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esources Ltd.

Presenta

Ofrecidopor Norman M. Cooper, P.Geoph

Julio,2004 Muico
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Norsran M . Cooper , P.Geoph. Presldente,

Muetagh Regourceg lrtd.

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Overview of 3D Method
NORMCOOPER MUSTAGH RESOURCES LTD.

Basics of Seismic Operations

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SingleShot- 2-D Record


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The Need for 3D Seismic

2-D Seismic,
rSparsecontrol- maymissanomaly rCross-lineand Out-of-Plan e effects rVelocity analysis onlyalonglineof section rlncompleteMigration

Swath Shooting

.a.a.a'a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a.a

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rBetter control - everysecondline "Free" oGood for LINEARfeatures oVelocityanalysis still only good along line of section olnterpolated migration

3-D Metho{.
rCompletesubsurface imaging rCoupledStatics solutions better structure oFullvelocity analysisaccounting for dip "Focused" r3-D migration viewof subsurface oBetter S/N ratiodueto de-emphasis of

TheNeedfor Large3D's

The Cost of 2-D


Play Of&ct Fotd ! 50 20 12 tr 20 .t0 Sourcc lntenel t0 34 80 100 100 foo CDp SLc S 8,5 t0 12.5 t2.5 t2.5 Cort (pcrkm) 7,500 $6,500 ss,500 s5,000 $5,000 30,000

High Rcs Sh a l l o w Pleo U/C D-3 Deep Foothills

500 680 960 t.t00 2000 .1000

The Cost of 3-D


Ply Typu Olca (dcpth) Fold '/t 20 l0 14 18 20 l0 lin Specing 100 200 210 290 400 ltlo Bio Size Cora (rq km)

tllgh Rcr 500 700 Shallow Pafeo U/C 1000 D-3 1400 Deep 2000 Pooill! __,,f000

5 t700,000 15 S.t0,000 20 $24,000 25 $rE,000 30 512.000 40 100 58,000

2-D Activity in Canadain 1997 r about30,000 km of2-Drecorded o utilizing approx. 200 crewmonths per crew averaging 200 channels per km . average cost95,000 o Totalexpenditure about9150,000,000

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3-D Activity in Canada in 1997 r about12003-Dprograms recorded (approx. 24,000square km) r utilizing approx. 350 crewmonths averaging 1200channels per crew . average perprogram cost$350,000 r Totalexpenditure about

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2-D Resultsin Canada in 1997 r 1 wellper 10 km of 2-Dseismic 3000wellsdrilled on 2-D? perwell $50,000 . completion rateof perhaps 60% r onlymoderate economics for most completions

3-D Resultsin Canadain 1997 o 1 wellper3 sq km of 3-D seismic 8000wellsdrilled on 3-D ? perwell $52,500 o completion rateof perhaps 80o/o o improved economics for most completions

A reminder aboutsubsurface coverase

CDP

Itarwal

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A 3-D program contains receiver lines . . .

A 3-D program alsocontains source lines.

An example of an Orthogonal 3D grid. . .

3D Survey with the Bin Grid Superimposed

StatisticalMeasures of Traces Contributingto a Common Bin


r Fold is the totalcountof all traces whose midpoints fallwithin a bin. I OffsetDistribution measures the variety of the separation of the individual source-receiver pairscreating traces within a bin. r AzimuthDistributionmeasures the nmentof the source receiver

Superposition Principle
o

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Types of Noise
* Timevariant * Offset variant * Sourcevariant * Receiver variant

Noise = f 1t,r,=,r

How is Fold Determined ?


o TheFold is builtby overlapping areasof subsurface coverage. r Theoverlap is a function of the subsurface areaof the patchand the sizeof thejumps fromsalvoto salvo(inthe in-line direction) and from swathto swath(in the cross-line direction) r Let'sreviewthe subsurface patch. . .

