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Course Objectives

Enable the course participants to:


Use petrophysical tools and techniques for the characterization of hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs Confidently make a quicklook evaluation of openhole logs to assess porosity, lithology, fluid type and fluid saturation (input to STOIIP equation) Learn how/why other data sources (mudlogs, core analysis, capillary pressure curves, borehole seismic, wireline formation tests) are used Be aware of the use of cased hole logs for cement evaluation, reservoir monitoring and production logging Obtain a feel for the uncertainties related to petrophysical interpretations Learn how more advanced petrophysical techniques can be applied, e.g. for laminated shaly sand reservoirs
Section 1 Introduction.ppt 2004 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

The Petrophysical Scene

Section 1 Introduction.ppt

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Nobody Should Be Afraid To Ask!!!!

Section 1 Introduction.ppt

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Life Cycle

Section 1 Introduction.ppt

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Stages In A Fields Life


Exploration Limited information Appraisal Geological model develops Structural model develops Quantitative core data Field development plan Development Further refinement of the Reservoir Model Production data Enhanced recovery scheme
Section 1 Introduction.ppt 2004 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

The Petrophysical Scene

Section 1 Introduction.ppt

2004 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

How Does Petrophysics Integrate?

Section 1 Introduction.ppt

2004 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Mud logging: Applications


Monitoring bit performance Well position within stratigraphy
(for decisions on casing, coring)

Determination of lithology Indication of fluid type Indication of pressure conditions

Section 1 Introduction.ppt

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Mud Conditioning Equipment

Sample Collection on Doubledeck Shale Shaker

Section 1 Introduction.ppt

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Mud Logging: Evaluation


ROP log used for well-well correlation Cuttings lithology
(codes: see Production Handbook) (e.g. chlorothene solvent cut): water zone: no staining oil zone: more heavy components gas zone: only light components

Oil staining on cuttings

Section 1 Introduction.ppt

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A Mud Log From The Wellsite

Section 1 Introduction.ppt

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Drilling Rate/Porosity Relationship

Wellsite Hydrocarbon Analysis


Staining, bleeding, odor, gas, iridescence (color) (Pos., Neg., Quest.) Natural fluorescence (UV): Distribution, intensity, color 5 = strong .....0 = nil Solvent cut test (Chlorothene): Minerals will not produce cut fluorescence Acetone test (light oil): Hydrocarbons cause milky white solution Acid test: bouncing motion if HC present Pyrolysis test (burn it) Hot water test: oil film at surface
Section 1 Introduction.ppt 2004 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

Natural Fluorescence
Oil gravity
2 to10 10 to 18 18 to 45 45 up

Fluorescence color
Non-fluorescence Yellow to gold Gold to pale yellow Blue white to white

Rock/mineral
Dolomite Some limestones Chalk Shale Fossils Marls Anhydrite Pyrite
Section 1 Introduction.ppt

Fluorescence color
Yellow, brown to dark Brown Purple Yellow-greyish Yellow white to yellow brown Yellow-grey Grey, blue grey Yellow, brown, purple
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Contaminants
Cavings Recycled cuttings Mud chemicals Lost circulation material Cement Oil base muds Metal

Section 1 Introduction.ppt

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Typical Shale Density Plot

Section 1 Introduction.ppt

2004 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved

General Relationships

General relationships between d-exponent, drill depth, mud column length, and ROP while drilling through a uniform lithology with both normally pressured and overpressured intervals (from exlog, 1985e)
Section 1 Introduction.ppt 2004 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved