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NASA 60 GHz Inter,satellite Communication Link Definition Study
Baseline Document

Communications Sciences Spa_ System Operations Wester_l Development Laboratories Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Pete Alto, CA












Communications Space Western Ford A_rospace System Development &

Sciences Operations Laboratories Corporation CA

Communications Alto,


























Acquisition Antenna Autotracklng

1-23 1-34






Ranging Range

Accuracy Rate

1-43 1-45

1.I.4 1.1.5 1.1.6


Diagrams Attitude & Command & Timing Requirements

1-46 1-46 1-46

Navigation Telemetry






i.i.7.1 1.I.7.2

Launch Acquisition On-Orbit Normal


1-61 1-61

Test Operation

1-61 1-62 1-62










Earth Sun Polarization

1-63 1-63 1-69









Performance Built-in-Test

Verification Concept


1-81 1-82



Communication & Bench

System Test

Ground Equipment





Interference Isolation








Interference Interference Image Rejection

to to


Receiver Receiver

1-85 1-87 1-90 Systems 1-90 1-94 1-99 i.I.11.4 l.l.ll.5 i.I.11.6

Considerations with Other TDAS

Interference EHF Filter &

Multiplexer Link

Technology Degradation

Filtering-Caused Block Navigation/Timing Telemetry Operational 1.2 Geosynchronous 1.4 1.12. Power -2- .2 & Tracking Acquisition GEO/GEO Diagrams Clock Command Concepts Sequence Communication & Initial On-Orbit Concepts Test Requlement & Structure Tracking 1-124 1-124 1-132 1-132 1-135 1-135 1-138 1-138 1-140 1-141 1.4 1.12.1 1.2 1.2.4 1.3 1.1 1. Reliability Launch Ground/Satellite Acquisition Normal Re-Acquisltlon of Earth.14.5 1.2.5 7 8 9 Effects Weight.2.6.2 Acquisition 1. 1.14.2.i.6.3 Reliability Power Prediction Model Redundancy and Reed Assessment without Redundancy 1.5 1.1. & Polarization 1-141 1-144 1-144 1.2.4 1.7 Modulation Coding Shannon Elias Advanced Alphabet Low and Bound & Coding Its on Bound on Issues Limitations Coding Coding Decoding Redundant Coding Complexity & Size 13 14 Weight. Link to Closure Geosynchronous Parameters System Design 1-123 1-123 1-123 1-123 1.2 1.1. & Sun Size Operation Reliability ISL With Antenna Hardware IMPATT Antenna Reliability Diode Reliability Control Electronics 1.2. 12 Codulation Method 1-106 1-106 1-106 Gain Gain 1-107 1-108 1-I08 Coding 1-108 1-109 l-ill 1-112 1-112 1-114 Reliability 1-114 1-114 1-120 1-120 i. 1.1.1 1.

1.1 1.1 2.2._craft 3.5 2.7 2.1 2.0 Transmitter 3.4 Amplifier IMPATT FETs Gunn Traveling Combining Chip Circuit Spatial Power Power Source Level Technology Diodes 3.2.4 3.5 2.2 3.1.1 3.1.2 2.7 2.3 3.3 2.4 GEO/LEO LEO/GEO GEO/GEO l0 0.8 2.0 Antenna 2.2 Feed Mechanical Considerations Geometry Waveguide Horn Tracking Polarizer Design Antenna Monopulse S_ptum M.3 3.1.1_2.2 2.6 3.2.2 2.2 Power 3.1.1.i D(_scription 3-1 3-i 3-1 3-i 3-7 Effect Device Wave Tubes 3-7 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-15 3-19 3-19 3-19 3-23 3-23 3-24 Power 3.1 Overview 3.3 3.4 2.1 Techniques Combining Combining 3.1 3.11.2._chanlcal SpacE.6 2.6 Watt Watt Level Combining Amplifier Amplifier Technology E_-equency Modulator Transmitter Transmitter Transmitter Technology -3- .2 TDAS 2.3 1.6 2.1 LEO Considerations Geometry Waveguide Horn Tracking Polarizer Design Spacecraft Design Monopulse Septum Host Antenna System _ultenna B.2.1.1 TDAS Description Antenna System A/_tenna Beam Feed Design for GEO/GEO Link 2-1 2-2 2-2 2-5 2-5 2-6 System 2-6 2-6 2-6 Interfaces for CEO/LEO Link 2-8 2-10 2-10 2-12 2-12 2-13 System 2-13 2 -14 2-14 2-14 2.1.5 3.