How is Fold Determined ?


r Therefore the ln-LineFold willbe: patchheiqht 2 x source linespacing rAnd the Gross-Line Fold willbe: oatchwidth 2 x receiver linespacing r The NominalFold of the 3D willbe the product of the In-Line and Cross-Line Fold

Nominal 3-D Fold


r Theproduct is: oatchheiqhtx patchwidth 2 x S L x 2 x R L WhereSL is the source linespacing and RL is the receiver linespacing r Or: patcharea 4 x SLxRL

ffif
OffsetLimited3-D Fold
r Usually, we canonlyusecertain source-receiver offsets.Any traces generated from longeroffsetswill be discarded in processing. o We generally try to design our recording patchas a squareor rectangle largeenough to encompass the MaximumUseable Offset.

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Calculationof 3-D Fold


r Therectangular foldwillbe: Surface Patch Area

Calculation of 2-D Fold ( CDP redundancy )


o Subsurface coverage is l/2 of sur face coverage . f r e q u e n c yo f s h o o t n gi s G r o u p I n t e r v a ld i v i d e d by Source Interval

rFold = #Traces X 2
Or:

Grouplnteal Source Interval

r Fold = MaximumUseable Offset SourceInterval

2-D Designversus 3-D Design


l Source interval drives thecost of 2-D: Source Interval = *$"tgueslreq t,olo
r Griddensity drives the costof 3-D:

CleanRecord- Tilley Area

2-D Design- Example 1


Assume desired foldof 24 Assume useable offsets to 1200m

- ry Sourcelnterval

= 50m

Or 20 shots per km

3-D Design- Example I


Assume desired foldof 15 Assume useable offsets to 1200m

For SL=RL = 275m

2-D Design- Example 2


Assume desired foldof 24 Assume useable offsets to 800 m

* # Sourcelnterval

- 33.3m

Or 30 shots per km

3-D Design- Example 2


Assume desired foldof 15 Assume useable offsets to 800 m

For SL=RL= 183m


Or 29.9 boxes per sq km

Summary of Dataexamples
"R" "R" for design= for processing = Desired Fold = Si = DensitY = Processed Fold = Desred Fold = Line Spacing = DensitY = Processed Fold =

800 800 24 33.33 30.00 24.00 15 183 29.84 15.00

1200 1200 24 50.00 20.00 24;00

2-D

3-D

2-D Design - Example3


Assume source interval of 50 meters Assume useable offsets to 800 m

Fold-# -16 Or 213 of expectedfold for

3-D Design- Example 3


Assume SL = RL = 275 m Assumeuseable offsets to 800 m

Or 419of expectedfold

Summary of Data examples "R" for design= 800 "R" for processing = 1200 2-D Desired Fold= Si = = DensitY Processed Fold= Desired Fold= = LineSpacing = DensitY Processed Fold =

1200 800

3-D

"R'fordesgn= "R" for processing = DsrEdFold = S= DensitY = Processed Fold = DesredFold = Line Spacing = DensltY = Processd Fold =

800 i 1200

1 800

2-D

24 33.33 30.00 36.00 15 183 29.t1 33.75 1.50 1.50 , 1,22 2.25 2,26

24 50.00 20.00 16.00 15 275 13,20 3;67 0.87 0,97 0.92 0,/t0 0,14

3.D

2-D

cost factor = fold factor= S/Nfactorcostfactor= fold factor = fastor =

3-D

Line Spacing

Avoid:

SL/RL = 1.0 SL/RL> 2.0 SL/RL < 0.5

A Typical2-D FieldMonitor

A Typical2-D FieldMonitor

3D NaturallyEmphasizes FarOffsets

3-D Patch

2-D Spread

Narrow Aperfure Patches


o Often, our patchis notsufficienfly wide to record all useable tracesin the cross linedirection. o Thisis usually the result of limited recording equipment andcan be compensated by "double shooting" patches fromsides.

