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In the Name of God

Research Methods in Applied Linguistics ( 1 )

Research Methods in Applied Linguistics ( 1 )

A 2-credit course in En !ish "rans!ation Fie!d# to be offered in $th semester.

Written by : Dr. Hossein Farhady

&ha'ter 1 : (ac) round Introduction

*no+!ed e : A body of facts and hypotheses that enables one to understand phenomena and to solve problems Why did the early man progress slowly 1 unreliable information; metaphysical e planation ! difficulties in transferring the information from one generation to the ne t
% ,

-1-1. /ources of Information

&ha'ter 1

/ources of Information

/ensory E0'eriences

E0'ert 1'inion

2o ic

/cientific 3ethod

-1-1. /ources of Information

&ha'ter 1

-1-1. /ources of Information

&ha'ter 1

-1- 1-1. /ensory E0'eriences: "he accumulation of information through senses from one#s personal e periences a5ai!abi!ity: good de'endabi!ity: doubtful; needs verification cannot be accepted readily; multiple sensation better
4 6

-1-1-2. E0'ert 1'inion: eg$ An authority in a specific field; or beliefs inherited by tradition better% but still sub&ective in nature% so not to be accepted as facts and should be sub&ected to empirical investigations disagreement between authorities% eg$ different language teaching methods

-1-1. /ources of information -1-1-%. 2o ic :

&ha'ter 1

-1-1. /ources of information

-1-1- ,. /cientific 3ethod :

&ha'ter 1

a. Deduction ( Aristotle ) ma8or 9 minor 'remise : conc!usion 1) All men are moral$ ! ' Ali is a man$ ( Ali is moral b. Induction ( )rances *acon ) from many different instances to a general law a compromise between the two better

based on +ogical ,ositivism; ob&ectivity; e amining only directly observable phenomena

both in social and natural science ;ositi5ism: not very successful in studying human

;ost -ne+. ;ositi5ism: -esearch is a systematic

approach to answering .uestions$

/ ' 0ome differences between social and natural sciences

&ha'ter "+o : ;rinci'!es of >esearch

1' repeatability of the phenomena ! ob&ectivity of the data Which one is more probabilistic% then1


of >esearch

2o ica!






-2-1. &haracteristics of >esearch

&ha'ter "+o

&haracteristics of >esearch

&ha'ter "+o

-2-1-1. systematic: It is based on

pre'established rules and regulations; following the principles of : a. constancy: 0ome phenomena do not change their basic characteristics in a given period of time$ b. uniformity: "here are commonalities between the members of one class$
11 12

-2-1-2 . >esearch is 2o ica! : +ogic is employed at every step of research especially regarding the premises and the language and its interpretation and in ma2ing
conclusions and generali3ations$

&haracteristics of >esearch
&ha'ter "+o

5haracteristics of -esearch

&ha'ter "+o

-2-1-%. >esearch is >educti5e

a. &once'tua!: 4a2ing generali3ations; not
chec2ing all the instances

b. ;ractica!: "he findings of researchers are

transferred to other researchers avoiding repetition; accumulative; additive
1% 1,

-2-1-,. >e'!icab!e: repeating the same study with another group for in a different situation further confirmation ;ossibi!ities : a) If agreement% that#s 6$7 b) If partial agreement% see2 &ustification c) If contradiction %do more and more replication

5haracteristics of -esearch

&ha'ter "+o

-2-2. *inds of >esearch

&ha'ter "+o

-2-1-4. >esearch is Generati5e: une pected situations arise leading to new .uestions when answering the original one$ A part of research report is suggestion for further studies$ 8enerativity of research implies that there is no end to research$
14 16

*ind of >esearch



-2-2. *inds of >esearch

&ha'ter "+o

-2-%. 3ethods of >esearch 3ethod of >esearch

&ha'ter "+o

*ind : a. &onfirmatory : partial or complete replication of

previous research; more common in language studies

b. E0'!oratory: for studying an un2nown

phenomenon; more common before% more difficult% sometimes based on trial and error




