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Recirculation Ballot Draft 4/29/11 American National Standard

for

Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles


ANSI/ROHVA 1 201X

Standards Developer

Recreational Off-Highway Vehicle Association

American National Standards Institute, Inc.

Approved XX/XX/201X

Foreword

(This Foreword is not part of American National Standard ANSI/ROHVA 1 201X)

This standard for recreational off-highway vehicles (ROVs) has been developed by members of the Recreational Off-Highway Vehicle Association (ROHVA). Work on this original standard was started by the ROHVA in 2008 and completed with the publication of ANSI/ROHVA 1-2010. ROHVA initiated work on this revision immediately upon finalization of the ANSI/ROHVA 1-2010 standard in order to reflect the dynamic nature of the ROV market and vehicle evolution. This voluntary standard addresses design, configuration and performance aspects of ROVs, including, among other items, requirements for accelerator, clutch and gearshift controls; lighting; tires; service and parking brake/parking mechanism performance; lateral and pitch stability; occupant handholds; Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS); and Occupant Retention System (ORS); and requirements for labels and owners manuals. The standard reflects positively on the high degree of government-industry cooperation that contributed significantly to the development of this standard. Consensus for this standard was developed by use of the Canvass Method. Suggestions for improvement of this standard, and requests for interpretation, are welcomed. Either should be addressed to the Recreational Off-Highway Vehicle Association, 2 Jenner, Suite 150, Irvine, California 926183806.

Published by

Recreational Off-Highway Vehicle Association 2 Jenner, Suite 150, Irvine, California 92618-3806 Phone (949) 255-2560

Copyright 201X Recreational Off-Highway Vehicle Association All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Recirculation Ballot Draft 4/29/11

Contents
SECTION 1. 2. 3. 4. PAGE Scope...4 Referenced Standards......4 Definitions.......6 Vehicle (ROV) Equipment and Configuration....9 4.1 Service Brakes 4.2 Parking Brake/Parking Mechanism 4.3 Engine Controls 4.4 Drive Train Controls 4.5 Steering Control 4.6 Handhold 4.7 Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS) 4.8 Occupant Retention System (ORS) 4.9 Flag Pole Bracket 4.10 Lighting Equipment 4.11 Spark Arrester 4.12 Tires 4.13 Security 4.14 Owners Manual (manual) 4.15 ROV Identification Number 4.16 Labels Maximum Speed Capability... . 14 5.1 Test Conditions 5.2 Test Procedure 5.3 Maximum Speed Capability Requirement Service-Brake Performance ..... 15 6.1 Test Conditions 6.2 Braking-Speed Test Procedure 6.3 Service-Brake Test Procedure 6.4 Service-Brake Performance Requirements Parking Brake/Mechanism Performance . 16 7.1 Test Conditions 7.2 Test Procedure 7.3 Performance Requirements Lateral Stability..... 17 8.1 Tilt-Table Test 8.2 Stability Coefficient (Kst) 8.3 Dynamic Stability

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Pitch Stability.... 23 9.1 Test Conditions 9.2 Test Device 9.2 Test Procedure 9.3 Performance Requirements Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS).... 23 10.1 ROPS Test Device 10.2 ROPS Test Procedure 10.3 Test Performance Occupant Retention System (ORS).......... 28 11.1 Seat Belts 11.2 Seat-Belt Reminder 11.3 ORS Zones Sound Level Limits.......30 12.1 Test Procedure 12.2 Test Performance

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Figure 1.... 31 Figure 2.... 32 Figure 3.... 33 Figure 4.... 34 Figure 5........ 35 Figure 6.... 36 Figure 7.... 37 Figure 8.... 38 Figure 9.... 39 Figure 10...40 Figure 11...41 Figure 12...42 Figure 13...43 Figure 14...44 Figure 15...45 Figure 16...48 Figure 17...49

Annex....... 53

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American National Standard for Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles


1. Scope This standard establishes minimum requirements for recreational off-highway vehicles (ROVs) as defined herein. These vehicles are intended by the manufacturer primarily for recreational use by one or more persons and may have secondary general utility applications. This standard addresses design, configuration and performance aspects of ROVs, including, among other items, requirements for accelerator, clutch and gearshift controls; engine controls; lighting; tires; service and parking brake/parking mechanism performance; lateral and pitch stability; occupant handholds; Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS); Occupant Retention System (ORS); and requirements for safety labels and owners manual. This standard becomes effective beginning with 2014 model year vehicles. Manufacturers of ROVs are required to label conforming vehicles with a certification label. There are a number of off-highway vehicles that may be used recreationally in specific or general applications. This standard is specific to ROVs as defined and does not apply to: - Vehicles commonly referred to as Dune Buggies, Rock Crawlers, Sand Cars, Sand Rails, Off-Road Go Karts, Trophy Karts, and Mini-Trucks - Any vehicle that complies with all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and is thus certified by its manufacturer as suitable for on-highway operation. - Vehicles defined by other standards, such as: American National Standards Institute ANSI/ITSDF B56.8, Safety Standard for Personnel and Burden Carriers ANSI/NGCMA Z130.1, Golf Cars Safety and Performance Specifications ANSI/NGCMA Z135, Personal Transportation Vehicles Safety and Performance Specifications ANSI/SVIA-1, Four-Wheel All-Terrain Vehicles Equipment, Configuration, and Performance Requirements International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO/DIS 3691-6, Industrial Trucks Safety Requirements and Verification Part 6: Burden and Personnel Carriers Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) SAE J2258, Light Utility Vehicles SAE J2358, Low Speed Vehicles 2. Referenced Standards

This standard is intended to be used with the following standards, recommended practices and information reports: American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Standard ANSI Z535.4-2007, American National Standard for Product Safety Signs and Labels and ANSI Z535.6-2006, American National Standard for
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Product Safety Information in Product Manuals, Instructions, and Other Collateral Materials.1 Code of Federal Regulations2, Title 49, Part 565, Vehicle Identification Number Requirements: SAE ICS 1000 SEP04, Recreation Off-Road Vehicle Product Identification Numbering System: Part 571, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) and Part 574, Tire Identification and Record Keeping: Code of Federal Regulations. 29 CFR 1928.53 OSHA (performance requirements for a protective enclosure designed for wheel-type agricultural tractors) International Standard (ISO)3, ISO 3471:2008(E), Fourth edition 2008-08-15, Earth-moving machinery Roll Over protective structures Laboratory tests and performance requirements. Society of Automotive Engineers Standards4, Standard J585 MAR00, Tail Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles Less Than 2032 mm in Overall Width: Recommended Practice SAE J1623 FEB94, AllTerrain Vehicle Headlamps: Standard J586 MAR00, Stop Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles Less Than 2032 mm in Overall Width: Recommended Practice SAE J278 MAY95, Snowmobile Stop Lamp, and Information Report: SAE J2292 Dec 2006, Combination Pelvic/Upper Torso (Type 2) Operator Restraint Systems for Off-Road Work Machines. Tire Size Nomenclature Standards. 5 United States Department of Agriculture6, Forest Service Standard for Spark Arresters for Internal Combustion Engines, 5100-1.

Available from the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, 1300 North 17th Street, Rosslyn, VA 22209 Available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402 3 Available from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1, ch. De la Voie-Creuse, Case postale 56, CH1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland 4 Available from the Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096 5 Available from the Tire and Rim Association Inc., 175 Montrose West Ave., Copley, OH or the Japan Automobile Tire Manufacturers Association, Toranomon Bldg., 1-1-12, Toranomon, Minato-Ku, Tokyo 105, Japan 6 Available from U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Technology & Development Center, San Dimas, CA 91773 Recirculation Ballot Draft 4/29/11
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3. Definitions Recreational Off-highway Vehicle (ROV). A motorized off-highway vehicle designed to travel on four or more tires, intended by the manufacturer primarily for recreational use by one or more persons and having the following characteristics: A steering wheel for steering control Non-straddle seating Maximum speed capability greater than 30 MPH (48 km/h) Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) no greater than 1700 kg (3750 lbs) Less than 2030 mm (80 in) in overall width, exclusive of accessories Engine displacement equal to or less than 1,000cc (61ci) Identification by means of a 17 character PIN or VIN accelerator pedal. A device that controls the speed of a vehicle. accessory. An object or device that is affixed to the ROV after its manufacture. It is not essential to the ROVs basic operation, but it changes its styling, convenience, utility, or effectiveness. average braking deceleration. The rate of change of vehicle speed from the point of initial brake application to the point where the vehicle stops. brake pedal. A foot-operated control which, when actuated, causes the brakes to be applied. brake stopping distance (S). Distance traveled by an ROV from the start of a brake application to the point at which the ROV reaches a complete stop. cargo area. Rack(s) or other designated area(s) where the manufacturer intends cargo to be loaded and secured on the ROV. Center of Gravity (CG). The point at which the entire weight of a body may be considered as concentrated so that if supported at this point the body would remain in equilibrium in any position. Deflection Limiting Volume (DLV). An orthogonal approximation of a large, seated, male occupant wearing normal clothing and a protective helmet as defined in ISO 3164:1995. electric starter. The electric motor of an ROV that cranks the engine for starting. electric start interlock. A device that prevents the ROV engine from being started by electric cranking under certain conditions. Energy (U). Work performed on the ROPS by applied loads in 10.3 expressed in Joules (J). engine displacement. The volume swept by a piston moving from bottom dead center to top dead center, multiplied by the number of cylinders. engine stop device. A device used to stop engine operation such as a key-operated ignition switch. fuel system. Those vehicle components which store, transport, or meter fuel to the engine.
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flag pole. A long, thin, semi-rigid, vertical pole with a brightly colored pennant, usually red or orange, on the top end. flag pole bracket. A rigid attachment point for mounting a flag pole. gearshift control. A control for selecting among a number of sets of transmission gears. Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR). The maximum permissible vehicle weight recommended by the manufacturer. handhold. A device grasped by an occupant to provide support and to assist in keeping arms and hands within the ROV. Load Application Point (LAP). The application point of a force. Load Distribution Device (LDD). member(s) at the LAP. A device used to prevent localized penetration of the ROPS

