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One of the major challenges for next-generation IP networks is to provide new, attractive multimedia services. This includes traditional telephony (voice over IP) and the interworking with legacy telephony systems. In addition to the general problems regarding the support of realtime services in the IP network, e.g., quality of service, voice over IP focuses on the control of advanced features such as supplementary services well known from telephony and on the mechanisms for their fast and efficient development and deployment. The two most promising approaches in the area of multimedia over IP are the protocol suites H.323 (ITU-T) and SIP (IETF). Several comparisons of these two protocols have already been published, but comparisons of their service architectures have been rarely addressed. This tutorial describes and compares the service architectures of H.323 and SIP. The basic protocol architectures are explained, followed by an in depth evaluation of the service implementation mechanisms. The analyses focus mainly on the control of telephony supplementary services in H.323 and SIP and are backed up by detailed examples. Although the two protocol architectures are quite similar, it is shown that there are considerable differences regarding their supplementary service architectures. H.323 (together with H.450) has been especially focused on supplementary services, smooth interworking with the PSTN, and interoperability between different implementations. In this respect, it has clear advantages for IP telephony applications. SIP has been designed with a broader scope, providing more generic syntax and semantics regarding feature definition and session description. Since the SIP standards do not describe details of possible application and service features, this bears the danger of interoperability problems, e.g, for supplementary services. SIP offers advantages for non voice over IP services and applications. A coexistence of both protocols can be foreseen, stressing the importance of interworking between them.


ast and efficient development and deployment of new services are important drivers for advanced multimedia business. In the Internet world, ITU-T (H.323) and IETF (SIP) standards are important for advanced telephony services. Although using terms such as “voice over IP” (VoIP) these architectures provide far more services than just setting up voice calls. The expectations and requirements for these architectures are that they will provide those services that are well known from traditional telephony and that they will offer mechanisms to support the implementation and integration of new features. The comparison of the two standards in this article focuses on their service implementation concept and, in particular, on supplementary services. Some studies have already been published comparing H.323 and SIP, for example, [1]. They mostly refer to the Basic Call architectures and focus on issues such as complexi-

ty and scalability. In [2] the focus is on service aspects and investigates the usage of the two standards for an overall service architecture according to criteria derived from the Telecommunications Information Networking Architecture (TINA). Until now, concrete service implementation issues have not been explained and discussed in detail. In this tutorial H.323 and SIP are compared according to the following criteria: standardization philosophy, standardization status, supported services, supplementary service architecture, proprietary extension and negotiation mechanisms, interoperability of services and features, interworking with Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN), and service creation issues. Basic call control features such as call setup and session modification are distinguished from supplementary services. Here, supplementary services are referred to as user-perceived features that enhance the call with specific


IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003

Among other enhancements.. is a session-layer transaction protocol that provides advanced Admission and Status (RAS) protocol finally had to be signaling and control functionality for a large range of multidesigned from scratch. those A comparison highlights the significant differences that exist. Others.12x Application and system control AV I/O equipment IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 33 .323 are normally tightly coupled Q. To provide scalability. WP2 and WP4 are two approaches.323 BASIC PROTOCOL different MM systems.323. Quality of service issues.450.450 series recommendations in order to support supplementary services functionality that is only to be used with a Basic Call feature over IP networks. ATM. H. For analysis of the standards it is involved in handling the protocol messages. the fourth version of the H. referred to as a “standard for real-time videoconferSeveral other Questions in WP2 are working out how specifencing over non-guaranteed quality of service LANs. QoS. 1 such as Call Hold or Call Forwarding.225. H.225. In December 1996.0) in H.225. The H.450.323 v.323 basic standard has solved for the MM systems. media service architectures for different types of networks The remainder of this tutorial is structured as follows. in May 1995. multipoint control inition of new ones. mobility. The Registration.245 [5].125 H.” In the ic cross-sectional topics (e. a summary of the results as a common basis for the different MM systems (e. H. A rapid standardization process and SIP BASIC PROTOCOL straightforward interworking with the PSTN have been the main goals from the very beginning.26x control.324) and tries to identify synergies between them. Study Group 16 passed the including PSTN and supplementary services interworking.functions and call signaling functions.450. units) that provide multimedia communication over packetbased networks. Conferences (H.4 is depicted in Fig.0) (H.323 v.323 protocol suite.323.221 [7] and H.323. concluded by a place in Study Group 16. the work in the ITU-T regardthe next section we present a brief overview of the protocols’ ing these multimedia (MM) services and systems is taking architecture and their standardization status. Table 1 shows the list of currently standardized network services such as conferencing and addressing.242 [8]. Supplementary service support is components (light tan) as well as mandatory components essential for the interworking with the PSTN.7xx H.320.4 contains optional from traditional telephony. Currently.g.450. it also means implemenand new supplementary services are being added in an ongotation and interoperability issues. In the context of H.0-CC for all supplementary services [10]. admission G.x Data T.1 RTCP Receive path RAS H.245 T. 3/16) deal with interoperability topics. In (ISDN. later versions of H.4 defines the Basic Call control media communications. H. The most imporimportant to understand that extensibility does not only mean tant supplementary services have been standardized already being open to all kinds of extensions. ing process. SIP protocol suite H. IP). which are well known in the area shaded light green.g. Following that.225. Table 2 gives an overview of the most vice implementation in H. It also teristics of all types of user perceived applications including defines the control procedures for the terminal equipment supplementary services. and address resolution. The comparative statements are further illustrated by means Question B/16 in WP4 defines an architectural framework of concrete service examples. Some existing protocols The IETF Multiparty Multimedia Session Control Working could be reused directly (Real Time Protocol (RTP) and Real Group (MMUSIC WG) develops protocols to support InterTime Control Protocol (RTCP))..332 [9]. gateways.323 and SIP are explained in detail. Question C/16 identifies and describes multimedia serTHE BASIC PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURES vices and applications on top of the MM systems.225. H.323 v. security) are meantime. and open T.323. One [4] and H.1 defines a generic functional protocol on ture’ is used in this tutorial as a more general term for charactop of H.323 enable enhanced services on top of H.450. capability exchange.3 H. RAS signaling functions are required for endpoint registration. ITU-T Study Group 16 evolved the H. have been derived from the ITU-T H.323 v. Callsignaling functions include connection GK setup. which is organized into four Workdiscussion of the general similarities and differences of the ing Parties (WP). directly related to H. H. WP2 deals more specifically with the architectures and protocols of the H. are out of the scope of this tutorial.225. Support for audio is mandatory. while data and video are optional.0) to-point connection via a multipoint controller which performs conference and floor control. Finally. This recommendation describes terminals and use of existing protocols and methods as well as the defand other entities (gatekeepers. the principle methods for serthe most relevant. This comprises the integration been released [3].323 H.323 are dealt with in Question 2/16.1.323 umbrella standard and the core protocols of H. the ■ FIGURE 1. TCP UDP an extension for loosely coupled conferences without a central controller has IP been defined in H.0) delay (H.320 [6] main component is the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). factors relating to the complexity and performance of the two In recent years the ITU-T has standardized several multiprotocols. and supplementary services. It was specified by the MMUSIC WG and signaling for setting up multipoint multimedia conferas a proposed standard in 1999 (IETF RFC 2543) and was ences. H. important Questions within these two Working Parties. The scope of H.124 logical channel procedures.0-CC net teleconferencing and multimedia communications.2 H. Two The ITU-T started work on defining VoIP signaling protocols Questions (D/16. concludes this tutorial. The H. such as H. The Basic Call procedure comprises RAS signaling updated by the SIP WG in 2002 (IETF RFC 3261 [11]). The term ‘fea(dark tan). H.931 and can be established out of a pointRTP (H.

