +amie tells her that they !ere "iscussing ,"mun"'s "octor, 7oc 4ar"y. -ary says she $no!s that they are lying to her. The t!o stare at her again briefly before e.iting, !ith +amie telling her not to !orry. ,"mun" then enters in the mi"st of a coughing fit an" tells -ary that he feels ill. -ary begins to fuss o er him, although ,"mun" tells her to !orry about herself an" not him. -ary tells ,"mun" that she hates the house in !hich they li e because, 0I' e ne er felt it !as my home.0 She puts up !ith it only because she usually goes along !ith !hate er Tyrone !ants. She critici3es ,"mun" an" +amie for 0"isgracing0 themsel es !ith loose !omen, so that at present no respectable girls !ill be seen !ith them. -ary announces her belief that +amie an" ,"mun" are al!ays cruelly suspicious, an" she thin$s that they spy on her. She as$s ,"mun" to 0stop suspecting me,0 although she ac$no!le"ges that ,"mun" cannot trust her because she has bro$en many promises in the past. She thin$s that the past is har" to forget because it is full of bro$en promises. The act en"s !ith ,"mun"'s e.it. -ary sits alone, t!itching ner ously. :ommentary The latter part of Act I intro"uces us to the central conflict bet!een Tyrone an" +amie. Tyrone belie es that +amie "oes not appreciate the alue of money or the importance of har" !or$9 +amie has ta$en too much for grante". +amie, on the other han", thin$s that his father is a penny%pincher, an" he ne er sho!s his father any gratitu"e. /e ertheless, !e see in this conflict an optimistic si"e of Tyrone, !ho maintains that his son still has the chance to become a great success. Their relationship an" Tyrone's bitter "isappointment suggests a thematic lin$ bet!een the t!o. +amie is an e.ample of the pro"igal son !ho coul" ha e been li$e his father but instea" chose to rebel. One of the strengths of the play is the presence of both Tyrone an" -ary in their t!o chil"ren. In Act II, for instance, ,"mun" !ill critici3e +amie for thin$ing suspiciously by as$ing, 0:an't you thin$ anything but. . .0 an" cutting himself off before finishing. This is the same !or"ing Tyrone uses in Act I to critici3e +amie's negati e attitu"e. Similarly, !e see to!ar"s the en" of the act that ,"mun" an" -ary share a common romantic ision. They "ream of life in high society an" comfortable li ing. ,"mun" concerns himself !ith >omantic authors an" "run$enness !hile -ary entertains sublime fantasies about the role of the home an" the success of her chil"ren. The character lin$s come up se eral times throughout the play an" affect the play's internal cohesion.

+amie's comment that he 0can't forget the past0 intro"uces another central concern of the play' the role of the past in the e ents of the present. ,ach character in this play is at least partially controlle" by his or her memories of the family's history. /one of the men, for instance, are !illing to belie e -ary, because she has bro$en so many promises in the past. =oth sons an" -ary hol" "eep%seate" gru"ges to!ar"s Tyrone for refusing to pay for a 8uality "octor for her, an" the problems that create" are still ery much ali e. Perhaps most importantly, -ary can ne er let go of the "reams she ha" as a young girl of being a professional pianist or a nun, both of !hich !ere "estroye" !hen she got marrie". *e see throughout the play her ten"ency to 8uestion !hether she ma"e the right "ecision, an" this ten"ency fosters a resentment to!ar"s Tyrone, !ho she thin$s !as complicit in the "estruction of her "reams. All these characters are haunte" by all sorts of e ents from the past, none of !hich they can forget, as +amie says. Thus, much li$e -ary's bo"y as "escribe" at the beginning of the play, the family is slo!ly "ecaying because it is trappe" by suspicions an" problems resulting from mista$es ma"e long ago !hich can neither be forgi en nor ignore". *e also see in this act -ary's specific i"ea of !hat a 0home0 is. -ore importantly, !e learn that she "oes not feel li$e her house is any $in" of a home, that she belie es that she has ne er actually ha" a home !ith Tyrone, because they ha e li e" their li es touring on the roa". This is one of the manifestations of -ary's romantic ision of life that has been "estroye" by the reality of her present situation. 2nfortunately for her, -ary !as ne er able to oice her concerns until too late in life9 she al!ays !ent along !ith Tyrone !ith little comment. Thus, !e see that communication !ithin the family is "eeply fla!e". This is also e i"ent in -ary's continual refusal to a"mit the truth, an" in the men's refusal to tell her the truth. *e are left !ith a family !ho can easily argue an" fight, but can ne er really communicate !hat they feel an" !ant until it is too late. The play !ill mo e to!ar"s a resolution of this conflict to!ar"s the en" of Act I?, !hen +amie tells ,"mun" of his "esire to see him fail, an" !hen -ary an" Tyrone "iscuss their ol" hopes. -ary's concern o er ha ing a 0home0 intro"uces the concern o er language into the play. /otice that the characters each comman" their o!n particular ocabulary that is highly politici3e". Tyrone, for instance, is constantly calling his attitu"e to!ar"s money 0pru"ent,0 !hile the other three call him 0stingy.0 @i$e!ise, -ary has a "ifferent "efinition of the !or" 0home0 than the three men. There is also a hesitancy on the part of all characters to say the !or" 0consumption0 in reference to ,"mun". O'/eill's !orl" is one in !hich language is politici3e", !here characters can claim language for themsel es, an" !here other characters place a great sta$e in !hich particular !or"s are use" to "escribe !hich e.periences. Act II, Scene i Summary

