You are on page 1of 36

Elevator Technology

Where its been. Where its going.

Dedicated to People Flow

TM

This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

Elevator Technology

Learning objectives:
Elevator history Conventional elevator technology Technological advances MRL cost & space savings, and sustainability benefits Future trends

Elevator Technology

Worldwide,

1.37 billion
people ride on elevators each day.

The biggest assets of companies go up and down elevators every day.


Famous adage

Elevator Technology

Why is elevator knowledge important to you?


Because it is essential to ensure efficient people flow in the buildings architects design.

Elevator Technology

Elevator history

Elevator Technology

The first elevator may have been built by Archimedes in 236 B.C.

Elevator Technology

A treadmill hoisting machine, powered by donkeys, appeared in 1203.

Elevator Technology

In 1823, an ascending room provided paying visitors with a wonderful view of London.
Elevator Technology

Primitive steam-powered cable and hydraulic elevators appeared around 1850.


Elevator Technology

400' and above.

Gearless

300'

Geared

200'

Rise/Travel

100'

60'

Roped

Holed

40'
Holeless

20'

0'

Hydraulic Elevators

Geared Traction Elevators

Gearless Traction Elevators

Elevator Technology 1950 mid 1990s

Elevator Technology

Conventional Elevator Technology

Elevator Technology

Hydraulic Applications

Three configurations: 1) Direct Plunger Holed 2) Roped Plunger Roped Underslung 3) Holeless (not pictured)
Elevator Technology

Traction Applications

Traction Configurations 1)Overhead 2) Basement 3) Underslung

Elevator Technology

Hydraulic vs. Traction


Advantages: Cost less to install Shorter lead-times No reactions at the top of the structure

Drawbacks: Higher noise level Slow speeds Poor ride quality High energy consumption Environmental concerns significant use of hydraulic oil

Elevator Technology

Traction vs. Hydraulic

Advantages: Higher speeds Greater rise Smoother ride quality

Drawbacks: Higher installation cost Longer lead times Longer installation Significant loads on top of structure Penthouse requirements Critical path

Elevator Technology

A Technological Breakthrough in 1996


Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)
Saves energy Eliminates traditional machine room Eliminates hydraulic oil Simplifies installation Sustainable ownership

Elevator Technology

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) and Variable Voltage, Variable Frequency Drive (VVVF)

Reduces motor size and weight Reduces energy consumption and heat output New motor/drive technology enabled the creation of Machine Room-Less (MRL) elevator solutions.

Elevator Technology

Saving Energy
AC Gearless PMSM Technology - +93% efficient - 50-70% less energy than traditional traction or hydraulic machine technology - 6.7 hp vs. 40-60 hp Reduced Starting Current Demand - 30-40% less energy than traditional hydraulic or traction

Elevator Technology

Savings Comparison - Traction


Commercial Elevator, seven landings, 60 of rise, $0.15 kWh annual energy savings Traditional Geared - 32,919 kWh/year - $4,938 a year PMSM Technology - 14,476 kWh/year - $2,171 a year
Assuming a useful life of 30 years, thats a lifetime savings of $83,010 enough for a new Lexus LX 570 SUV

Elevator Technology

Savings Comparison - Hydraulic


Commercial Elevator, five landings, 48 of rise, $0.15 kWh annual energy savings Hydraulic - 47,551 kWh/year - $7,133 a year PMSM Technology - 11,837 kWh/year - $1,775 a year

Assuming a useful life of 30 years, thats a lifetime savings of $160,740 enough for a 2009 Porsche 911 S Coupe

Elevator Technology

Saving Space PMSM Technology enabled Machine Room-Less (MRL) elevators.


Money saved by eliminating a machine room can be used to build additional rental space Give architects more creative freedom of design

Elevator Technology

Saving Space Configurations


1. Overhead-Mounted Hoist Machine 2. Pit-Mounted Hoist Machine 3. Car Rail-Mounted Hoist Machine (most common)

Elevator Technology

Saving Space
Control Closet - Saves space and eliminates a full machine room Configuration - Integral - Adjacent

Elevator Technology

Eliminating Oil
Oil in traditional elevator technology - Lubricate machine - Hydraulic motion The average hydraulic elevator uses approximately 300 gallons of oil over its lifetime.
Elevator Technology

MRLs end the mess that threatens ground water.

Elevator Technology

Installation Benefits
Mechanics have superior control over their work environment Hoisting procedures are visible and under control

Elevator Technology

Installation Benefits
Reduces Project Management Interfaces - No drilling well holes - No waterproofing pits - No coordinating cranes - No structural machine room slab

Elevator Technology

Installation Benefits
Reduced costs - Structural machine room not required - Maintenance and access is improved - No additional costs for penthouse or access to penthouse Stairwells Lighting

Elevator Technology

2-10% of the worlds commercial building energy consumption is attributed to elevators


VERY IMPORTANT There are NO LEED certified elevators An elevator CANNOT GIVE you, the Customer, LEED project points LEED contribution is possible in the areas of EA (Energy & Atmosphere), ID (Innovation & Design) and compliant with EQ low emitting materials

Elevator Technology

Sustainable Ownership
Buildings account for 40% of the worlds energy consumption Elevators account for 2-10% of that 40% Over the lifetime of a new elevator the energy savings can amount to more than the initial cost of the equipment In high traffic applications, 30-40% of energy consumed can be recovered through regenerative systems In low traffic applications, the energy used while sitting idle (standby energy) can mount up to 70-80% of the total energy consumed

Elevator Technology

400' and above.

Gearless

300'
Gearles MRL

Geared

200'

Rise/Travel

100'

60'

Roped

Holed

40'
Holeless

20'

0'

Hydraulic Elevators

Geared Traction Elevators

Gearless Traction Elevators

Machine-room-less

Elevator Technology 1996 - Today

Elevator Technology

The Future Belongs to MRL Elevators


Architects are increasingly turning to MRLs, as hydraulic elevators begin to disappear. Saves energy Saves space Eliminate hydraulic oil Simplifies installation Sustainable ownership

Elevator Technology

Technology Advances

Regeneration Sleeping Elevators Solar Powered Elevators

Elevator Technology

I see hydraulic elevators diminishing within the next 5-10 years. The new technology will become greener and wont require external power. Also, people dont want to drill in the ground to accommodate a hydraulic elevator.
-Barry Pletch, CEO Thyssen Krupp Elevator Technology

Questions and Answers

KONE is a Registered Provider with the A.I.A. Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned will be reported and Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members are available upon request. Take-home materials are also available.

Dedicated to People Flow

TM