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Adab al<Suluk+ A Treatise on Spiritual 9a!



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Chapter 3

On the Inward Rules of This ourne!
First is keepin" watch o#er the self $nafs%& That is' the salikshould alwa!s keep #i"il o#er his heart& (e should not ne"lect it e#en for a moment) for otherwise he would succumb to his carnal desires and Satanic temptations& (e should consider himself as bein" watched b! *od' as (e has said+

&&&Surel! Allah has been a watcher o#er !ou $,+-%&
The .rophet $S% said+
*od watches !our heart and acts not !our apparent beha#iour and worldl! belon"in"s&

Second is the expression of humilit!' po#ert! and abasement before the /ord of the world& 0a 1a2id $ma! Allah hallow his mi"ht! soul% said that a #oice $sarush%called me from within and said+ 3O 0a 1a2id4 There are man! ser#ants in Our ser#ice& So if !ou seek 5s' brin" humilit! and neediness&3 0a 1a2id further said+ 31ou know for certain that !ou are in a cr!in" need of !our /ord at e#er! hour on man! counts) so !ou are needful of (is "uidin" li"ht as well as (is merciful "lance' "uidance and (is sustenance at e#er! moment& And' also' !ou are in need of (im at the time of death so that the li"ht of Islam and its knowled"e are kept intact in !our heart& In the "ra#e' too' !ou are in need of (im so that !ou successfull! answer the 6uestions asked b! 7akir and 8unkar $names of two an"els%& It is (e 9ho will be !our friend in the terrors of the "ra#e& The "reatest of all of !our needs is !our dependence on (im in the :a! of ud"ement' the da! of re"ret and remorse' so that *od' the ;xalted' ma! make !our face luminous' conceal !our blemishes $with (is merc!% and enhance the wei"ht and worth of !our "ood works in (is balance $mi2an%' that (e ma! facilitate the clearance of !our account and put the book of !our deeds in !our ri"ht hand' that (e ma! keep !ou firm on the .ath $shat%and sa#e !ou from hell‑fire and lead !ou towards paradise& (is hi"hest "enerosit! and the most excellent

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Adab al<Suluk+ A Treatise on Spiritual 9a!farin" http+==www&al<islam&or"=al<tawhid=adab>al>suluk=?&htm fa#our is to bless !ou with (is beatific #ision&3 These are !our essential needs with re"ard to !our 8aster in this world and the other world& (ence !our expression of po#ert! and humilit! before *od should be accordin" to !our real po#ert! and need& The third principle is repentance $tawbah%and penitence $inabah%before *od' in all conditions of hardship and affluence' comfort and calamit!& Referrin" to the .rophet Sula!man $A%' *od said+ 3(e was a "ood ser#ant' because he was penitent&3 *od said the same thin" about the .8 .xalted& Taslim means to surrender to *od both with the heart and the bod!' both of which are under (is ownership& To surrender a propert! to its owner is an essential condition $of submission%& The owner has the ri"ht to control his propert! and dispose it in an! wa! (e deems proper& It is up to (im whether (e honours or dis"races (is sla#e' breathes life in him or kills him' causes sickness or bestows health on him' makes him rich or poor& (ence it is re6uired of a saliknot to raise an! objection a"ainst (is will& (e should not complain o#ertl! or co#ertl!' for the protest a"ainst the real owner is absurd and #iolation of all norms& Complaint a"ainst the lord b! someone who claims to be his sla#e and lo#er is a shortcomin" in oneCs lo#e' ser#itude and de#otion& The fifth principle is rida $ac6uiescence%' i&e& acceptin" :i#ine dispensations without 6uestionin" thou"h the! be bitter& The common belie#ers take recourse in patience $sabr%when a calamit! befalls& 0ut the state of the elect in a similar situation is that of rida& The difference between sabr and rida is that the patient person $sabir%' b! #irtue of his faith' faces calamit! with forbearance) his faith remains unshaken and he does not "et disturbed in times of calamit!) he will not de#iate from the path of ser#itude' howsoe#er "reat and unbearable the calamit! should be but his heart resents the calamit!& 0ut the ac6uiescent person $radi% is the one whose heart is alwa!s in the state of ac6uiescence and happiness& Calamit! and affluence do not affect him' for whate#er he recei#es $from *od%' he considers it as a "ift from a friend& (e enjo!s hardships inflicted upon him b! his 0elo#ed and B of @ -A=?=BA-3 -A+BB .rophet A!!ub $A%' for Sula!man $A% saw his 0enefactor in (is bounties $niCmah%and A!!ub $A% saw the One who tries in (is trials& 7either did the bounties enjo!ed b! the former blur his #ision of the .ro#ider' nor the hardship and tribulations of the latter #eil his si"ht from seein" the hand of their Sender& In both the cases' the! attributed all that happened to the /ord& The fourth principle is surrender $taslim%to the command of *od' the .

