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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
PROBLEMS
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
1 ( 75
. 0.1 psi
:
0.407 k 67 . 5
ln
1
= =
+ =
+ +
c
c y
k
U
U
max
U .
.
2
2
3
1
1
max
f
k
U
U
+
=
=
=
4
ln
2
ln
ln ln
2 2
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
c y
k
U + =
+ +
ln
1
c
yU
k
U
U
+ =
ln
1
c
U r
k
U
U
+ =
o
ln
1
max
o
r
y
k U
U U
ln
1
max
=
rdr
U
U U
r U
U U
r
2
1
0
0
max
2
max


.

\

=
o
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
c
f
g
U
d
L
f
P P
h
2
4
2
2 1
=
18 . 0
2
174 . 32
100
1
75
144 * 1 . 0
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
=
(

.

\


.

\


.

\

=
(

.

\


.

\



.

\

=
c
g
L
d P P
U f
max
2
2
3
U U
f
k
U = +
s
ft
U U 04 . 2 5 . 2 ) 61 . 2 )( 18 . 0 ( = = +
s lb
d
U m 834 . 0
4
2
=


.

\

=
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
In a countercurrent gasliquid contactor the
maximum gas throughput is limited by
flooding. To investigate this, experiments
were carried out in a wetted wall column
apparatus. Measurement of liquid holdup
and pressure gradient were recorded. Show
that the pressure gradient at flooding point is
given by:
c
Ag
gH
dx
dp
3
2
=
A
H
2
0 . 1 <<
where
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
0 . 1
2
2
2
2
<< = =
R
R
R
A
H
Hence rectangular coordinates may be used.
0 . 1
2
<<

.

\

+ =
R x
p g
g
y
u
c
= =
= =
y
u
g y
u y
C B
x
c i
@
0 0 @
. .
+ +
(

.

\

+ =
+
(

.

\

+ =
2 1
2
1
g integratin
c y c y
x
p g
g u
c y
x
p g
g
y
u
c
c
Applying B.C.1 0
2
= c
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Applying B.C.2 with force balance in gas:
( )  
2
. 2 R P P dx R
x dx x i
=
+

.

\

=
dx
dp R
i
2

.

\

=
=
dx
dp R g
y
u g
c x c i

.

\

+

.

\

=
x
P g
g
dx
dp R g
c
c c
2
1
Hence
y
dx
dp R g
y
y
dx
dP g
g u
c c

.

\

+
(

.

\

+ =
2 2
.
2
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Averaging over :

.

\

+
(
(
(


.

\


.

\

+ =
0 0
2
2 2
1
. ydy
dx
dp R g
dy y
y
dx
dP g
g u
c c

.

\

+


.

\


.

\

+ =
2
3
4 3
1
.
R
dx
dp g
dx
dP g
g u
c c
Now


.

\


.

\

>>

.

\

>>
3 4
3
2 3 2
dx
dP g
R
dx
dp g
R
c c
Hence
R
dx
dp g
g u
c

.

\

+ =
4 3
.
2
At flooding: 0 = u
Hence
R
dx
dp g
g
c

.

\

=
4 3
2
c
Ag
gH
dx
dp
3
2
=
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
In pumping a high viscosity oil through a pipe, excessive pressure drop may
prevent economic operation. It has been suggested that the pressure drop can be
reduced by introducing a continuous water film around the tube periphery. What
is the maximum factor by which the oil flow rate can be increased by a given
pressure gradient if the viscosity ratio of the fluids is given by:
500 =
water
oil
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
2 1
>> >>
water oil
Force balance on element:
{ } 0 2
2
= +
+
x r P P r
r
x x x
R
r
dx
dp
r
w
r r
=

.

\

=
2
i
1
u u aR @r B.C.
= =
=
dr
du
g
c r
Hence C
R
r g
u
dr
du
R
r g
c w c w
+ = =
1
2
1
2
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Hence  
2 2
1
2
aR r
R
g
u u
c w
i
+ =
In Water similarly with 0 =
=R r
u
   
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
R R a
R
g
u R r
R
g
u
c w
i
c w
= =
Hence if V is the volumetric flow rate of oil:
=
ar
rudr V
0
2


.

\

+


.

\

=
aR
c w
rdr
R a R r R a
R
g
0
2
2 2 2
1
2 2 2


.

\

+


.

\

=
2
4 2
1
4 4
3
2 4
2
a a a a
R g
c w
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
(


.

\

+


.

