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# ANALYSIS OF CASCADED FILTERS WITH DECIMATION

D. pulk Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Circuit Theory Digital filters create essential part of most igital signal processing s!stems" In man! applications# casca e of ecimation filters appears" We present s!stem for anal!sis of casca e ecimating filters in MATLA\$"

## %" Intro &ction

In many applications (such as digital radio receivers , cascade of decimation filters appears (see Figure ! for an e"ample # To reduce hard\$are re%uirements, filter \$ith only fe\$ coefficients or a cascaded integrator&com' (CIC filter is used on the top position, \$or(ing on the highest sampling fre%uency ()!*, )+* # ,o\$er sampling fre%uency achieved 'y decimation allo\$s utilising of more comple" filters on lo\$er positions of cascade, resulting in re%uired total fre%uency characteristic#

fs

CIC_1
dec. ratio 4

fs /4

FIR_2
dec. ratio 2 16 coefficients

fs /8

FIR_3
dec. ratio 2 51 coefficients

## '" Decimation# aliasing an fre(&enc! c)aracteristics

During decimation, lo\$&fre%uency part of spectrum is mi"ed \$ith other parts of spectrum# If there is insufficient re-ection of high&fre%uency signal components, useful signal in lo\$&fre%uency range gets destroyed# .nother pro'lem may occur in the pass'and range# /ince the lo\$&fre%uency signal has to pass through all filters, their pass'and ranges must have insignificant re-ections, not to \$ea(en the useful signal# To analyse features of the cascade, first, fre%uency responses of several filters are computed and evaluated in d0# Then, particular fre%uency responses are mirrored and e"tended to desired range# 1hile the first filter2s characteristics stays intact, fre%uency response of the second filter is repeated according to the decimation ratio of the first one, thus 'eing pro-ected into the original fre%uency range# /imilarly, fre%uency responses of ne"t stages are repeated according to resulting decimation ratio of all preceding stages, as seen in Figure +# Total fre%uency response is computed 'y simple addition of particular characteristics#

## *" Anal!sis in MATLA\$

Computing gets started 'y calling filter4casc function# /ynta" is as follo\$s3 freq_resp = filter_casc(filter_spec) or freq_resp = filter_casc(filter_spec, pts) , \$here filter4spec is a cell containing specification of filters (see Figure 5 , pts is desired size of elemental fre%uency response of the last filter (optionally and fre%4resp is output array containing fre%uency responses# dec. ratio 4 Nr. of stages 5 diff. delay 1

R1

b1 b2 bn

a1 a2 an

filter_casc

R2 Rn

dec. ratio 2

numerator coeffs.

denominator coeffs. 1

[ -1.293e-3 -2.225e-3 ... 9.449e-3 -2.225e-3 -1.293e-3] Figure 53 /tructure of the input cell3 every ro\$ specifies a CIC or FI78II7 In input cell, decimation ratio and filter coefficients (or parameters of the CIC filter for every stage of cascade are entered, as sho\$n in Figure 5# The total num'er of stages is ar'itrary# 6ote that filter4spec automatically recognises CIC and FI78II7 filter3 if there are only single num'ers on 'oth positions bn and an, the ro\$ is interpreted as specification of CIC filter (decimation ratio, num'er of stages and differential delay of CIC filter # Corresponding fre%uency response is computed 'y

prepared function cic4fce# In case of vectors of num'ers on positions bn and8or an, the ro\$ is interpreted as a specification of FI7 or II7 filter and fre%uency response is computed using 9.T,.0 fre%z function# 7o\$s of the output array comprise fre%uency responses of individual filters and total fre%uency response of filter cascade in d0 (in the last ro\$ : similarly as sho\$n in Figure +#

Figure <3 Particular and resulting ('old fre%uency responses & detail of pass'and ;ne can easy o'serve re-ection of fre%uency components that \$ill 'e folded into the lo\$& fre%uency part of spectrum during the decimation or details of pass'and range as it can 'e seen in Figure <#

+" Concl&sion
Presented function filter4casc allo\$s easy analysis of cascaded filters \$ith decimation# Together \$ith the cic4fce function, it is also possi'le to analyze structures containing CIC filters#

Ac,no-le gement
This \$or( has 'een supported 'y the research program 9/9=><?@@??!+ Transdisciplinary 7esearch in 0iomedical Engineering, and grants A.B7!?+8?>8C??> .nalysis and 9odelling 0iomedical and /peech /ignals and /A/!?8+@58;CD585T8!5 .nalysis of /ignals Induced 'y 9echanical .ctivity of the Ceart#

References
)!* Eugene 0# Cogenauer, An Economical Class of Digital Filters for Decimation and Interpolation, IEEE,Transactions on .coustics, /peech, and /ignal Processing, Eol# .//P&+F, 6o# +, !F>!# )+* CIC Compiler v1.2 !roduct "pecification, Gilin", +??>, )online*, Hhttp388\$\$\$#"ilin"#com8support8documentation8ip4documentation8cic4compiler4ds=!5#pdfI Daniel JpulK( Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Circuit Theory, spuladanLfel#cvut#cz, daniel#spula(Lgmail#com