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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
PROBLEMS
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
1 ( 75
. 0.1 psi
:

0.407 k 67 . 5
ln
1
= =
+ =
+ +
c
c y
k
U


U
max
U .




.

2
2
3
1
1
max
f
k
U
U
+
=

=
=
4
ln
2
ln
ln ln
2 2



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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
c y
k
U + =
+ +
ln
1


c
yU
k
U
U
+ =


ln
1


c
U r
k
U
U
+ =


o
ln
1
max


o
r
y
k U
U U
ln
1
max
=


rdr
U
U U
r U
U U
r

2
1
0
0
max
2
max

|
|
.
|

\
|
=


o

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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
c
f
g
U
d
L
f
P P
h
2
4
2
2 1
=



18 . 0
2
174 . 32
100
1
75
144 * 1 . 0
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
=
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
g
L
d P P
U f



max
2
2
3
U U
f
k
U = +

s
ft
U U 04 . 2 5 . 2 ) 61 . 2 )( 18 . 0 ( = = +

s lb
d
U m 834 . 0
4
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=


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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
In a countercurrent gas-liquid contactor the
maximum gas throughput is limited by
flooding. To investigate this, experiments
were carried out in a wetted wall column
apparatus. Measurement of liquid holdup
and pressure gradient were recorded. Show
that the pressure gradient at flooding point is
given by:
c
Ag
gH
dx
dp
3
2
=
A
H
2
0 . 1 <<
where
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
0 . 1
2
2
2
2
<< = =
R
R
R
A
H




Hence rectangular coordinates may be used.

0 . 1
2
<<
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

R x
p g
g
y
u
c

= =
= =
y
u
g y
u y
C B
x
c i
@
0 0 @
. .

+ +
(

|
.
|

\
|

+ =
+
(

|
.
|

\
|

+ =

2 1
2
1
g integratin
c y c y
x
p g
g u
c y
x
p g
g
y
u
c
c



Applying B.C.1 0
2
= c
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Applying B.C.2 with force balance in gas:

( ) | |
2
. 2 R P P dx R
x dx x i
=
+

|
.
|

\
|
=
dx
dp R
i
2

|
.
|

\
|
=

=
dx
dp R g
y
u g
c x c i

|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
x
P g
g
dx
dp R g
c
c c
2
1


Hence

y
dx
dp R g
y
y
dx
dP g
g u
c c
|
.
|

\
|
+
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =

2 2
.
2

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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Averaging over :

|
.
|

\
|
+
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+ =

0 0
2
2 2
1
. ydy
dx
dp R g
dy y
y
dx
dP g
g u
c c

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
3
4 3
1
.


R
dx
dp g
dx
dP g
g u
c c


Now
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
>>
|
.
|

\
|
>>
3 4
3
2 3 2


dx
dP g
R
dx
dp g
R
c c


Hence

R
dx
dp g
g u
c
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
4 3
.
2


At flooding: 0 = u

Hence

R
dx
dp g
g
c
|
.
|

\
|
=
4 3
2

c
Ag
gH
dx
dp
3
2
=
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
In pumping a high viscosity oil through a pipe, excessive pressure drop may
prevent economic operation. It has been suggested that the pressure drop can be
reduced by introducing a continuous water film around the tube periphery. What
is the maximum factor by which the oil flow rate can be increased by a given
pressure gradient if the viscosity ratio of the fluids is given by:
500 =
water
oil

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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
2 1
>> >>
water oil


Force balance on element:

{ } 0 2
2
= +
+
x r P P r
r
x x x




R
r
dx
dp
r
w
r r
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

2


i
1
u u aR @r B.C.

= =
=
dr
du
g
c r



Hence C
R
r g
u
dr
du
R
r g
c w c w
+ = =
1
2
1
2


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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Hence | |
2 2
1
2
aR r
R
g
u u
c w
i
+ =



In Water similarly with 0 =
=R r
u

| | | |
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
R R a
R
g
u R r
R
g
u
c w
i
c w
= =



Hence if V is the volumetric flow rate of oil:

=
ar
rudr V
0
2

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
aR
c w
rdr
R a R r R a
R
g
0
2
2 2 2
1
2 2 2

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
4 2
1
4 4
3
2 4
2

a a a a
R g
c w


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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
3
1
3
3
2
da
dv

a a a
R g
c w


Now
2
1
Hence
2
2 1
= >> a

(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
3
max
8
1

R g V
c w


(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
1
3
1
4
1

R g V
c w a


Ratio = 250
2
2
1
=


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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Let it be desired to find out how much
liquid clings to the inside surface of a
large vessel when it is drained. The local
film thickness is a function of both z and
t.
( )
t g
z
t z
. .
.
,

=
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M
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Consider mass balance on element.