450. to show the current state of standardization. The servers or redirect servers that can be traversed by the mesSIP WG finally decides and includes extensions in SIP or sages. 34 IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 . Since the message body is transparlowing Working Groups have been founded: SIP for Instant ent to SIP any session description can be transferred. This will be discussed later.8 Name identification for H.450. The RFCs are included service sessions.450. Therefore.. SDP is.450. There are H. However. for address resoluissues separate RFCs [20]. session update (RFC 3311 [17]). So far.. the description of the media streams that party task. List of currently standardized features in H. multicast conferences.323 Conference type of connection [16]). for example..323 Single-step transfer regarding SIP applications. The folthe SIP message body. and can be used for support. but can include ITS). Here.450. sions. e. There are several application fields of SIP. including a Web link. between the SIP peer entities (SIP user agent in a user termiwhich has produced the current version of the SIP standard nal). In order for H.12 Common information for H. routing. In this way. Beneath call control there are other application fields for text-based media-description format that can be carried in SIP that are handled by separate Working Groups. in fact. several RFCs and a large number of Internet-Drafts complete or enhance the architecture H. Call forwarding on busy In this way. to which a user can be invited.2 Call transfer for H. SIPPING acts as a filtering establishes. PSTN to Internet Integration (PINT). event notification (RFC 3265 H.11 Call intrusion for H. H.1 Supplementary service Generic functions for supplementary services in H.7 Message waiting indication Unified messaging system for call control are one application field. or resource manageSilent monitoring ment (RFC 3312 [19]). advanced conference control as floor are exchanged between the parties of a multimedia session control or the support of roles is not in the scope of SIP.450.10 Call offering for H. tion. H.323 which is done by the SIP WG.323 vices a call control framework was drafted in July 2001 [15]. feature programming. The baseline RFC and other RFCs and the Internet-Drafts are under H. and negotiation of session parameters. a number of recently issued RFCs extend the baseline SIP H. Work unless stated otherwise.450.323 Message waiting call back to support a broad range of supplementary serH.323 some standardized SIP applications such as the use of SIP in support of deaf. The SIP SIP extensions for the management of distributed multipoint protocol contains the parties’ addresses and protocol proconferences have been drafted within the SIPPING multicessing features. not a protocol. It is fundamental to the SIP architecture that the For example. The development of SIP extensions to H. IETF RFC are described later. but a structured. depending on IPTEL WG.4 Call hold for H. Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions (SIMPLE).g. SIP provides a small number of The MMUSIC WG is dealing with the revision of SDP and text-based messages to be exchanged in separate transactions has transferred the responsibility for SIP to the SIP WG. SIP sessions are not restricted to Service in the PSTN/IN Requesting InTernet Service (SPIRtelephony calls or conference capabilities. the IETF SIP IP-telephony standardCall forwarding on no reply ization is still a “work in progress” and has not Call deflection yet reached a final state. are defined by another protocol.6 Call waiting in H.g.450 and speech impaired individuals (RFC 3351). function in front of the SIP WG. All types of possible SIP applications and usage ed by one signaling transaction using the INVITE request scenarios are investigated in the Session Initiation Proposal message.323 Call completion on busy support multiple applications forms the second Call completion on no reply level of SIP standardization.323 Call forwarding unconditional preference management. 2327.3 Call diversion for H. hard of hearing. The base level deals with the maintenance of the baseline SIP protocol. the Basic Call control functionality is provid(RFC 3261). Network entities such as proxy ments for any extension to SIP determined to be needed.450. e. Some The session itself is described at two levels. proposes several possibilities for the the session description.323 Subfunctions In addition to baseline SIP according to RFC 3261. whereas SIP is independent from the session it Investigation (SIPPING) WG. explicit call release. Supplementary services H. which summarizes the IETF Working Groups and their role in the main functions are: location of resources/parties.450. [12]).323 RFC 3261. and IPTEL.g. SDP also allows the scheduling of programming of services either for administrators or for the session start and stop times or to describe recurring sesusers themselves [21]. The information retrieval or broadcast sessions. supplementary serTransfer with consultation vices.450. there are no RFCs defining supplementary services for SIP. 14]) one can note that H.9 Call completion for H. conference. conferences in SIP are normally lightweight signaling path is independent from the data path.450. The third level will be Forced release concrete features or supplementary services such wait on Busy as Call Transfer. and interworking issues. invitation to ongoing SIP standardization process.5 Call park and call pickup in Directed park and pickup WGs in particular ([13. the IETF sugOther extensions discussed to set up a call control framework gests the Session Description Protocol (SDP.Standard H. This approach is illustrated in Table 3.323 Group park and pickup the current approach for SIP standardization Pickup of alerting call comprises three levels. ■ Table 1. This tutorial refers to SDP in the context of SIP Figure 2 depicts the overall IETF SIP protocol suite. It describes the requiree. provisional Held type of connection responses (RFC 3262 [18]). Remote end hold Upon observation of the drafts and at the H.450. To fulfill this functionality. Other transactions complement the Basic Call.323 Near end hold continuous refinement by several WGs.

supplementary services.updates to connection control signaling (H.323 and SIP standardization. mobility. use of enhanced audio and H. support common protocols and architecture elements tural framework (e.245.248. definition of a security framework.. In SIP as well as in H. Improvements and enhancements of audiovisual communication systems over H. PSTN).323 and SIP will further converge in the near future. mechanism of synchronization Internet-Supported between audiovisual and other service presentations. contributions to standards in other questions 5/16 B/16 Multimedia Architecture Multimedia Applications and Services Common architectural framework for multimedia projects. Quality of Service QoS needs of MM systems. The most important H.QoS signaling methods. state machines. distribution services.g. Services Mobility for Further develop mobility for H. H. H.332 H. and the independence of SIP session signaling from audio/video media processing is shown.323 systems. Now that there exist sufficient solutions in those areas.323 combined using H. consider protocol support for Multimedia Systems MM mobility for both users. mobile. emergency multimedia services.501. consistency among Multimedia architecdifferent MM systems.341 2/16 3/16 4/16 Video and Data Architecture and protocols to integrate video and data conferencing functions None so far Conferencing using with Internet-supported service functions. and Services Working Party 4/16: Multimedia Framework H.g. and QoS. Basic Call and feature control are performed mainly in the terminals. and B-ISDN networks.323 MIB. Technically. the SIP specification does not include issues such as QoS or mobility.323 gateways and interworking.Question Title Focus tasks Working Party 2/16: Multimedia Platform and Interworking Standards (examples) D/16 Interoperability of Interoperability of services (e. Every protocol standardized by the IETF should be independent of a specific application. This includes specific solutions for cross-sectional factors such as QoS. where systems and applications are formed by combining generic modules. SIP took another route. including supplementary services and interworking with legacy networks (e. Tables 4 and 5 show the components and protocols of the two approaches. and mobility. Multimedia Systems Security of Threat analysis of MM systems and services.120 Conferencing video coding Multimedia over Ongoing work in basic H. Features requiring network support. H. Infrastructure and H.g. follows a more bottom-up approach. Terminals and Data fixed.235 G/16 1/16 Multimedia Systems. common API to different (QoS) and End-to. terminal and service mobility. Currently. and Services H. SIP and H... e-commerce services or applications. QoS signaling methods. SIP tends to put more focus on topics for specific applications. H.323 and SIP in the past and at present. it can be assumed that H. ket Network Systems H. management of H.320. H. H.323. multipoint aspects.323-related activiteis in the ITU-T SG16.323 is IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 35 .321.246 F/16 Contributions to standards in other questions H.323 Systems with network control of terminating call services.323 standards are more specified in the sense that they describe a complete framework and detailed protocols. aspects of end-to-end performance as perceived by End Performance in the user. provide service descriptions (service F-Series examples: retrieval services. according to the IETF philosophy.323 are based on similar concepts. data sharing.324. When looking at the standardization of supplementary services. Multimedia over Pac. H. There are also differences in the focus of H. In the beginning. on the other hand. SS7/IN interworking. messaging services. proxy server. Identify MM services and applications. H. Therefore. supplementary services). stimulus-based call signaling in H. T.246 Annexes. and interworking (e.323 was concen- trating on basic multimedia functionality. SIP. Packet Networks interactions with SIS/IN. Interoperability for gateway decomposition. telemedicine applications) C/16 ■ Table 2. COMPARING THE BASIC ARCHITECTURES It is quite important to understand the different basic philosophies in H. The H. security. The ITU-T follows a top-down approach. PSTN interworking. collection services. H.510.323 and H. notable differences can be seen. …). H. and message flows for multimedia communication.323. MCUs. measures to enhance interoperability of different implementations. one can observe a shift in focus to solution topics such as security.225. Multimedia Systems contribution to MM architecture to incorporate security . interoperability of Multimedia Systems multimedia systems with each other and with the legacy telecommunications and Services network.. in progress extensions are included. starting with the definition of a generic protocol to set up service sessions. PSTN).323 and SIP comprise many analogies with respect to function split and service location. H.310. H.245).450.324. H. H. are provided in the networks. such as servers (gatekeeper resp.323 protocols.245). currently focused on mobility.g. When looking at the current activities in the ITU and IETF.

