jazz-rock | Jazz | American Styles Of Music

1960s Allmusic Guide states that "until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly

completely separate".[1] While in the USA modern jazz and electric R&B may have represented opposite poles of blues-based Afro-American music, however, the British pop music of the beat boom developed out of the skiffle and R&B championed by well-known jazzmen such as Chris Barber. Many UK pop musicians were steeped in jazz, though the word "rock" itself was barely used before the late 1960s except to refer to 1950s rock and roll. The prominent fusion guitarist John McLaughlin, for example, had played what Allmusic describes as a "blend of jazz and American R&B" with Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames[2] as early as 1962 and continued with The Graham Bond Organisation (with Jack Bruce and Ginger Baker) whose style Allmusic calls "rhythm & blues with a strong jazzy flavor".[3] Bond himself had begun playing straight jazz with Don Rendell whileManfred Mann, who recorded a Cannonball Adderley tune on their first album, when joined by Bruce turned out the 1966 EP record Instrumental Asylum, which undoubtedly fused jazz and rock.[4] These developments, though, made little overt impression in the USA. Hence music critic Piero Scaruffi argues that "credit for "inventing" jazz-rock goes to Indiana-born jazz vibraphonist Gary Burton, who "began to experiment with rock rhythms on The Time Machine (1966)". Burton recorded what Scaruffi calls "the first jazz-rock album, Duster" in 1967, with guitarist Larry Coryell.[5]Scaruffi argues that Coryell is "another candidate to inventor of jazz-rock", in that the Texas-born guitarist released the jazz-rock recording Out of Sight And Sound in 1966.[6] Trumpeter and composer Miles Davis had a major influence on the development of jazz fusion with his 1968 album entitled Miles in the Sky. It is the first of Davis' albums to incorporate electric instruments, with Herbie Hancock and Ron Carter playing electric piano and bass guitar, respectively. Davis furthered his explorations into the use of electric instruments on another 1968 album,Filles de Kilimanjaro, with pianist Chick Corea and bassist Dave Holland. In 1969 Davis fully introduced the electric instrument approach to jazz with In a Silent Way, which can be considered Davis's first fusion album. Composed of two side-long suites edited heavily by producer Teo Macero, this quiet, static album would be equally influential upon the development of ambient music. It featured contributions from musicians who would all

smooth and elegant. The Free Spirits have sometimes been cited as the earliest jazz-rock band. melodic. Nucleus. However. wildest."[5] Frank Zappa released the solo album Hot Rats (1969). but most often it describes performers coming from the rock side of the equation. Other "groups such as Blood." The guide states that "jazz-rock first emerged during the late '60s as an attempt to fuse the visceral power of rock with the musical complexity and improvisational fireworks of jazz. Scaruffi contrasts "Davis' fusion jazz [which] was slick. Prolific jazz artists such as George Duke and Aynsley Dunbar played on these LPs. and Frank Zappa) turned the blend of the two styles "upside down: instead of focusing on sound.[9][10] and had a major jazz influence mainly consisting on long instrumental pieces[10][11] and later he also released two LPs in 1972 which were very jazz-oriented called "The Grand Wazoo" and "Waka/Jawaka". Hancock. some make a distinction between the two terms. and Williams. rhythmic and instrumentational elements from the jazz tradition".[8] Estonian group Kristallid (featuring composer Olav Ehala on keyboards and future soviet superstar Jaak Joala on vocals and bass) added 1967 a brass section to the band and played some old swing standards among rock material. Williams quit Davis to form the group The Tony Williams Lifetime with McLaughlin and organist Larry Young. John McLaughlin. [edit]Jazz-rock The term. Colosseum. Caravan. while "progressive-rock" was typically convoluted and abrasive. Holland. Their debut record of that year Emergency! is also cited as one of the early acclaimed fusion albums. pianist Josef Zawinul.go on to spread the fusion evangel with their own groups in the 1970s: Shorter. "jazz-rock" (or "jazz/rock") is often used as a synonym for the term "jazz fusion". Corea. rockers focused on dynamics" that could be obtained with amplified electric instruments. Allmusic states that the term jazz-rock "may refer to the loudest.[7] During the late 1960s. Sweat & Tearsdirectly borrowed harmonic. Since rock often emphasized directness and simplicity over virtuosity. most electrified fusion bands from the jazz camp. Scaruffi notes that the rock groups that drew on jazz ideas (he lists Soft Machine. at the same time that jazz musicians were experimenting with rock rhythms and electric instruments. rock groups such as Creamand the Grateful Dead were "beginning to incorporate elements of jazz into their music" by "experimenting with extended free-form improvisation". Chicago. jazz-rock generally grew out of the most artistically ambitious rock subgenres of .

Soft Machine. Cream). The Mahavishnu Orchestra. Santana. plus a dense mix of percussion. Sweat & Tears. Tim Buckley) Jam. progressive rock. Weather Report. Supersister. mostly abandoned jazz's usual swing beat in favor of a rock-style backbeatanchored by electric bass grooves. Return to Forever. including The Tony Williams Lifetime. Jukka Tolonen. The Dixie Dregs.the late '60s and early '70s: psychedelia. recorded in August 1969 and released the following year. Chicago. challenging. Van Morrison. Magma [edit]1970s Trumpeter Miles Davis performing in Rio de Janeiro in 1984 Davis' Bitches Brew sessions.. Wigwam. Kristallid)  Groups with "quirky. unpredictable compositions" (Frank Zappa. the use of electric instruments and rock beats created a great deal of consternation amongst some more conservative jazz critics.mixed free jazz blowing by a large ensemble with electronic keyboards and guitar. and the singer/songwriter movement. Davis also proved to be an able talent-spotter. and Herbie Hancock's funk- ."[13] Davis also drew on the rock influence by playing his trumpet through electronic effects and pedals. While the album gave Davis a gold record. much of 1970s fusion was performed by bands started by alumni from Davis' ensembles. Jazz-flavored R&B or pop songs with less improvisation or instrumental virtuosity (Blood.and improvisation-oriented rock groups (Traffic. The recording ".. Steely Dan."[12] Allmusic lists the following jazz-rock categories:[12]    Singer-songwriter jazz-rock (Joni Mitchell.

African. Weather Report's albums were also influenced by different styles of Latin. In addition to Davis and the musicians who worked with him. Weather Report began as an experimental group. Later in the 1970s and early 1980s Hancock took a more commercial approach. Herbie Hancock first continued the path of Miles Davis with his experimental fusion albums. leaders of what became known as the Canterbury scene. Third(1970). but eventually garnered a huge following At its inception. A prominent English band in the jazz-rock style of Blood. Weather Report was an avant-garde experimental jazz group. additional important figures in early fusion were Larry Coryell and Billy Cobham with his album Spectrum. which can be heard in Joe Zawinul's hit song "Birdland". Heavy Weather is the top-selling album of the genre. joined the group in 1976 on the album Black Market. The band received considerable attention for its early albums and live performances. the jazz fusion movement was headed by Nucleus. offering an early world music fusion variation. In England. which featured pieces that might last up to 30 minutes. and European music. The band later introduced a more commercial sound. Sweat & Tears andChicago was If. led by Ian Carr. . Jaco Pastorius. such as Crossings in 1972. was a double album featuring one track per side in the style of the aforementioned recordings of Miles Davis. an innovative fretless electric bass player. Hancock was one of the first jazz musicians to use synthesizers. and whose key players Karl Jenkins and John Marshall both later joined the seminal jazz rock band Soft Machine. who released a total of seven records in the 1970s. following in the steps of In A Silent Way. was co-producer (with Zawinul) on 1977's Heavy Weather. but soon after that he became an important developer of "jazz-funk" with his seminal albums Head Hunters 1973 and Thrust in 1974. and is prominently featured on the 1979 live recording 8:30. Their best-selling recording.infused Headhunters band.