The curtain rises again on the li ing room, !here ,"mun" sits rea"ing. It is 12'<; pm on the same August "ay. :athleen, the mai", enters !ith !his$ey an" !ater for pre%lunch "rin$ing. ,"mun" as$s :athleen to call Tyrone an" +amie for lunch. :athleen is chatty an" flirty, an" tells ,"mun" that he is han"some. +amie soon enters an" pours himself a "rin$, a""ing !ater to the bottle after!ar"s so that Tyrone !ill not $no! they ha" a "rin$ before he came in. Tyrone is still outsi"e, tal$ing to one of the neighbors an" putting on 0an act0 !ith the intent of sho!ing off. +amie tells ,"mun" that ,"mun" may ha e a sic$ness more se ere than a simple case of malaria. 4e then chastises ,"mun" for lea ing -ary alone all morning. 4e tells him that -ary's promises mean nothing anymore. +amie re eals that he an" Tyrone $ne! of -ary's morphine a""iction as much as ten years before they tol" ,"mun". ,"mun" begins a coughing fit as -ary enters, an" she tells him not to cough. *hen +amie ma$es a sni"e comment about his father, -ary tells him to respect Tyrone more. She tells him to stop al!ays see$ing out the !ea$nesses in others. She e.presses her fatalistic ie! of life, that most e ents are someho! pre"etermine", that humans ha e little control o er their o!n li es. She then complains that Tyrone ne er hires any goo" ser ants9 she is "isplease" !ith :athleen, an" she blames her unhappiness on Tyrone's refusal to hire a top%rate mai". At this point, :athleen enters an" tells them that Tyrone is still outsi"e tal$ing. ,"mun" e.its to fetch him, an" !hile he is gone, +amie stares at -ary !ith a concerne" loo$. -ary as$s !hy he is loo$ing at her, an" he tells her that she $no!s !hy. Although he !ill not say it "irectly, +amie $no!s that -ary is bac$ on morphine9 he can tell by her gla3e" eyes. ,"mun" reenters an" curses +amie !hen -ary, playing ignorant, tells him that +amie has been insinuating nasty things about her. -ary pre ents an argument by telling ,"mun" to blame no one. She again e.presses her fatalist ie!' 0A+amieB can't help !hat the past has ma"e him. Any more than your father can. Or you. Or I.0 +amie shrugs off all accusations, an" ,"mun" loo$s suspiciously at -ary. Tyrone enters, an" he argues briefly !ith his t!o sons about the !his$ey. They all ha e a large "rin$. Su""enly, -ary has an outburst about Tyrone's failure to un"erstan" !hat a home is. -ary has a "istinct ision of a home, one that Tyrone has ne er been able to pro i"e for her. She tells him that he shoul" ha e remaine" a bachelor, but then she "rops the sub#ect so that they can begin lunch. 4o!e er, she first critici3es Tyrone for letting ,"mun" "rin$, saying that it !ill $ill him. Su""enly feeling guilty, she retracts her comments. +amie an" ,"mun" e.it to the "ining room. Tyrone sits staring at -ary, then says that he has 0been a Co"% "amne" fool to belie e in you.0 She becomes "efensi e an" begins to "eny Tyrone's unspo$en accusations, but he no! $no!s that she is bac$ on morphine. She complains again of his "rin$ing before the scene en"s. :ommentary

Act II intro"uces us to alcohol, one of the great motifs in the play. In the "rin$ing of alcohol, !e see an attempt by the male characters to escape the problems that haunt them. 4o!e er, notice that this ma$es them no "ifferent from -ary, !ho uses a "ifferent "rug to escape the pains of the !orl". In fact, by the en" of Act I?, all three men are "run$, :athleen is "run$, an" -ary is mentally "rifting after consuming a huge "ose of morphine. The play begins in sobriety but en"s in complete inebriation. All the characters are to some "egree a""icte"%%to alcohol, or, in -ary's case, to morphine. Thus !e see that life for the Tyrone family is ery con"uci e to the "esire to escape from the !orl". @ife in the Tyrone family is also con"uci e to a""iction, !hich !e see particularly in -ary, !ho !as on her !ay to reco ery until she came home to her family an" coul" no longer resist the urge to escape mentally. The use of alcohol, furthermore, suggests also that the "ay on !hich this play is set is #ust one of many similar "ays fille" !ith fighting an" e.cessi e "rin$ing until e eryone goes to sleep. There is a cycle of alcoholism present in each "ay for the Tyrones, !hich lea"s to the pessimistic conclusion that the family's problems in this play "o not resol e themsel es, that their conflicts "o not lessen. ,ach family member spen"s the "ay !or$ing to!ar"s inebriation, arguing along the !ay, an" then goes to be" only to !a$e up the ne.t "ay an" begin the cycle o er again. In this scene, !e see clearly -ary's ten"ency to blame the problems of the family on fate. She initially critici3es +amie for his ten"ency to loo$ for !ea$nesses in other people, but then she attributes the fla! to the !ay +amie !as raise", !hich he cannot help. -ary's fatalistic ie! is one of her character fla!s, because it al!ays pro i"es her !ith an easy !ay out. >ather than really confronting +amie about his malice, she simply e.cuses him. @i$e!ise, she blames much of her o!n problems on her crushe" "reams an" "isappointment, !hich in her min" lea es her !ith ery little choice in her actions. The fatalistic outloo$, in its remo al of responsibility, is a barrier to sol ing problems, !hich -ary "oes not seem to ha e the ability to "o. One of the !ays she hi"es from these problems is by failing to communicate effecti ely !ith her family, !hich also comes up in this scene. +amie begins to confront her about her appearance, !hich !e are to belie e is some!hat haggar" because she is on morphine. -ary, ho!e er, imme"iately "ecries the supposition an" preten"s not to un"erstan" !hat +amie is saying. She !ill not a"mit e en to her o!n sons that she has regaine" her a""iction, but at the same time, her sons !ill not confront her fully about it an" force her to confess, e en though they $no! that she is bac$ on morphine. /otice that both si"es are to blame for this communication failure9 O'/eill is not con"emning any one character. Act II, Scene ii Summary