-2-%. ? 3ethods of >esearch

&ha'ter "+o

-2-,. Goa!s of >esearch

Goa!s of >esearch

&ha'ter "+o

3ethod : a. ;ure : research for the sa2e of research eg$ nuclear power % 5homs2y:s studies b. A''!ied :uses the findings of pure research eg$ sociolinguistics %language teaching responsible for the good or evil of the findings
1< 2=





-2-,. Goa!s of >esearch

&ha'ter "+o

-2-4. /te's in conductin research

&ha'ter "+o

-2-,-1. Descri'tion: eg$ +anguage ac.uisition; functions of language -2-,-2. ;rediction: eg$ +1 development : babbling% one'word% two'word % telegraphic speech -2-,-%. Im'ro5ement: eg$ In language instruction or method -2-,-,. E0'!anation: eg$ +anguage achievement or failure; ma2ing more holistic generali3ation

- 2-4-1. Formin a research @uestion :

<ypothesis; review of literature; refining and modifying the .uestion = variables

-2-4-2. /e!ectin an a''ro'riate method :

research design% relation between variables



-2-4. /te's in conductin research

&ha'ter "+o

/ection "+o : Formu!atin >esearch Auestion

"hree /te's 1 >etermine an area of research ! )ormulate a research .uestion within the area ( Identify the parameters and characteristics of the .uestion

-2-4-%. Hy'othesis "estin : involving

data collection = data analysis using statistics = interpretation of results

-2-4-,. ;re'arin the research re'ort:

to share the findings with others



&ha'ter % : Areas of >esearch in 2an ua e Education

-%-1. "eachin - %-2. 2an ua e -%-%. 2in uistic en5ironment -/ocio!o y. -%-,. 2earner and 2earnin -'sycho!o y .

Areas of >esearch in 2an ua e Education

&ha'ter %

Areas of >esearch

2an ua e


2in uistic

2earner B 2earnin



-%-1. Auestions in 2in uistics

cha'ter %

language description based on different theories components of language: synta % semantics% pragmatics% discourse% phonology% morphology language ac.uisition +1 vs$ +! 5ontrastive Analysis (5A)% @rror Analysis (@A)
27 2$

-%-2. Auestions in "eachin 3ethodo!o y

cha'ter %

(%-%. Auestions on factors inf!uencin "EF2

cha'ter %

&urricu!um de5e!o'ment: time to start language teaching; length; intensity of the program sy!!abus desi n and materia! de5e!o'ment: the content of courses; selection and se.uencing teacher trainin : pre'service and in'service training teachin methods e5a!uation and assessment system

-%-%-1. &o niti5e Factors: ,rocess% style % strategy; cognitive styles (eg$ field dependent vs$; field independent ) transfer; interference; overgenerali3ation left' vs$ right'hemisphere dominance



%-% Auestions on factors inf!uencin "EF2

cha'ter %

%-% Auestions on factors inf!uencin "EF2

cha'ter %

-%-%-2. Affecti5e Factors :

self'esteem% inhibition% an iety (facilitative vs debilitative ); motivation (integrative vs instrumental )%personality types (eg$ introversion vs$ e troversion)

-%-%-%. /ocia! Factors: use vs$ usage; 0chumann:s Acculturation 4odel; attitude vs$ motivation ( 8ardner and +ambert 1B?!)