who is often regarded with Pastorius as the most influential electric bassists of the 1970s. Guitarist Al Di Meola. The sound of the Mahavishnu Orchestra was influenced by both psychedelic rock and classical Indian sounds . Return to Forever's songs were distinctively melodic due to the Corea's composing style and the bass playing style of Stanley Clarke. bassist Rick Laird and keyboardist Jan Hammer. Guitarist Bill Connors joined Corea's band in 1973. The band started with Latininfluenced music (including Brazilians Flora Purim as vocalist and Airto Moreira on percussion). violinist Jerry Goodman.Fusion band Return to Forever in 1976 Chick Corea formed his band Return to Forever in 1972. in 1971. soon became an important fusion guitarist. The Inner Mounting Flame. The band released their first album. Connors describes his sound as a mix of Clapton and Coltrane. but was transformed in 1973 to become a jazz-rock group that took influences from both psychedelic andprogressive rock. John McLaughlin formed a fusion band. with his mastery of the pitch bend wheel. who started his career with Return to Forever in 1974. with drummer Billy Cobham. the Mahavishnu Orchestra. The new drummer was Lenny White. made it sound very much like an electric guitar. who had also played with Miles Davis. Hammer pioneered the use of the Minimoogsynthesizer with distortion effects and. recording Hymn of the Seventh Galaxy.

which was only released in Europe and Japan for more than twenty years. distinguishing them from all other fusion acts of the 1970s. Maynard Ferguson and Dexter Gordon eventually modified their music to include fusion elements. bluegrass and Celtic into a type of unified whole. keyboardist Gayle Moran. blues. These can be clearly heard in Santana's use of extended improvised solos and in the harmonic voicings of Tom Coster's keyboard playing on some of the groups' mid-1970s recordings. eventually leading to the formation of Casiopea and T-Square. This band was notable for being the first band to equally fuse the sounds of rock. rock. even seasoned jazz veterans like Buddy Rich. jazz. The late 70's saw the emergence of the Steve Morse led fusion band. McLaughlin also worked with Latin-rock guitarist Carlos Santana in the early 1970s. drummer Narada Michael Walden. The genre was very influential in Japan in the late 1970s. made both the jazz and pop charts with their second album. American Garage (1980).French jazz violinist Jean-Luc Ponty performed on both acoustic violin and on amplified. The influence of jazz fusion did not only affect the US and Europe. But in their second incarnation. The Pat Metheny Group. and jazz. who also made a number of important fusion recordings under his own name as well as with Frank Zappa. and bassist Ralph Armstrong. featuring Santana's clean guitar lines set against Latin instrumentation such as timbales and congas. Lotus. Although jazz performers criticized the fusion movement's use of rock styles and electric and electronic instruments. funk. and electric guitarist Pat Metheny. which was founded in 1977. The Dixie Dregs. heavy fusion influences had become central to the 1973–1976 Santana band. a jazz violinist. but McLaughlin formed another group under same name which included Jean-Luc Ponty. Other influential musicians that emerged from the fusion movement during the 1970s include fusion guitarist Larry Coryell with his band The Eleventh House. [edit]1980s [edit]Smooth jazz . jazz-fusion music. electronic effect-modified electric violins The band's first lineup split after two studio and one live albums. classical. T-Square's song Truthwould later become the theme for Japan's Formula One racing events. country. Initially Santana's San Francisco-based band blended Latin salsa. In 1973 Santana recorded a nearly two-hour live album of mostly instrumental.