NarrowAperture3-D Fold
r The surface area of a narrow aperture patch willbe: 7[ R2 - 2 (R2Cqs't (r / R) - r (R2- 12)1/2 ) And the fold will be : s u r f a c ea r e a l ( 4 x S L x R L )

Offser Limited3-D Fold


rThe nexttwo slides illustrate the difference between foldusingall offsets, andfoldusinglimited offsets. r Flickbackandfcrthbetween themand notethe differences.

f#

Offset Limited 3-D Fold


r Notethe patterns of higher and lower foldwhichare evident in the offset limited display. rThese patterns mayproduce false images in thefinalstacked datasince dataquality partly depends on fold. o We referto thisas Geometric lmprintingor as seeing a Footprintof

The Fold Histoeram


rThe nextdiagram is a histogram showing the relative number of bins whichare imaged by eachfoldfor the offset limited modet. r Thefairlybroaddistribution indicates thatwe mightexpect geometric imprinting in thismodet.

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79.68e0,km 4822sq.k 60.5 i6

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30.77sq.ni. ) 18.63sc.d. I

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LowFold Nomrl Fold Hlch Fold

Fold Cout 180 21 0 2,1.0

tl vi Nomin.l -f43% 0.096 l.3%

sot, 121 4.SB ,[90

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i6 Sqn.t /ttu. -7.1% O.O% 0.9%

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"Fold Driven" 2-D Designversus 3-D Design = Source Interval


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"Bin Driven" 2-D Designversus 3-D Design


Source Interval = Receiver Interval

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3D Parameter Desien
NORMCOOPER MUSTAGH RESOURCES LTD.

Design Overview rOverall suruey sizeand shape rDeciding on the desired fold oOffsetconsiderations oSource/ Receiver line spacrngs oBin size oBin geometry, scatter

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5 x 180km : 900 km2 - Not large

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10li;; p-",.t'o- Ri,


> 1000channels
-.-.-. *-:ti:l;i : i-_ t' t.-._._._fiffi:r-*ffi::*.-

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30 x 30km:900 km2

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> 6000 channels

OneSection of landto be imaeed

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- with 800 m low fold margin

Model Before Migration

Detail of Model Before Migration

One TraceMigrated

OneTraceMigrated

Three TracesMierated

Five TracesMigrated

Nine TracesMierated

Eleven Traces Migrated

Thirteen Traces Migrated

Fifteen TracesMigrated

Seventeen TracesMierated

NineteenTracesMigrated

Twentythree TracesMigrated

Twentynine Traces Migrated

Detail of Model Before Mieration

Model Before Migration

MigrationAperture

MigrationAperture
The horizontaldistance a tracewillbe moved by migration in a homogeneous medium would be: Migration Aperture= Depthx Tan(dip)
For a reflectorat 1000 m with a dip of 30 degrees Migration Aperture= 1000x Tan(30)= 977

FresnelZone

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Fresnel Zone
pointwhere r Theradius around a reflection irregularities on the reflecting urface are expected to effectthe natureof the reflection FresnelRadius= Sqrt [ ( o * 1t2]u z - gz7 and l, = Vavg I rreq
For a reflectorat 1000 m with a velocity m/sec and - of 3OO0 dominantfrequencyof 50 Hz (, = 60 m)

Grid Orientation versus Bin Spacing

spacing = 1.414x bn spacing

: 1.0x bln spaclng tracespacing

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Overall Survey Size and Shape aCoverbeyond the anomaly rMargin of poorstatistics oMigration aperture and Fresnel Zone rAlignment withStrike / Dip or LandBoundaries (inside oAvoidirregular shapes

Design Overview oOverall survey sizeandshape oDeciding onthedesired fold rOffsetconsiderations asource / Receiver line spacngs tBin size oBingeometry, scatter

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Out of Plane Effects

3D Naturally Emphasizes Far Offsets

. . 3 - DP a t c h

2 -D Spread

FoldDecimation Experiment (Bouska)

FoldDecimation Experiment (Bouska)

7 fold

\-,

Deciding on the Desired Fold rSignalto noiseenhancement o3-D advantages of migration o3-D advantages of offset distribution ols fold our mostimportant parameter ?