Lateral Simulated Ground Plane (LSGP). The plane defined as where the vehicle comes to rest on its side, where the plane is 15 degrees from a vertical plane (line) through the outermost point of the upper ROPS member. Note: The LSGP is created by rotating a vertical plane parallel to the machines longitudinal centerline about a horizontal line through the outermost point of the upper ROPS member, to which the lateral load is applied (see Figure 4). The LSGP is established on an unloaded ROPS and moves with the member to which the load is applied while maintaining its 15 angle with respect to the vertical. manual clutch. A device activated by the operator to engage or disengage the engine and transmission. manual fuel shutoff control. A manual device designed to turn the fuel flow from the fuel tank on and off. maximum speed capability. The highest speed attainable at the vehicle curb weight and a 215 lb test operator on a clean, dry, smooth surface of less than 1 degree (1.7 %) grade. may. This word is understood to be permissive. mechanical suspension. A system which permits vertical motion of an ROV wheel relative to the chassis and provides spring and damping forces. neutral. A designated transmission position where there is no continuity or direct mechanical connection between transmission input and output. neutral indicator. A light or other means of indicating when an ROV transmission is in the neutral position.
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non-straddle seating. A device for occupant seating such as bucket or bench seat that specifically excludes seating that is straddled by an occupants legs. occupant protective gear. Personal protective gear worn by occupants appropriate to the operation of the ROV that shall include a helmet, as recommended by the manufacturer, and eye protection, and may include other gear as specified by the manufacturer and listed in the owners manual. Occupant Retention System (ORS). A system, including three-point seat belts, for retaining the occupant(s) of a vehicle to reduce the probability of injury in the event of an accident. operator. The person who is exercising control over the motion of the vehicle. owners manual. A document, also known as an "Operator's Manual" or an "Operator Guide," provided by the manufacturer that conforms to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard ANSI Z535.6-2006, Product Safety Information in Product Manuals, Instructions, and Other Collateral Materials. parking brake. A brake system which, after actuation, holds one or more brakes continuously in an applied position without further action. parking mechanism. A drive train system that locks the drive train when the transmission control is placed in a designated park position. PIN. Product Identification Number that is assigned by the manufacturer. reverse indicator. A light or other means of indicating when an ROV transmission is in the reverse position. Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS). A system of structural members whose primary purpose is to reduce the possibility of a seat-belted operator/occupant(s) being crushed in the event of a machine Roll Over. safety label. A label to identify potential hazards, as determined by the manufacturer, for persons operating, riding, servicing, or in proximity to the ROV. service brake. The primary brake system used for slowing and stopping an ROV. shall. This word is understood to be mandatory. should. This word is understood to be advisory. Simulated Ground Plane (SGP). The plane simulating the flat ground surface on which a vehicle is assumed to come to rest after rolling over. spark arrester. An exhaust system component which limits the size of carbon particles expelled from a tailpipe. standard condition. The vehicle condition as equipped and delivered from the manufacturer without
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accessories or additional equipment added, and with any necessary assembly completed and vehicle settings adjusted, to manufacturer specifications. steering wheel. A hand operated vehicle control used by the operator for directional control. test operator. The person who is exercising control over the ROV under test. The test operator shall be skilled at ROV operation and shall be familiar with the ROV under test and the test being conducted. The test operator, during the performance of a test, shall be seated in a normal upright position appropriate for the test being conducted. test operator/occupant weight. 215 lb (98 kg) per operator/occupant (unless otherwise specified). tongue weight. Vertical weight on trailer hitch point. transmission. A device for transmitting power at more than one set of speed and torque ratios. trailer hitch. A device used for the attachment of a trailer or other equipment to an ROV. two-wheel lift (2 wheel lift). A condition in which all tires on the inside of the turn lift above the test surface by at least 50 mm (2 inches). vehicle curb weight. The total weight of an ROV, including a full load of fuel, oil, and coolant, but without any operator, passenger(s), accessories, or cargo. vehicle load capacity. The highest load recommended by the manufacturer to be carried by an ROV in its as manufactured condition. This includes the weight of operator, passenger (if applicable), cargo, accessories, and trailer tongue weight (if applicable), and does not include the vehicle curb weight. Also known as maximum weight capacity. vehicle width. The lateral distance between the outermost points on each side exclusive of accessories. VIN. Vehicle Identification Number assigned by the manufacturer. wheelbase (L). The longitudinal distance from the center of the front axle to the center of the rear axle. wheel travel. The displacement of a reference point on the suspension (such as the wheel axle) from when the suspension is fully extended (no force applied) to when it is fully compressed. 4. Vehicle (ROV) Equipment and Configuration 4.1 Service Brakes. All ROVs shall have front and rear brakes that are operated by a single foot operated control which is located to the left of the accelerator pedal. Application of the service brakes shall be by forward and/or downward movement of the control. Service brakes shall meet the requirements of Section 6. 4.2 Parking Brake/Parking Mechanism. All ROVs shall have a parking brake or parking mechanism capable of holding the ROV stationary. The parking brake or parking mechanism shall meet the requirements of Section 7.
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4.3 Engine Controls 4.3.1 Engine Stop Device. All ROVs shall have an engine stop device accessible to the operator while seated in the normal operating position. A key-operated ignition switch meets this requirement. 4.3.2 Speed Control. All ROVs shall be equipped with a means of controlling the power source by use of an accelerator pedal. 4.3.2.1 Location The accelerator pedal shall be located to the right of other foot controls for operation by the right foot of the operator when seated in the operators position. 4.3.2.2 Operation. Application of the accelerator pedal shall be by forward and/or downward movement of the control to increase speed. The speed control shall allow the engine to return to its idle speed upon release of the operator's foot from the control. 4.3.3 Manual Fuel Shutoff Control. If an ROV is equipped with a manual fuel-shutoff control, the device shall be operable as prescribed in 49 CFR, Part 571 (FMVSS) Subpart B at 571.123, Table 1. 4.4 Drive Train Controls 4.4.1 Manual Clutch Control. All ROVs equipped with a manual clutch shall have a foot operated clutch pedal. 4.4.1.1 Location The clutch pedal shall be located to the left of other foot controls for operation by the left foot of the operator when seated in the operators position. 4.4.1.2 Operation. Application of the manual clutch control shall be by forward and/or downward movement of the control for disengagement from the power source. 4.4.2 Manual Transmission Gearshift Control. All ROVs equipped with a manual transmission gearshift control shall have each selectable gear marked for the operator. 4.4.2.1 Markings. Markings shall be numerical with higher numbers indicating higher (lower numerical gear ratio) gears, and lower numbers indicating lower (higher numerical gear ratio) gears. 4.4.2.2 Location. Manual transmission gearshift control shall be located so each selectable gear position can be selected by operators right hand when seated in the operators position. 4.4.3 Other Controls. Controls for selecting forward, neutral, reverse, or park or for selecting overall transmission ranges, or for selecting the differential drive (2-wheel or 4-wheel), or other drive train controls, may be located and operated differently, and shall be accessible from the operators position and have a defined pattern marked for the operator. 4.4.4 Electric Start Interlock. An interlock shall be provided on all internal-combustion engine powered ROVs to prevent the engine from being started by electric cranking unless the clutch is disengaged, the transmission is in neutral or park, or the brake is applied.
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4.5 Steering Control. All ROVs shall be equipped with a steering wheel for directional control. 4.5.1 Location. The steering wheel shall be located in front of the operator position so that it may be grasped by both hands and allows for operation and view of all controls by the operator when seated in the operators position. 4.5.2 Operation. Steering control shall be rotated counterclockwise for a left turn and clockwise for a right turn when viewed from the operators position. 4.6 Handhold. All ROVs shall have at least one occupant handhold for each outboard seating position of the ROV. These handholds shall be designed in such a way that each is able to withstand, without failure, a vertical force, in both an upward and downward direction, of 500 N (112 lbf) applied statically to the center of the surface of the handhold at a maximum pressure of 0.5 MPa (75 psi). Handholds shall be designed to allow the passenger to dismount without interference from the handholds. The steering wheel shall be considered a handhold for the ROV operator. 4.7 Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS). All ROVs shall have a ROPS that meets the requirements of ISO 3471 as shown in section 10.3 when tested as specified in section 10.2 or meets the requirements of U.S. 29 C.F.R. 1928.53 (OSHA). The ROPS criteria used to meet this requirement shall be chosen by the manufacturer. 4.8 Occupant Retention System (ORS). All ROVs shall have occupant restraints meeting the requirements of section 11. 4.9 Flag Pole Bracket. If an ROV is equipped with a flag pole bracket it shall be a rigid mounting location that provides for a flag pole having a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) diameter mounting shaft. 4.10 Lighting Equipment 4.10.1 Headlamps, Tail Lamps and Stop Lamps. All ROVs shall have at least two headlamps projecting a white light to the front of the ROV and at least one tail lamp projecting a red light to the rear. All ROVs may be optionally equipped with a stop lamp(s) or combination tail-stop lamp(s), and such lamp(s) shall be illuminated by the actuation of any service brake control. 4.10.2 Specifications. Headlamps shall conform to Recommended Practice, SAE J1623 FEB94; and tail lamps shall conform to Standard, SAE J585 MAR00. If the ROV is equipped with a stop lamp, such lamp(s) shall conform to Standard, SAE J586 MAR00 or Recommended Practice, SAE J278 MAY95. 4.11 Spark Arrester. All ROVs equipped with an internal-combustion engine shall have a spark arrester of a type that meets the technical requirements of the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Standard for Spark Arresters for Internal Combustion Engines, 5100-1. 4.12 Tires. All ROVs shall be equipped with tires that have load limits collectively rated to carry, at a minimum, an ROV at its GVWR and that follow the load and pressure guidelines as defined by the Tire and Rim Association, Inc. or the Japan Automobile Tire Manufacturers Association, Inc. or tires designed for off-highway use on recreational off-highway vehicles. All ROV tires shall carry the following markings:
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(1) Inflation Pressure. Both tire sidewalls shall be marked with the operating pressure or the following statement, or an equivalent message: SEE VEHICLE LABEL OR OWNER'S MANUAL FOR OPERATING PRESSURE. (2) Bead Seating Pressure. Both tire sidewalls shall be marked with the following statement, or an equivalent message: Do Not Inflate Beyond **psi (**kPa) When Seating Bead. (3) Other Markings. Both tire sidewalls shall have the following information, except where noted: (a) The manufacturers name or brand name. (b) The date code of manufacture (on one sidewall only). (c) The size nomenclature of the tire as standardized by the Tire and Rim Association, Inc. or the Japan Automobile Tire Manufacturers Association, Inc. (d) The word tubeless for a tubeless tire. 4.13 Security. All ROVs shall have a means to deter unauthorized persons from using the ROV. A key-operated or equivalent system shall be provided for all ROVs. 4.14 Owner's Manual (manual). All ROVs shall be provided with a manual at the point of sale. All ROVs shall be equipped with a means of carrying the manual that protects it from destructive elements while allowing reasonable access. The manual shall meet the following minimum requirements: 4.14.1 General Requirements. Every manual shall be written and designed in a manner reasonably intended to convey information regarding safe operation and maintenance of the vehicle. (1) Manuals shall be consistent with safety messages contained in warning labels. 4.14.2 Information Requirements. The manual shall contain the following: (1) Information and instruction regarding use, operation, care, and maintenance of the vehicle including ROPS and operator/occupant restraint systems inspection recommendations. (2) Listing of appropriate occupant protective gear to be worn while operating the vehicle. (3) Definitions for Danger, Warning, and Caution shall be consistent with the definitions for those terms contained in the current American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z535.6 standard, along with an introductory statement alerting the reader to the significance of the safety alert symbol and the signal words. (4) Description of the location of the ROV Identification Number. (5) The vehicle curb weight as specified for the ROPS energy and force calculations. 4.15 ROV Identification Number. All ROVs shall have an appropriate identification number using either a PIN that is assigned by the manufacturer as prescribed in SAE ICS 1000 SEP04, Recreation Off-Road Vehicle Product Identification Numbering System or a VIN as prescribed in Title 49 CFR, Part 565. 4.16 Labels. ROVs shall be equipped with labels as described in this section. 4.16.1 Format. Labels shall comply with the requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard ANSI Z535.4-2007, Product Safety Signs and Labels unless otherwise specified. 4.16.2 Durability. Labels shall meet the expected life requirements of American National
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Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard ANSI Z535.4-2007, Product Safety Signs and Labels. 4.16.3 Location. Unless otherwise noted, all labels required by section 4.16 shall be placed in a location that allows viewing without removing any parts of the ROV. 4.16.4 Labels for All ROVs 4.16.4.1 Tire Pressure Warning Label. Manufacturers shall affix to every ROV a label warning about maintaining proper air pressure in the ROVs tires, Figure 11. Every label warning about improper tire pressure shall contain a statement indicating the recommended tire pressure(s). Tire pressure information may be stated on the label itself or provided by reference to the owners manual or the tires. At the manufacturers option, this label can be combined with the Overloading Warning label as described in section 4.16.4.2. Any other information appearing on the label shall be safety oriented and shall not detract from or contradict the required statements. 4.16.4.2 Overloading Warning Label. Manufacturers shall affix to every ROV a label warning about overloading, Figure 12. Every label warning against overloading shall contain a statement indicating the maximum weight capacity for the ROV model. At the manufacturers option, this label can be combined with the Tire Pressure Warning label as described in section 4.16.4.1. Any other information appearing on the label shall be safety oriented and shall not detract from or contradict the required statements. 4.16.4.3 Combined Tire Pressure and Overloading Warning Label. In place of two separate labels required in sections 4.16.4.1 Tire Pressure Warning label and 4.16.4.2 Overloading Warning Label, a manufacturer may, at their option, combine the two required labels contents on a single label, Figure 13. If this option is selected, manufacturers shall affix to every ROV a label warning about maintaining proper air pressure in the ROVs tires and warning about overloading. The label shall include a warning about improper tire pressure and shall contain a statement indicating the recommended tire pressure(s). Tire pressure information may be stated on the label itself or provided by reference to the owners manual or the tires. The label shall also include a warning against overloading and shall contain a statement indicating the maximum weight capacity for the ROV model. Any other information appearing on the label shall be safety oriented and shall not detract from or contradict the required statements. 4.16.4.4 Capacity and Limitation Label(s). Manufacturers shall affix to each cargo rack, designated carrying area capable of carrying greater than 5 kg (11 lbs) of cargo, and/or trailer hitch, if so equipped, a label listing the maximum capacities and/or weight limitations. This label(s) shall be affixed either to the body of the vehicle adjacent to, or on the cargo area or trailer hitch. If the capacity and/or limitation information is embossed, stamped, or etched permanently onto the cargo area or trailer hitch and can be easily read, the requirements of this section will have been met. Capacity and limitation labels are not required to meet the format requirements of ANSI Z535.4 2007. 4.16.4.5 General Warning. Manufacturers shall affix to every ROV a General Warning. Figure 15 shows an example General Warning on a single label that addresses the content areas described in this section. Manufacturers shall provide information in these content areas, using the same or equivalent language (as applicable) and pictorials as shown in the General Warning examples in Figure 15. The shape and size of the label(s) may vary from the examples shown, and messages may be provided on a single or multiple labels. The label(s) shall be positioned so that it can be read by a person seated in the operators seat. The label(s) may be positioned so that a person may need to lean or turn
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the steering wheel to read the entire label(s). 4.16.4.5.1 General Warning Label Content Areas. Manufacturers shall provide a General ROV Warning Label that provides messages in the following content areas: A. Seat Belt Use B. Helmet Use C. Hazard and Consequence of Use D. References to Manual E. Use of Other Protective Gear F. Drugs and Alcohol G. Operator Qualifications H. Passenger Qualifications I. Use of Retention Devices (if applicable) J. Care when Operating K. Operation on Hills L. Use on Paved Surfaces M. Use on Public Roads N. Staying Inside the Vehicle O. Vehicle Occupant Seating 4.16.4.6 Cargo Bed Label(s). Manufacturers shall affix, if so equipped, a label indicating that it is not intended as a passenger location. This label(s) shall be affixed either to the body of the vehicle adjacent to, or on the cargo area. Manufacturers shall provide a message that is the same as or equivalent to that shown in the example cargo bed label in Figure 14. 4.16.4.7 ROPS Label. Each ROPS shall be labeled indicating that the ROPS meets the performance requirements of ISO 3471 or 29 CFR 1928.53 (OSHA), as determined by the manufacturer. 4.16.4.8 Certification Label. All ROVs shall be equipped with a certification label, placed in a location that allows viewing without removing any part of the ROV. The label shall use the following wording: (Manufacturers Name) certifies that this ROV complies with the American National Standard for Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles, ANSI/ROHVA 1 - 201X Standard. The label may include other compliance and vehicle identifying information.
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5. Maximum Speed Capability 5.1 Test Conditions. Test conditions shall be as follows: (1) ROV test weight shall be the vehicle curb weight with the test operator only. If the test operator weighs less than 98 kg (215 lbs), then the difference in weight shall be added to the vehicle to reflect an operator weight of 98 kg (215 lbs). (2) Tires shall be inflated to the pressures recommended by the ROV manufacturer for the vehicle test weight. (3) The test surface shall be clean, dry, smooth asphalt or concrete of less than a 1 deg. (1.7%) grade. (4) If the vehicle is equipped with a vehicle speed-limiting device or feature, then that device or feature must be set at the highest speed setting to permit the vehicle to reach maximum speed during the test. 5.2 Test Procedure. Measure the maximum speed capability of the ROV using a radar gun or equivalent method. The test operator, seated in a normal upright position, shall accelerate the ROV until maximum speed is reached, and shall maintain maximum speed for at least 30.5 m (100 ft). Speed measurement shall be made when the ROV has reached a stabilized maximum speed. A maximum speed capability test shall consist of a minimum of two measurement test runs conducted over the same track, one each in opposite directions. If more than two measurement runs are made there shall be an equal number of runs in each direction. The maximum speed capability of the ROV shall be the arithmetic average (mean) of the measurements made. A reasonable number of preliminary runs may be made prior to conducting a recorded test. 5.3 Maximum Speed Capability Requirement. The maximum speed capability shall be greater than 30 MPH (48 km/h). 6. Service-Brake Performance 6.1 Test Conditions. Test conditions for service-brake performance testing shall be as follows: (1) ROV test weight shall be the vehicle GVWR (including test operator and instrumentation), with any added weight secured to the seat(s) or cargo area(s) if so equipped. (2) Tires shall be inflated to the pressures recommended by the ROV manufacturer for the vehicle test weight. (3) The test surface shall be clean, dry, smooth asphalt or concrete of less than a 1 deg. (1.7%) grade. (4) Ambient temperature shall be between 0 C (32 F) and 38 C (100 F). (5) If the vehicle is equipped with a vehicle speed-limiting device or feature, then that device or feature must be set at the highest speed setting to permit the vehicle to reach maximum speed during the test. 6.2 Braking-Speed Test Procedure. Measure the braking speed of the ROV using a radar gun or equivalent method. The test operator, seated in a normal upright position, shall accelerate the ROV until maximum speed is reached, and shall maintain maximum speed for at least 30.5 m (100 ft). Speed measurement shall be made when the ROV has reached a stabilized maximum speed. A maximum speed test shall consist of a minimum of two measurement test runs conducted over the same track, one each in opposite directions. If more than two measurement runs are made there shall be an equal number of runs in each direction. The speed capability of the ROV shall be the arithmetic average (mean) of the
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measurements made. A reasonable number of preliminary runs may be made prior to conducting a recorded test. 6.3 Service-Brake Test Procedure. The test procedure shall be as follows: (1) Measure the braking speed of the ROV in accordance with section 6.2. Determine the braking test speed (V). The braking test speed is the speed that is the multiple of 8 km/h (5 MPH), which is 6 km/h (4 MPH) to 13 km/h (8 MPH) less than the speed capability of the ROV as tested in section 6.2. (2) Burnish the front and rear brakes as recommended by the manufacturer. (3) After burnishing, adjust the brakes according to the manufacturers recommendation. (4) Make six stops from the braking test speed or 48 km/h (30 MPH), whichever is lower. Stops shall be made by applying the service brakes only, and braking decelerations shall be from 1.96 m/s2 to 4.90 m/s2 (0.2 g to 0.5 g). (5) Make four stops from the braking test speed, applying the service brakes only. Measure the speed immediately before the service brakes are applied. Appropriate markers or instrumentation shall be used which will accurately indicate the point of brake application. Measure the stopping distance (S). (6) For all ROVs brake pedal actuation force shall be not less than 44 N (10 lbf) and not more than 555 N (125 lbf). 6.4 Service-Brake Performance Requirements. During the four stops of 6.3(5), all ROVs shall be capable of making at least one stop that demonstrates an average braking deceleration of 4.5 m/s2 (0.46 g) or greater. Average braking deceleration can be determined according to the following formula: * V2 a= 25.92 S where a = average deceleration (m/s2) S = brake stopping distance (m) V = braking test speed (km/h) or a= S where a = average deceleration (g) S = brake stopping distance (ft) V = braking test speed (MPH) (0.033) x V2