standardizing supplementary services. The substantial difference between the two protocols lies in their targeted range of applications. On the other hand.323. Investigate application areas: • Telephony (PSTN. This means H.323 provides a more precise and detailed specification of voice and multimedia functionality.323. SIP) and other relevant standards bodies (ITU-T SG11).323. the range of applications for H.g. Responding to general-purpose requirements for changes to SIP provided by other WGs (SIPPING. Baseline SDP evolution SIP (RFC 2543) — obsolete SDP (RFC 2327) SAP (RFC 2974) RTSP (RFC 2326) SDP for ATM (RFC 3108) SIP (RFC 3261) INFO method (RFC 2976) PRACK (RFC 3262) Locating SIP servers (RFC 3263) Event notification (RFC 3265) Reason (RFC 3326) UPDATE (RFC 3311) Res. MEGACO. comprising only a well defined subset of the full H. The main focus of this tutorial is on describing and comparing the service architectures of H. 3G) • Messaging • Multi-party • Media servers IPTEL IPTEL is on problems related to propagation of routing information for VoIP protocols.323 becomes more lightweight. “click-to-dial. Baseline SIP and extensions SIPPING Documenting the usage of SIP to solve real problems that need to be solved in a standardized manner. SIMPLE. However. CPL-Framework. Call processing and routing Instant messaging CPL (RFC 2824) GW-location (RFC 2871) TRIP (RFC 3219) No RFC SIMPLE SPIRITS PSTN/IN and IP interworking SPIRITS-Architecture (RFC 3136) Pre-SPIRITS (RFC 2995) Protocol req. The focus lies on the application of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP. Concerns architecture and protocols for secure transport of IN trigger information from PSTN/IN to the IP network. the capability exchange. it can be expected that SIP will take a similar direction as H. SIP-related activities in the IETF. e. 36 IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 . MMUSIC. IPTEL). Looking for commonalities among tasks. Describing the requirements for any extension determined to be needed and handling them to SIP WG (“filter function”). SIP has been designed as a general transaction protocol for setup and tear down of generic sessions.323 functionality. H.Working Group MMUSIC Description Focus tasks Standards (RFCs) • Revision of SDP (SDPng) • Maintenance and revision of RTSP Revision is based on implementation experience and additional demands from other WGs (SIP. SIPPING.g. whereas SIP is standardizing protocol transactions as extensions to baseline SIP that could be used for supplementary services. AVT). on the other hand. A couple of simple endpoint types (SETs). But even the SETs are more complex as compared to SIP user agents. 3GPP2. The fast connect procedure is similar to the lightweight SIP session setup and combines the opening of a call control channel. This is backed up by explicit service examples.” Specification of a service support transfer protocol between Internet and PSTN. IPTEL. AAA. respectively.323 and SIP. have already been specified.. The following sections provide a deeper look into the service implementation process and compare the two approaches. has been designed as a control protocol suite with the focus on multimedia applications. including telephony. Collaborate with other WGs (IPTEL. Both define a general framework for call control features or are working toward it. a core SIP user agent can be very thin (e. as is SIP. IP-initiated PSTN/IN calls Pre-PINT (RFC 2458) PINT-ext. Voice and multimedia are only possible example applications of SIP. When not supporting voice or multimedia. This makes it difficult to compare SIP with H. Mgmt (RFC 3312) MIME-Types (RFC 3204) Hearing impaired (RFC 3351) SIP-T requirements (RFC 3372) SIP-ISUP (RFC 3398) SIP Specification and maintenance of the basic model and architecture defined by SIP and its extensions (“chartered to be the owner of SIP”). Close cooperation with WGs (SIP. SPIRITS. TRIP). and the open logical channel procedure in one single signaling transaction. SIMPLE.323 is not as wide as for SIP. PINT. Naturally. RFC 2543) to the suite of services collectively known as instant messaging and presence (IMP). When looking at the H.-to-SIP (RFC 2848) PINT-MIB (RFC 3055) ■ Table 3. (Gateway Location Protocol. and optional responses from the IP network back to the PSTN/IN. (RFC 3298) PINT Addresses connection arrangements through which Internet (concluded) applications can request and enrich PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) telephony services.. the ITU-T has additionally introduced the optional fast connect procedure and signaling via UDP.323 call setup procedure. only containing the SIP protocol and a generic session description). PINT. DCS. The framework defines a standardization process and rules for the implementation of new features. H. MMUSIC) and 3GPP. because the scope is more restricted as compared to SIP. with a focus on supplementary services.

The third class of features is the set of supplementary services (H. local address book.450 supplementary service archiSIP-extensions SIP tecture uses a decentralized funcheaders tion split as far as possible. clients.323 Annex K).450 Examples of local features are: repeat a call. Gateway: maintains transition to traditional telephony. H. messaging server.12 — SIP-INVITE transaction Signaling procedure variants SIP (IETF) RTP/RTCP H.323 SERVICE ARCHITECTURE describes a model where parts of the H. SIP and H.323 are described. NOTIFY.323 can described in the next subsection.450 Design Philosophy — The H. proxy (acts on behalf of unavailable endpoints).450). for example.450 also H. which is a special form IP of an H. ■ Table 5.g. Call Completion.1 Supplem.450 functionality can be carried out in H.450). standardized networking protocol for PBX interconnection) and public networks (ISDN). H. Message body: e.245 Basic call Fast connect setup *Not explicitly standardized as a supplementary service. The second class of features are those Client Servers in the network that require centralized control.1). call admission. be collocated with the vice control currently existing in H.323 — Features in H. IETF SIP protocol suite. automatic call distribution (ACD) server. vate (QSIG. and so on. privacy functions such as do not disturb and mute. H.323 components.g. Furthermore.. These are ■ Table 4. PINT initial ISDN phone call Call transfer Call hold Data services e. For those features that require centralized control.450.0. call history and framework are: feature identification (H.Instant message and presence Other services e. which is a precondition for multi-vendor Local features can be implemented in the endpoints withinteroperability and smooth deployment of new features. H. call park and pickup). services Transfer* Call hold H. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 37 .450 was to simplify feature interworking with switched pri(H.2 centralized fashion in the gatekeeper (GK) or as a backend service behind the GK. H. differing feature sets.450 signaling without involving centralized network conTCP UDP trol. Protocols running on the terminal.450.. address resolution. and so on. features that require special signaling Real-time data transmission Call control Framework SIP (SDP) Call control framework* H. INFO SUBSCRIBE.450 has been designed to be a highly extensible protocol as Classification of Features in H. UPDATE H. a feature server is used. In this section the three main models for supplementary serThe H. using RTSP Application and system control AV I/O equipment Audio Video between the corresponding entities. networkmechanisms to ensure interoperability between endpoints with based features.323 (ITU-T) RTP/RTCP H.323/H. They gatekeeper (GK).323 (ITU-T) Terminal Gatekeeper MCU Gateway Examples are authorization.323 Annex L). and application-layer feature control H. e. speed dialing. MCUs. are: distributed feature control (H. SIP-T name/number suppression. 1 Not standardized up to now. stimulus feature conOne of the most important requirements for the design of trol (H. These network-based features are implemented in a SIP (IETF) Terminal Proxy server.450 proxy can. PINT ly using H.450. This also includes several be categorized into three classes: local features.450 endpoint. Examples where a feature server is required are: user not available ■ FIGURE 2.1 Feature Control Extensions REFER. registrar Conference server1 Gateway1.2–H. Examples of supplementary services are Call Forwarding. MCU: Multipoint control unit. basic interoperability mechanisms provided by the H.450 proxies on behalf of the endpoints.450. GWs) communicate directRTP SDP.g. call detail recording.450. Besides a fully distributed feature control.g.225.450 Distributed Feature Control Using H. and Call Hold. Thus Methods the peer entities (servers. The out requiring specific signaling to other network entities. and supplementary services. declaration of call lists. or group-server for THE SERVICE ARCHITECTURES group features (e. 2 Addressed in several drafts.g. Call Transfer.