Design Overview rOverall suruey sizeandshape rDeciding onthedesired fold rOffsetconsiderations asource / Receiver line spacings oBinsize rBin geometry, scatter

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SomeEventson a Field Record

-Max Offset = Depth ???


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- ..t iI

0 000

.3B8gg$n*gggg$eg
StretchMute

0.500 1.0{x) :1.500 2.000 2.500

(1s%)

A slow layer overlying a fast layer


Air 300 mrs

What happens to the reflectedenergy?


HCocf.4g 1?oo.loo Ar roo o/s - 0.t0

CleanRecord- Tilley Area

Noisv Record- Guided Wave

3D Naturally Emphasizes FarOffsets

3-D Patch

2-D Spread

=vgg,

Common Offset Stack- Tunisia

Offset Considerations - Maximum Limits olnterference with mutedfirstbreaks oMoveout stretchmute rMode conversion aEnergy lossdue to spherical divergence

Yffi _.7ff

Semblance vs Offset
5000

VELOCITY m/g

2000 0.500

0.600 OFFSET

r'

OffsetConsiderations - MinimumLimits
oSufficient moveout for velocitv analysis rSufficientmoveout for multiple discrimination oRefraction analysis rAmplitudevs Offsetanalysis

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- Multi Zone OffsetConsiderations

ShallowZone X max and desiredfold determine Grid Density(Srand Rr) Patch Size is determined by the largerof ShallowZone X max or DeepZone X min

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lf a patchcannot be full aperturefor all zones, it's minimumdimension mustexceed X min for the deepest zoneof significance t!

DesignOverview
oOverallsurveysizeand shape rDeciding on the desired fold oOffsetconsderations asource/ Receiver line spacings oBin size oBin geometry, scatter

Source/ Receiver Line Spacings oDesired fold withinoffsetlimits rFold at shallow events oAspectratio rDesiredwavefield sampling in a l l d o m a i n? s?

"Fold Driven" 2-D Design versus3-D Design

Evolution of Megabin 3D

Instructor's Option Open E:\Courses\


FuIl_Wavefie Id_to_Meg abi n.ppt
Alternatlvely,openE:\Courses\MegaUn_vs_Orthogonal.ppt for a case hlstory fromsw Ontario

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"Bin Driven" 2-D Design versus 3-D Design = Receiver Source Interval Interval SL = RL = 4xSubsurfaoe Bin = 2x Receiver Interval

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Design Overview rOverallsurvey sizeand shape oDeciding on the desired fold r Offsetconsiderations asource/ Receiver line spacings oBin size

20 Hz as tracesin space

SpatialSamplingat the Surface


X "ppr.nt = },l stnqcg = Vel / Freq i sin(Cf)

SpatialSamplingat the Surface


= 2 x CDPinterval Surface nterval

Surface Interval= x Freqru*x Sin o, ,3


/
Desire s mpes perwavelength.

2 x Velocityou.,uu.

Asymmetric Bins- linearfeatures

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Asymmetric Bins - linear features

Bin40x80m

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RequredGroup Intorvel vs Otfsot for Olffractlons


To = 1.20O ..c, Vavg 3(x)0m/r, Fm. ' 10o lk

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Triple Stagger More independence of traceswithin bins

Mid-PointFocused l-imited lndependence of traces witi'inbins ,: .,,. ,.'.,.

SLxRL =

4 x Desired Fold

SL=1.5xRL
= 1.5 RL2 o'r'ul='
1 x1 5

=
t t

RL:52.3m

=SL-78.5m

f 13NaturalBins (4 x 5 m) More traces - No better resolution - limit due to bandwidth is about 7 meters

Mid Point vs Reflectin

Bin Balancing- off,set intelligence

Fractionation of binsby mid-pointscattering r Interleaving geometries orthogonal


rFlexibility in bin size rFlexibility in bin geometry rFlexibility in fold tBin balancing

\., Statisticsand SurfaceConsistentAlgorithms > Diverse statistics comefrom diverse wavefield sampling > Surface consistent algorithms require (diverse) independent linearly statistics . Amplitude recovery > Deconvolution > Statics