-%-,. 1ther re!ated @uestions

cha'ter %

-%-,. 1ther re!ated @uestions

cha'ter %

-%-,-1. Auestions in 2an ua e and 2iterature readability and te t simplification (word vs$ structure)% culture load of the te ts -%-,-2) Auestions in !an ua e and techno!o y programmed instructions (unsuccessful); mechanical and computeri3ed lab$ computeri3ed dictionary and audio'visual aids

-%-,-%. Auestions in !an ua e and 'o!itics policy ma2ing; coining new words deciding on first second% and foreign language ( C language planning ); developing appropriate e.uivalents



&ha'ter , : "he >esearch Auestion

1 Introduction: the problem of how to start "he professors can give advice but should not give topics to the students because : a) "his stage is an important part of doing research for which the students need practice$ b) "he professors# areas of interest may differ from the students# $

-,-1. &haracteristics of a ood research @uestion &ha'ter ,

(/'1'1) within the domain of the interest of the researcher (/'1'!) relevance of the topic to the benefits of the society and the immediate environment (/'1'() manageability of the topic in terms of facilities% time% cost and social and educational limitations



-,-2. Narro+in do+n a to'ic

-,-%."y'es of >esearch @uestion

&ha'ter , cha'ter ,

"hrough reading and thin2ing about the topic to ma2e it clear% to the point and manageable Avoid .ualitative words such as how% effective% etc$
@g$ 5ompare: 1 <ow do people ac.uire their native language1 ! In what order does an Iranian child ac.uire spea2ing )arsi1

"y'es of >esearch Auestion



&ause and Effect


-,-%."y'es of >esearch @uestion

cha'ter ,

-,-%."y'es of >esearch @uestion

cha'ter ,

a. Descri'ti5e : eg$ )re.uency of errors; duration or intensity of a program; se.uence of ac.uisition of a phenomenon

It is concerned with who% when% what% and where of

an even or behavior

b. &orre!ationa! : the degree of relationship between two or more factors eg$ *etween s2ills and components; between traits and achievement c. &ause-Effect : causal relationship: the effect of A on * eg$ A certain strategy or method on achievement



-,-,. Formin a Hy'othesis

cha'ter ,

&ha'ter Fi5e : >e5ie+ of the >e!ated 2iterature >e!e5ant @uestions

1 <ow comprehensive should the review be1 ! <ow many sources are sufficient1 ( What 2ind of materials .ualify for the tas21 / Where should one get relevant materials1 9 <ow should the materials be read or covered1

Hy'othesis :a tentative answer to a .uestion$ It is a 2ind of generali3ation about the relationship between two or more factors$ a. nu!!:nondirectiona!: Eo relationship is predicted. b. a!ternati5e or directiona! : A relationship between two factors is predicted$


-4-1. Goa!s of !iterature re5ie+ :

&ha'ter Fi5e :

-4-2. Hints +hen doin !iterature re5ie+:

&ha'ter Fi5e


A) to put the topic within a scientific perspective *) to reformulate and modify the research .uestion 5) to avoid mere duplication of previous research >) to pinpoint the pitfalls of the previous research and attempt to remedy them

*e selective in reading; read only more relevant materials

focus on three as'ects of the 're5ious research 1 ' theory: from which hypotheses are generated $ ! ' method: sub&ects% data collection% design% procedure% statistical analyses ( data analysis



-4-2. Findin the sources of information

&ha'ter Fi5e

-4-2. Findin the sources of information

&ha'ter Fi5e

sources of information


!ists of abstracts

reference boo)s and artic!es

dictionary# a!manacs


A. encyc!o'edia: eg$ *ritannica% Americana : to get general overview (. !ists of abstracts : 4A % ,h$>$ dissertations % boo2 abstracts etc$ &. reference boo)s and artic!es : 2ey (Cmost relevant) authors% topics% and studies


-4-%. Findin the sources of information

&ha'ter Fi5e

-4-,. 3ore to do in 2iterature >e5ie+

&ha'ter Fi5e

D. dictionary# a!manacs ( published every year giving information on various sub&ects )% year boo2s% educational handboo2s % statistical information published by different organi3ations% boo2 reviews and periodicals( most important and up' to' date ) E. E>I& : @ducational -esource Information 5enter ( Internet )



1 - >eadin and or aniCin the materia!s 2 ? >ecordin the bib!io ra'hica! information ' full name of the author ' full title of the document ' place% publisher% and the date of publication ' the page number from which the information is e tracted