The scene begins half an hour after the pre ious scene. The family is returning from lunch in the "ining room. Tyrone appears angry an" aloof, !hile ,"mun" appears 0heartsic$.0 -ary an" Tyrone argue briefly about the nature of the 0home,0 although -ary seems some!hat aloof !hile she spea$s because she is on morphine. The phone rings, an" Tyrone ans!ers it. 4e tal$s briefly !ith the caller an" agrees on a meeting at four o'cloc$. 4e returns an" tells the family that the caller !as 7oc 4ar"y, !ho !ante" to see ,"mun" that afternoon. ,"mun" remar$s that it "oesn't soun" li$e goo" ti"ings. -ary imme"iately "iscre"its e erything 7oc 4ar"y has to say because she thin$s he is a cheap 8uac$ !hom Tyrone hire" only because he is ine.pensi e. After a brief argument, she e.its upstairs. After she is gone, +amie remar$s that she has gone to get more morphine. ,"mun" an" Tyrone e.plo"e at him, telling him not to thin$ such ba" thoughts about people. +amie counters that ,"mun" an" Tyrone nee" to face the truth9 they are $i""ing themsel es. ,"mun" tells +amie that he is too pessimistic. Tyrone argues that both boys ha e forgotten :atholicism, the only belief that is not frau"ulent. +amie an" ,"mun" both gro! ma" an" begin to argue !ith Tyrone. Tyrone a"mits that he "oes not practice :atholicism strictly, but he claims that he prays each morning an" each e ening. ,"mun" is a belie er in /iet3sche, !ho !rote that 0Co" is "ea"0 in DDThus Spo$e EarathustraD 4e en"s the argument, ho!e er, by resol ing to spea$ !ith -ary about the "rugs, an" he e.its upstairs. After ,"mun" lea es, Tyrone tells +amie that 7oc 4ar"y say that ,"mun" has consumption, 0no possible "oubt.0 4o!e er, if ,"mun" goes to a sanatorium imme"iately, he !ill be cure" in si. to 12 months. +amie "eman"s that Tyrone sen" ,"mun" some!here goo", not some!here cheap. +amie says that Tyrone thin$s consumption is necessarily fatal, an" therefore it is not !orth spen"ing money on trying to cure ,"mun" since he is guarantee" to "ie any!ay. +amie correctly argues that consumption can be cure" if treate" properly. 4e "eci"es to go !ith Tyrone an" ,"mun" to the "octor that afternoon then e.its. -ary reenters as +amie lea es, an" she tells Tyrone that +amie !oul" be a goo" son if he ha" been raise" in a 0real0 home as -ary en isions it. She tells Tyrone not to gi e +amie any money because he !ill use it only to but li8uor. Tyrone bitterly implies that -ary an" her "rug use is enough to ma$e any man !ant to "rin$. -ary "o"ges his accusation !ith "enials, but she as$s Tyrone not to lea e her alone that afternoon because she gets lonely. Tyrone respon"s that -ary is the one !ho 0lea es,0 referring to her mental aloofness !hen she ta$es "rugs. Tyrone suggests that -ary ta$e a ri"e in the ne! car he bought her, !hich to Tyrone's resentment "oes not often get use" 5he sees it as another !aste of money6. -ary tells him that he shoul" not ha e bought her a secon"%han" car. In any case, -ary argues that she has no one to isit in the car, since she has not ha" any frien"s since she got marrie". She allu"es briefly to a scan"al in ol ing Tyrone an" a mistress at the beginning of their marriage, an" this e ent cause" many of her frien"s to aban"on

her. Tyrone tells -ary not to "ig up the past. -ary changes the sub#ect an" tells Tyrone that she nee"s to go to the "rugstore. 7el ing into the past, -ary tells Tyrone the story of getting a""icte" to morphine !hen ,"mun" !as born. She implicitly blames Tyrone for her a""iction because he !oul" only pay for a cheap "octor !ho $ne! of no better !ay to cure her chil"birth pain. Tyrone interrupts an" tells her to forget the past, but -ary replies, 0*hy1 4o! can I1 The past is the present, isn't it1 It's the future too. *e all try to lie out of that but life !on't let us.0 -ary blames herself for brea$ing her o! ne er to ha e another baby after ,ugene, her secon" baby !ho "ie" at t!o years ol" from measles he caught from +amie after +amie !ent into the baby's room. Tyrone tells -ary to let the "ea" baby rest in peace, but -ary only blames herself more for not staying !ith ,ugene 5her mother !as babysitting !hen +amie ga e ,ugene measles6, an" instea" going on the roa" to $eep Tyrone company as he tra ele" the country !ith his plays. Tyrone ha" later insiste" that -ary ha e another baby to replace ,ugene, an" so ,"mun" !as born. =ut -ary claime" that from the first "ay she coul" tell that ,"mun" !as !ea$ an" fragile, as though Co" inten"e" to punish her for !hat happene" to ,ugene. ,"mun" reenters after -ary's speech, an" he as$s Tyrone for money, !hich Tyrone gru"gingly pro"uces. ,"mun" is genuinely than$ful, but then he gets the i"ea that Tyrone may regret gi ing him money because Tyrone thin$s that ,"mun" !ill "ie an" the money !ill be !aste". Tyrone is greatly hurt by this accusation, an" ,"mun" su""enly feels ery guilty for !hat he sai". 4e an" his father ma$e amen"s briefly before -ary furiously tells ,"mun" not to be so morbi" an" pessimistic. She begins to cry, an" Tyrone e.its to get rea"y to go to the "octor !ith ,"mun". -ary again critici3es 7oc 4ar"y an" tells ,"mun" not to see him. ,"mun" replies that -ary nee"s to 8uit the morphine, !hich puts -ary on the "efensi e, "enying that she still uses an" then ma$ing e.cuses for herself. She a"mits that she lies to herself all the time, an" she says that she can 0no longer call my soul my o!n.0 She hopes for re"emption one "ay through the ?irgin. +amie an" Tyrone call ,"mun", an" he e.its. -ary is left alone, gla" that they are gone but feeling 0so lonely.0 :ommentary All the characters in this play try to muster an optimistic outloo$ at times. Tyrone al!ays hopes that +amie !ill one "ay ma$e a success of himself. -ary still hopes that ,"mun" !ill get better an" that her husban" !ill finally ma$e her a real home. In this scene, !e see that ,"mun", in $eeping !ith his youthful romantic outloo$, has hope for the !hole family to ma$e amen"s. At the time of his 0heartsic$0 entrance, he appears truly trouble" by the fighting occurring !ithin the family. /otice that ,"mun" also has a ten"ency to a oi" conflicts by laughing them a!ay !hen they appear. 4e has his outbursts, but he is less responsi e to baiting from his father than this brother is. -ary, in a similar ein, tries to hol" the family together in part through imminent tal$ing. She seems to "isli$e silences, because !hene er