\

=
2
3
1
3
3
2
da
dv
a a a
R g
c w
Now
2
1
Hence
2
2 1
= >> a
(


.

\

=
2
3
max
8
1
R g V
c w
(


.

\

=
=
1
3
1
4
1
R g V
c w a
Ratio = 250
2
2
1
=
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Let it be desired to find out how much
liquid clings to the inside surface of a
large vessel when it is drained. The local
film thickness is a function of both z and
t.
( )
t g
z
t z
. .
.
,
=
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Consider mass balance on element.
Input = Output + Accumulation
  x
t
u u
x x
x
x
x
.
+ =
+
With constant density:
 
x
u u
t
x
x
x x
x
Taking limit (x0) gives:  
x
u
x t
Now:
0
0
dy
dy u
u
x
x
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
The velocity distribution must be determined. In general this requires
solution of the NS equations and it is not possible since the film thickness
changes with x and t.
However a reasonable guess at the velocity distribution will be adequate
since the mean velocity will not be sensitive to the guess made.
Assume the velocity profile for a parallel flow.
i.e. solution of g
dy
u d
x
=
2
2
with B.C.s
=
= =
0 @
0 0 @
y
u
y
u y
x
x
Hence
(
=
2
2
y
y
g
u
x
3
2
g
u
x
=
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Substitute in mass balance:
0
3
3
=
+
(
t
g
x
With ) ( = =
t
x
t d
d
t x d
d
x
. .
Hence
0
1
. .
2
2
=

.

\

+
t
x
d
d
t d
d g
0
2
=
(
d
d g
But 0
d
d
hence we must have
t g
x
. .
.
=
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
In a gas absorption experiment a viscous fluid
flows upward thought a small circular tube
and then downward on the outside.
1 show that the velocity distribution in the
falling film is:
2 Obtain an expression for the volume rate of
flow in the film.
3 Obtain the film thickness on the wall.
(
(
+ =
R
r
a
R
r gR
u
z
ln 2 1
4
2
2
2 4
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
(a) Navier Stokes equation for steady state laminar flow at low Reynolds
numbers:
g
r
u
r
r r
z
+
(

.

\

=
1
0
Continuity equation:
( ) 0
1
=
r
z
ru
r r z
u
No radial flow: ( ) r u u
z
u
z z
z
= =
g
r
u
r
r r
z
=

.

\

1
Integrate:
2 1
4
ln
4
c r c
gr
u
z
+ + =
Boundary conditions:
{ } R a
gR
R
a gR gR
c
a gR
c
Ra
c gRa
c R c
gR
aR r
r
u
R r u
z
z
ln 2 1
4
ln
2 4
2
2
0
ln
4
0
@ 0
@ 0
2
4 2 2 4
2
2 2
1
1
2 1
4
= =
=
+ =
+ + =
= =
= =
Hence
(
(
+ =
R
r
a
R
r gR
u
z
ln 2 1
4
2
2
2 4
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
(b) Volumetric floe rate:
=
aR
R
z
dr ru Q 2
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
+ + =
+ + =
+ =
2
2
4 4 2
4
2
2 2 2
2 4
2
4
2
2 4
2
2
2 4
1
2
ln 1
4
1
1
2
1
4
2
1
4
ln
2
2 1
4
1
2 4
2
ln 2 1
4
2
a
a
a a a a
gR
a
R
a
R a
a a
R
R
a
R gR
rdr
R
r
a
R
r gR
Q
aR
R
{ } a a a a
gR
Q ln 4 3 4 1
8
4 4 2
4
+ + =
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
(c) Film thickness:
( )

.

\

+ =
= =
R
h
a
a R R aR h
1
1
{For a film flowing down a flat plate, Q =
3
3
gh
}
Flow / Unit periphery
Now:
4 3 2
4
4 3 2
4
2
2
0
3
13
2
7
ln
0 4 6 4 1
2 1

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

=

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

+ =

.

\

+

.

\

+ =
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
a a
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
a
R
h
R
h
a
{ } a a a a
gR
r Q
ln 4 3 4 1
16
2
4 4 2
3
+ + =
=
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Chemical & Petroleum Engineering Department
Sharif University of Technology
Hence
3 3
16
16 2
3
53
14 4 12 18
12 3 4 8 4 1
16 2
3
3
3
3 2 3 2
2
3
gh
R
h gR
r
Q
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
R
h
gR
r
Q
=

.

\

=

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\

+

.

\


.

\


.

\


.

\

+

.

\

+ +
=