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Reported speech is when one person says something, for example, I am going to go the park and we want to tell it to another person. We use verbs like say or tell. If the verb is in the present tense, it is easy, we just put she says in the sentence. Direct speech: I like ice cream Reported speech: She says she likes ice cream TENSE Present simple Present continuous Past simple DIRECT SPEECH I like coffee I am living in Boston I bought a car REPORTED SPEECH She said (that) she liked coffee He said he was living in Boston He said she had bought a car OR She said she bought a car She said she had been having a shower He said he hadnt seen his cousin She said she had broken her leg before She said she wouldnt smoke again He said he would eat a tomato but She said she could speak Japanese He said he could ride his bike when he was 4 She said she would come later She said she should call the police He said he might be late She said she must wear a uniform OR She said she had to wear a uniform

Past simple Past continuous Past perfect or past simple Past perfect continuous Past perfect Past perfect Would Would Could Could

Past continuous Present perfect Past perfect * Will Would * Can Could *

I was having a shower I havent seen my cousin I had broken my leg before I wont smoke again I would eat a tomato but I can speak Japanese I could ride my bike when I was 4 I shall come later I should call the police I might be late I must wear a uniform

Shall Should * Might * Must

Would Should Might Must Had to (past simple of Have to

*doesnt change! We can choose to use that or not.

Sometimes, we dont need to change the present tense into the past if the information in direct speech is still true (but this is only for things which are general facts, and even then we usually tend to change the tense): Direct speech: The sky is blue Reported speech: She said that the sky is/was blue. REPORTED QUESTIONS WH Questions It not so different from reported statements. The tense changes are the same, and we keep the question word. The most important thing is that once we tell the question to someone, it isnt a question anymore. We need to change the grammar to a normal affirmative sentence. DIRECT QUESTION Where is the Post Office, please What are you doing? REPORTED QUESTION She asked me where the Post Office was She asked me what I was doing

YES /NO Questions We dont have any question word to help, so we use if. DIRECT QUESTION Do you love me? Have you ever been to Mexico? Are you living here? REPORTED QUESTION He asked me if I loved him She asked me if I had ever been to Mexico She asked me if I was living here.

REPORTED REQUESTS We dont need to report every word when we tell another person about it. We use ask me + infinitve. To report a negative request we use not. DIRECT QUESTION Could you bring my book? Please dont smoke Would you mind coming early tomorrow? REPORTED QUESTION She asked me to bring her book She asked me not to smoke. She asked me to come early next day.

REPORTED ORDERS When we want to report an order( someone tells you to do something very directly). We report them in the same way as a request but we use tell instead of ask. DIRECT QUESTION Go to bed Be on time REPORTED QUESTION He told to the child to go to bed He told me to be on time.

SAY AND TELL In reported statements, we can use either 'say' or 'tell'. The meaning is the same, but the grammar is different. For example: Direct speech: John: "I'll be late" Reported speech: John said (that) he would be late. OR John told me (that) he was going to be late. TELL: We need the direct object SAY: We cant use a direct object We cannot say: John said me that he would be late John told that he would be late Julie said that shed come to the party I said I was going to bed. He told me that he loved his wife. We told John they would arrive late.

Here some correct examples:

We can also use tell in reported orders. In this case tell is followed by a direct object and to+infinitive: She told me to sit down. Write said or told 1. Julie ______________ that she would join us after work. 2. She ______________ me that she was going running this evening. 3. John ______________ us that he couldnt come to the party. 4. John ______________ that he had been to the cinema at the weekend. 5. She ______________ them she wanted to quit. 6. David ______________ he was going to arrive at eight. Change the direct speech into reported speech. Choose the past simple of ask, say or tell:

1. Dont do it! She ____________________________________________________________ 2. Im leaving tomorrow She ____________________________________________________________ 3. Please get me a cup of tea She ___________________________________________________________ 4. She got married last year She ____________________________________________________________ 5. Be quick!

She ___________________________________________________________ 6. Could you explain number four, please? She ____________________________________________________________ 7. Where do you live? She ___________________________________________________________ 8. We went to the cinema and then to a Chinese restaurant She ____________________________________________________________ 9. Ill come and help you at twelve She ____________________________________________________________ 10. What are you doing tomorrow? She ____________________________________________________________ 11. Dont go! She ___________________________________________________________ 12. Do you work in London? She ___________________________________________________________ 13. Could you tell me where the post office is? She ____________________________________________________________ 14. Come here! She ____________________________________________________________ 15. Ive never been to Wales She ____________________________________________________________ 16. Have you ever seen Lord of the Rings? She ___________________________________________________________ 17. I don't like mushrooms She ____________________________________________________________ 18. Don't be silly! She ____________________________________________________________ 19. Would you mind waiting a moment please? She ____________________________________________________________ 20. How often do you play sport? She ____________________________________________________________