5.3 4.4.3 4.3.3 Effect Short 4.4 LE0/GE0 GE0/LE0 Forward Error Correction Codes 4-31 4-31 4.1 Demodulator GE0/GE0 Systems 4.1.2 4.1 4.5.7 Doppler Receiver Compensation Reliability and Redundancy 4-33 -4- .4.5 Baseline 4.1 4.2.5 Thermal Sec Averaging Noise Selection Trade on Oscillator 4.0 Receiver 4.4 Effects Term of 4-22 4-23 4-24 4-25 4-25 4-25 4-26 4-26 4-27 4-27 4-27 4-31 Frequency Velocity & Errors Detection Acquisition Timing Filter Correction Demodulation 4.1 RF Technology 60 GHz Mixers Local RF Overview Low Noise Amplifiers 4-i 4-1 4-1 4-4 Oscillator Receivers 4-8 4-16 4-16 4-18 4-20 4-22 4.3.6 4.2 Baseline 4.2 4.2 4.4.3 4.2 4.3.2 4.1 4.2.4 Carrier Symbol Matched Error Technique & Tracking Recovery Detection 4.3 GEO/LEO LEO/GEO GEO/GEO of Ranging RF RF RF Receiver Receiver Receiver Requirements Stability Velocity Errors Due Due Error to to 2.2. Mechanical 5.4 Description Mechanical _ermal S_fstem _%ermal S_{stem _]tenna 5.2 GEO/GEO 5.6 Electromechanical Mechanisms 5. _ystem Size Reliability Integration -5- .2.5 Control Electronics Design Control Microprocessor Controller Power & Size 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.2.5 5.1.9 5. 5.4 & Design Mechanical Error Mechanical Concepts Budget Design 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-5 5-5 5-10 5-i1 5-I1 5-13 5-13 5-14 5-14 5-14 Design 5-16 5-21 5-21 Integration Design and Mechanical Error Budget Design & Sketches 5-22 5-23 5-23 5-23 5-23 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-25 5-25 & Sketches 5-25 Structural/ Control Contamination System ASCE Antenna Antenna Weight.3 5.7 5.6.1 5.5.4 GEO/LEO 5. Systems General Gimbal Size & Eequirements Mechanism Weight Eellabillty Mechanical Thermal System Thermal System Structure/ Mechanical Control Concepts Contamination Pointing Control Mechanisms & Weight Microprocessor Electromechanical Power.1.3 5.2 5.5.8 5.9 Power.1.1.2 5.


_ed G_.4-7 1.1.4-6 1.8.2-3 1.11-3 Response. GE0 Equipment 1-47 1-48 1-49 1-50 1-51 1-52 Receiver 1-53 1-54 1-55 System Interfaces GEO/LEO Polarization Polarization Pol & Energy Receive 1-57 1-59 Interference: Elliptical Elliptical Cross Xmlt Re-Use Verification Diagram Filter Design 3-Pole 7-Pole EHF EHF Filter Filter Configuration Diagram 1-67 1-71 1-72 1-73 1-74 1-76 1-77 1-78 1-80 1-84 1-95 1-95 1-96 1-97 1-98 Analysis Parameters Schematic Loss Solar Baseline Doppler Time & Network Assessment Interference Detection Approach Acquisition Acquisition System Receiver/Demodulator Tracking Accuracy Subsystem Loop GEO/LE0 BLock Diagram.1-4 1.1.2-7 1.1-5 1. Resonator Function Polarized Performance Simplified Configuration F:-equency F'-equency .1.2-1 1.2-2 1.1.3-5 1.3-2 1.1.18.Ii-i 1.19-1 i._ed Magnitude Acquisition Worst Signal S_lected Spatial Tl'acking Slngle-Axis Autotracking LEO Ranging Autotracking Case Concept ICLS/TDAS ICLS/LEO Plan System of & Interface Usat Filter Interface & Conventions Characteristics (1989) 1-3 1-4 1-5 i-ii 1-12 1-20 1-21 1-22 1-26 Estimates Characteristics for LEO 1-27 1-28 1-29 1-30 1-31 1-35 1-36 Model 1-37 1-40 1-44 Link.11-4 1.6-2 1.2-10 1.2-8 1.4-5 1.1.1.i. 1.3-1 1.1.2-5 1.1.4-2 1.1.11-2 1.3-3 1.1.SECTI ON SYSTEM I DESIGN TA/)LE OF CONTENTS. T)_011 _Z011 Septum Mode Mode Link: Link: Link: Transmitter Subsystem Receiver Subsystem Data Rate Demodulator Subsystem & Tracking Ranging Subsystem Acquisition Subsystem & of Command Solar Loss: Aligned Loss: Orthogonal vs Level of Utilization Co-Polarized Orthogonally Frequency Block (Fin-Line) Field Response. GEO/LEO 6() GHz BPSK Modulator 0 6 W LEO/GEO Variable _0 F.1.2-6 1.4-1 Telemetry Telemetry Duration Polarization When Polarization When k¢ial Ratio Polarization GEO/LEO GE0/LEO GEO/LEO S Lmpllfied _E M.18.4-9 1.4-3 1.2-1 1.i.1-2 1.2-4 1.11-5 System Baseline Baseline LLnk Frequency _ultenna F.4-8 1.6-1 1.i-i 1.1-3 1. FIGURES & TABLES _e i-I 1-2 1-3 i.1.3-1 1.ii0-I i.1.2-9 1.