8 .rophet $S% said+ 3*od lo#es e#er! "rie#in" heart&3 Re"ardin" the .Adab al<Suluk+ A Treatise on Spiritual 9a!farin" http+==www&al<islam&or"=al<tawhid=adab>al>suluk=?&htm Friend with the same pleasure as others enjo! fa#ours& DBE The sixth principle is permanent "rief $hu2n%& The .rophetCs attributes it is said that he was alwa!s in the state of contemplation and "rief& Accordin" to the FurafaC' e#er! heart which is de#oid of "rief is nothin" but cla!& (ow can a belie#er mana"e to be cheerful while he does not know what was written b! the pen of pre‑eternit! about his fate' whether it is felicit! or wretchedness& Also' he is unaware of his end' for he does not know what he will earn tomorrow $in the wa! of #irtue or #ice%& (e does not know whether his obedience will be accepted b! *od or not' and whether his sins will be pardoned or not& Sha!kh Abu al‑(asan al‑Ghar6ani was amon" the people of "rief& One da! he was asked the reason of the "rief of the "reat m!stics& (e replied that the reason is that the! want to knot= *od as (e deser#es to be known& 0ut that is impossible& For no one can know *od as (e deser#es to be known& The se#enth principle is to ha#e +"ood faith $husn al‑2ann%in *od' the .xalted& And (e said in a sacred tradition $hadith 6udsi %+ I treat 8! ser#ant in accordance with his opinion of 8e' so let him ha#e whate#er opinion he has& Therefore' it is necessar! for a ser#ant of *od to ha#e "ood faith in *od or a fa#ourable opinion of (im& This state is reached as a result of discernin" the Attributes of 0eaut! of *od' comprisin" "enerosit!' mercifulness' ma"nanimit!' and the #astness of (is for"i#eness& 9hoe#er mistrusts *od or has an unfa#ourable opinion of his /ord and loses hope in (is merc!& (e considers his #ices and sins bi""er than the capacit! of *odCs "enerosit! and merc!& This amounts to ascribin" defect and shortcomin" to *od& The ei"hth rule is that one should not consider oneself out of reach of *odCs de#isin" $makr%& As *od has said+ Are the! then secure from AllahCs schemeH 7one deem himself secure from AllahCs scheme sa#e the losers& $I+JJ% 3 of @ -A=?=BA-3 -A+BB .