It can be built up by combining Basic Call.323 Annex L — Stimulus feature control is the opposite approach as compared to the decentralized H.450 building blocks may be remote controlled. which yields Basic Call interoperability with fully functional H.225.g. Building Feature Combinations for 1st Party Applications — One of the basic ideas of the H.0) for controlling the Basic Call.450 APDUs..450 — H. a feature look-ahead mechanism (H. Among other information. a common protocol that may be used is Computer Supported Telephony Applications (CSTA). When creating a new feature. For centralized feature control. and architectural provisions to separate feature states from call states. This even allows concepts for dynamic introduction of new features into running systems (“feature pluggability”).450 features is to define them in such a way that they can be used together with the Basic Call as building blocks.225. detect when a user is available. Some examples of such combined features are: • Consultation transfer = Call Hold + Basic Call + Single Step Call Transfer.450.g. This provides a good basis for dealing with interoperability at design time and at runtime. An example of a 3rd party application is automatic call distribution (ACD). a huge set of features can be created by using only a small set of carefully designed building blocks. H.450.12 can be used to exchange the endpoints’ feature capabilities.450 architecture in the endpoints. As shown in Fig.450. having only a single-state machine including the supplementary services can grow very complex if many features are added.450 architecture.323/H.450 APDUs contain remote operations service (ROS) operations that define the semantics of the supplementary services.2 H. where they trigger the respective actions and state changes. H.323/H.450 enables a separation between Basic Call and the supplementary services.x standards specify these state machines using ITU’s Specification and Description Language (SDL) diagrams. JTAPI).0 messages are routed to the Basic Call entity. thus making possible the creation of 3rd party call control applications.323 Annex L still use functional signaling (H.323.1). Each supplementary service entity has its own state machine that defines the semantics of the supplementary service.. • Messaging = Basic Call + Call Transfer to Announcement Server + DTMF Control (Basic Call).450.450. A centralized feature server in the network is used to control the features in the endpoints.225. The H. There is little intelligence in the endpoints. • Attendant console = Basic Call (multiple line) + Call Hold + Call Transfer.225. As with the other H.. Note that the CTI interface and protocol is an add on and is not specified in H. Applications and further features are built by using telephony APIs on the local machine (e.0 Network ■ FIGURE 3. H. The functionality provided via the CTI interface may also include functions such as monitoring endpoints (e. This modular architecture is based on an object-oriented approach and provides scalability with respect to features as it enables easy addition of new supplementary services. The H. Thus. Using this extension mechanism. TAPI.450 application protocol data units (APDUs) that may be contained in any H.450.450. The generic services are carried out and the ROS operations are passed on to the respective supplementary service entity. …). the feature logic and the seman- 38 IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 .450 architecture and its extension mechanisms.450 APDUs can be extended by manufacturer-specific information (NonStandardData).323 Annex L. and CTI-initiated Call Transfer to an agent. Call Transfer to a music/video server. H.” [22]). Extension of H. This approach is defined in H. H.450 functionality in a remote endpoint.1. H.450 APDUs are exchanged between supplementary service entities and do not influence the underlying H.450. It contains basic procedures to control user interface functions such as key presses.12 (“Common Information.323/H. The standard H.450 APDUs that are not supported.g. the new state machine is defined without the need to change the state machines of the Basic Call and of other supplementary services. The supplementary service state machine is only invoked when a supplementary service is requested. Another standard that facilitates interoperability between heterogeneous endpoints is the emerging Recommendation H.450.450. This subsection gives an overview of the H. and feature indicators (e. H. This can either be additional information elements or even new operations. default behavior for features that are not supported (H. The CTI interface is accessible via an API.450 endpoints.n H. In contrast. the architecture of H.450 also provides several mechanisms that allow easy extension of this feature set. new supplementary services can easily be defined. display messages.H.450. This enables interoperability between endpoints with differing feature sets and a stepwise deployment of new supplementary services without having to support them in all endpoints at the same time.323 protocol components.1 notation. H.450 information is passed on to H.1 "generic functions" Basic call H.0-CC message.0 call state. The GF is also the place where simultaneously activated features can be coordinated or even blocked in case of feature interactions.323/H. Further.1 (“Generic Functions” (GF) [10]) provides generic services for feature control that are common for all standardized and manufacturer-specific supplementary services.323/H. a so called feature key management protocol is defined. H. more complex features and services can be built. By combining the atomic feature blocks. H.450. LEDs). This can be used to react in advance on these capabilities.450 supplementary service information is sent in H. the H. 3. Stimulus Feature Control using H.1 provides call-related and call-independent transport of H.1 defines in a generic way how to proceed with H.225. monitoring an ACD agent using the CTI interface. One application for this is to not present to the user the opportunity to make a transfer if the other endpoint does not support it. Endpoints conforming to H. Building Feature Combinations for 3rd Party Applications — By introducing a CTI interface (computer telephony integration) that connects to the H.450 APDUs are specified and coded using ASN.12).

450. scripts. This might be an indication that SIP tends to evolve in the direction of H. At the time this article was written. The transactions are independent from each other and independent from the semantic of the session they are controlling.g. The service logic is described in HTML pages. Application-Layer Feature Control using H.323 call control plane. SIP SERVICE ARCHITECTURE Distributed Feature Control in SIP — Similar to H. 4).g. is known by the peer server. e. the authors want to make sure that supplementary services are modularly defined and are separated from each other.323/ H. The semantics are implementationdependent. The SIP design process concentrates on the SIP protocol rather than on specific supplementary services and their interworking. features can be controlled from any device running a conventional Web browser (including. there are no standardized semantics for the features. or new response codes. Feature Negotiation — SIP provides a well-defined specification for feature negotiation. Service control sessions can be maintained between endpoints or between endpoints and the network (e. non state-changing information (INFO). headers could be referenced by their reverse name of location (e.. PDAs). SIP provides the Require header that could be used by a SIP client to make sure in advance that a desired behavior.323. the Call Transfer supplementary service [24] has been drafted. Headers are referenced by their name.323 Annex K defines an optional way to control general services or applications beyond supplementary services in H. There is no explicit signaling of supplementary services in SIP as it is in H. which means extensions should be carefully selected so that they serve multiple application purposes and features. SIP transactions rely on network-layer services (e. An error indicating the nature of the problem is returned if the behavior is not supported.. Methods are SIP request messages such as INVITE that define a SIP transaction. sessionID. which has to be registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) to guarantee correct functionality. Table 6 gives an overview of several selected RFCs and current working documents for the standardization of SIP supplementary services. events (SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY). The messages may traverse different networks or autonomous systems than the user data. As SIP relies on intelligent terminals. i. diversion (JOIN/FORK).. As an alternative. URL for service control. Features can make use of baseline SIP mechanisms or require protocol extensions.323/H. This mechanism allows for call-related and call-independent service control. SIP Protocol Design Philosophy and Standardization Process — As previously mentioned.g. A service control session can be established after exchanging the relevant information (e. As an example. Currently.. session keep-alive timer. A key requirement for the evolution of the SIP protocol is modularity to achieve flexibility regarding all types of features. Applications that want to use the feature functionality for 1st party call control need a functional interface (API). The standardization of these extensions is still in progress..” Supplementary Services by Baseline SIP Mechanisms — Referring to the proposed standard (RFC 3261) there are no explicitly standardized supplementary services in SIP. as described below. …) in RAS or H. which cannot easily be provided using the stimulus approach. The server’s answer on a request message is similar to the HTTP protocol coded in a three-digit response code. including supplementary services. or uploading call processing scripts from a client to the GK. Thus.. Some of these supplementary services can be realized by the baseline SIP protocol functionalities. Definition of SIP Extensions — For other features.g. i. Protocol extensions describe new SIP methods. including supplementary services. and call monitoring [15].323: local features. messaging (MESSAGE).323 Annex K — H.e. A further downside of stimulus feature control is the scalability problem due to feature processing in centralized network components. an extension involving one or more new SIP headers. a draft proposes a special framework for call control extensions regarding supplementary services such as Call Transfer. Example applications may include transferring XML pages. It allows the development and deployment of new services without updating the H. Here. that are transferred via the HTTP protocol. by SIP requests and the transported session description. e. The standardization process itself follows the IETF approach to agree on a rough consensus and to proove results by running code prototypes. The HTTP protocol is used in the service control channel to actually offer. the endpoints do not have to be changed. including supplementary services.. A concrete example scenario is explained later. On the other hand. SIP must remain a generic transaction protocol defining different protocol messages for different high-level behaviors. Regarding call control-related features. Headers are identifiers for message parameters such as receiver (To:) or route discriminators (Route:). There are other complementing standards for this architecture.e. alter session (UPDATE). There are drafts provided by the SIPPING WG showing sample sequence diagrams for certain features [23]. the working groups are evaluating application scenarios and deriving requirements for SIP protocol extensions that can be used to support multiple features. QoS) that are developed outside SIP. the definition of new headers and new methods has been done in several RFCs or draft proposals.323 protocol and endpoints. stimulus or transaction protocol-based remote control is not in the scope. SIP feature control is based on a distributed feature control model. downloading of tones and announcements. 200 for “OK. This allows an easier deployment of features: only the feature server has to be updated.g. the SIP WG had defined the following extensions to SIP in order to support such a generic call control framework (the names of the new methods are given in parenthises): modification of conversation space (REFER.450-like supplementary service definitions. Considering this philosophy SIP is going to evolve step by step to provide a rich but general set of mechanisms for a plethora of applications encompassing many features. When a header is not known by a SIP entity it is ignored without affecting the rest of the request. which is due to the different SIP philosophy. call park/pickup. Annex K introduces a service plane above the H.323. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 39 . SIP is intended to be as general as possible. GK).g. etc.. For SIP the same feature categories can be applied as in H. networkbased features such as authorization and address resolution in an outbound SIP proxy. which allows standardized support of call control supplementary service negotiation.225-CC messages. SIP’s supplementary services have not been standardized. including supplementary services (Fig. conferences. and supplementary services. possibly including Java code or scripts.tic procedures are defined in the centralized feature server. REPLACE). select and activate the services. new headers.