*Direct on-board instrumentation may be used to acquire any measurement data as appropriate. 7. Parking Brake/Mechanism Performance 7.1 Test Conditions. Test conditions shall be as follows: (1) ROV test weight shall be vehicle GVWR (including test operator and instrumentation), with any added weight secured to the seat(s) or cargo area(s) if so equipped. (2) Tires shall be inflated to the pressures recommended by the ROV manufacturer for the vehicle test weight. (3) The test surface shall be clean, dry, smooth asphalt or concrete, having a 11.4 degree (20%) grade. 7.2 Test Procedure. The test procedure shall be as follows: (1) Burnish the service brakes according to the procedure specified in 6.3(2) if service brakes are used as part of the parking brake.
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(2) Adjust the parking brake or parking mechanism according to the procedure recommended by the ROV manufacturer. (3) Position the ROV facing downhill on the test surface, with the longitudinal axis of the ROV in the direction of the grade and apply the service brake. Place the transmission in neutral and then apply the parking brake or parking mechanism. Parking brake actuation force shall not exceed 400 N (90 lbf) for a hand control or 555 N (125 lbf) for a foot control. If the ROV is equipped with a parking mechanism allow the drive train to lock. Leave the ROV undisturbed for 5 minutes. Repeat the test with the ROV positioned facing uphill on the test surface. 7.3 Performance Requirements. When tested according to the procedure specified in 7.2, the parking brake or parking mechanism shall be capable of holding the ROV stationary on the test surface, to the limit of traction of the tires on the braked wheels, for 5 minutes in both uphill and downhill directions. Vehicle motion during this period shall not exceed 25mm (1 in). 8. Lateral Stability. All ROVs shall meet the lateral stability performance requirements listed in sections 8.1.4 and 8.2.3 when tested as described below. Tilt table tests shall be conducted in both the loaded configuration and operator and passenger configuration. 8.1 Tilt Table Test 8.1.1 Test Conditions. Test conditions shall be as follows: 8.1.1.1 Loaded Configuration (1) The ROV shall be in standard condition, without accessories. The ROV and components shall be assembled and adjusted according to the manufacturers instructions and specifications. (2) Tires shall be inflated to the ROV manufacturers recommended settings for normal operation. If more than one pressure is specified, the lowest value shall be used. (3) All fluids shall be at the recommended level and the fuel tank shall be full. (4) Steerable wheels shall be held in the straight ahead position. (5) Adjustable suspension components shall be set to the values specified at the point of delivery to the dealer unless this loading condition requires alternate suspension settings, in which case the manufacturers settings as listed in the Owners Manual shall be used. (6) The ROV shall be loaded such that a test occupant weight or equivalent is placed in each seating position such that the center of gravity of the weight(s) is to be 152 mm (6 in) above the lowest point of the occupant-supporting surface and 254 mm (10 in) forward of the seat back A test load shall be securely and evenly distributed to the cargo area(s) such that the cargo limit(s) and Gross Vehicle Weight Rating are not exceeded according to the following: 1. Load the appropriate amount of sand into the ROV cargo box. The specific gravity of the sand shall not exceed 1.8. The sand may be in bags to facilitate shaping and securing the load. 2. The load shall be distributed uniformly across the floor of the cargo box until either the height of the cargo box sides are reached or the appropriate load has been added. 3. If supplemental loading is required to reach the cargo-box limit or GVWR, then it shall be placed atop the existing load in a tapered manner without artificially extending the sides of the cargo box. This supplemental loading shall remain centered in the cargo box when viewed from above. (7) If all vehicle seating positions are loaded with test occupant weight, the cargo-box
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load limit is reached, and the loaded vehicle is still below the manufacturers indicated GVWR, then the difference between the GVWR and the loaded (occupant(s) + full cargo) vehicles weight shall be added as occupant weight centered and positioned as an occupant per (6) above. If equipped with multiple rows of seat positions, then this difference shall be evenly distributed among the rows of seat positions in the ROV. 8.1.1.2 Operator and Passenger Configuration (1) The ROV shall be in standard condition, without accessories. The ROV and components shall be assembled and adjusted according to the manufacturers instructions and specifications. (2) Tires shall be inflated to the ROV manufacturers recommended settings for normal operation. If more than one pressure is specified, the lowest value shall be used. (3) All fluids shall be at the recommended level and the fuel tank shall be full. (4) Steerable wheels shall be held in the straight ahead position. (5) Adjustable suspension components shall be set to the manufacturers specified values at the point of delivery to the dealer. (6) The ROV shall be loaded such that a test occupant weight or equivalent is placed in the operator seating position and the front outermost occupant seating position such that the center of gravity of the weight(s) is to be 152 mm (6 in) above the lowest point of the occupant-supporting surface and 254 mm (10 in) forward of the seat back. 8.1.2 Test Device. A test platform shall be rigid, flat, and constructed to be an adjustable-slope, tilt table or similar device with a surface finish providing a minimum of coefficient of friction of 1.0 or a rail, stopper, or other means no greater than 25 mm (1 in) in height adequate to prevent tires from sliding under normal test conditions. The platform surface shall be large enough to support all wheels of the vehicle to be tested. 8.1.3 Test Procedure. The test procedure shall be as follows: (1) The ROV with test loads in place shall be put on the tilt platform so that a line through the center of the footprint of the two lowest tires shall be parallel to the tilt axis of the table and the steerable wheels of the machine shall be placed in the straight-ahead position see Figure 5. (2) The stability of the vehicle shall be determined directly by slowly tilting the platform to a) Loaded Configuration 24 degrees (44.5%) b) Operator and Passenger Configuration 30 degrees (57.7%). (3) Slowly tilt platform back to level. (4) Recheck the tire inflation of all tires to ensure that they still conform to the test requirements. (5) The test is to be conducted with one side of the vehicle facing the platform tilt axis and repeated with the other side facing the platform tilt axis. 8.1.4 Performance Requirements. Acceptance of the lateral stability test shall require that at least one of the supporting tire or tires on the uphill side remain in contact with the surface. 8.2 Stability Coefficient (Kst) 8.2.1 Test Conditions. Test conditions shall be as follows: (1) The ROV shall be in standard condition, without accessories. The ROV and components shall be assembled and adjusted according to the manufacturers instructions and specifications.
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(2) Tires shall be inflated to the ROV manufacturers recommended settings for normal operation. If more than one pressure is specified, the lowest value shall be used. (3) All fluids shall be at the recommended level and the fuel tank shall be full to rated capacity. (4) Steerable wheels shall be held in the straight ahead position. (5) Adjustable suspension components shall be set to the values specified at the point of delivery to the dealer. (6) CG height shall be determined by the Balance Angle method or other scientifically valid method that produces comparable and repeatable results. 8.2.2 Calculation. Kst = Where: Lcg Hcg t1 t2 L Location of the cg forward of the rear axle Location of the cg above the ground plane Front track width Rear track width Wheelbase L t2 + Lcg (t1 t2) 2LHcg