David Sanborn had a string of crossover hits in the 1980s. a sub-genre of jazz which is influenced stylistically by R&B. Ritenour. James and Sanborn among others were leading purveyors of this pop-oriented mixture (also known as "west coast" or "AOR . Tom Scott. Dave and Don Grusin. in the form of compositions with a softer sound palette that could fit comfortably in a soft rock radio playlist. especially smooth jazz. smooth jazz became established as a commercially viable genre. Chet Baker.[14] Smooth jazz can be traced to at least the late 1960s. Taylor founded CTI Records. Grover Washington. George Benson. as it became a money-maker and as rock declined artistically from the mid'70s on. Chuck Mangione. The merging of jazz and pop/rock music took a more commercial direction in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Spyro Gyra(with songs such as "Morning Dance"). David Sanborn. much of what was labeled fusion was actually a combination of jazz with easylistening pop music and lightweight R&B.to late-1970s. The Allmusic guide's article on Fusion states that "unfortunately.funk and pop. Producer Creed Taylor worked with guitarist Wes Montgomery on three popular records.. It was pioneered by such artists as Lee Ritenour. much of the original fusion genre was subsumed into other branches of jazz and rock. Bob James and Joe Sample. Sérgio Mendes. Many established jazz performers recorded for CTI (including Freddie Hubbard."[15] Artists such as Al Jarreau. George Benson and Stanley Turrentine). Larry Carlton.Main article: Smooth Jazz By the early 1980s. Kenny G. The records recorded under Taylor's guidance were typically aimed as much at pop audiences as at jazz fans. In the mid. Jr.

and some of the fusion "giants" of the 1970s kept working in the genre. a critic argued that ". and some musicians.fusion"). He recorded and performed fusion throughout the 1980s with new young musicians and continued to ignore criticism from fans of his older mainstream jazz. featuring young musicians such as drummer Dave Weckl and bassist John Patitucci... One of the notable bands that became prominent in the early 1990s is Tribal Tech. Music critic Piero Scaruffi has called pop-fusion music ".mellow. who find it to rarely contain the improvisational qualities that originally surfaced in jazz decades earlier.. While Davis' works of the 1980s remain controversial. began adding more elements of world music during the 1990s.. Henderson was a . while having become a huge commercial success. although it continued to exist in groups such as Tribal Tech and Chick Corea's Elektric Band"... Miles Davis continued his career after having a lengthy break in the late 1970s. The Zawinul Syndicate. as well as guitarist Frank Gambale and saxophonist Eric Marienthal.[17] [edit]Other styles Although the meaning of "fusion" became confused with the advent of "smooth jazz".[15] Many of the most well-known fusion artists were members of earlier jazz fusion groups. [edit]1990s–2000s Joe Zawinul's fusion band. deferring to a more commercially viable sound more widely enabled for commercial radio airplay in the United States. romantic music" made by "mediocre musicians" and "derivative bands.catchy and danceable pseudo-jazz". In 1985 Chick Corea formed a new fusion band called the Chick Corea Elektric Band. led by guitarist Scott Henderson and bassist Gary Willis. a number of groups helped to revive the jazz fusion genre beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s.[16] Kenny G in particular is often criticized by both fusion and jazz fans. This genre is most frequently called "smooth jazz" and is not considered "True Fusion" among the listeners of both mainstream jazz and jazz fusion.the promise of fusion went unfulfilled to an extent. his recordings from that period have the respect of many fusion and other listeners. In the 1980s. bland. Music reviewer George Graham argues that the “so-called „smooth jazz‟ sound of people like Kenny G has none of the fire and creativity t hat marked the best of the fusion scene during its heyday in the 1970s”." Scaruffi criticized some of the albums of Michael and Randy Brecker as "trivial dance music" and stated that alto saxophonist David Sanborn recorded "[t]rivial collections" of ".