-4-,. 3ore to do in 2iterature >e5ie+

&ha'ter Fi5e

-4-4. Documentin the /ource

"+o /ty!es

&ha'ter Fi5e

% ? "a)in Notes from the 3ateria! A) Fse direct .uestions rarely; ma2e paraphrase *) "a2e note of even seemingly unimportant things 5) 2eep notes in files and organi3ed >) *e comprehensive% ta2ing all sides% pros and cons into account
,< 4=

-4-4-1. 32A: (4odern +anguage Association): the date of

publication at the end; capitali3ing the first letters of the title

-4-4-2. A;A : -American ,sychological Association) the

date after the author:s name; only the first letter of the first word in the title is capitali3ed

&ha'ter 6 : &haracteristics of a Dariab!e

-6-1. Definition of a 5ariab!e: an attribute changing from one setting to another -6-2. Different ty'es of 5ariab!es a. concrete: eg$ height (ob&ectively measured ) b. abstract: eg$ happiness ( sub&ectively measured ) c. discrete: of all or nothing eg$ left handedness% nationality d. continuous: eg$ intelligence

Different "y'es of Dariab!es &ha'ter 6

"y'es of 5ariab!es








-6-,. 3easurement /ca!es of Dariab!es

&haracteristics of a Dariab!e &ha'ter 6 :

-6-%. definition of a 5ariab!e a. "heoretica!: Any variable operates within some sort of theoretical framewor2$ eg$ communicative ability may be defined differently by different theories b. 1'erationa!: in terms of its measurable characteristics eg$ class participation and achievement
3easurement /ca!es

&ha'ter 6

Nomina! /ca!e

1rdina! /ca!e

Inter5a! /ca!e

>atio /ca!e



-6-,. 3easurement /ca!es of Dariab!es

&ha'ter 6

-6-,. 3easurement /ca!es of Dariab!es

&ha'ter 6

-6-,-1. Nomina! /ca!e: numbers lac2

-6-,-%. Inter5a! /ca!e: e.ual distance

mathematical value% &ust naming eg$ >iscrete variables li2e nationality% age -6-,-2. 1rdina! /ca!e: ran2 ordering% with mathematical values without e.ual distance between the ran2s eg$ in football% or in 7on2oor
44 46

between the ran2s which have mathematical value; eg$ scores on tests in social sciences -6-,-,. >atio /ca!e: with true or absolute 3ero and negative values eg$ temperature in natural science


-6-4. &on5ertabi!ity of 3easurement &ha'ter 6 /ca!es from interval to ordinal or nominal possible not vice versa eg$ ran2 order correlation the role and function of a variable are important factors in determining the desired 2ind of measurement scale
47 4$

-6-6. Functions of Dariab!es &ha'ter 6

Functions of Dariab!es

inde'endent 5ariab!e

de'endent 5ariab!e

3oderator Dariab!e

&ontro! Dariab!e

Inter5enin Dariab!e

-6-6. Functions of Dariab!es &ha'ter 6

-6-6-1. inde'endent 5ariab!e: selected and manipulated by researcher eg$ method of instruction -6-6-2. de'endent 5ariab!e: measured to see the effect of independent variable eg$ achievement

-6-6. Functions of Dariab!es &ha'ter 6

-6-6-%. 3oderator Dariab!e: is another variable which can affect the outcome of the research eg$ se % but unli2e independent variable it cannot be manipulated$




-6-6. Functions of Dariab!es

&ha'ter 6

-6-6. Functions of Dariab!es &ha'ter 6

Gariable functions are research dependent: the function of a variable can vary from one research to another eg$ ,roficiency can be dependent or independent or control or moderator in different studies$

-6-6-,. &ontro! Dariab!e: remain constant to neutrali3e its potential effect eg$ nationality -6-6-4. Inter5enin Dariab!e: Eot controllable% nor measurable% nor observable eg$ psychological factors involved