Java applets to be used in SIP requests [21]. showing a map with the current location of the callee.323 service architecture is the SIP architecture in this respect.e. the end-users. the Media Gateway Conits explicit definition of separate state machines for each suptrol Protocol (Megaco) standard defines a protocol for the plementary service. and service programming. intelligent networks.g. or proxied). Since IP networks are not routeAlternative Session Descriptions — To transport a message aware. SIP can also be used for other session signaling tasks. it must be ensured that the request traverses the responsible SIP proxy. By service creation more feature-rich private networks (QSIG). SIP provides the Route header to determine the path a body other than SDP may also be regarded as an extension. The comparison of the implementation methods between the SIP and the H.g. For all service implementations on sipit/). The goal of the Megaco architecture is to couof feature control into framework and extensions is a conseple PSTN networks and their services (based on non-intelliquence of this separation. The ITU-T has already standardgent terminals) with the Internet. Stimulus Feature Control Based on Megaco — SIP stanmessage coding. Supported header) is based on so triggered by incoming requests and instruct SIP servers how to called option tags that are unique identifiers used to designate handle those requests. forwarded. The syntax is specified from non-intelligent endpoints via the media gateway conusing ASN... SIP architecture. e. loops).columbia. These option tags are to be defined In this way SIP provides a number of mechanisms for serin standard-track RFCs to support multi-vendor interoperabilvice programming that can all be easily applied since they are ity. SIP message. The Supported header in order to manage a complete SIP transaction.g. new options (extensions). The correct interworking between difadvantage compared to the proprietary programming methods ferent SIP implementations is tested in so called SIPIT events of the traditional telephony service creation independent of the Basic Call state interaction between a media gateway and a media gateway machine. the function split controller [26]. From the signaling point of view. with further supplementary are thus able to obtain and transfer the stimulus information services being added in the future. the message body may include a Web page message must take.cs. the CPLfunctions are very restrictive to avoid securiNetwork ty and performance problems (e.323 service architecture in this tutorial is based on the following criteria: architecture.server). Info Refer Notify The IETF generally distinguishes between trusted and untrusted users.. grams.g. for example. As a conseis mean the implementation of a service logic that either conMessaging Features 40 IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 . service creation in SIP can tenance of telephony supplementary services. Application-layer the IETF has drafted several programming languages that can be used for the implementation of services started by message SIP extensions requests [21].450) or that reacts on a message request.. SIP proxy servers. are supported by a SIP user agent. the PINT protocol [25] uses SIP to set up calls between on a dedicated SIP server. protocol extensions. mainly in the be done using any programming language. SIP Addressing inexperienced e. This elaborated and object-oriented approach is based on a Application-Layer Feature Control by Service Programlong period of experience with the implementation and mainming Languages — In general. but have a number of enhancements for de. the SIP BYE message only ends the signaling relationship between COMPARING THE SERVICE ARCHITECTURES the PINT entities. SIP servlets can be sions (Require header. that are organized regularly (http://www. In [25] the authors provide rules for the application of BYE in this special case. that are aimed at program services with dedicated languages e. a new approach suggests the use of two PSTN phones via an ISDN third-party call setup gateway. SIP-CGI scripts are derived from HTTP-CGI scripts. The negotiation of extenSIP servlets require a Java environment. ThereIn addition to the programming methods described above fore. the Call Processing Language (CPL) provides the SIP Transaction Protocol (includes SDP) Basic SIP means to handle SIP INVITE transactions (deciding whether an incoming request should be rejected. server administrators: SIP-CGI scripts and SIP servlets. For example.1 and the semantics are described using SDL diatroller to the session control. It shows the receiver which methods are underUnlike HTTP-CGI scripts. and they telephony supplementary services. i. dardization does not include stimulus control. the feature combinations approach of H. SIP-CGI scripts can be re-invoked stood by the sender of the message. to explicitly specify based on well known programming methods. Targeted for the implementation in SIP proxy servers.Supplementary services trols a specific message flow (cf. This is a great supplementary services. This makes it possible. For untrusted users. Media gateways at the ized the feature state machines of the most important borderline are for the control of Internet services. proposed for trusted users. Two approaches for service creation are ■ FIGURE 4. For the negotiation of features supplementary service control such as the generation of multibased on new methods the Allow header can be inserted in a ple responses or the ability to handle additional requests. Whereas SIPenumerates all the extensions that allow specific behavior and CGI scripts are independent from any programming language. Since these calls are normally terminated in the PSTN. Complementing The key characteristic of the

the SIP design philosophy. Since these procaused by specific SIP properties. Although attempts in this direction were started the analysis of signaling messages. At the moment the path taken by IETF SIP support of deaf. This implies that the syntax of To support the definition of features in SIP. Text-based coding has advantages in context of the supplementary service and/or the required rapid prototyping of individual solutions. In ■ Table 6.1 syntax for coding H. The are provided in [14].1 there is explicitness if undesired interactions are detected and must be IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 41 . Approaches that sugadministrator can interpret the content of a message without gest more extensive verification testing will also require an interpreter. when using ASN. H. Although missing tions. The extension extensions cannot be sent in the same message. Related drafts. However. These rules instruct the receiver what to do if the telephony system with their vast range of supplementary serextension is unknown. Technical guidelines the problem arises of how to exactly identify a feature. Other reasons are in H. tions that may arise out of this. H. this problem is still more complicated in IP explicitly and SIP’s negotiation procedure concerns only the telephony for several reasons.450 defines a hierarchical name space using vendorbut so far standardized supplementary services are not known. The baseline SIP RFC provides ISDN/ISUP to SIP mapping 3398 only rudimentary implementation instructions. of the standardization process. ease of interworking with already existing telephony systems SIP change process 3427 (ISDN. these guidelines do not go as use of the identical method may activate different behavior in far as H. Some of these reasons are extensions. it is pointed out such as Web services.323. are of For features that require an explicit signaling to invoke a staninformational nature to illustrate the potential usage of an dard behavior. A feature lenges of interoperability and feature interaction. they could also be applied for it. For example. Here an application prothat extensions must solve problems in a generic way rather grammer can use SIP transactions as feature building blocks. tures. By reusing the PSTN protoSIP REASON header 3326 cols. a network [28]. SIP has a very robust general negotiavices. SIP features Message waiting (supplementary service requirements) Draft are not explicitly signaled. may consist of one protocol transaction or a sequence of proit seems that the ITU is ahead of the IETF regarding suppletocol transactions. On the other hand. this SIPPING SIP for telephones (SIP-T) (interworking issues with PSTN) 3372 approach allows short product SIP-ISUP 3398 cycles. and the often Event notification (SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY) 3265 neglected but very important field of feature interaction can be dealt SIP UPDATE method 3311 with. Working documents essential for the implementation of supplementary services in contrast to the ITU and following SIP. such as [23]. such as in telephony supplementary services. In order to identify feauser agent server (UAS) basically addresses these concerns. for SIP even on the application level.450 allows transaction level and not on the supplementary service level.323 to require specific state machine descriptions. mainly the fact that the states avoid interworking problems on the transaction level. This from traditional circuit switched telephone networks. Actions on errors due to not-supported same functionality the customer is used to. SIP extensions must be registered with IANA to shared between H. released SIP extensions should be indepenresolved. SIP INFO method 2976 the interoperability with heterogeneous endpoints.323 messages cope with the feature interaction problem for supplementary is criticized as an overhead in complexity contrary to the textservices is explicitness. than for a specific use. i.Working Group Document SIP SIP REFER method RFC# Draft quence. standardization is still in progress. QSIG) has been taken into consideration also. a standardizaa single feature is not standardized explicitly and the semantic tion process has been postulated [14. different implementations. As also is quite different with SIP.e. whereas the service logic itself is not part mentary services. gramming languages are derived from the HTTP context they In [27] the authors provide good examples of feature interacare more easily applicable for SIP. and speech-impaired 3351 for the standardization of suppleindividuals mentary services is quite different than the path taken by the ITU.. important challenges such as the subsequent integration of SIP MESSAGE method (for use in instant messaging) 3428 new features into a running system. This may not be a problem for the describe an IETF process to ensure the appropriateness and initiation of applications following a request-response scheme consistency of SIP extensions. are kept in the endpoints and that features can be proSeveral programming languages are defined in the context grammed by different parties and executed in different locaof SIP for the programming of SIP servers. but could be negotiation procedure between user agent client (UAC) and provided in the following message. A second point is behavior. hard of hearing. extension in an example message flow. Furthermore. such as request expiration. IP-based VoIP systems should be able to provide the tion mechanism. In [20] the authors is left to the application. as SIP is based on HTTP. the transmission of individual rules inline with the request This is especially important for the interworking with legacy messages. According to the SIP SIP call control — transfer (supplementary service requirements) Draft baseline standard [11]. to clearly express via signaling the based SIP approach. Altogether. for example. specific extensions. Thus. It remains to be seen whether the ongoing standarddent of a single feature and comprise only a single protocol ization efforts in the IETF are sufficient to meet the chaltransaction (method) or a parameter set (header).323 and SIP. because SIP is standardized on the For the negotiation of proprietary extensions. where features are not signaled described in [27]. As of today. One of the major remedies to In [1] the use of ASN. 20]. no central authority is required for The problem arising from feature interaction is well known changes as soon as the vendor has an official vendor ID.