she is onstage, she is usually ma$ing meaningless chit chat simply to create noise, such as at the beginning of this scene. Some of her tal$ing constitutes an attempt to smooth o er conflicts an" also to change the sub#ect a!ay from conflict bet!een the men. The secon" scene of Act II reinforces the i"ea that in terms of structure, the play is built aroun" meals. Act I is set #ust as the family returns from brea$fast9 Act II, Scene i occurs as the family prepares for lunch9 Act II, Scene ii is set as the family returns from lunch9 Act III is set as the family prepares for "inner9 Act I? ta$es place late at night !hen the men are ha ing their last "rin$s !aiting to pass out. The structure of meals in"icates the centrality of meals to the Tyrone family because meals bring all four people together in a tra"itional family setting. /e ertheless, !e ne er actually see the Tyrones at one of these central meals. Thus, the play has a sense of !aiting an" reco ering in each of the scenes. In the first part of Act II an" in Act III, there is a constant sense of !aiting for the main e ent, a meal, to happen. In Act I an" the later part of Act II, the characters are all satisfie" an" search out acti ities to "o until the ne.t meal. This meal structure, li$e that structure of alcoholism, is ery repetiti e, an" it further suggests the unchanging nature of life for the family. In this section !e begin to see more clearly that ,"mun" is an intellectual !ho rea"s e.tensi ely. 4e is !ell erse" in the Cerman philosopher /iet3sche, for e.ample, an" in Act I? !e !ill see him 8uote e.tensi ely from famous French poets such as =au"elaire. ,"mun"'s intellectualism is a source of conflict bet!een him an" Tyrone, !ho thin$s that the !riters ,"mun" rea"s are lea"ing him astray an" turning him into to!ar"s a cynical, morbi" outloo$. This is one of the !ays in !hich !e see the autobiographical si"e of the play emerge9 O'/eill himself !as the intellectual son in the family !ho !ent on to be a literary great. Interestingly, Tyrone himself also has an intellectual strea$ in his lo e of Sha$espeare. 4e $no!s the fine "etails of e ery Sha$espearean play, an" he hol"s the Sha$espearean canon up at the highest form of art. In his praise of Sha$espeare an" con"emnation of almost all other authors !hom ,"mun" en#oys, Tyrone !ith futility tries to assert his control o er ,"mun", !ho "espite !hat he hope" "oes not respect his father as a mo"el for intellectual thought. Tyrone, e er the actor, tries his best to play as many roles as he can. /e ertheless, religion is particularly important to Tyrone as !ell as to -ary, as !e see in this section for the first time. Although neither practice :atholicism, Tyrone an" -ary both claim to pray on a "aily basis, an" they say that they fear Co". The t!o sons, by contrast, are s$eptics. *e see then the brea$"o!n of the Tyrone family alues from one generation to the ne.t. *hereas Tyrone !as raise" on Sha$espeare, Irish !riters an" the =ible, his sons ha e spurne" that same upbringing, turning to!ar"s a "ifferent type of literature an" a lac$ of faith. The re#ection of the ol" !ay by the secon" generation is something that -ary an"

Tyrone both ha e "ifficulty accepting, an" it further remin"s the rea"er that they are an aging couple being replace" by ne! Americans. Finally, -ary's comments that she cannot forget the past because 0the past is the present0 further suggests the repetiti e nature of life in the Tyrone family. The e ents of the past are continually repeate" in the present, #ust as the e ents of each in"i i"ual "ay are repeate" in a cyclical fashion base" on alcohol or morphine. /ote that the title, @ong 7ay's +ourney into /ight, suggests that the "ay is not really uni8ue9 it is #ust another "ay in the life of the family, not too much "ifferent from most other "ays e.cept that it is the "ay that ,"mun" learns he has consumption.

Act III Summary The scene opens as usual on the li ing room at G'() pm, #ust before "inner time. -ary an" :athleen are alone in the room9 :athleen, at -ary's in itation, has been "rin$ing. Although they "iscuss the fog, it is clear that :athleen is there only to gi e -ary a chance to tal$ to someone. They "iscuss briefly Tyrone obsession !ith money, an" then -ary refuses to a"mit to ,"mun"'s consumption. -ary "el es into her past memories of her life an" family. As a pious :atholic schoolgirl, she says that she ne er li$e" the theater9 she "i" not feel 0at home0 !ith the theater cro!". -ary then brings up the sub#ect of morphine, !hich !e learn :athleen gets for her from the local "rugstore. -ary is becoming obsesse" !ith her han"s, !hich use" to be long an" beautiful but ha e since "eteriorate". She mentions that she use" to ha e t!o "reams' to become a nun an" to become a famous professional pianist. These "reams e aporate", ho!e er, !hen she met Tyrone an" fell in lo e. She met Tyrone after seeing him in a play. 4e !as frien"s !ith her father, !ho intro"uce" the t!o. An" she maintains that Tyrone is a goo" man9 in (G years of marriage, he has ha" not one e.tramarital scan"al. :athleen then e.its to see about "inner, an" -ary slo!ly becomes bitter as she recalls more memories. She thin$s of her happiness before meeting Tyrone. She thin$s that she cannot pray anymore because the ?irgin !ill not listen to a "ope fien". She "eci"es to go upstairs to get more "rugs, but before she can "o so, ,"mun" an" Tyrone return. They imme"iately recogni3e upon seeing her that she has ta$en a large "ose of morphine. -ary tells them that she is surprise" they returne", since it is 0more cheerful0 upto!n. The men are clearly "run$, an" in fact +amie is still upto!n seeing !hores an" "rin$ing. -ary says that +amie is a 0hopeless failure0 an" !arns that he !ill "rag "o!n ,"mun" !ith him out of #ealousy. -ary tal$s more about the ba" memories from the past, an" Tyrone laments that he e en bothere" to come home to his "ope a""ict of a !ife. Tyrone "eci"es to pay no attention to her. -ary