/ection "hree:

&ha'ter 7 : Historica! 3ethod of >esearch Why Historica! research: understanding

/e!ectin an A''ro'riate >esearch 3ethod

of present state needs studying its origins% developments and modifications and the factors contributing to such processes eg$ present teaching methods; materials; translation styles




Historica! 3ethod of >esearch

&ha'ter 7

-7-1. Historica! 3ethod of >esearch

&ha'ter 7

Historica! research 5s. >e5ie+ of 2iterature:

<istorical research involves testing a hypothesis while literature review is a report of what others have done to consolidate a position on an issue$

Which one studies what is left from the previously living sub&ects; historical research or review of literature1 a criticism a ainst historica! research: 5ontrolling variables is impossible so ma2ing generali3ations is rather difficult$


-7-2. Ad5anta es and ;ur'oses of Historica! >esearch &ha'ter 7

1 finding solutions for the present problems rooted in the past ! ma2ing suggestions for future affaires based on the findings ( cause and effect of different factors in different cultures / reevaluating the data which are the basis for certain hypotheses% theories or generali3ations

-7-%. /te's in conductin Historica! >esearch &ha'ter 7

/te's in Historica! >esearch

Formu!ate the 'rob!em

Formu!ate hy'otheses

&o!!ect data

&riticiCe the data

Inter'ret the findin s




-7-%. /te's in conductin Historica! &ha'ter 7 >esearch 1 ? Formu!ate the 'rob!em. 2 ? Formu!ate hy'otheses to e0'!ain the e5ents. % ? &o!!ect data. , ? &riticiCe the data. 4 ? Inter'ret the findin s.
6< 7=

-7-,. /ources of Information

&ha'ter 7

/ources of Information

1fficia! >ecords

Nonofficia! >ecords

;hysica! >emains

-7-,. /ources of Information

&ha'ter 7

-7-4. &riticiCin the Document

&ha'ter 7

-7-,-1. 1fficia! >ecords: eg$ laws% reports% proceedings% decrees -7-,-2. Nonofficia! >ecords: eg$ diaries% personal records% oral traditions -7-,-%. ;hysica! >emains: eg$ building% facilities% manuscript
,rimary (first hand) Gs$ 0econdary (0econd hand) 0ource "he eyewitness for the primary source is not necessarily alive$

-7-4-1. E0terna! &riticism (C authenticity)%

genuineness $ the .uestion of H >id something really happen1I tests of handwriting% scripts% type% spelling% language usage% available 2nowledge




-7-4. &riticiCin the Document

&ha'ter 7

-7-6. /ome ad5ice to chec) interna! &ha'ter 7 5a!idity or accuracy

-7-6-1. obtaining information about the 2nowledge and competence of the author -7-6-2. e amining the time elapse between the event and the creation of the document -7-6-%. being careful about the bias and the motive of the writer

-7-4-2. Interna! &riticism (C truthfulness)

evaluation of the accuracy and truthfulness of the content of the document$

What is (ias and how can it be avoided1



-7-6. /ome ad5ice to chec) interna! 5a!idity or accuracy &ha'ter 7

-7-6-,. cross'validation of the data: to chec2 agreement between what one said and what others said
eg$ a report about education in ancient -ome pp:1/D'1/1 3ore e0am'!es: investigating e tinct animals li2e dinosaurs% or geographical changes% wars and some other social events li2e revolutions or social reforms

&ha'ter $ : Descri'ti5e 3ethod of >esearch

very useful and versatile in educational setting 1 most useful in applied +inguistics ! ' has variety of techni.ues to suit every research .uestion "hree 3a8or Grou's for Descri'ti5e 3ethod: 1 ? /ur5ey 2 ? Interre!ationa! % ? De5e!o'menta!