There is no explicit message (SIP method or Voice/video A<->B header) defined for the request of a Call Hold supplementary service. which is. Remote end hold is described in the example scenario. they are not shown in the scenario. endpoint B must detect the request of the Call Hold supplementary service from within the SDP carried as SIP payload. whole conference group may be set idle or even worse in case for example. user A re-invites user B 200 OK (second INVITE message) according to RFC Local 3264 [29]. a systematic support of the software development process.Holding user A Initial INVITE Calling 200 OK Terminated Held user B Initial Proceeding second form is Remote End Hold. Endpoint B may play MoH to user B locally. The correct function of the With near end hold. author in [23] only show an example where the holding party explicitly invites a music server to play music to the held CALL HOLD party. There are two basic variants of Call Hold: near Imagine being involved in a tightly coupled conference. are the same as for a Basic Call. This ambiguous supplementary service activation may Tools for syntax checking and automatic code generation cause severe implementation problems in systems. which must speed up and ease the implementation of message processing be aware of supplementary services due to interoperability functions. terminated. SIP-compliStart of ACK ant client/server implementations are assumed in transaction the participating endpoints. if we think of the supplementary Call Hold. a melody. This indicates to endpoint B that A stops sending media streams. Therefore. trolled by a conference server.323. conend hold and Remote End Hold (in SIP: Far End Hold). user agents to recognize the “setting of some media streams SIP also provides an efficient header compression for links inactive” as a Call Hold request. SIP: far end hold. The service scenario (click to fax using PINT) have been chosen. Further. ■ FIGURE 5. or a video clip. the bearer channels remain open. The media stream in the session description music on hold? (SDP) is set inactive. Figure 5 shows the Far ACK End Hold scenario. offering an updated session descripprovisioning of ACK tion. Timers are not shown in Fig. Two typical supplementary service (or a higher-layer application).g. e. The signaling association between the two parties is not not be carried out or at least should be processed carefully. one has to rely INVITE (SDP inactive) on the basic SIP transaction mechanism. an announcement. conference server. There is no explicit feature with low data rate that makes the transferred number of bytes invocation since the method name (INVITE) and the headers comparable to H. This is basically the result expected from Call Hold. Another open issues is to examples (Call Hold and Call Transfer) and one non-VoIP detect for the application when to play music on hold. but Call Hold service will depend on the feature awareness of the they no longer carry voice/video data from user A. the packed encoding rules (PER) used in and user expectations. for INVITE. The problem of feature (non-) awareness is even worse in The supplementary service Call Hold allows the holding party combination with other features or in a more complex conA to interrupt the communication to party B during an active text. Since this is not signaled explicitly. For completeness. which could be ambiguous. Even ACK is considered to be Terminated a separate transaction.323 and SIP. 5. DETAILED SERVICE EXAMPLES The problem of supplementary service awareness is illustrated as follows. However.1 signaling messages very effectively.323 compress ASN. In order to put user B on hold. the they can be used to transmit media on hold (MoH). Another re-INVITE from user A containing the original address parameter lets user B send again. where the communication channels are idle during the hold condition. Using call retrieve procedures. It remains to the application to two IP telephony standards. Thus. The application present detailed examples to illustrate significant differences may be the (extended) SIP state machine or the user himself between H. where there might be situations where Call Hold should call. The status of user B being a held party and In the previous sections we have presented an explanation and user A having put somebody on hold must be remembered to discussion of the characteristics and the functionality of the insure robust call processing. In the following sections we will remember in which features it is involved. the Basic Call setup has been included in the message Terminated Completed flows. SIP — The following example shows the SIP realization of a Far End Hold scenario. Since proxy servers Initial Initial do not play a role in this example. the communication channels can be activated again and the call returns to the active condition. Instead. the same message with identical parameters may cause different reactions by the receiver depending on the actual context of the session.. It remains to the developers of the SIP H. The End of INVITE transaction Terminated 42 IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 . SIP only keeps state for one transaction.

the use of REFER does not determine a Call Transfer supplementary service call.4 to reject the request. a hold button on his endpoint. At the same time endpoint A interrupts the existing media (voice. A typical feature interaction situation occurs. The task of state-keeping is thus clearly left to the application program. feature interaction is facilitated since all involved endpoints can determine. Further. B checks whether he can support Remote End Hold. which results in a FACILITY message containing a remoteHold. therefore.450. The outcome of the actions is that the previous call between A and B is cleared and a new call between B and C is in the active state. Figure 7 shows a sample message flow for an unattended (single-step) transfer starting from an active call between A and B. and even ACK) of one session are performed independently without keeping context between them. Even if Remote End Hold is supported by endpoint B. there might be situations where the hold operation should be rejected (e. There are two basic forms of Call Transfer: Single Step Transfer (or Unattended Transfer) and Multi Step Transfer (or Consultation Transfer). BYE. A initiates the Call Transfer by putting the transferred user B on hold. This clearly identifies a Remote End Hold. This indicates that B should invite C and issue a success response (‘200 OK’) to the originator. INVITE.450 as standardized in H. However.1 contain a generic mechanism that indicates the required actions when a requested operation is not supported (e. Upon reception of the remoteHold. as shown in the example flow.inv operation. User A pushes. H. SIP — The method REFER [11] is suggested to be used in SIP for Call Transfer. It could be used.323/H. Hold_RE_requested Facility (remoteHold.. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 43 . the absence of a finite state machine in the standards might lead to interoperability problems with different implementations. the Basic Call would become more complex by adding more features and scalability problems might result. The confirmation of this action is signaled to A in a FACILITY message. Figure 6 shows the Remote End Hold scenario in H. In the positive case. Hold_RE_holding Hold_RE_held ■ FIGURE 6. but the user expectations for the result of a supplementary service are different.g. Note that B needs no support of H..g. Similar to the previous example and consistent with the SIP standardization philosophy. This is especially true when interworking with legacy telephone systems.inv) If B did not support the operation Remote End Hold..450 implementation in the participating endpoints.4: remote end hold.rr) Local provisioning of music/ video on hold CALL TRANSFER The supplementary service Call Transfer allows a transferring user A to transfer an active call with transferred user B to a transferred-to user C.450. The feature state of A changes to Hold_RE_Requested to remember locally that a remote hold has been initiated. On reception of a success response. ignore. video.450. even if these new states are added to the Basic Call state machine. 7 those points are marked where call states must change in order to provide appropriate message handling. A initiates the transfer procedure by sending a REFER request with C’s address to B. in this case user A.g. this could cause problems for interworking between supplementary services. In Fig.4 [30].inv operation. This can be signaled including the respective reject cause.450. As already discussed.Holding user A Call state Active Hold_idle Feature state Held user B Call state Active Hold_idle Feature state Voice/video A<->B Facility (remoteHold. RFC3261 states the functionality of the basic SIP protocol as a simple transaction protocol rather than a stateful call control protocol. by looking at their feature states. the rejection would be signaled to A. The examples assume the fully distributed model with H.323/H. In the beginning the served user A has an active call with user B.323/H. In our opinion. The Single Step Transfer is described in the example. of near end hold music being played to all parties. The two vertical lines represent the state machines for Basic Call and the feature state machine of each endpoint for the Call Hold feature. The GK is transparent in this case and is therefore not shown in the diagrams. if B is in a conference). The Generic Functions H. reject). The technical functionality of each entity is correct.323/H. …) from/to B. H.450 — The following scenario describes the supplementary service Call Hold in H. A SIP entity simply returns an error message (‘501 not implemented’) to the initiator if the REFER method is not supported. The Basic Call state machine does not have to be changed when introducing the supplementary service. No bandwidth is consumed any longer. since the feature state machine defines the states and actions. that they are in a hold condition and whether new events and actions lead to unwanted interactions with other features. for example. When B accepts Call Hold. but for a supplementary service call that is interoperable with traditional telephony supplementary services important information for the implementation of this feature is missing. A terminates its signaling relationship with B issuing a BYE request.450. All transactions (e. endpoint B interrupts the media channels also and provides local media on hold to the user.