mean!hile !a.es about +amie, !ho she thin$s !as ery smart until he starte" "rin$ing. -ary blames +amie's "rin$ing on Tyrone, calling the Irish stupi" "run$s, a comment !hich Tyrone ignores. -ary's tone su""enly changes as she reminisces about meeting Tyrone. Tyrone then begins to cry as he thin$s bac$ on the memories, an" he tells his !ife that he lo es her. -ary respon"s, 0I lo e you "ear, in spite of e erything.0 =ut she regrets marrying him because he "rin$s so much. -ary says she !ill not forget, but she !ill try to forgi e. She mentions that she !as spoile" terribly by her father, an" that spoiling ma"e her a ba" !ife. Tyrone ta$es a "rin$, but seeing the bottle has been !atere" "o!n by his sons trying to fool him into belie ing that they ha en't been "rin$ing, he goes to get a ne! one. -ary again calls him stingy, but she e.cuses him to ,"mun", telling of ho! he !as aban"one" by his father an" force" to !or$ at age 1). ,"mun" then tells -ary that he has tuberculosis, an" -ary imme"iately begins "iscre"iting 7oc 4ar"y. She !ill not belie e it, an" she "oes not !ant ,"mun" to go to a sanatorium. She thin$s that ,"mun" is #ust blo!ing things out of the !ater in an effort to get more attention. ,"mun" remin"s -ary that her o!n father "ie" of tuberculosis, then comments that it is "ifficult ha ing a 0"ope fien" for a mother.0 4e e.its, la ing -ary alone. She says alou" that she nee"s more morphine, an" she a"mits that she secretly hopes to o er"ose an" "ie, but she cannot intentionally "o so because the ?irgin coul" ne er forgi e suici"e. Tyrone reenters !ith more !his$ey, noting that +amie coul" not pic$ the loc$ to his li8uor cabinet. -ary su""enly bursts out that ,"mun" !ill "ie, but Tyrone assures her that he !ill be cure" in si. months. -ary thin$s that ,"mun" hate" her because she is a "ope fien". Tyrone comforts her, an" -ary once again blames herself for gi ing birth. :athleen announces "inner. -ary says she is not hungry an" goes to be". Tyrone $no!s that she is really going for more "rugs. :ommentary /otice that, as mentione" in pre ious sections, the play is structure" aroun" either !aiting for meals or reco ering from them. In this case, the family is bi"ing time !aiting for "inner to be ser e". 4o!e er, the process of ha ing meals together brea$s "o!n o er the course of the "ay. =rea$fast goes smoothly, but then lunch is stalle" for a long time as the family !aits for Tyrone to return from the gar"en. 7inner itself is a "isaster9 +amie is not e en home from carousing, an" -ary "oes not atten" because she has lost her appetite as she ta$es more "rugs. The central acti ity of the family H eating together H has fallen apart as the "ay has gone on. *e also see a more fully "e elope" i"ea of -ary's "esire for a home. *e learn that she "isli$es Tyrone's i"ea of a home so strongly because she associates it !ith the "eath of ,ugene, !ho "ie" !hen -ary !as tra eling !ith Tyrone. -ary associates

Tyrone !ith the tra eling home of the theater actor9 she thus symbolically spurns the !ay in !hich she !as force" to li e life !ith Tyrone. The more -ary uses morphine, the more she ten"s to "el e bac$ into past memories. *e thus get a better i"ea of !hy -ary uses morphine so much H it allo!s her to lea e the present an" li e in the !orl" of the past, !hen she !as a little girl in a con ent. *e !ill see in the last act that -ary i"eali3es her youth so much that if she ta$es e.cessi e "oses of morphine, she can actually fall into a mental state in !hich she cannot "istinguish bet!een the past an" the present. It is important to note, ho!e er, that !hile the men hate -ary's morphine a""iction, they themsel es are har"ly better in their abuse of alcohol. *hile -ary certainly "isappears mentally !hen she is loa"e", the men "o the same, e en though they thin$ their "rug of choice is more acceptable. Of course, !e can only assume that -ary !ill continue to lose more of her "reams as she gets ol"er9 O'/eill suggests in this play that people, as they get ol"er, ha e a ten"ency to i"eali3e the "reams of the past in such a fashion as to become "isenchante" an" hopelessly ineffectual in the present. Of course, this is a ery pessimistic outloo$, but O'/eill clearly a oi"s "espair by suggesting that there is some re"emption through forgi eness. -ary reiterates that she cannot forget the past, but she says that she !ill try to forgi e. *hile !e cannot trust her to ma$e such an effort, it seems that forgi ing the past mista$es of Tyrone an" her sons is the only !ay that -ary can stop trying to li e in her past "reams an" accept the present reality !hile thin$ing about a brighter future. In"ee", the title @ong 7ay's +ourney into /ight has more than one meaning. If the play !ere simply about -ary, it coul" be calle" @ong 7ay's +ourney into the Past. There is a "ual mo ement in the play9 on one han", the family is mo ing for!ar" in time as symboli3e" by the passing of the "ay. On the other han", all the characters, as they get increasingly "run$, tra el mentally bac$ in time to happier times !hen they thin$ they ha" fe!er problems. The title, in its ambiguous use of the !or" night, seems to suggest the "ual nature of the play. Act III also more clearly sho!s us the relationship bet!een ,"mun" an" -ary. It is important to recogni3e that -ary has ne er stoppe" seeing ,"mun" as her little baby son !ho replace" ,ugene, the baby in !hom -ary ha" so much hope. On the one han", -ary has trouble seeing ,"mun" as anything other than her in ulnerable baby !hom she can cure of anything. The prospect of ,"mun" "ying, ho!e er, is particularly troubling for -ary because she thin$s that ,"mun" may be Co"'s !ay of punishing her. So on the other han", she associate" ,"mun" !ith her o!n negligence an" potential punishment from Co". This "ouble%si"e" ie!point lea es complicates their relationship in a fashion that, for a literary stan"point, enriches the characteri3ation of both -ary an" ,"mun". Act I?, Part One Summary