8.2.3 Performance Requirements. Kst shall be no less than 1.0. 8.3 Dynamic Stability 8.3.1 Test Surface.

8.3.1.1 Test-Surface Preparation. Surface used for dynamic testing shall be constructed of asphalt or concrete having a friction coefficient of at least 0.90 when measured in accordance with ASTM E 1337. The slope of this surface shall be no greater than 1 degree (1.7 %). 8.3.1.2 Test-Surface Condition. The surface area used for dynamic testing shall be dry and kept free of debris and substances that may affect test results during vehicle testing. 8.3.2 Test Conditions.

8.3.2.1 Vehicle Condition. A vehicle used for dynamic testing shall be configured in the following manner. (1) The ROV shall be in standard condition, without accessories. The ROV and components shall be assembled and adjusted according to the manufacturers instructions and specifications. (2) Tires shall be inflated to the ROV manufacturers recommended settings for normal operation for the load condition specified in 8.3.2.1(4). If more than one pressure is specified, the lowest value shall be used. (3) All fluids shall be at the recommended level and the fuel tank shall be full to rated capacity. (4) The ROV shall be loaded such that the combined weight of the test operator, test equipment (including outriggers), and ballast, if any, shall equal 195 kg 5 kg (430 lbs 11 lbs)
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unless the ROV is intended for a single person, in which case the combined weight of the test operator, test equipment (including outriggers) and ballast, if any, shall equal 98 kg 5 kg (215 lbs 11 lbs) [note: the test operator weight may be less than 98 kg (215 lbs) so long as the combined weight of the test operator, test equipment (including outriggers) and ballast, if any, equals 98 kg 5 kg (215 lbs 11 lbs) . 8.3.2.2 Vehicle Test Equipment. Test vehicles shall be equipped with outrigger(s) on both sides of the vehicle. These outriggers shall be designed to minimally influence dynamic-testing results and constructed to be strong enough to resist vehicle rollover during the prescribed testing. 8.3.3 Vehicle-Data Acquisition. The instrumented test vehicle shall be connected to a data-acquisition system with specifications that meet or exceed the following criteria: (1) Resolution: 16 bit (2) Sampling rate: 200 Hz (3) Anti-alias filter: Butterworth, 8-pole, 30-Hz cutoff frequency or equivalent Vehicle data that shall be recorded by the data-acquisition system and the characteristics of the associated sensors are given in Table 1. These data may be measured either directly or indirectly if the indirect method is sufficiently robust, accurate, and precise. Additional data channels may be added, but are not required. Table 1. Variables and sensor list Variable Vehicle speed Lateral acceleration, Longitudinal acceleration, Vertical acceleration Steering wheel angle Yaw rate Roll angle Height above test surface (used to determine wheel lift) Sensor Range 0-80 km/h (0-50 mi/h) 2g 360 deg 200 deg/s 45 deg Sensor Resolution 0.2 km/h (0.1 mi/h) 0.01 g 0.25 deg 0.05 deg/s 0.01 deg Sensor Accuracy 0.25% of full scale 0.05% of full range 0.25 deg 0.05% of full range 2.0 deg 2.5 mm (0.1 in)

100 1000 mm 0.5 mm (0.02 in) (4 - 40 in)

8.3.4

Test Procedure.

8.3.4.1 Set the steering wheel to the Target Steering Wheel Angle
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Equipment required: 1. Left and right steering alignment radius plates. These fixtures support the front vehicle tires on rotating low friction plates that indicate front wheel steer angle 2. Steering wheel angle indicator Method: 1. Configure the vehicle to be tested as follows: Front tires each centered on radius plates to allow free steering rotation throughout steering range Rear wheels on shims as required to achieve level pitch attitude of vehicle Steering wheel angle indicator mounted and indicating zero when left and right front wheels are steered straight Radius plates set to indicate zero angle when left and right front wheels are steered straight Tires inflation pressure set to the values that will be used in the test 2. Measure the wheelbase of the test vehicle, averaging the values for the left and right sides. 3. Move the steering wheel to each of the Steering Wheel Angles shown in Table 2. Record the left and right Measured Steer Angles. This is normally accomplished with one person seated in the operators seat and holding the steering wheel fixed while a second person observes and records the indicated left and right front wheel steering angles. 4. Create a graph of steering wheel angle versus left front wheel angle and right front wheel angle as shown in Figure 16. 5. Find the third-order best-fit line using ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression, forced through the graph origin, for steering wheel angle versus the left front wheel angle, and separately for the steering wheel angle versus right front wheel steer angles. 6. Determine Ackerman Angle for desired 7.6 m (25 ft) radius turn at centerline of vehicle as follows: wheelbase Ackerman Angle arctan ( ) turn radius 7. Using the identified OLS regression equations, determine the individual steering wheel angle, for each steering direction (i.e., right, left) and for each front wheel (right, left) corresponding to the calculated Ackerman Angle. 8. Determine the Target Steering Wheel Angle which is the average of the absolute values of the four individual steering wheel angles calculated in Step 7. Table 2. Steering Wheel Angle versus Left and Right Front Wheel Measured Steer Angle (Measured Steer Angle Values Are For Example Only)
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Steering Wheel Angle (Deg) 0 45 90 135 180 270 360 -45 -90 -135 -180 -270 -360

Measured Steer Angle Left Right (Deg) (Deg) 0 0 2 2.25 4.75 5 8.5 9 11.25 12.25 16.5 18 23.5 26 -3 -3 -7 -6.75 -10 -9.25 -12.5 -11.75 -20.25 -18.75 -26.75 -23.75