Input = Output + Accumulation
| | x
t
u u
x x
x
x
x
.

+ =
+


With constant density:


| |
x
u u
t
x
x
x x
x



Taking limit (x0) gives: | |

x
u
x t






Now:

0
0
dy
dy u
u
x
x
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
The velocity distribution must be determined. In general this requires
solution of the N-S equations and it is not possible since the film thickness
changes with x and t.
However a reasonable guess at the velocity distribution will be adequate
since the mean velocity will not be sensitive to the guess made.
Assume the velocity profile for a parallel flow.

i.e. solution of g
dy
u d
x
=
2
2
with B.C.s

=
= =
0 @
0 0 @
y
u
y
u y
x
x


Hence
(

=
2
2
y
y
g
u
x


3
2
g
u
x
=
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M
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Substitute in mass balance:
0
3
3
=

+
(

t
g
x



With ) ( = =
t
x

t d
d
t x d
d
x


. .

Hence
0
1
. .
2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
t
x
d
d
t d
d g



0
2
=
(


d
d g

But 0

d
d
hence we must have
t g
x
. .
.

=
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
In a gas absorption experiment a viscous fluid
flows upward thought a small circular tube
and then downward on the outside.
1- show that the velocity distribution in the
falling film is:
2- Obtain an expression for the volume rate of
flow in the film.
3- Obtain the film thickness on the wall.
(
(

+ =
R
r
a
R
r gR
u
z
ln 2 1
4
2
2
2 4

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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
(a) Navier Stokes equation for steady state laminar flow at low Reynolds
numbers:

g
r
u
r
r r
z
+
(

|
.
|

\
|

=
1
0
Continuity equation:

( ) 0
1
=

r
z
ru
r r z
u


No radial flow: ( ) r u u
z
u
z z
z
= =

g
r
u
r
r r
z
=
|
.
|

\
|

1

Integrate:

2 1
4
ln
4
c r c
gr
u
z
+ + =


Boundary conditions:


{ } R a
gR
R
a gR gR
c
a gR
c
Ra
c gRa
c R c
gR
aR r
r
u
R r u
z
z
ln 2 1
4
ln
2 4
2
2
0
ln
4
0
@ 0
@ 0
2
4 2 2 4
2
2 2
1
1
2 1
4
= =
=
+ =
+ + =
= =

= =



Hence

(
(

+ =
R
r
a
R
r gR
u
z
ln 2 1
4
2
2
2 4


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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
(b) Volumetric floe rate:

=
aR
R
z
dr ru Q 2

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

+ + =

+ + =

+ =

2
2
4 4 2
4
2
2 2 2
2 4
2
4
2
2 4
2
2
2 4
1
2
ln 1
4
1
1
2
1
4
2
1
4
ln
2
2 1
4
1
2 4
2
ln 2 1
4
2
a
a
a a a a
gR
a
R
a
R a
a a
R
R
a
R gR
rdr
R
r
a
R
r gR
Q
aR
R



{ } a a a a
gR
Q ln 4 3 4 1
8
4 4 2
4
+ + =


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M
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
(c) Film thickness:


( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
= =
R
h
a
a R R aR h
1
1

{For a film flowing down a flat plate, Q =

3
3
gh
}

Flow / Unit periphery



Now:

4 3 2
4
4 3 2
4
2
2
0
3
13
2
7
ln
0 4 6 4 1
2 1
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
a a
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
a
R
h
R
h
a

{ } a a a a
gR
r Q
ln 4 3 4 1
16
2
4 4 2
3
+ + =
=


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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Hence

3 3
16
16 2
3
53
14 4 12 18
12 3 4 8 4 1
16 2
3
3
3
3 2 3 2
2
3
gh
R
h gR
r
Q
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
gR
r
Q
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=