The time is mi"night, an" as the act begins a foghorn is hear" in the "istance. Tyrone sits alone in the li ing room, "rin$ing an" playing solitaire. 4e is "run$, an" soon ,"mun" enters, also "run$. They argue about $eeping the lights on an" the cost of the electricity. Tyrone acts stubborn, an" ,"mun" accuses him of belie ing !hate er he !ants, inclu"ing that Sha$espeare an" *ellington !ere Irish :atholics. Tyrone gro!s angry an" threatens to beat ,"mun", then retracts. 4e gi es up an" turns on all the lights. They note that +amie is still out at the !horehouse. ,"mun" has #ust returne" from a long !al$ in the col" night air e en though "oing so !as a ba" i"ea for his health. 4e states, 0To hell !ith senseI *e're all cra3y.0 ,"mun" tells Tyrone that he lo es being in the fog because it lets him li e in another !orl". 4e pessimistically paro"ies Sha$espeare, saying, 0*e are such stuff as manure is ma"e of, so let's "rin$ up an" forget it. That's more my i"ea.0 4e 8uotes then from the French author =au"elaire, saying 0be al!ays "run$en.0 4e then 8uotes from =au"elaire about the "ebauchery in the city in reference to +amie. Tyrone critici3es all of ,"mun"'s literary tastes9 he thin$s ,"mun" shoul" lea e literature for Co". Tyrone thin$s that only Sha$espeare a oi"s being an e il, morbi" "egenerate. They hear -ary upstairs mo ing aroun", an" they "iscuss her father, !ho "ie" of tuberculosis. ,"mun" notes that they only seem to "iscuss unhappy topics together. They begin to play car"s, an" Tyrone tells +amie that e en though -ary "reame" of being a nun an" a pianist, she "i" not ha e the !illpo!er for the former or the s$ill for the latter9 -ary "elu"es herself. They hear her come "o!nstairs but preten" not to notice. ,"mun" then blames Tyrone for -ary's morphine a""iction because Tyrone hire" a cheap 8uac$. ,"mun" then says he hates Tyrone an" blames him for -ary's continue" a""iction because Tyrone ne er ga e her a home. Tyrone "efen"s himself, but then ,"mun" says that he thin$s that Tyrone belie es he !ill "ie from consumption. ,"mun" tells Tyrone that he, Tyrone, spen"s money only on lan", not on his sons. ,"mun" states that he !ill "ie before he !ill go to a cheap sanatorium. Tyrone brushes off his comments, saying that ,"mun" is "run$. =ut Tyrone promises to sen" ,"mun" any!here he !ants to ma$e him better, 0!ithin reason.0 Tyrone tells ,"mun" that he is pru"ent !ith money because he has al!ays ha" to !or$ for e erything he has. ,"mun" an" +amie, by contrast, ha e been able to ta$e e erything in life for grante". Tyrone thin$s that neither of his sons $no!s the alue of money. ,"mun", "el ing into his "eeper emotions, remin"s Tyrone that he, ,"mun", once trie" to commit suici"e. Tyrone says that ,"mun" !as merely "run$ at the time, but ,"mun" insists he !as a!are of his actions. Tyrone then begins to cry lightly, telling of his "estitute chil"hoo" an" his terrible father. Tyrone an" ,"mun", ma$ing amen"s, agree together on a sanatorium for ,"mun", a place that is more e.pensi e but substantially better. Tyrone then tells ,"mun" of his great theatrical mista$e that pre ente" him from becoming !i"ely famous' he sol" out to one particular role, an" !as fore er more typecast, ma$ing it "ifficult for him to e.pan" his hori3ons an" fin" ne! !or$. Tyrone says that he only e er really !ante"

to be an artist, but his hopes !ere "ashe" !hen he sol" out to brief commercial success. ,"mun" begins laughing 0at life. It's so "amne" cra3y,0 thin$ing of his father as an artist. ,"mun" then tells some of his memories, all of !hich are relate" to the sea. 4e reflects on moments !hen he felt "issol e" into or lost in the ocean. 4e thin$s that there is truth an" meaning in being lost at sea, an" he thin$s he shoul" ha e been born a 0seagull or a fish.0 :ommentary This is the first time !e see real interaction bet!een Tyrone an" ,"mun", a relationship that has not been e.plore" e.tensi ely in the play before this point. They argue much o er ,"mun"'s obsession !ith literature, an" it becomes clear that Tyrone !ishes to e.ert his authority o er ,"mun" by "ictating !hat ,"mun" ought to rea". One of Tyrone's great "reams is to see his sons gro! up to be li$e him, an" he clearly thin$s that ,"mun"'s interest in literature lea"s him "o!n a "ifferent path. /e ertheless, it is interesting that Tyrone an" ,"mun" are both intellectual figures. Tyrone is fascinate" by Sha$espeare an" the art of acting9 he a"mits that his only "ream !as to be an artist. ,"mun" laughs at this simply because Tyrone tells ,"mun" that his pursuit of art !ill get him no!here in life. Tyrone seems to be at conflict !ith his o!n interest in art as oppose" to his son's interest in !hat Tyrone percei es to be ba" influences. *e also see a ne! si"e of ,"mun". *e learn that he li$es to ta$e !al$s alone at night by the sea. To ,"mun", the fog an" the ocean hol" a symbolic alue similar to that of alcohol. ,"mun" feels li$e he can get lost in the ocean, as though he !ere getting "run$ on li8uor. The ocean, then, becomes a means of escape from the family in a""ition to alcohol an" morphine. The constant soun" of the foghorn throughout the night is a constant remin"er of the symbolic alue of fog in this play. The foghorn itself is inten"e" of course to help "irect ships through the fog to safety. The 8uestion for the rea"er is !hat !ill gui"e the Tyrone family through its foggy communication an" relationships. The sub#ect of fate returns in this section. Or"inarily it is brought up by -ary, but no! ,"mun" raises the issue !hen he mentions that he ought to ha e been born a fish or seagull because he lo es the ocean so much. In"ee", one shoul" notice the e.traor"inary !eight that is place" on ,"mun"'s birth in this play by all the characters. -ary an" Tyrone both attribute the morphine a""iction to ,"mun"'s birth, an" +amie has al!ays seen ,"mun"'s birth as the time !hen a competitor entere" the !orl" 5as !e !ill see more clearly in the ne.t section6. *e no! $no! that ,"mun" himself is not e en fully please" !ith his birth as a human, although presumably he is half #o$ing. /e ertheless, O'/eill remin"s the au"ience once again of a certain fatalistic outloo$ on life in !hich humans cannot control their "estinies