Descri'ti5e 3ethod of >esearch

&ha'ter $

-$-1. /ur5ey 3ethods Intentions of sur5ey:

&ha'ter $

Descri'ti5e 3ethod




A) describing the nature of e isting conditions *) identifying standards against which e isting conditions can be compared 5) attempting to determine the potential relationship between two conditions


-$-1. /ur5ey 3ethods

"y'es of /ur5ey

&ha'ter $

-$-1. /ur5ey 3ethods

&ha'ter $

"y'es of /ur5ey: -$-1-1. schoo!: eg$ settings of learning%

characteristics of educational personnel and the system% nature of students% the learning process% teachers% motivation% teaching methods% tests etc$


socia! or community

'ub!ic o'inion


-$-1. /ur5ey 3ethods

&ha'ter $

-$-1. /ur5ey 3ethods

&ha'ter $

-$-1-2. socia! or community sur5ey: eg$ health% employment% minority groups -$-1-%. 'ub!ic o'inion: people:s preferences through opinion polls% interest to political and industrial organi3ations

"hree types of information can be obtained from the respondents in a survey: 1 - Facts: sociological or demographic information eg$ se % age % race % income % education all are verifiable 2 - o'inion : feelings % preferences % li2es % disli2es ( unverifiable ) % - beha5ior eg$ fre.uency of an activity ( verifiable )



-$-1. /ur5ey 3ethods

&ha'ter $

-$-2. Interre!ationa!

&ha'ter $

Instruments +hich can be used in sur5ey for data co!!ection:

&uasa!&orre!ationa! &om'arati5e /tudies /tudies

1 - Auestionnaire 2 - Inter5ie+s % - obser5ations etc

$% $,

&ase /tudies

Fie!d /tudies


-$-2. Interre!ationa!

&ha'ter $

-$-2. Interre!ationa!

&ha'ter $

-$-2-1. &ase /tudy: an intensive investigation of a social unit eg$ speech therapy similar to survey but more intensive and less e tensive; narrower in scope but more e haustive and .ualitative in nature good for ma2ing hypothesis not ma2ing generali3ations about the population
$4 $6

-$-2-2. Fie!d /tudy: involves direct observation of natura!!y occurrin e5ents; re.uires direct observation A Natura! E5ent: one that is not created% sustained% or discontinued solely for the sa2e of research% hence called Natura!istic 3ethod too$

-$-2. Interre!ationa!

&ha'ter $

-$-2. Interre!ationa!

&ha'ter $

/am'!in : a. continuous time sam'!in eg$ 4otivation to study the whole term b. time 'oint sam'!in eg$ motivation to study before e am

-$-2-%. &orre!ationa! /tudy: gotogetherness of two or more variables eg$ 5orrelation between reading and writing s2ill 'ossibi!ities: positive% negative% neutral no causal relation is claimed% &ust a relationship which should be made meaningful by relating it to a theory



-$-2. Interre!ationa!

&ha'ter $

-$-2. Interre!ationa!

&ha'ter $

-$-2-,. &ausa!-&om'arati5e: studying

cause'effect relationships by observing e isting conse.uences and searching bac2 through the data for plausible causal factors eg$ )inding out if pre'school education has had any effect on the success of high'achievers at school

-$-2-,. &uausa!-&o'arati5e similar to and different from correlational study: both are descriptive; but &ausa!-&om'arati5e : two or more groups and one independent variable% involving comparisons corre!ationa!: one group = two or more variables% involving gotogetherness


-$-2. Interre!ationa!
-$-2-,. &ausa!-&om'arati5e

&ha'ter $

-$-2. Interre!ationa!

&ha'ter $

also similar to and different from e perimental study; both involve cause'and' effect relation and comparisons In @ perimental the cause is deliberately made and the effect is observed

In 5ausal'5omparative the effect is observed and the cause loo2ed for% so the independent variable naturally occurs and is not manipulated $ also called E0-'ost-facto: (C after the fact ) but this term is not e clusive to causal' comparative method




-$-2. Interre!ationa!