Steve Vai and Yngwie Malmsteen have praised his fusion playing. Chambers is also a member of CAB. Henderson has also been featured on fusion projects by drummer Steve Smith of Vital Information which also include bassist Victor Wooten of the eclectic Bela Fleck and the Flecktones. Moe's Town (2007)) and collaborating in many other projects or releasing solo albums (Brett Garsed – Big Sky) all them falling in the genre. highlighted by his works such as Mobo Splash and Spice of Life. Other guitarists such as Eddie Van Halen. Under the Lash of Gravity (1999). while Frisell has maintained a unique approach in drawing heavy influences from traditional music of the United States. Uncle Moe's Space Ranch (2001). J. Brett Garsed and T. fusion. and rock styles. MacAlpine has also served as guitarist of the metal fusion group Planet X. having released several albums together since the beginning of the 1990s (Quid Pro Quo (1992). Andy Summers of The Police. Holdsworth has continued to release fusion recordings and tour worldwide. recording under the banner Vital Tech Tones. He often used a SynthAxe guitar synthesizer in his recordings of the late 1980s. Exempt(1994). recorded a number of fusion albums with fellow Miles band member and guitarist Mike Stern. Stern continues to play fusion regularly in New York City and worldwide. who originally came to prominence as a member of Miles Davis's bands. Helmerich are also watched as prominent fusion guitar players. led by bassist Bunny Brunel and featuring the guitar and keyboard of Tony MacAlpine. Scofield's Pick Hits Live and Still Warm are fusion examples.member of both Corea's and Zawinul's ensembles in the late 1980s while putting together his own group. They often teamed with the world-renowned drummer Dennis Chambers. which he credits for expanding his composing and playing options. The saxophonist Bob Berg. Another former Soft Machine guitarist. who has also recorded his own fusion albums. Allan Holdsworth is a guitarist who performs in jazz. released several fusion albums in the early 1990s. featuring keyboardist Derek Sherinian and drummer Virgil . Guitarists John Scofield and Bill Frisell have both made fusion recordings over the past two decades while also exploring other musical styles. Tribal Tech's most common lineup also includes keyboardist Scott Kinsey and drummer Kirk Covington – Willis and Kinsey have both recorded solo fusion projects. CAB 2 garnered a Grammy nomination in 2002. Japanese fusion guitarist Kazumi Watanabe released numerous fusion albums throughout 1980s and 1990s.

(January 2011) According to bassist/singer Randy Jackson. yet melodic guitar style.] picked jazz fusion because I was trying to become the ultimate technical musician-able to play anything. and session musician Greg Howe has released solo albums such as Introspection (1993). highlighted by 1992's Petite Blonde. Hyperacuity (2000).Donati. blues and Latin music with jazz influences using a technical. Fusion guitarist Pat Metheny Fusion shred guitar player. Parallax(1995). highlighted by a DVD of a live performance at the Mellon Jazz Festival in Philadelphia. Howe combines elements of rock. Ascend (1999). "I [. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Jazz fusion to me is the hardest music to play.. and Sound Proof (2008). Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. and keyboardist Tom Coster. Drummer Jack DeJohnette's Parallel Realities band featuring fellow Miles's alumni Dave Holland and Herbie Hancock.. You have to be . Other significant recent fusion releases have come from keyboardist Mitchel Forman and his band Metro. Five (1996). Uncertain Terms (1994). Another former member of Miles Davis's bands of the 1980s that has released a number of fusion recordings is saxophonist Bill Evans. jazz fusion is an exceedingly difficult genre to play. Extraction ( 2003) with electric bassist Victor Wooten and drummer Dennis Chambers. former Mahavishnu bassist Jonas Hellborg with the late guitar virtuoso Shawn Lane. along with Pat Metheny. recorded and toured in 1990. [edit]Influence on progressive rock and metal This section needs additional citations for verification. Jazz bassist Christian McBride released two fusion recordings drawing from the jazz-funk idiom in Sci-Fi (2000) and Vertical Vision (2003).