8.3.4.2 Dynamic Test 1. Set the vehicle drive train in its most-open setting. For example and if possible, twowheel drive shall be used instead of four-wheel drive, and a lockable differential, if so equipped, shall be in its unlocked, or open, setting. 2. Turn the steering wheel against a mechanical stop set to the necessary Target Steering Wheel Angle. 3. Start the data acquisition system. 4. Record several seconds of data while the test vehicle is still stationary in order to provide the data necessary to establish a reference to zero the data during processing. 5. Slowly accelerate the test vehicle while holding the steering wheel against the mechanical stop. Vehicle acceleration shall be limited to no more than 1 mi/h/s. 6. Continue accelerating until: a. a corrected lateral acceleration of at least 0.6g is reached; or b. a corrected lateral acceleration of at least 0.6g cannot be reached and: i. a two-wheel lift of two inches or more occurs; or ii. further increases in vehicle throttle input do not result in increases in vehicle speed. 7. This test procedure shall be repeated to both the right and the left turning directions for each test vehicle. For each direction this test shall be conducted no less than five (5) times.
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8.3.5 Vehicle-Data Processing. Dynamic-test data shall be processed using the processes and criteria below. Digital-smoothing filter: 12-pole, phase-less, Butterworth filter with a cutoff frequency of 6 Hz or equivalent. Offset removal: Offsets shall be removed from all channels used to calculate lateral acceleration (including Ay, Az, and roll angle (Phi)) by subtracting the mean value for the first one (1) second of stationary vehicle data from these channels. Limit(s): Confirm that speed increase rate prior to reaching the peak value of Ay ground does not exceed the limit specified in 8.3.4.2(5). Calculate ground-referenced lateral acceleration for each data sample. The data for Ay, Az, and roll angle are measured in the vehicle XYZ coordinate system (as defined in SAE J670 (R) Vehicle Dynamics Terminology). The corrected lateral acceleration (Ay ground) shall be calculated by: Ay ground = Ay cos Phi Az sin Phi 8.3.6 Performance Requirements. The vehicle shall pass the dynamic test if at least eight (8) of the ten (10) test runs result in no two-wheel lift on all tires on the inside of the turn above the test surface by at least 50 mm (2 in). 8.3.7 Documentation Requirement. For each test series, the four page test data sheet in Figure 17 shall be completed. 9. Pitch Stability 9.1 Test Conditions. Test conditions shall meet those of section 8.1.1.1. 9.2 Test Device. A test platform meeting the requirements of section 8.1.2. 9.3 Test Procedure. The loaded ROV shall be placed on the tilting platform such that the longitudinal centerline is perpendicular to the platform tilt axis. The forward end of the ROV shall be facing the platform tilt axis. Slowly tilt the platform to a 28 degree (53.2%) gradient and repeat items listed in sections 8.1.3 (3) and 8.1.3 (4). Repeat the procedure with the rear end of the ROV facing the platform tilt axis. 9.4 Performance Requirements. Acceptance of the pitch stability test shall require that at least one of the supporting tire or tires on the uphill side remain in contact with the surface. 10. Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS). If the ISO 3471 option is chosen by the manufacturer, ROPS shall be subject to ISO 3471 as summarized in 10.2, and meet or exceed the performance criteria contained in 10.3. If ROPS design and testing related questions of interpretations arise, other than the energy and force calculations, ISO 3471 shall be the guiding document. Applicable force and energy calculations for all ROVs, wheeled, tracked or otherwise are specified in Table 3 of section 10.2.3. For the purposes of section 10, the term ROPS applies only to ROPS described in section 10.
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For the purposes of this document, the following symbols apply. U energy absorbed by the structure, related to the manufacturers maximum recommended mass, m, and expressed in joules F load force, expressed in Newtons m manufacturers maximum recommended mass, expressed in kilograms The manufacturers maximum recommended mass includes attachments in operating condition, with all reservoirs full to capacity, tools, and ROPS and excludes towed equipment. The manufacturers maximum recommended mass shall be calculated to include the vehicle (at vehicle curb weight). If the calculated mass, m, is less than 700 kg, then 700 kg shall be used for mass in Table 1 calculations. Towed attachments shall not be included in mass, m. Note: Soil, mud, rocks, branches, debris, etc. that commonly adhere to or lie on machines in use are not considered part of the machine mass. L length of the ROPS, in millimeters L is not applicable to roll bar ROPS. For multiple-post ROPS, L is the greatest longitudinal distance from the outer surface of the front to the outer surface of the rear posts. See Figure 3. For ROPS with shaped structural members, L, is the vertical projection of H with the outer surface of the structural members. See Figure 2. For ROPS with curved structural members, L is defined by the intersection of plane A with the outer surface of the vertical member. Plane A is defined as the bisector of the angle formed by the intersection of planes B and C. B is the tangent line at the outer surface parallel to plane D. Plane D is the plane intersecting the intersections of the curved ROPS members with the adjacent members. Plane C is the projection of the top surface of the upper ROPS structural member. See Figure 2. W width of the ROPS, in millimeters For a roll bar ROPS, W is the width to the outermost points of the structural member(s). For all other ROPS, the width, W, is the greatest total width between the outsides of the left and right ROPS posts as measured at the top of the ROPS, from the outside faces of the loadcarrying members. See Figure 2 For ROPS with shaped structural members, W is the vertical projection of H with the outer surface of the structural members. See Figure 2. For ROPS with curved structural members, W is defined by the intersection of plane A with the outer surface of the vertical member. Plane A is defined as the bisector of the angle formed by the intersection of planes B and C. B is the tangent line at the outer surface parallel to plane D. Plane D is the plane intersecting the intersections of the curved ROPS members with the adjacent members. Plane C is the projection of the top surface of the upper ROPS structural member. See Figure 2. deflection of the ROPS, expressed in millimeters Height of the load application zone, expressed in millimeters For a straight member, H is the distance from the top to the bottom of the member, as shown in Figure 3. For a curved member, H is the vertical distance from the top of the member to the vertical
24

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plane at the end of L where it intersects the inner surface of the curved member at Y, as shown in Figure 2. For a shaped member, H is three times the vertical width of the top member, as shown in Figure 2. 10.1 ROPS Test Device. A test fixture shall rigidly secure the vehicle chassis during the necessary application and measurement of forces, energy absorption, and ROPS deflection. 10.2 ROPS Test Procedure. Each vehicle ROPS shall be capable of meeting the requirements of section 10.3 when tested in accordance with this procedure. The ROPS sections on which the load forces are applied shall totally cover the vertical projection of the DLV. Lateral, vertical and horizontal LAPs shall be consistent with ISO 3471. 10.2.1 Chassis Preparation. Remove any door, windshield, windscreen, and convertible top from the vehicle and lower any remaining moveable windows. Remove any non-structural attachment (e.g., light, canopy, etc.) from the ROPS. 10.2.2 Chassis Attachment To The ROPS Test Fixture. Attachment of the ROV chassis to the ROPS test fixture will be through the front and rear drive axles. Suspension systems may be mechanically blocked to prevent movement during the ROPS loadings. Alternatively, the ROV chassis may be tested with the drive line/suspension system removed. In this case the attachment of the chassis to the test fixture will be at and through the locations on the ROV chassis where the front and rear suspension systems connect to the chassis. In all cases the chassis shall be elevated above the test fixture to preclude any other support to the chassis other than the point of initial attachment. 10.2.3 Calculation of Forces and Energy. All ROPS load forces and energies shall be calculated according to Table 1 using mass, m, as previously defined.
Table 3. Load Force and Energy Equations for 10.2. Mass (kg) m Lateral Force (N) 6m Lateral Energy (J) 13000 (m/104)1.25 Vertical Force (N) 19.61m Longitudinal Force (N) 4.8m