or their origins. As O'/eill !ill suggest more fully later on in the play, the real hope in a fatalist !orl" is to try to forgi e an" to communicate the truth. Act I?, Part T!o Summary 4earing +amie approaching the house, Tyrone steps into the ne.t room. +amie enters, "run$ an" slurring his speech. 4e "rin$s more, but he !ill not let ,"mun" "rin$ at first, for health reasons. +amie complains about Tyrone briefly, then learns of his agreement !ith ,"mun". +amie says that he spent the e ening at the !horehouse, !here he pai" for a fat !hore !hom no one else !as !illing to ta$e. ,"mun" attac$s +amie !ith a punch !hen +amie begins praising himself an" berating others. +amie than$s him su""enly for straightening him out9 he has been messe" up by problems relate" to -ary's a""iction. 4e an" ,"mun" both begin to cry as they thin$ about their mother. +amie is also !orrie" about ,"mun", !ho may "ie from consumption. +amie says that he lo es ,"mun", an" that in a sense he ma"e him !hat he is at present. =ut +amie also a"mits that he has been a ba" influence, an" he says that he "i" it on purpose. +amie a"mits that he has al!ays been #ealous of ,"mun", an" he !ante" ,"mun" to also fail. 4e set a ba" e.ample intentionally an" trie" to bring ,"mun" "o!n. 4e then !arns ,"mun", saying, 0I'll "o my "amne"est to ma$e you fail,0 but then he a"mits, 0Jou're all I' e got left.0 +amie then passes out. Tyrone then reenters, ha ing hear" all that +amie sai". Tyrone says that he has been issuing the e.act same !arning to ,"mun" for many years. Tyrone calls +amie a 0!aste.0 +amie !a$es up su""enly an" argues !ith Tyrone. +amie an" Tyrone both pass out briefly until they are a!o$en by the soun" of -ary playing the piano in the ne.t room. The soun" stops, an" -ary appears. She is ery pale an" ery clearly on a substantial "ose of morphine. +amie begins to cry, an" Tyrone angrily cries that he !ill thro! +amie out of his house. -ary is hallucinating, thin$ing that she is bac$ in her chil"hoo". She thin$s that she is in a con ent. In her han"s, she is hol"ing her !e""ing go!n, !hich she fishe" out of the attic earlier. She "oes not hear anyone, an" she mo es li$e a sleep!al$er. ,"mun" su""enly tells -ary that he has consumption, but she tells him not to touch her because she !ants to be a nun. The three men all pour themsel es more alcohol, but before they can "rin$, -ary begins to spea$. She tells them of her tal$ !ith -other ,li3abeth, !ho tol" her that she shoul" e.perience life out of the con ent before choosing to become a nun. -ary says that she follo!e" that a" ice, !ent home to her parents, met an" fell in lo e !ith +ames Tyrone, 0an" !as so happy for a time.0 The boys sit motionless an" Tyrone stirs in his chair as the play en"s. :ommentary

*ith +amie's account of his e ening in the city, !e see that he percei es himself, li$e 4ol"en :aulfiel", to be a 0catcher in the rye.0 , en though he is !asting his life a!ay on !hores an" alcohol, he still feels a certain compulsion to help other people, an" so he chooses to isit an obese prostitute !ho gets no customers. +amie is !illing to perform some self%sacrifice for the betterment of others, !hich is one of his stronger 8ualities. Although he tries to help the un"er"og, he is still !illing to a"mit that he is not prepare" to help his o!n brother. 4is confession to ,"mun" is remar$able for a $in" of fatalistic maturity9 he is !illing to a"mit to his "eep problems, e en if he is not !illing to try to sol e them. In this case, +amie may be better off than the other Tyrones, !ho ha e more "ifficulty a"mitting to their shortcomings. >ight until the en" of the play, for instance, -ary !ill ne er a"mit to her morphine a""iction. +amie, ho!e er, !ill confess fully to his abuse of his brother an" the s8uan"ering of his o!n life. If the play en"s on a note of resolution, that resolution comes from confessing to faults in an attempt to better the future. +amie, for instance, !arns ,"mun" to !atch out for his 5+amie's6 #ealousy, an" before that, Tyrone ac$no!le"ges his o!n stinginess an" agrees to sen" ,"mun" to a high%class sanatorium in hopes of curing him. Thus, t!o of the ma#or family conflicts are at least partially resol e" by the en" of the play. Of course, some problems are still left open, particularly -ary's morphine a""iction, !hich !e see at its !orst in this act. -ary can no longer e en see the real !orl" as she falls into a hallucinogenic state in !hich she thin$s she is bac$ in her con ent. It is ery clear no! that she ta$es her morphine to escape the reality of the present an" to bring herself bac$ to a time !hen her life !as open an" full of hope. 4er closing speech en"s the play !ith the e.pectation that the situation !ill not get better o ernight. Instea", the play en"s lea ing the au"ience !ith the sense that the "ay is not particularly special9 the e ents of this August "ay are li$ely to repeate" by the family !hich is stuc$ in an en"less cycle of bro$en "reams, conflicts an" "rugs. /otice that, at the en" of the play, O'/eill has create" four complete characters !ith numerous strengths an" !ea$nesses. One can clearly see some of both parents in each son, but one also sees the particular mo"ifications that ha e ta$en place bet!een the t!o generations. O'/eill "oes not en" the play on any particular note of con"emnation of any character. >ather, the play en"s !ith an image of a resigne" family that !as once great but has since fallen into "espair. @ong 7ay's +ourney into /ight is un"oubte"ly a trage"y in its portrayal of this fallen family, but it is important to see that it "oes en" offering some shre"s of hope for the future if the characters can change the !ay they act an" treat one another. Analysis