Another. selftitled Aghora. unexpected turns in the drum patterns and instrumental lines. thrash a metal and progressive form metal of with jazz fusion elements. Some prominent examples of progressive rock mixed with elements of fusion is the music of Gong. journalists. using progressive. recorded in 1999 with Sean Malone and Sean Reinert. . for instance.I. In lengthy instrumental jams. bass solos and odd metered.[19] [edit]Influential recordings This section lists a few of the jazz fusion artists and albums that are considered to be influential by prominent jazz fusion critics. guitaristJennifer Batten under the name of Jennifer Batten's Tribal Rage: Momentum released Momentum – an instrumental hybrid of rock. reviewers. Derek Sherinian (ex-Dream Theater) and Virgil Donati (who has played with Scott Henderson from Tribal Tech). Lake & Palmer. complex music and changing line-ups had very similar musical values as jazz fusion. I could do anything. instrumental parts. The death metal band Atheist produced albums Unquestionable Presence in 1991 and Elements in 1993 containing heavily syncopated drumming.so proficient on your instrument."[18] Jazz-rock fusion's technically challenging guitar solos. more cerebral. The Mars Volta is extremely influenced by jazz fusion. fusion and exotic sounds. non-standard time signatures. or music historians. Ozric Tentacles and Emerson. In 1997. The style of Uzbek prog band FromUz is described as "prog fusion". Tech-prog-fusion metal bandAghora formed in 1995 and released their first album. with its affinity for long solos. Cynic recorded complex. Playing five tempos at the same time. Progressive rock. The band blends fusion-style guitar solos and syncopated odd-metered drumming with the heaviness of metal. and Latin rhythms. both former members of Cynic. I wanted to try the toughest music because I knew if I could do that. the band transitions from fusion of rock and ambient world music to jazz and progressive hard rock tones. diverse influences. G. changing time signatures. another Cynic-linked experimental progressive metal band released its debut album in 1999 which explored a range of styles from jazz-fusion to metal. syncopated drumming started to be incorporated in the technically focused progressive metal genre in the early 1990s.T. Meshuggah first attracted international attention with the 1995 release Destroy Erase Improve for its fusion of fasttempo death metal. Gordian Knot. acoustic interludes. unorthodox jazz-fusion-influenced experimental death metal with their 1993 album Focus. all-instrumental progressive jazz fusion-metal band Planet X released Universe in 2000 with Tony MacAlpine.

In the early 1990s. Pandora and Yahoo! Launchcast. and frequently extended track lengths. electric and double bass player Stanley Clarke released School Days. fretless bassist Jaco Pastorius released Jaco Pastorius. and keyboardist Chick Corea released his Latin-infused My Spanish Heart.[20][21] His controversial album On the Corner (1972) has been viewed as a strong forerunner of the musical techniques of post punk. which received a five star review from Down Beat magazine. Herbie Hancock's Head Hunters infused jazz-rock fusion with a heavy dose of Sly and the Family Stone-style funk. usual lack of vocals. Canadian bassistcomposer Alain Caron released his album Rhythm 'n Jazz in 1995. owing perhaps to its complexity. drum and bass. European radio is friendlier to fusion music. Tribal Tech produced two albums. Weather Report released albums ranging from its 1971 self-titled disc Weather Report (1971) (which continued the style of Miles Davis album Bitches Brew) to 1979's 8:30. including dedicated channels on services such as AOL Radio.[22] Throughout the 1970s. Tribal Tech (1991) and Reality Check (1995). In the 1980s. Davis' A Tribute to Jack Johnson (1971) has been cited as "the purest electric jazz record ever made" and "one of the most remarkable jazz-rock discs of the era". A number of Internet radio stations feature fusion music. hip hop. and electronic music. including Chick Corea Elektric Band (1986). Light Years (1987) & Eye of the Beholder (1988). In 1976. Mike Stern released Give And Take in 1997. Chick Corea's Latinoriented fusion band Return to Forever released influential albums such as 1973's Light as a Feather. In that same year. Chick Corea produced well-regarded albums. and the genre also has a significant following in Japan and South America. Virtuoso performer-composers played an important role in the 1970s. Fusion music generally receives little radio broadcast airplay in the United States.Albums from the late 1960s and early 1970s include Miles Davis' ambient-sounding In a Silent Way (1969) and his rock-infused Bitches Brew (1970). .

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