Simultaneous Equations- Under Constrained X+Y=5 oToo manyvariables, not enough equations I no unique solution X = almost anything Y=5-almostanything

Simultaneous Equations- Properly Constrained X+Y=5 X-Y=1 o Number of independent variables matches - oneunique number of equations solution X=3 Y=2

- Over Constrained Simultaneous Equations X+Y=5 X-Y=1 XIY=1.4 o Seldom all measurements agree r No solution X= 3 Y =2 doesnotfitextraequation

Simultaneous Equations- Over Constrained X+Y= 5+errOrl X-Y= 1+error2 XiY=1.4+error3 Recognize o errorsin measured values o Eacherrorbecomes another variable o Nowwe have3 equations and 5 variables o Nowwe are UnderConstrained again!! - noneunique o Toomanysolutions

Simultaneous Equations- Over Constrained X+Y= 5+0.0=5 X-Y= 1+0.0=1 X / Y = 1 . 4 + 0 .= 11 . 5 a average absolute error= 0.033 X=3 Y=2

Equations- Over Constrained Simultaneous X+Y= 5+1.0= 6 X_y= 1+-1.0= 0 X/Y=1.4+-0.4=1 aaverage absolute error= 0.80

X=3

Y=3

= Structure + NMO+ Receiver + Source Observed Example 10 km 2-D line (traces) per SP 100channels = 100m (10perkm) Source Interval Receiver Interval= 20 m (50per km) CDPfold= 10

Statisticsand SurfaceConsistentAlgorithms
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: Structure + NMO+ Receiver Observed * Source = 10 x 10 x 100= 10,000 traces Recorded = Receiver stations 50 x 10 = 500 = = Source stations 10 x 10 100 CDPlocations 2= x50x10 - 1,000 = channels = Unique Offsets 100 10,000 equations + 100+ 500+100= 1700 1,000 variables we require10,000 errorterms to be minimized

SurfaceConsistentAlgorithms rFeed on statistical diversity l3-D's provide more dimensions of statistics andgreater diversity generate rSomemodels redundant statistics andshould beavoided

- Offset Design Considerations


rShallow objectiveand first breaks rDeep objective and Velocity Analysis .Deep targetand Multiple Suppression oEnergyLoss .AVO effects oRefraction Analysis

Design Considerations - Fold Redundancy rStatistical for processing tGeneral Signalto NoiseRatioof area tEconomics tOffset and Sourceinterual for 2D tOffset 2 and grid density for 3D

Design- GroupInterval
rSpatial Aliasing of dips patterns rSpatial Aliasingof Diffraction oSpatial Aliasing of Coherent Noise tFresnelZone oTargetSize lNumber of Geophones, Array

Design - SourceInterval aFromFold, Offsets, channels lrounded down to integer multiple of groupinterval in 2-D aequal to groupinterval for stackarray otwice binsizefor 3-D asourceArray ?

t-

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Design- Spread Geometry


rDetail versusReconnaissance tDominantdip versuslineorientation (nearoffsets) lRefractionanalysis boundaries aLand

Design- ChannelsRequired .From useable Offset & Group Interval oFullaperture (line 3-DPatch spacing) oRecording Equipment available

Design- Source Type


tSurface conditions oProximity to Cultural obstructions rEquipmentavailability rStack Array- full wavefield ?? sampling

\-

Design - Dynamite ChargeSize Holedepth Surface charge?? Singleor pattern holes Pentolite versusNG versusGel conventional versusshapedcharge

Design- Vibroseis
Sizeand number of vibrators Bandwidth of sweep Upsweep or Downsweep DriveLevelversus THD Sweeplengthand tapers Linearity andtapers Number of Sweeps Totaleffortversuspadtime

Summary
tAccount for wavefield sampling tCustom tailorto available instrumentation tAllow for realistic implementation rOptimizefor economics -the bestdatacomes fromsurveys which arenotjustdesigned butare alsorecorded !!

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