Test mass (m) used for calculations shall not be less than 700 kg

10.2.4. Application of energy and Forces. The ROPS loading sequence shall be lateral, vertical, and longitudinal. No ROPS straightening or repairs are permitted during or between loading sequences. 10.2.4.1 Lateral Loading. (1) LDD shall span L, in cases where no rear cross-member exists that would be capable of transferring the load without buckling. In all other cases, the device shall not distribute the load over a length greater than 80 % of the ROPS length L. For the length, L, of curved surfaces, see Figures 2. (2) For roll bar ROPS, the LAP shall be on the same plane with the upper lateral
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cross-member. (3) For all other one-post or two-post ROPS, the LAP shall be dictated by the length, L, and the vertical projection of the closest side or edge of the DLV. The LAP shall not be within a distance L/3 measured from the rear outside face of the ROPS structure. If the L13 point is situated between the back face of the ROPS at the post side and the intersection of the DLV boundary plane (BP) closest to the post(s) with the lateral structural member, the LAP shall be moved away from the post side until it reaches at least the BP of the DLV. (4) For a ROPS with more than two posts, the LAP shall be located between vertical projections of the front and rear BP of the DLV (see Figure 3). (5) Where the operator/occupant seat(s) are off the machine longitudinal centerline, the loading shall be against the external side of the lateral structural member closest to any seat. Where the operators seat is on the machine longitudinal centerline, if the ROPS structure and mounting are such that different force-deflection results are likely by loading from left or right, the side that is loaded shall be that which will place the most severe loading requirements on the representative specimen. (6) The initial direction of the loading shall be horizontal and perpendicular to a vertical plane through the machine longitudinal centerline. As loading continues, representative specimen deformations can cause the direction of loading to change. This is permissible. (7) The loading may be considered static if the rate of deflection at the LAP is not greater than 5 mm/s. The values of force and deflection, at the LAP, shall be recorded at deflection increments no greater than 15 mm. The loading is to continue until the force and energy levels in accordance with Table 3 have been reached. The method of calculating the energy, U, is shown in Figure 1. The measured deflection used in calculating the energy is that of the ROPS along the line of the applied force. Deflection of the ROPS mounting system and machine frame may be included in the total deflection; however, deflection of all test fixture arrangements shall be excluded. Special attention should be given to the materials selected for the chassis construction if the chassis deflects/deforms during the ROPS loads in terms of the temperature/materials requirements for ROPS, i.e. the chassis performs as part of the ROPS by absorbing energy. 10.2.4.2 Vertical Loading. (1) After completion of the lateral loading, a vertical load shall be applied to the top of the ROPS. (2) For all ROPS, the center of the vertical load shall be applied in the same vertical plane, perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of the ROPS structure, defined on the structure before deformation from the lateral loading. (3) The load on the ROPS is applied without limitation on the manner of distribution, provided it is applied symmetrically with the longitudinal centerline of the deformed ROPS structure. (4) The rate of deflection shall be such that the loading may be considered static
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according to the criteria defined in 10.2.4.1(7). The loading is to continue until the force level specified in Table 3 has been reached. The structure shall support this load for a period of 5 minutes or until any deformation has ceased, whichever is shorter. 10.2.4.3 Longitudinal Loading. (1) After completion of the vertical loading, a longitudinal load shall be applied to the ROPS. (2) The longitudinal load shall be applied to the upper structural members of the ROPS along the longitudinal centerline of the ROPS. The LAP is determined using the intersecting planes of the front and top surfaces. If surfaces are curved, determine the intersecting plane by using the tangent line at the mid-point of the arc segment of the top or front member (see Figure 2). (3) The longitudinal load shall be applied at a location consistent with Figures 2 to 4, established prior to lateral loading. The load distribution device shall span the width in cases where no rear (front) cross-member exists that would be capable of transferring the load without buckling. In all other cases, the device shall not distribute the load over a length greater than 80 % of the width, W, of the ROPS (see Figure 3). (4) For all machines, the direction of loading (fore or aft) shall be selected in order to place the most severe requirements on the representative specimen. The initial direction of loading shall be horizontal and parallel to the original longitudinal centerline of the machine. Some factors to consider in deciding on the direction to apply the longitudinal load are the following: a) location of the ROPS relative to the DLV and the effect that longitudinal deflection of the ROPS would have on providing crush protection for the operator; b) machine characteristics, e.g. other structural members of the machine that could resist longitudinal deflection of the ROPS and which can limit the direction of the longitudinal component of loading on the ROPS; c) experience that could indicate the possibility of longitudinal tipping or the tendency of a particular classification of machine to skew as it rotates about a longitudinal axis during an actual Roll Over. 10.3 Test Performance. This ROPS test has force requirements in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions as well as a lateral-force energy absorption requirement. In addition, ROPS deflection limits exist under lateral, longitudinal, and vertical loading. These criteria, all of which shall be met, are listed below in items (A) through (H). (A) The vehicle ROPS shall meet or exceed the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical force and energy requirements calculated in Table 3. (B) The force and energy requirements under lateral loading need not be met simultaneously. One may be significantly exceeded before the other is attained. If the force is attained before the energy, the force may decrease but shall again attain the required level when the lateral energy requirement is met or exceeded. (C) No part of the ROPS shall enter the DLV at any time during the lateral, vertical, or longitudinal loading phases of the test. The limitations on deflections are absolute. (D) The LSGP shall not enter the DLV (upright mode) at any time during the lateral
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loading phase of the test. (E) Reserved. (F) Reserved. (G) Reserved. (H) The ROPS shall not break away from the vehicle due to separation of the ROPS, its mounting system, or the vehicle frame. In the event of partial separation, the ROPS must demonstrate the capability of preventing total separation from the vehicle at the required force and energy levels. 11. Occupant Retention System (ORS) 11.1 Seat Belts. Each seating position in an ROV shall have a minimum of a Type-2 (threepoint) occupant restraint that meets or exceeds SAE J2292. 11.2 Seat Belt Reminder. Manufacturers shall provide a lighted seat-belt use reminder. That reminder shall remain active for at least eight (8) seconds after the ROV ignition/power switch is moved from the OFF to the ON position, unless the ignition/power switch is moved back to the OFF position within eight seconds. The light shall be visible to the seated operator and may either be continuously lighted or flash while active. 11.3 ORS Zones. Each ROV shall have occupant-retention features for zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 described in 11.3.1 meeting the performance requirements of 11.3.2. Such features shall not substantially interfere with the operation of the ROV including operator visibility. All zone definitions in this section are taken in a vertical, longitudinal plane with respect to the vehicle, or as when viewed from the side of the vehicle as shown in the associated figures. These zone restriction requirements shall apply only to outboard seating positions and not to any inboard (center) seating positions. 11.3.1 ORS Zone Restriction. Each vehicle shall restrict occupant egress and excursion for each ORS zone through a combination of passive and active vehicle features. 11.3.1.1 Zone 1 Leg/Foot. Retention requirements for Zone 1 shall be met either by a raised entryway or by a permanent barrier. If vehicle manufacturer chooses to use an elevated entryway, this edge shall be no less than 102 mm (4 in) above the highest adjacent section of occupant-compartment floor. The raised entryway is shown as the shaded area in Figure 6. Otherwise, a barrier door, net, or other suitable device shall be provided to block the shaded area in Figure 6 when the vehicle is in operation. This shaded area is below and forward of point P which is no more than 229mm (9 in) forward of the seat base, and is no less than 102mm (4 in) above the floor. If the seat is fore/aft adjustable, point P shall be established with the seat in its most rearward position. 11.3.1.2 Zone 2 Shoulder/Hip. The retention requirements for Zone 2 shall be met by either method (A) or method (B) below at the discretion of the vehicle manufacturer. (A) Construction-Based Method. Retention requirements for Zone 2 shall be met by a passive barrier or structure represented by the dashed lines in Figure 7 meeting the performance requirements of 11.3.2.2(A). Such a barrier shall encompass point R when viewed from the side of the vehicle as shown. All measurements for the point shall be taken with respect to the base of the seatback. The base of the seatback lies on the surface of the seat base along the centerline of the seating position and is measured without simulated occupant weight on the seat. Point R is located 432
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mm (17 inches) along the seat back above the base of the seatback. The point is 152 mm (6 inches) forward of and perpendicular to the seatback surface as shown in the figure. For an adjustable seat Point R is determined with the seat adjusted to the rear-most position. Point R2 applies to an adjustable seat and is located in the same manner as Point R except that the seat is located in the forward-most position. (B) Performance-Based Method. Retention requirements for Zone 2 shall be met using devices or vehicle features meeting the performance requirements of 11.3.2.2(B). 11.3.1.3 Zone 3 Arm/Hand. The retention requirements for Zone 3 shall be met by either method (A) or method (B) below at the discretion of the vehicle manufacturer. (A) Construction-Based Method. Retention requirements for Zone 3 shall be met by permanent barrier(s) doors, nets, or other suitable devices to restrict the opening as shown in the shaded portion of Figure 8. The area bounded by the seat edge, the line from point S extending forward and downward no more than 25 degrees from horizontal for a distance of 500 mm (19.7 inches), and this lines perpendicular down to the seat. If so equipped, point S will be measured with the adjustable seat in its as-delivered position. This equipment shall complement the hand-hold requirements of 4.6 and the requirements for Zone 2 of this section. (B) Performance-Based Method. Retention requirements for Zone 3 shall be met using devices or vehicle features meeting the performance requirements of 11.3.2.3(B). 11.3.1.4 Zone 4 Head/Neck. Zone 4 is generally defined as the area shown in Figure 9 for a seated, belted, occupant wearing a helmet, as recommended by the manufacturer. 11.3.2 ORS Zone Test and Performance Requirements. The test and performance criteria for meeting ORS zone restrictions are described below. Unless otherwise stated, test forces specified in this section may be distributed using an applicator having a circular, flat surface no larger than 76 mm (3 inches) in diameter. The applicators flat surface may be permitted to swivel to accommodate design characteristics, as well as elastic deformation, and need not remain perpendicular to the force direction. The applicator-plate edges may have a radius of no more than 6 mm (0.25 inches) to avoid cutting test surfaces. Unless otherwise specified, all test forces shall be applied for a duration of not less than five (5) seconds. 11.3.2.1 Zone 1. Barriers for Zone 1 shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal, outward side force of 222 N (50 lbf), applied at the centroid of the shaded area in Figure 6. No permanent barrier damage shall be observed as a result of this load application. Barriers in Zone 1 shall have no opening which permits passage of a 76-mm (3-inch) diameter cylinder perpendicular to the barrier surface. 11.3.2.2 Zone 2. Restraint devices for Zone 2 shall meet the performance requirements of either (A) or (B) depending upon the method selected by vehicle manufacturer in 11.3.1.2. (A) A barrier for Zone 2 shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal, outward side force of 725 N (163 lbf), applied at points R and R2 and any point in between and shall be tested at points R for a fixed seat and R2 for an adjustable seat. There shall be no deflection greater than 25 mm (1 in) upon application and removal of the force.
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(B) A device or vehicle feature for Zone 2 shall keep the torso of the test dummy within the zone adjacent to the occupant compartment as defined below when tested as defined below. This retention performance is required for any outboard seating position on the vehicle. Test Procedure. A fiftieth (50th) percentile Hybrid III crash-test dummy (78 kg/172 lbs) shall be used. 1. The test vehicle shall be placed on a horizontal tilt table. 2. The test vehicle shall be tethered to the tilt table. 3. The test dummy shall be placed in the seating position in the test vehicle with the seat in its as-delivered position, and the seat belt fastened. 4. The test dummy shall be positioned in an upright and centered posture. 5. The tilt table shall be slowly tilted until the test vehicle chassis reaches a roll angle of at least 45 degrees (100%). 6. The torso of the test dummy shall not extend more than 127 mm (5 in) outside of vehicle width. The two planes determining the vehicle width of an ROV are shown in Figure 10. These planes are vertical when the ROV is horizontal, but tilt with the chassis of the ROV as it is rotated on the tilt table. 7. Test shall be conducted twice, once to the operators side and once to the passengers side with the test dummy seated in the downhill outboard position(s). 11.3.2.3 Zone 3. Restraint devices for Zone 3 shall meet the performance requirements of either (A) or (B) depending upon the method selected by vehicle manufacturer in 11.3.1.3. (A) Barriers for Zone 3 shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal, outward side force of 222 N (50 lbf), applied at the centroid of the barrier area. No permanent barrier or fastener damage shall be observed as a result of this load application. Barriers in Zone 3 shall have no opening which permits passage of a 76-mm (3-inch) diameter cylinder perpendicular to the barrier surface. (B) A device or vehicle feature for Zone 3 shall keep the Arm/Hands of the test dummy within the zone adjacent to the occupant compartment as defined below when tested as defined below. This retention performance is required for any outboard seating position on the vehicle. Test Procedure. A fiftieth (50th) percentile Hybrid III crash-test dummy (78 kg/172 lbs) shall be used. 1. The test vehicle shall be placed on a horizontal tilt table. 2. The test vehicle shall be tethered to the tilt table. 3. The test dummy shall be placed in the seating position in the test vehicle with the seat in its as-delivered position, and the seat belt fastened. 4. The test dummy shall be positioned in an upright and centered posture. 5. The test dummys hands shall be affixed to the appropriate handholds, and the test dummys joints set, to simulate the occupants grip appropriate to the handholds in use. 6. The tilt table shall be slowly tilted from horizontal or slowly tilted until the test vehicle chassis reaches a roll angle of at least 45 degrees (100%). 7. No part of the hands and arms of the test dummy shall extend more than 178 mm (7 in) outside of vehicle width. The two planes determining the vehicle width of an ROV are shown
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in Figure 10. These planes are vertical when the ROV is horizontal, but tilt with the chassis of the ROV as it is rotated on the tilt table. 8. Test shall be conducted twice, once to the operators side and once to the passengers side with the test dummy seated in the downhill outboard position(s). 11.3.2.4 Zone 4. Retention requirements for Zone 4 shall be met by recommending that each occupant be seated, belted and wearing a helmet, as recommended by the manufacturer. Any additional device(s) shall not compromise the visibility and mobility needs of a properly seat-belted operator wearing a helmet and other recommended protective gear. 12. Sound Level Limits All newly manufactured ROVs as defined in Section 3 of this standard shall be manufactured and equipped so as not to exceed the sound level limits identified in section 12.2. 12.1 Test Procedure. ROV sound level compliance testing shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures set forth in SAE J1287. 12.2 Test Performance. ROV sound levels shall not exceed 96 dB (A) when tested in accordance with section 12.1.

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Figure 1 Recirculation Ballot Draft 4/29/11 32

Key A B C D F H I LDD L [W] LAP S Y NOTE 1 NOTE 2

angle bisector of two tangent lines (B and C) tangent line parallel to D on outer surface of curved ROPS structural member projection of top surface of upper ROPS structural member straight line intersecting ends of curved ROPS structural member with mating members load force height of load application zone intersection of curved surface with flat surface load distribution device length [width] of ROPS for LAP determination load application point socket intersection of vertical line from LAP to inner surface of vertical member The angle between A and B is equal to the angle between A and C. See Figure 7 for LAP and LDD details.