&ha'ter $

-$-%. De5e!o'menta!
De5e!o'menta! 3ethod

&ha'ter $


/ome dra+bac)s of Interre!ationa! 3ethod : 1 no control over variables % so the effect can be the result of other factors ! not a single factor may affect the result ( connection between two variables do not mean causal relationship Eevertheless it:s practical: less costly and .uite useful

2on itudina!


-$-%. De5e!o'menta!

&ha'ter $

-$-%. De5e!o'menta!

&ha'ter $

It mainly deals with the changes that happen over time @g$ child language development; cognitive processes and interlanguage studies -$-%-1. 2on itudina!: e ploratory; time consuming; focuses on one sub&ect but several variables
<4 <6

-$-%-2. &ross-sectiona!: focuses on more sub&ects but fewer variables; confirmatory in nature% and findings of different groups are not comparable; less time consuming and more practical; but does not provide as detailed information as the other one


&ha'ter < : E0'erimenta! 3ethod of >esearch

"o some people @ perimental -esearch is considered as the pea2 of scientific research$

-<-1. >e@uirement of a ty'ica! &ha'ter < e0'erimenta! research

>e@uirement e0'erimenta! research

;rinci'!es of the E0'erimenta! 3ethod

A. 3ost Demandin : It re.uires rigorous principles$ (. 3ost ;roducti5e: It provides conclusive answers to comple .uestions$
<7 <$


E0'erimenta! and contro! rou'



-<-1. >e@uirement of a ty'ica! e0'erimenta! research &ha'ter <

-<-1-1. >andomiCation -<-1-2. ;re-testin -<-1-%. Ha5in e0'erimenta! and contro! rou' -<-1-,. 1fferin a treatment to the e0'erimenta! rou' and '!acebo to the contro! rou' -<-1-4. 'ost-testin

-<-2. Different 5ersion of e0'erimenta! studies &ha'ter <

Dersions of E0'erimenta! >esearch

"rue E0'erimenta!




1= =


-<-2. Different 5ersion of e0'erimenta! &ha'ter < studies -<-2-1. "rue E0'erimenta!: All the above principles are met$ -<-2-2. ;re-E0'erimenta!: 6ne or two
principles are ignored$

-<-%. &haracteristics of true e0'erimenta! 3ethod

&ha'ter <

-<-2-%. Auasi-e0'erimenta!: "here is

1= 1

-<-%-1. >andomiCation: "o avoid bias; every member of a given population has an e.ual chance of being selected$ "his procedure helps select a representative sample of sub&ects$

compensation for the violation of certain principles$

1= 2

-<-%. &haracteristics of true e0'erimenta! 3ethod

&ha'ter <

-<-%. &haracteristics of true e0'erimenta! 3ethod

&ha'ter <

1= %

-<-%-2. E0'erimenta! and contro! rou': involves two purposes: 1) "he researcher should ma2e sure that the relationship between the variables is not only causal but also one variable causes the other one$ !) <e should ma2e sure that the outcome of the study is due to the variable under study% not other variables$

-<-%-%. ;retest: It is used to ma2e sure about the e.uality of the two groups before the e periment and to ma2e strong statement about the cause'effect relationship between the variables after the e periment $
1= ,


-<-%. &haracteristics of true e0'erimenta! 3ethod

&ha'ter <

-<-%. &haracteristics of true e0'erimenta! 3ethod

&ha'ter <

-<-%-,. "reatment: It is given to the e perimental group and placebo to the control group$ In educational settings% the independent variable is often the introduction of a new instructional procedure or an educational factor$ "his variable is called a treatment in the conte t of e perimental research$
1= 4 1= 6

-<-%-4. ;osttest : It is measuring the dependent variable to see the effect of treatment as compared with the control group which received placebo or no treatment $ If the difference is not significant the treatment is not effective$

