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D. pulk Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Circuit Theory Digital filters create essential part of most igital signal processing s!stems" In man! applications# casca e of ecimation filters appears" We present s!stem for anal!sis of casca e ecimating filters in MATLA$"

%" Intro &ction

In many applications (such as digital radio receivers , cascade of decimation filters appears (see Figure ! for an e"ample # To reduce hard$are re%uirements, filter $ith only fe$ coefficients or a cascaded integrator&com' (CIC filter is used on the top position, $or(ing on the highest sampling fre%uency ()!*, )+* # ,o$er sampling fre%uency achieved 'y decimation allo$s utilising of more comple" filters on lo$er positions of cascade, resulting in re%uired total fre%uency characteristic#


dec. ratio 4

fs /4

dec. ratio 2 16 coefficients

fs /8

dec. ratio 2 51 coefficients

Figure !3 E"ample of cascaded decimating filters

'" Decimation# aliasing an fre(&enc! c)aracteristics

During decimation, lo$&fre%uency part of spectrum is mi"ed $ith other parts of spectrum# If there is insufficient re-ection of high&fre%uency signal components, useful signal in lo$&fre%uency range gets destroyed# .nother pro'lem may occur in the pass'and range# /ince the lo$&fre%uency signal has to pass through all filters, their pass'and ranges must have insignificant re-ections, not to $ea(en the useful signal# To analyse features of the cascade, first, fre%uency responses of several filters are computed and evaluated in d0# Then, particular fre%uency responses are mirrored and e"tended to desired range# 1hile the first filter2s characteristics stays intact, fre%uency response of the second filter is repeated according to the decimation ratio of the first one, thus 'eing pro-ected into the original fre%uency range# /imilarly, fre%uency responses of ne"t stages are repeated according to resulting decimation ratio of all preceding stages, as seen in Figure +# Total fre%uency response is computed 'y simple addition of particular characteristics#

Figure +3 E"tended fre%uency responses of filters from Figure !

*" Anal!sis in MATLA$

Computing gets started 'y calling filter4casc function# /ynta" is as follo$s3 freq_resp = filter_casc(filter_spec) or freq_resp = filter_casc(filter_spec, pts) , $here filter4spec is a cell containing specification of filters (see Figure 5 , pts is desired size of elemental fre%uency response of the last filter (optionally and fre%4resp is output array containing fre%uency responses# dec. ratio 4 Nr. of stages 5 diff. delay 1


b1 b2 bn

a1 a2 an


R2 Rn

dec. ratio 2

numerator coeffs.

denominator coeffs. 1

[ -1.293e-3 -2.225e-3 ... 9.449e-3 -2.225e-3 -1.293e-3] Figure 53 /tructure of the input cell3 every ro$ specifies a CIC or FI78II7 In input cell, decimation ratio and filter coefficients (or parameters of the CIC filter for every stage of cascade are entered, as sho$n in Figure 5# The total num'er of stages is ar'itrary# 6ote that filter4spec automatically recognises CIC and FI78II7 filter3 if there are only single num'ers on 'oth positions bn and an, the ro$ is interpreted as specification of CIC filter (decimation ratio, num'er of stages and differential delay of CIC filter # Corresponding fre%uency response is computed 'y

prepared function cic4fce# In case of vectors of num'ers on positions bn and8or an, the ro$ is interpreted as a specification of FI7 or II7 filter and fre%uency response is computed using 9.T,.0 fre%z function# 7o$s of the output array comprise fre%uency responses of individual filters and total fre%uency response of filter cascade in d0 (in the last ro$ : similarly as sho$n in Figure +#

Figure <3 Particular and resulting ('old fre%uency responses & detail of pass'and ;ne can easy o'serve re-ection of fre%uency components that $ill 'e folded into the lo$& fre%uency part of spectrum during the decimation or details of pass'and range as it can 'e seen in Figure <#

+" Concl&sion
Presented function filter4casc allo$s easy analysis of cascaded filters $ith decimation# Together $ith the cic4fce function, it is also possi'le to analyze structures containing CIC filters#

Ac,no-le gement
This $or( has 'een supported 'y the research program 9/9=><?@@??!+ Transdisciplinary 7esearch in 0iomedical Engineering, and grants A.B7!?+8?>8C??> .nalysis and 9odelling 0iomedical and /peech /ignals and /A/!?8+@58;CD585T8!5 .nalysis of /ignals Induced 'y 9echanical .ctivity of the Ceart#

)!* Eugene 0# Cogenauer, An Economical Class of Digital Filters for Decimation and Interpolation, IEEE,Transactions on .coustics, /peech, and /ignal Processing, Eol# .//P&+F, 6o# +, !F>!# )+* CIC Compiler v1.2 !roduct "pecification, Gilin", +??>, )online*, Hhttp388$$$#"ilin"#com8support8documentation8ip4documentation8cic4compiler4ds=!5#pdfI Daniel JpulK( Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Circuit Theory, spuladanLfel#cvut#cz, daniel#spula(Lgmail#com