NOTIFY Trying For this purpose.0. a setup taking place even if endpoint C did not support H.1 GF would an HTTP client (e.” Whereas the PINT user applies SIP to invite a remote PINT server into a session... B. GSM). This new call may inherit the media H.450. vice scenarios are “click to dial” or “click to fax back. and formatcontains the transferred-to address of party C. it would contain information about the call parent for the SIP INVITE transaction and only the PINT identity of the consultation call. SIP makes it possible to initiate sessions ? that go beyond VoIP and are not bound to a specific media..rr user requests an action (e.450. the endpoint receives a URL of the Faxback supported by endpoint C.2. Starting from an active call with endpoint B. The SIP INVITE message is used as a transport container Terminated for the assured exchange of service control information (e.450 — Figure 8 shows a Single Step Transfer accordtelephone network session is carried as a SDP payload in the ing to H.Invoke operation if it is not with the GK.0) 200 OK ACK operation is received. Up to that point the intermediate feature states in A. To illustrate this open character of SIP regarding session initiation. selection of service options is presented to the user. SDP has been enhanced with addiendpoint A initiates the transfer by sending a FACILITY tional parameters for the support of new network types (e. an approach using H. The user B will hear a ringing tone until user C goes off hook. The PINT gateway relays the request to a speOK 200 cific GSTN network control component and the latter performs the requested GSTN telephony service. RFC 2848 [29]) uses SIP ACK and SDP for the invocation of telephony services in the GSTN from an IP network.0. When the After an ALERTING message containing a ctSetup. endpoint B starts a new call with party C using a SETUP message with a ctSetup. message flow for a “request to fax content” service. Examples of ser■ FIGURE 7. fax.Transferring user A Transferred user B Transferred to User C Terminated Terminated Initial Voice/video A<->B INVITE (SDP: c=0.g. Using HTTP. It may also be required for call service control.g. NON-VOIP FEATURE EXAMPLE SIP — In addition to the invitation of parties to participate in a multimedia session.g. Upon RAS registration indicate to ignore the ctSetup. a GSTN service description) between a PINT user (SIP client) BYE Voice/video A<->B and a PINT gateway (SIP server).323 has put its focus on multimedia and capabilities of the call with A or negotiate the media capabilivoice services. a PINT server will be set up in the telephony network. In the case of a specific attribute tags. Web browser).Invoke operation.450. All SIP extensions specified in PINT are in line with the Completed ? SIP baseline behavior. SIP: single-step transfer. a PSTN-call.Invoke operation. In the ties from scratch.Invoke operation contains following. Upon receiving the ctInitiate.. message with the ctInitiate. which is required to associate gateway knows how to process. The SDP session description is transmultistep transfer. e. new media types (e..323/H. The ctSetup. Other applications are dis200 OK cussed and standardized in the SIMPLE. SPIRITS. which can be displayed to the user or examined by other Annex K it is possible to construct very simple endpoints for features and applications.. This would result in a normal call GW to contact for the service control session. it can also provide non-VoIP services. and C make it possible to rollback the Call Transfer and restore the original call between A and B if anything fails. After the CONNECT message is received from endpoint C the communication between B and C is established. Click to Faxback) this is again 44 IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 . This operation ISDN. containing only parts of the RAS protocol and admission and/or billing purposes. the PINT service protocol is explained in the followProceeding ? ing paragraph. the particular description of the H. image). With ber).2.g.323 Annex K is sketched that information about the transferring user A (transferringNumprovides functionality similar to the SIP/PINT example. The PINT protocol (PSTN/Internet Terminated Interworking. may be invoked by 202 accepted INVITE SIP. INVITE message body. Even non IP-based sesREFER sions.g.323 — Although H. and SIPPING working groups.g. Figure 9 shows an example the two calls at endpoint C.Invoke operation. The H. endpoint B disconnects the first call with endpoint A.

interoperability. including supIdle plementary services. SIP’s broader scope forms the basis for transferred to the Faxback GW using HTTP. Regarding standardization of call control and especially supplementary services. SIP has advantages with respect to the design of low cost Annex K the transaction handling must be programmed in the non-voice terminals due to its modular and flexible protocol HTML (or other means) description of the service (Fig. Such standardization is of impor- PINT user A PC without fax.. providing some limited Compared to the SIP/PINT example. H. H. H. or supplementary serFacility (ctInitiate. including supplementary services.323 provides better functionality. In concluActive CT-idle sion. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 45 .323. SIP: click to fax with PINT. In the case CONNECT of supplementary services.323 has been to handle voice and multimedia calls. SIP is going to be extended in order to SETUP (ctSetupInvoke) keep up with the functionality of CT-await-initiateH. as in the PINT there are some extensions proposed to the standard that go in approach). To summarize. 10). In addition protocol to transmit a session description. voice PINT gateway INVITE (enhanced SDP) 200 OK ACK SDP ISDN network User A's fax machine Requested fax over ISDN network Fax server ■ FIGURE 9. response Comparing the service archiIncoming CT-await-setuptectures and the resulting conseresponse quences for feature implementations. While SIP has been designed as a generic transaction protocol for session initiation not bound to any specific media such as audio or video. interoperability. the absence of an explicit labeling of Voice/video A<->B features may lead to migration.323. the focus of H.rr) Release complete rating supplementary services (ctInitiate. H. SIP still shows some shortcomings regarding the standardization of supplementary services.323 describes and CALL_PROCEEDING enables an object-oriented approach based on QSIG.323 Voice/video A<->B interworking. by using IN call control. that direction. Current Ringing standardization activities around SIP reveal that the IETF extends SIP’s Basic Call to control a variCT-idle ety of applications. On the other hand.323 was not targeted GW then carries out the respective actions toward the PSTN to support non-VoIP services in the beginning.rr) from Basic Call control. SIP-PSTN/IN interworking.323 tion. Whereas SIP provides a transacnisms for controlling non-VoIP services than H. focusing on their service architectures and the mechanisms to develop and deploy services. However. SIP provides more effective mechathe function split is different.Invoke) vices. H. their original focus is very different. As a consequence. and feature interaction problems. Meanwhile. Although both protocols may be used for VoIP applications. it becomes clear that support. CONCLUSION This tutorial has presented an overview of the two VoIP standards.323 and SIP. such as H.450: single-step transfer. but avoiding CT-await-connect the introduction of feature-specifCT-idle ic syntax or semantics. with respect to supplementary services.323/H. sepaALERTING (ctSetup.Transferring user A Call Feature state state Transferred user B Call Feature state state Transferred to user C Call Feature state state tance for interoperability with traditional telephone systems.323 Annex K. The Faxback a wider range of possible applications. and interworking (PSTN and PBX) ■ FIGURE 8. the IETF has identiActive Active Idle fied need in their scope regarding telephony-related requirements and services such as SIP-H.g. in H. network (e.