-<-,. Da!idity of >esearch

Derifiabi!ity : -eplications should give similar results $ A''!icabi!ity : "he findings should be applicable in similar situations $

"+o "y'es of Da!idity

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-<-4. Interna! Da!idity: "he e tent to which the outcome of the research is due to the manipulation of independent variable and not others (importance of control variable)$ "his is uni.ue to e perimental research $
1= $

1= 7


-<-4. Factors affectin interna! 5a!idity

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-<-4. Factors affectin interna! 5a!idity

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Factors affectin interna! 5a!idity

History Effect

3aturation Effect

"estin Effect

/e!ection Effect

3orta!ity Effect

-<-4-1. History Effect: Whatever happening to the sub&ects outside the e perimental environment; eg$ receiving another type of treatment somewhere else
11 =

1= <

-<-4. Factors affectin interna! 5a!idity

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-<-4. Factors affectin interna! 5a!idity

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-<-4-2. 3aturation Effect: any process that involves systematic changes over time% regardless of specific events eg$ In longitudinal research eg$ natural language development vs$ formal instruction'based method
11 1 11 2

-<-4-%. "estin Effect: "he pretest may give some awareness to the sub&ects regarding the purpose of the e periment% so in posttest they are better prepared; analogous to practice effect in testing $


-<-4. Factors affectin interna! 5a!idity

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-<-4. Factors affectin interna! 5a!idity

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-<-4-,. /e!ection Effect: If randomi3ation is wea2 or impossible% we can use matching eg$ dividing the sub&ects into two groups based on their proficiency level so that both groups are e.ual in terms of proficiency
11 % 11 ,

-<-4-4. 3orta!ity Effect: loss of the

sub&ects during the e periment especially in longitudinal study$ It is also called Attrition .

-<-6. E0terna! Da!idity

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-<-6. E0terna! Da!idity

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Applicability of research findings in other similar settings C generali3ability of findings% from sample to population$ It is true for all methods of research$

11 4

Internal validity re.uires ma imi3ing control$ @ ternal validity re.uires more real lifeli2e or naturalistic situation in research with less control$ "here should be a balance or trade'off 11 to 2eep both$


-<-7. ;re-E0'erimenta! 3ethods

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-<-7. ;re-E0'erimenta! 3ethods with lower internal and e ternal validity

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;re-E0'erimenta! 3ethods

-<-7-1. 1ne-shot &ase /tudy:

1ne-shot &ase /tudy 1ne-Grou' ;retest
'osttest /tudy

Intact Grou' /tudy

no control group% with treatment and test E " this can function as a pilot study
11 $

11 7

-<-7. ;re-E0'erimenta! 3ethods

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-<-7. ;re-E0'erimenta! 3ethods

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-<-7-2. 1ne-Grou' ;retest 'osttest /tudy: often used by teachers "1 E "2

-<-7-%. Intact Grou' /tudy :

no randomi3ation G1 E " G2 1 " JC treatment 6C placebo

11 <

12 =


-<-$. Auasi-E0'erimenta! 3ethod

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-<-$. Auasi-E0'erimenta! 3ethod &ha'ter <

It is a practical compromise between true e perimentation and the nature of human language behavior to be investigated$



"ime ? /eries /tudy

12 1

E@ui5a!ent "ime /eries 3ethod

12 2

-<-$. Auasi-E0'erimenta! 3ethod &ha'ter <

-<-$. Auasi-E0'erimenta! 3ethod &ha'ter <

-<-$-1."ime ? /eries /tudy:

is the most common type; no control group "1 "2 "% E ", "4 "6 the number of pre or post tests is not fi ed% but there should be enough to show a trend
(see diagrams p$1BD)

-<-$-2. E@ui5a!ent "ime /eries 3ethod :

"1 E "2 H "% 1 ", H "4 E "6 H "7 1 "$ F G

"his process is repeated three to five times and then the scores on 6s and Js are compared $ (0ee diagrams p$1B1)
12 ,

12 %