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Figure 2 33

Example of load application point (LAP) of four-post ROPS

Key BP boundary planes of DLV E horizontal mid-point of upper ROPS structural member F load force H height of upper ROPS structural member L [W] length [width] of ROPS LAP load application point LDD load distribution device S socket NOTE 1 See example of LAP and LDD details. Two sockets are shown in this example to illustrate that more than one may be used simultaneously to apply the required force. NOTE 2 The LDD can extend beyond the dimension H.

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Figure 3 34

Key a b c d LSGP

upper ROPS frame member to which lateral load is applied outermost point from end view of frame member a vertical line through point b vertical plane parallel to the machine longitudinal centerline through line c lateral simulated ground plane

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Figure 4 35

Figure 5

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229mm (9in) MAX

102mm (4in) MIN

Figure 6. Zone 1 Foot/Leg. Both raised entryway and opening area are shown.
Note: Not shown to scale

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Figure 7. Zone 2 Shoulder/Hip. Example barrier and reference point shown.


Note: Not shown to scale

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500mm (19.7in)

S
25 deg MAX 660mm (26in)

Figure 8 Zone 3 Arm/Hand. Barrier area shown.


Note: Not shown to scale

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Figure 9 Zone 4 Head/Neck. Shaded Area.


Note: Not shown to scale

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Figure 10.
Note: Not shown to scale

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Figure 11 Tire Pressure Warning Label


Note: Not shown to scale, numbers are for illustration only Recirculation Ballot Draft 4/29/11 42

Figure 12 Overloading Warning Label


Note: Not shown to scale, numbers are for illustration only

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Figure 13 Combined Tire Pressure and Overloading Warning Label


Note: Not shown to scale, numbers are for illustration only

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Figure 14 Cargo Bed Label


Note: Not shown to scale, pictorial is for illustration only

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Figure 15 General Warning Label (Page 1 of 3)


Note: Not shown to scale Label may be re-arranged or separated to accommodate other shapes Recirculation Ballot Draft 4/29/11 46

Figure 15 General Warning Label (Page 2 of 3)


Note: Not shown to scale Example of an alternative format Recirculation Ballot Draft 4/29/11 47

Explanation of Bracketed Text [Reserved for message about other occupant restraint devices.]

This location is reserved for a message(s) about attaching/fastening other occupant restraint devices (such as a net). It is recognized that this type of message may be inapplicable or unnecessary and may be omitted. Each rider must be able to sit with back against seat, feet flat on floor [and foot rests], and hands on steering wheel or handhold[s][, if equipped]. Stay completely inside the vehicle.

And foot rests is optional. Handhold may be singular or plural, as applicable. Where equipped language may be used for vehicles that have center seating positions. [Locate and] Read the [Owners Manual] [Reserved for References to Other Sources of Safety Information]

Locate and is optional. Alternative terms for Owners Manual may include Operator Guide or other term used by the manufacturer. Optional reference(s) to other forms of safety information may include web sites, videos, etc. Do not exceed seating capacity: [X] passenger[s].

Correct number of passengers (exclusive of operator) should be substituted for [X]. Passenger can be singular or plural, as appropriate.

Figure 15 General Warning Label (Page 3 of 3)


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Figure 16 Steering Graph Showing Method for Determination of Target Steering Wheel Angle (Data and Equations Are For Example Only)

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Test Data Sheet VEHICLE DATA Vehicle year make model: Vehicle Identification Number: Vehicle Dimensions:

Mileage (km):

Wheelbase (cm): Operators seat height7 (cm): Lateral offset of operators seat from centerline (cm): Lateral offset of passengers seat from centerline (cm): Front Manufacturer Model Size Condition8 Rear

Tires:

Specified tire pressure: Actual tire pressure: Fluid levels:

Test track requirements: Test track description:

Front (kPa): Rear (kPa): Front (kPa): Rear (kPa): Fuel (%): Coolant (%): Engine oil (%): Transmission (%): Test surface slope : Peak Friction Coefficient:

RECORDED BY:

DATE RECORDED:

7 8

Coordinate system is specified on page 4 At beginning of test sequence Recirculation Ballot Draft 4/29/11

Figure 17 Test Data Sheet Page 1 of 4


50

Test Data Sheet VEHICLE WEIGHT DATA Actual weight of vehicle alone, full fluids (W1) Left front Left rear Total kg kg kg Right front Right rear kg kg Front axle Rear axle kg kg

Actual weight of vehicle with test operator, outriggers and instrumentation (no ballast) (W2) Left front Left rear Total kg kg kg Right front Right rear kg kg Front axle Rear axle kg kg

Calculation of ballast required, if any ROV intended for a single person: W1 (kg) +98 kg +98 kg ROV intended for more than one person: W1 (kg) +195 kg +195 kg - W2 (kg) = = Ballast required (kg) - W2 (kg) = = Ballast required (kg)

Total Loaded Vehicle Weight with Operator and Instrumentation and Ballast (Test Weight) Left front Left rear Total kg kg kg Right front Right rear kg kg Front axle Rear axle kg kg

RECORDED BY:

DATE RECORDED: Figure 17 Test Data Sheet Page 2 of 4


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Test Data Sheet SUPPLEMENTARY WEIGHT DATA Coordinate System: Direction x (longitudinal) y (lateral) z (vertical) Reference point Axis of rotation of the rear axle Vehicle centerline Ground plane Direction Positive forward Positive to right Positive downward

Summary of locations of added weight9: x location (cm) Ballast Data acquisition system Outriggers RECORDED BY: DATE RECORDED: y location (cm) z location (cm)

Figure 17 Supplementary Weight Data Page 3 of 4


9

Attach supporting calculations Recirculation Ballot Draft 4/29/11 52

Test Data Sheet CALCULATION OF STEERING ANGLE

Steering Wheel Angle (Deg) 0 45 90 135 180 270 360 -45 -90 -135 -180 -270 -360

Front Wheel Steer Angle Left (Deg) Right (Deg)

Ackerman Angle = arctan (Wheelbase/Turn Radius) Turn radius (m): Ackerman angle (deg) : Left turn Steering wheel angle for left wheel (deg): Steering wheel angle for right wheel (deg) : Target Steering Wheel Angle (deg): DATE RECORDED: RECORDED BY: Figure 17 Test Data Sheet Page 4 of 4
53