@ong 7ay's +ourney into /ight is un"oubte"ly a trage"y%%it lea es the au"ience !ith a sense of catharsis, or emotional rebirth through the ie!ing of po!erful e ents, an" it "epicts the fall of something that !as once great. The play focuses on the Tyrone family, !hose once%close family has "eteriorate" o er the years, for a number of reasons' -ary's "rug a""iction, Tyrone +amie, an" ,"mun"'s alcoholism, Tyrone's stinginess, the boys' la. attitu"e to!ar" !or$ an" money, an" a ariety of other factors. As the play is set, the parents are aging, an" !hile they al!ays hope" that their sons !oul" achie e great things, that hope is beginning to be replace" by a resigne" "espair. The play is largely autobiographical9 it resembles O'/eill's life in many aspects. O'/eill himself appears in the play in the character of ,"mun", the younger son !ho, li$e O'/eill, suffers from consumption. In"ee", some of the parallels bet!een this play an" O'/eill's life are stri$ing. @i$e Tyrone, O'/eill's father !as an Irish :atholic, an alcoholic, an" a =roa"!ay actor. @i$e -ary, O'/eill's mother !as a morphine a""ict, an" she became so aroun" the time O'/eill !as born. @i$e +amie, O'/eill's ol"er brother "i" not ta$e life seriously, choosing to li e a life of !hores, alcohol, an" the fast%pace" rec$less life of =roa"!ay. Finally, O'/eill ha" an ol"er brother name" ,"mun" !ho "ie" in infancy9 in this play, ,"mun" has an ol"er brother name" ,ugene !ho "ie" in infancy. The play, publishe" posthumously, represents O'/eill's last !or"s to the literary !orl". It is important to note that his play is not con"emning in nature9 no one character is meant to be ie!e" as particularly !orse than any other. This is one of the play's great strengths9 it is fair an" unbiase", an" it sho!s that many character fla!s can be seen as positi es !hen ie!e" in a "ifferent light. Thus, @ong 7ay's +ourney into /ight in ests hea ily in the politics of language. It is a !orl" in !hich there is a large !eight place" on the !ea$ness of 0stinginess0 ersus the irtue of 0pru"ence.0 The play also creates a !orl" in !hich communication has bro$en "o!n. One of the great conflicts in the play is the characters' uncanny inability to communicate "espite their constant fighting. For instance, the men often fight amongst themsel es o er -ary's a""iction, but no one is !illing to confront her "irectly. Instea", they allo! her to lie to herself about her o!n a""iction an" about ,"mun"'s illness. ,"mun" an" +amie "o not communicate !ell until the last act, !hen +amie finally confesses his o!n #ealousy of his brother an" "esire to see him fail. Tyrone, li$e!ise, can only critici3e his sons, but his stubborn nature !ill not allo! him to accept criticism. All the characters ha e bones to pic$, but they ha e trouble "oing so in a constructi e fashion. -ost of the bones that nee" pic$ing emerge in the past, !hich is remar$ably ali e for the Tyrones. -ary in particular cannot forget the past an" all the "reams she once ha" of being a nun or a pianist. Tyrone too has al!ays ha" high hopes for +amie, !ho has been a continual "isappointment. All the conflicts an" the problems

from the past cannot be forgotten, an", in fact, they seem "oome" to be reli e" "ay after "ay. It is important to note that @ong 7ay's +ourney into /ight is not only a #ourney for!ar" in time, but also a #ourney bac$ into the past li es of all the characters, !ho continually "ip bac$ into their ol" lifestyles. *e are left as an au"ience reali3ing that the family is not ma$ing progress to!ar"s betterment, but rather continually sli"ing into "espair, as they remain boun" to a past that they can neither forget nor forgi e. The play is all the more tragic because it lea es little hope for the future9 in"ee", the future for the Tyrones can only be seen as one long cycle of a repeate" past boun" in by alcohol an" morphine. This play !as a!ar"e" the Pulit3er Pri3e !hen it !as first publishe", an" it has remaine" one of the most a"mire" plays of the 2)th century. Perhaps most importantly, it has achie e" commercial success because nearly e ery family can see itself reflecte" in at least some parts of the play. The Tyrone family is not a uni8ue family, an" it is easy to i"entify !ith many of the conflicts an" characters. The play has a uni8ue appeal to both the in"i i"ual au"ience member an" to scholars of American "rama, !hich e.plains its popularity an" en"uring acclaim. -a#or Themes The Past, as refuge an" bur"en The Past, along !ith forgi eness, is one of t!o "ominant themes in the play. At "ifferent parts, the Past plays "ifferent roles. On one han" the past is a bur"en. -ary spea$s !ith a terrible fatalism, claiming that nothing they are can be helpe"' past sins an" mista$es ha e fi.e" their present an" future irre ocably. The past also ta$es the form of ol" hurts that ha e gone unforgi en. *e hear the same arguments again an" again in this play, as the Tyrone's "re"ge up the same ol" grie ances. @etting go is impossible, an" so the Tyrones are stuc$. The past also becomes a refuge, but not in a positi e !ay. -ary uses an i"eali3e" recreation of her girlhoo" as escapist fantasy. As she sin$s further an" further into the fog of morphine, she reli es her chil"hoo" at the :atholic girls' school. The past is use" to escape "ealing !ith the present. Forgi eness Forgi eness is the other pi otal theme of the play. Although ol" pains cannot be forgotten an" the Tyrones are, in a !ay, a "oome" family, ,"mun" is able to ma$e peace !ith his past an" mo e on to !hat !e $no! !ill be a brilliant career. 4is ability to "o so is base" in part on his capacity for forgi eness an" un"erstan"ing. The four Tyrones are "eeply, "isturbingly human. They ha e their #ealousies an" hatre"s9 they also remain a family, !ith all the normal bon"s of lo e, ho!e er trouble", that being a family entails. 2nli$e his brother, ,"mun" is able to forgi e an" un"erstan" all of the Tyrones, inclu"ing himself.

=rea$"o!n of communication =rea$"o!n of communication is a ery apparent theme. *e are force" to listen to the same arguments again an" again because nothing e er gets resol e". The Tyrones fight, but often hi"e the most important feelings. There is a "eep ten"ency to!ar"s "enial in the family. ,"mun" tries to "eny that his mother has returne" to morphine. -ary "enies ,"mun"'s consumption. Often, a oi"ance is the strategy for "ealing !ith problems. >eligion Although Tyrone professes to $eep his faith, his t!o sons ha e long since aban"one" the :atholic religion. Tyrone's religion spills o er into his taste in art. 4e consi"ers ,"mun"'s fa orite !riters to be morbi" an" "egenerate. -ary's loss of faith also recurs as an issue. Although she still belie es, she thin$s she has fallen so far from Co" that she no longer has the right to pray. 7rug an" alcohol abuse -ary's morphine a""iction is balance" by the men's alcoholism. Although the morphine is perhaps a more "estructi e "rug, alcohol "oes its fair share of "amage to the Tyrone men. It is Tyrone's great ice, an" it has contribute" to -ary's unhappiness. 7run$enness has been +amie's response to life, an" it is part of !hy he has faile" so miserably. An" ,"mun"'s alcohol use has probably contribute" to ruining his health. Isolation Although the four Tyrones li e un"er the same roof this summer, there is a "eep sense of isolation. Family meals, a central acti ity of family bon"ing, are absent from the play. @unch happens bet!een acts, an" "inner falls apart as e eryone in the family goes his separate !ay. -ary's isolation is particularly acute. She is isolate" by her gen"er, as the only !oman of the family, an" by her morphine a""iction, !hich pushes her farther an" farther from reality.

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