” 1999. [21] H. H. [26] ITU Recommendation H.12. [9] ITU-T Recommendation H. “Session Initiation Prototcol (SIP) Caller Preferences and Callee Capabilities. “The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) UPDATE Method. [18] J. “An Offer/Answer Model with the Session Description Protocol (SDP). IETF Request for Comments RFC 3015.. Jun 2002. “Frame Structure for a 64 to 1920 kb/s Channel in Audiovisual Teleservices. Rosenberg et al. Lennox and H. “Packet-Based Multimedia Communications Systems. Therefore. [7] ITU-T Recommendation H. Conroy. “Advanced Service Architectures for Internet Telephony: A Critical Overview. draft-ietf-sip-callerprefs-07.323. work in progress.” IEEE Network Mag.txt. [6] ITU-T Recommendation H. Although this may sound like a typical application for enterprise scenarios. Although the two standards are approaching each other. e. Cambridge. Mankin et al. or procedures such as capability exchange. . pp.242. of NOSSDAV. “Supplementary Services in the H. Rosenberg and H. Dec 2002. Obsoletes RFC 2543.323 and [9. Marshall. very lightweight SIP clients can be built to control non-VoIP services.320. pp. Apr 1998.” IETF Internet Draft. for example. the trend of outsourcing applications. Camarillo. 134–41. Jul 1998. “The Session Initiation Protocol: Internet-Centric Signaling. Jun 2002. . “Call Hold Supplementary Service for H.” 1998. “System for Establishing Communication between Audiovisual Terminals Using Digital Channels up to 2 Mb/s. Schulzrinne. Thus. Rosenberg.” 2000.” IEEE Commun. [29] J.323v4. [2] R. “Integration of Resource Management and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).” IETF Internet Draft.” Internet Draft draft-ietf-sip-service-examples-04. Korpi and V. “Generic Functional Protocol for the Support of Supplementary Services in H. [23] A. application service provider (ASP) solutions. [12] M.248. [13] The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): Working Groups. “Packet-Based Multimedia Communications Systems.332. work in progress. Schulzrinne and J. REFERENCES The most important readings are [3.” IETF Request For Comments RFC 3265.” IETF Internet Draft. p.. IOS Press. “SIP Call Control — Transfer. [3] ITU-T Recommendation H. “Narrowband Visual Telephone Systems and Terminal Equipment.323 IP Telephony Network. “SIP Service Examples.323 annex K.g.323 become more important for carrier implementations.” IETF Request For Comments RFC 3311. “Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) — Specific Event Notification. “Feature Interaction in Internet Telephony. These include replacement scenarios for legacy PBXs. With the focus set on voice over IP with supplementary services that are largely interoperable.323.450.245v8. can also be observed for IP telephony. Jul/Aug 2000.” 1993. Rosenberg and H. Jacobson.txt. “SIP: Session Initiation Protocol.” IETF Request For Comments RFC 3261.” IETF Request For Comments RFC 3262. Schulzrinne. [24] R. “SIP Call Control Framework. Petrack and L. Rosenberg.323 for Internet Telephony. Johnston. 38–44. They will probably coexist in different environments and implementations over a longer time.450. “Common Information Additional Network Feature for H. It is not expected that one of the two protocols will dominate over the other.323 Extended for Loosely Coupled Conferences. [4] ITU-T Recommendation H.User A PC without fax. [19] G. Nov 2002. Oct.” 1999. 46 IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 . Mag. http://www. Feature Interaction in Telecommunications and Software Systems VI. Nov 2000. design. IETF Internet Draft. protocols such as SDP.0. draft-ietf-sipping-cc-transfer-00. [10] ITU-T Recommendation H.221. [17] J. [15] B. but is especially true when IP telephony supplements and coexists with legacy telephone systems.” 1999. Johnston et al. 2002. Jul 1999. Magill (Eds. Nov 2002.ietf. 11. Jun 2000. Handley and V. 2000.1. “H. their focus and applicability is still different. Schulzrinne and J. 31] for SIP.225v4. Glitho. work in progress.” IETF Request For Comments RFC 3264.323 has its advantages. Schulzrinne. [25] S.” M. 7] for H. Rosenberg.118–25.450. Jul 2001 — expired. Rosenberg and H. [5] ITU-T Recommendation H.charters/.” 1998. Calder and E. Roach.” Proc. Schulzrinne.” 2001. Kumar.. [16] A. Rosenberg.” IETF Request for Comments RFC 3427.” IEEE Communications Magazine.323. and J.. [30] ITU-T Recommendation H. supplementary services and H. Oct 2002. “Packet-Based Multimedia Communications Systems. SIP has strengths for lightweight and easily implemented solutions with a focus on flexible session initiation. Guidelines for Authors of SIP Extensions. 2000. “Change Process for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). [11] J. draft-ietfsip-guidelines-06. “Reliability of Provisional Responses in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). “The PINT Service Protocol: Extensions to SIP and SDP for IP Access to Telephone Call Service. [8] ITU-T Recommendation H. Megaco Protocol Version 1.txt. A SIP client. voice User Endpoint RRQ RCF(url) Gatekeeper Faxback GW includes HTTP server GET url 200 OK (data) Action GET url/action 200 OK User A's fax machine Requested fax over ISDN network ■ FIGURE 10. Sparks and A. Rosenberg.txt.” 2001. work in progress. [1] H. [31] M. Work in Progress. Campbell. Fax server [14] J. “SDP: ISDN network Session Description Protocol. [28] H.” IETF Request for Comments RFC 2327.” IETF Request For Comments RFC 3312. Schulzrinne and J.). H. “A Comparison of SIP and H. [20] A. draft-ietf-sip-cc-framework-00. [22] ITU-T Recommendation H. if it is not required by the application. Nov.” IETF RFC 2848.323: click to fax using H.4.” 2000. W.K. does not have to support media processing capabilities.txt. [27] J. . which will also place a strong requirement on interworking between them. received his diploma degree (Dipl. “Call Offer Supplementary Service for H.450.” 1999. degree in electrical engineering and information technology and a Ph.7. He is with Siemens AG. Germany. where he has been working in different positions within product definition for IP-based communication systems.323.6.11.” IETF Internet Draft. in 1996. respectively.” 2001. [4] ITU-T Recommendation H.txt. from the Munich University of Technology (TUM) in 1995 and 2002. Eberspächer) at TUM. “Message Waiting Indication Supplementary Service for H.450. [8] ITU-T Recommendation H.323. “Call Transfer Supplementary Service for H. Currently he is working on his doctoral thesis.450. “The Refer Method.” 1999. HARALD MUELLER (H.450. In 2001 he was a visiting researcher at the Information System Laboratory of Stanford University. Jul 2002. work in progress.450.” 2001.323. [6] ITU-T Recommendation H. “Name Identification Supplementary Service for H. “Call Intrusion Supplementary Service for H. Germany. He received a Dipl. research and teaching staff at the Institute of Communication Networks (Prof.323. “Call Completion Supplementary Services for H.-Ing.323.5. “Call Park and Call Pickup Supplementary Services for H. [7] ITU-T Recommendation H.D. [9] ITU-T Recommendation H. draft-ietfsip-refer-03.323. “Call Diversion Supplementary Service for H. which is about the design and implementation of a resource management architecture for VoIP in corporate networks. Since October 1996 he has been a member of the IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials • Fourth Quarter 2003 47 . Sparks. He is a member of the IEEE Communications Society and the IEEE Computer Society. and his doctor’s degree (Dr.3.Mueller@siemens.323.450.323.-Ing. “Call Waiting Supplementary Services for H. BIOGRAPHIES J OSEF G LASMANN (Glasmann@ei.” 2000. [10] R.” 2000. J. [3] ITU-T Recommendation H.-Ing.450.10. His current areas of interest include signaling and applications for IP-based and converged communication systems.8.) from the Munich University of Technology.” 1998. Germany.323.450.2.” 1999. [5] ITU-T Recommendation H. WOLFGANG KELLERER (Kellerer@docomolab-euro.ADDITIONAL READING [1] ITU-T Recommendation received his diploma degree (Dipl.” 1998. Univ) in electrical engineering and information technology from the Munich University of Technology (TUM). His research topics are QoS in IP networks and multimedia service architectures.450.) in 1990 from the Darmstadt Technical University.-Ing.tum. he is responsible for the development of applications for real-time communication systems. Before he joined DoCoMo he worked at the Institute of Communication Networks at heads the service platform and middleware technology group at NTT DoCoMo’s European Research labs in Munich. [2] ITU-T Recommendation H. Germany. Currently.