Right turn

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Annex A (This Annex is not part of the voluntary standard but is included for information only.)
Rationale This annex gives the rationale behind various requirements of this voluntary standard. The section numbers in this annex correspond to those used in the body of the standard. A3 Recreational Off-Highway Vehicle (ROV). The definition of recreational off-highway vehicle was arrived at after considering the important aspects of the configurations, features and benefits of ROVs and other similar vehicles that currently exist in the marketplace. ROV manufacturers have produced safe and reliable ROV models that adequately address design, configuration, and performance requirements using their engineering expertise and judgment. Available incident data also were reviewed and requirements were developed in consideration of known hazards to the extent they are within the scope of this standard. This Standard establishes, on a prospective basis only, minimum requirements for design, configuration and performance taking into account the evolution of new vehicle designs in this growing market segment, as well as issues raised by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. A4.1 Service Brakes. It is important that the location and operation of brake controls should remain standardized. The well-known automotive service-brake pedal and its operational mode are selected. A4.2 Parking Brake/Parking Mechanism. The operator of an ROV must be able to park the vehicle without it rolling away. Either a parking brake or a parking mechanism may be used to hold the ROV stationary. A4.3.1 Engine Stop Device. An ROV operator must have a readily identifiable way to stop the engine of a vehicle. A4.3.2 Speed control. The automotive-style accelerator pedal shall be used on ROVs due to its familiarity to recommended operators of ROVs. A4.4.1 Manual Clutch Control. The automotive-style clutch pedal shall be used on ROVs due to its familiarity to recommended operators of ROVs. A4.4.2 Manual Transmission Gearshift Control. Such controls shall be clearly marked for the operator to facilitate proper gear engagement. A4.4.3 Other Controls. ROV controls not falling into other categories shall be marked appropriately by the ROV manufacturer. A4.4.4 Electric Start Interlock. This interlock is intended to prevent the unintended movement of an internal-combustion ROV by an electric-start motor. A4.6 Handhold. ROVs are occupant-interactive. Handholds assist outboard ROV occupants in keeping their outboard arms and hands within the ROV. A4.7 Rollover Protective Structure (ROPS). Rollover protection is required for the seated and
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restrained occupants of the ROV. A certified ROPS, meeting or exceeding either of two sets of performance criteria, is required on all ROVs. (Refer to Section A10 on ROPS testing and performance.) A4.8 Occupant Retention System. This standard requires that ROV manufacturers equip vehicles with occupant restraints. These restraints are either active (requiring occupant action) or passive (not requiring occupant action) in nature. In addition, manufacturers are required to recommend that all vehicle occupants use such restraints, where equipped. A4.9 Flag Pole Bracket. A flag pole may be required on vehicles operating in some riding areas. If not equipped with a mounting bracket by the manufacturer, the operator shall be responsible for attaching the flag pole to the ROV. A4.10 Lighting Equipment. ROVs are used primarily for recreational purposes and secondarily for general utility applications and can be expected to be used at night or under low-visibility conditions. This wide range of use creates a need for both visibility and conspicuity lighting on ROVs. In the case of recreational use this might be because the operator elects to drive under those conditions, or because, after participating in some activity, it may not be possible to return to base during daylight. In the case of utility use, operation may not coincide with daylight hours or the unit may be used in an area where artificial lighting is needed. So there are occasions when lighting equipment is required or desirable for the purpose of illumination or identification or both. A4.11 Spark Arrester. Spark arresters are required on ROVs for the purpose of suppressing fire ignition and for compliance with U.S. federal requirements. A4.13 Security. The intention is to permit the person responsible for the ROV to retain control and regulate the use of the vehicle. A4.16 Labels. The General Warning is intended to promote safe and responsible use of ROVs. It is widely recognized that owners are in charge of these vehicles and authorize and restrict their use. In addition, operators are in control of the vehicle and take responsibility for their passenger(s). As with other vehicles, those in charge of the ROV are responsible for communicating safety-related messages, as necessary and appropriate, to assist the passenger(s). In light of this, the ROV General Warning is located and phrased for those in charge of or in control of the ROV, but it is recognized that it can be used directly or indirectly by a variety of others (e.g., law enforcement, regulators, ride area administrators, passengers, potential buyers, parents, supervisors, etc.) The General Warning is intended to be part of a system of information including other labels required by this standard, any additional labels, and other collateral materials (e.g., manuals, videos, etc.). Provision of additional information about the General Warning Label Content Areas, or other safety topics, either on additional labels or in collateral materials, is permitted and consistent with the intent of this standard, as long as such information does not contradict the General Warning. The Certification label provides consumers and others with a visual means of verifying that an ROV complies with this standard and may contain other applicable regulatory information. A5.3 Maximum Speed Capability. The maximum speed criterion was selected from studying the scopes of existing industry standards applicable to off-road vehicles. A6 Service Brake Performance. This section establishes minimum braking performance
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requirements that are intended to help ensure that ROVs are equipped with brake systems that are adequate for stopping the vehicle. The requirements in this section are patterned after the requirements of ANSI / SVIA 1 2007 relating to all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). ROVs are operated in similar environments as ATVs. Consideration was given to the physical differences and load carrying capacities between ATVs and ROVs when developing service brake performance requirements. All braking tests are conducted in a loaded configuration at the GVWR. A7 Parking Brake/Parking Mechanism Performance. The performance requirements are intended to help ensure that the ROV parking brake/mechanism is adequate to prevent rolling movement of the ROV when it is parked and left unattended while fully loaded at GVWR. A8.1 Tilt-Table Test. Tilt-table performance criteria have been increased to reflect continued improvements in ROV design. A8.1.1.1 Loaded Configuration. (5) Suspension settings, including but not limited to spring preload, should be set as recommended by the ROV manufacturer for carrying such a load. This is a reflection of the versatility of ROVs. (6) Each passenger seating position is to be loaded prior to loading the cargo box for this test configuration. Sand (or a similarly dense) material is to be used to simulate ROV load in the cargo box. This is a clarification to the original versions silence on cargo material and loading situations. As a point of reference, fresh water has a specific gravity of one (1). A8.2 Stability Coefficient. ROVs have a wide range of passenger/load carrying configurations. Multiple lateral-stability criteria are incorporated within the ROV standard that address vehicle roll resistance in the off-highway environment. Both tilt-table angle (TTA) and lateral-stability coefficient (Kst) are used. The TTA test is representative of a vehicle operating on a side slope. The vehicle state for these tests range from the operational but otherwise unloaded ROV to represent recreational use to the loaded ROV (not to exceed GVWR) to represent general utility use. Unlike an on-highway vehicle, ROVs are used in a variety of inconsistent, unpaved environments. Given the number of operating variables, meaningful dynamic stability testing that is repeatable on offhighway terrain is impossible using current test methods and technology. For this reason, Kst serves as an indicator of level-terrain vehicle stability. Kst was selected as a more appropriate measurement for use with ROVs than SSF for several reasons. First, SSF presumes that front and rear track widths of vehicles are identical or very similar; whereas Kst does not. In fact, ROVs (unlike automobiles) often have significantly different front and rear track widths because the rear tires on ROVs are often much wider than the front tires. Moreover, because ROVs are narrower than automobiles, differences between the front and rear track widths will have a greater impact on a static stability measurement. In addition, SSF does not take into account the front/rear location of the vehicle center of gravity (CG), while Kst does. Thus, for example, a vehicle with a narrower front track width and a front-biased CG will have a lower Kst value than SSF. As a result, Kst will produce a more complete static stability measurement as it is based on the actual width, length, height, and weight distribution of the vehicle, as compared to SSF, which does not take into account the vehicles length.
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In sum, Kst is a three-dimensional static measurement; whereas SSF is a two-dimensional measurement. Because ROVs are used in a variety of terrains as compared to the relatively uniform surfaces automobiles are used on, it is important to use a static measurement that takes into account an ROVs complete vehicle dimensions. Accordingly, Kst is the more appropriate measurement. A8.3 Dynamic Stability. This test procedure and criteria are the result of much research and testing. The objectives of the dynamic test, supplementing existing static vehicle tests, were to assess the roll resistance of a moving vehicle which are both repeatable and reproducible, to within a reasonable tolerance, and yet not unduly complicated. Unlike on-highway vehicles, ROVs are used in a variety of inconsistent, unpaved environments. Given the number of operating variables, meaningful dynamic stability testing that is repeatable on off-highway terrains is impossible using current test methods and technology. This test procedure uses an asphalt surface out of necessity for defining a consistent surface for test purposes; however, an asphalt surface is not representative of off-highway terrain and some test variability will still exist. Recognizing these limitations, this section provides a test procedure and criteria for evaluating roll resistance that will not undermine performance or safety of the vehicles for their intended off-highway uses. Roll Resistance Margin (RRM) formula RRM = [(Ay ground / Ktire/soil) -1] * 100% Where Ktire/soil = coefficient of force between tire and soil = 0.55 If Ay ground = 0.60 g at the time of two-wheel lift, then RRM = [(0.60/0.55) 1] * 100% = 9.09% A9 Pitch Stability. Longitudinal stability of the ROV shall be verified by a tilt-table test using a fully loaded vehicle. This testing is representative of a fully loaded ROV directly ascending and descending a steep slope. A10 Rollover Protective Structure (ROPS). As originally published, all ROVs were required to meet the requirements of ISO 3471, Fourth edition, 2008-08-15, for Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS). Some ROVs are used for work applications and thus are subject to the U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ROPS requirements. ISO 3471 is one ROPS standard that satisfies OSHA requirements. OSHA requirements also may be satisfied by certifying compliance with U.S. 29 C.F.R. 1928.53. As a result, the standard has been expanded to include certification to U.S. 29 C.F.R. 1928.53 as an alternative. Adding this alternative provides manufacturers with design flexibility while ensuring that ROV ROPS are certified to a nationallyrecognized standard and comply with OSHA requirements. A11.2 Seat-Belt Reminder. The color, symbol, and message displayed to vehicle operator are not specified in order to provide the ROV manufacturer flexibility in reinforcing occupant seat-belt use. A11.3.1 Occupant Retention Zones. All ROVs shall have equipment and/or design features for the
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occupant retention zones described for the operator and any passenger(s). Such features shall meet the prescribed performance requirements while presuming that each ROV occupant: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Is properly seated Properly uses the three-point seat belt provided Is wearing appropriate protective equipment including a helmet, as recommended by the manufacturer, eye protection, gloves, long pants, over-the-ankle boots, and other appropriate gear Properly employs any barrier provided by the vehicle manufacturer at time of original consumer purchase Grasps on to handhold(s) provided, including the steering wheel if that occupant is the operator, and Follows instructions including those found in on-product warning decals, owners manual, and safety training materials.

A11.3.1.1 Zone 1 Leg/Foot. Foot and leg retention can be accomplished either by an elevated entry way or by an occupant-deployed permanent barrier closing off Zone 1. As used in this section, permanent means requiring tools for removal, but capable of being serviced or subject to fastening. Vehicle manufacturers need the flexibility offered by this standard since the solution that best works on a recreation-only oriented vehicle may cause unintended consequences when the same solution is used on a vehicle designed for both recreation and utility use. The 76-mm (3-inch) diameter probe test has been successfully used by the all-terrain vehicle industry in ANSI/SVIA-1 to limit the size of openings in the footwell area of ATVs. Zone 1 features must meet the specific performance requirements listed and are most effective when used with the occupant retention features and devices of the other zones. A11.3.1.2 Zone 2 Shoulder/Hip. The vehicle manufacturer is required by this standard to provide shoulder and hip retention for occupants using either a construction based method or performance based method. This is intended to allow design flexibility in meeting Zone 2 occupant retention that accommodates the intended use of the ROV and particular vehicle design. The passive Zone 2 barrier required by Method A of the standard supplements the three-point seat belt already on the vehicle. As used in this section, passive means requiring no interaction on the part of the occupant. The vertical and forward locations for point R appearing in Figure 7 are based upon anthropometric data. Another device or design feature of the vehicle may be used in Method B to meet Zone 2 retention requirements. A11.3.2.3 Zone 3 Arm/Hand. The vehicle manufacturer is required by this standard to provide arm and hand retention for occupants using either a construction based method or performance based method. This is intended to allow design flexibility in meeting Zone 3 occupant retention that accommodates the intended use of the ROV and particular vehicle design. As used in this section, permanent means requiring tools for removal, but capable of being serviced or subject to fastening. The barrier dimensions shown in Figure 8 for Zone 3 are taken from anthropometric data. Point S represents the top of that occupants shoulder. That occupants upper arm is approximately 0.5 meters long from shoulder pivot to elbow. The line representing the upper edge of the barrier slopes downward in order to permit visibility for shorter operators. Since restraining the occupants upper arm significantly restrains the forearm and hand, because handholds are provided, and because an operator needs volume to properly operate a vehicle, the forward edge of barrier is perpendicular downward to the seat. The 76-mm (3-inch) diameter probe test has been successfully used by the all-terrain vehicle industry in ANSI/SVIA-1 to limit the size of openings in the footwell area of ATVs and should also
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serve to limit the size of barrier openings in the arm and hand area of ROVs. Active restraints in the form of handholds are accepted and also can be used to satisfy the performance requirements, at the manufacturers discretion. The performance requirements are based on positioning a standard automotive type Hybrid III dummys hands so that it can grip the hand hold or steering wheel, as applicable, and also applying joint tensions more applicable to an occupant who is in the early stages of a rollover. (The automotive dummy joint tensions barely restraining the weight of the limb when extended horizontally are applicable to automobiles in a level, non-accelerating condition.) A11.3.1.4 Zone 4 Head/Neck. The primary measure for protecting occupants head and neck is provided by the use of a helmet, as recommended by the manufacturer. Other measures used for occupant retention must not interfere with operator visibility and other requirements for safe vehicle operation. A helmet meeting a suitable standard substantially reduces injury risk via five mechanisms as follows: a) prevents penetration and direct contact to the occupants head by environmental and vehicle surfaces (e.g., FMVSS 218 penetration test); b) distributes the contact forces over a larger area, thereby decreasing local stresses that may act on the skull; c) absorbs kinetic energy of the head in impacts and also decreases the peak forces and accelerations by lengthening the duration of the impact pulse (i.e., this can reduce the likelihood of brain injury by approximately 72% (Liu et al, 2008)); d) in potential crush loading, limits the pressure applied to the skull (by the action of the liner), up to deflection where the liner is bottomed; e) for potential crush loads, provides an alternate load path (i.e., a bridge) around the skull which diverts a portion of the load away from the skull. In laboratory tests of a sample of six typical FMVSS 218 motorcycle helmets, for example, this force bridge can be substantial, e.g., increasing the load at which the skull may be fractured by a 1 square inch mandrel, from 730 lbs (Nahum et al, 1968; Schneider and Nahum, 1972) to approximately 1300-1330 lbs, i.e., for crush loading, a helmeted head has nearly double the force tolerance of an un-helmeted head. Note that while FMVSS 218 does not explicitly have crush criteria, motorcycle helmet standards and designs worldwide are relatively uniform, and ECE R22.05 for example, has a crush criterion requiring the helmet to provide a minimum of a 142 lbs of bridging force, which as can be seen in the test data cited in the previous sentence, is exceeded by a sample of six typical FMVSS 218 motorcycle helmets. A12.1 Sound Level Limits. All ROVs shall pass stationary sound-level test.

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Recreational Off-Highway Vehicle Association 2 Jenner, Suite 150 Irvine, California 92618 (949) 255-2560 www.rohva.org Printed MONTH 201X

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