xalted' will sa! to Adam $A%+ 3Arise and throw them into the hell‑fire43 Adam will ask+ 3(ow man!H3 The repl! would be+ 37ine‑hundred‑and‑ninet! out of e#er! thousand3& Then how can a sla#e with his burden of sins a#oid bein" fearsome of :i#ine wrath and mi"ht after ha#in" been aware of itH The ninth principle is lo#e $mahabbah%& In this re"ard *od has said &&&(e lo#es them' and the! lo#e (im&&& $?+?. of @ -A=?=BA-3 -A+BB .Adab al<Suluk+ A Treatise on Spiritual 9a!farin" http+==www&al<islam&or"=al<tawhid=adab>al>suluk=?&htm Further (e has said+ The erudite amon" (is bondmen onl! fear Allah &&&& $3?+BK% This fear and awe is produced in one who contemplates *odCs attributes of ma"nificence and wrath& For' in the same wa! as *od is attributed with the 6ualities of "enerosit! and mercifulness' (e is attributed with wrathfulness and power as well& *od' the .8 .xalted' has said+ Surel! I shall fill the hell with the firm and mankind to"ether& $--+--J% It is said in a tradition that *od' the .% /o#e is the essence of all stations $ma6amat%and #irtues $karamat%b! means of which the sla#e of *od pro"resses toward the /ord of the hea#en and the earth' and b! #irtue of which he will attain to the hi"her de"rees of the journe! $suluk%& /o#e is the fruit of the knowled"e of the 0eautiful 7ames of *od& 7o one possesses beaut! $which is his own% in the world except *od& 9hate#er beaut! and perfection is seen in the creatures is' in fact' a particle of the sun of (is beaut!' a drop from the oceans of (is perfection& If !ou consider beaut! and perfection to be confined to material forms and worldl! thin"s' know that !ou are imprisoned within the world of $corporeal% form and are depri#ed of obser#in" the realit!& For' the real beaut! and rational perfection are found in the essence of a bein" that possesses power and life' has the attributes of "enerosit!' bene#olence' forbear< ance' and is de#oid of an! shortcomin" and defect& It is due .

8 .ssence' which possesses them infinitel! and eternall!& 0ut bein"s other than *od possess a beaut! and perfection that is limited' reckonable' accidental' finite and mortal& .#er! desire takes one awa! from *od& The abo#e‑mentioned principles are most important for inner perfection $batin%with which a salikshould adorn his self $nafs%in order to be admitted‑into the proximit! of *od& Otherwise his sincerit! and aspiration will be deemed false) his lo#e will be merel! a false claim) thou"h he ma! consider himself as a wa!farer towards *od' in realit! he is plun"ed in the dun"eons of sensualit!& ? of @ -A=?=BA-3 -A+BB .#en such attributes are borrowed from the :i#ine ocean of bount! and beneficence& (ence' none except *od deser#es to ‑be lo#ed in the real sense' for e#er! form of beaut! $jamal%is deri#ed from (im& So e#er!one who lo#es somethin" other than *od is surel! blind to the beaut! of *od& The tenth principle is to "i#e up reliance on oneCs will $mashiCah%and freedom $ikhti!ar%and to take up trust in the Omnipotent /ord of the world& *od has said+ Allah coins a similitude+ $On the one hand% a sla#e who has control of nothin"' and $on the other hand% one on whom 9e ha#e bestowed a fair pro#ision from 5s' and he spends them secretl! and openl!& Are& the! e6ualH &&&& $-@+I?% So a sla#e has nothin" to do with freedom' for freedom suits those who are free& And the FurafaC ha#e said' if a seeker has a sin"le desire' it means that his #ision is obstructed b! #eils& The! ha#e also said that this $desire% is the "reatest of #eils& (ence e#en the desire of union with *od is the darkest of all #eils& So when e#en the desire of proximit! to *od is considered to be the "reatest #eil' what is to be said about the condition of one who is plun"ed in sensual desires and mundane enticementsH Thus it is essential for a seeker to be like the corpse in the hands of the bathers $"hussal%' so that he ma! attain communion with (a66& .Adab al<Suluk+ A Treatise on Spiritual 9a!farin" http+==www&al<islam&or"=al<tawhid=adab>al>suluk=?&htm to this reason that the "enerous' the noble' and the wise are lo#ed b! all& Similarl!' the warrior and the coura"eous are lo#ed due to their mi"ht' and the learned and the pious are respected due to their honest! and purit!& 1ou know that each one of these attributes of "lor! and beaut! are inherent in the :i#ine .

Adab al<Suluk+ A Treatise on Spiritual 9a!farin" http+==www&al<islam&or"=al<tawhid=adab>al>suluk=?&htm 7otes+ DBE& Imam FAli $A%' in a famous sermon named Ghutbat (ammam' describin" the 6ualities of the pious sa!s+ &&&The! are as happ! in the face of calamit! as others are in the state of comfort& @ of @ -A=?=BA-3 -A+BB .8 .