3-2 1.I.2-i 1.14-1 1.I.2-2 1.2.6-i 1. & & & of Budget.2-3 1.11.I-5 1.1.2.ii.i.12-2 1.7-1 1.1.i-i 1.1-4 1.12-1 1.1.8. Development With Without With With With With Analysis Parameters Case) Command Before Sun Acquisition Noise Rates Telemetry Temperatures Solar of of 3rd 3rd 3rd Solar Solar Order Order Order No No With No With Modes: Mode: of Major Interference Effect.1-2 1.2.6-1 System Commonality All Baseband Baseband Technology GEO/GE0 GEO/GEO LEO/GEO LEO/GEO GEO/LEO GE0/LEO Error (Worst & vs Mixed IF I-6 i-7 I-i0 1-14 Sun Sun Earth Earth Sun 1-15 1-16 1-17 1-18 1-19 1-32 1-39 1-41 List Network Region LE0/GE0 GE0/LE0 GEO#1 GEO#2 Return Receiver Receiver Receiver 1-60 1-64 1-65 1-66 1-68 1-91 1-92 1-93 i-i01 1-102 1-103 1-104 1-105 1-133 1-134 Events 1-137 Comparison: and Suggested Link Link Link Link Link Link LEO/GEO Thermal Tracking Typical Antenna Size Summary Summary Image Image Image ISI: ISI: ISI.2. 1.1.i.2-3 1.3. Budget.1.6-i 1.SECTION 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS.1.i. Mission Stand-By .2-2 1.3-1 1.1.4-2 i.2-4 1.2-1 1.2-2 1. Effect.8.i.3-4 1. Products: Products: Products.l.11-3 1.7-2 Elias R-S ISL ISL & Bound BCH on Code Coding Decoder Model Model (No (With Gain Envelope Envelope Redundancy) Redundancy) Model Models I-II0 l-ll0 l-ll0 1-113 1-115 i-i16 1-122 1-125 (GEO/GE0) Link Equipment 1-126 1-127 1-128 1-129 1-130 1-131 1-136 1-142 GEO/GEO 1-143 Performance State-of-the-Art Reliability Reliability & Feed Control Acquisition Antenna Antenna GE0/GEO Block 10-W 60 QPSK GHz GEO/GEO Satellite Reliability Reliability Autotracking Diagram: IMPATT QPSK Accuracy GE0/GE0 Amplifier Modulator Receiver Demodulator Orbit of Time Subsystem Subsystem Geometry Link in Geometry Solar Conjunction Intersatellite Percent i-i 1-2 1-3 I. Sun: Sun: Sin: Sun: Sun: LEO/GEO: LEO/GE0: LEO/GEO: GEO/GEO: GE0/GE0: 2 Filters 3 Eilters 3 3 Filters Filters Acquisition.14-2 1.1.4-3 1.1-3 i.2-i 1.14-4 1.i-6 1.i.11-2 1.1-1 1.i.12-3 1. ISI: ISI.ll-1 1.2. Evaluation 3 _ilters Normal.11-4 1.1.11-5 1.i. Budget. Budget.1. System Operational Operational Sequence Re-Acquisition.3.4-1 i. Budget.i.1-2 1.2.2. EIGURES & TABLES (Cont) E&_ur=__o.2. Budget.

System intent its TDAS. the for are mission multiple physically data to also be be is crossllnk a ground single stations. its in low-earth This collected very system field quickly orbits means data that until during (LE0s) either it the must for all that the is in tlme-varying provide s_ome satellite view period ground when the of storing transmit ground time the that of station station will data is (and is be it the short provide times view) or operator of view stations return satellite's desired. to It is Satellite Data link anticipated The Th. are added in LEO satellites satellites eliminates to is and maintain that does the from the the stations. has capacity expected to the Tracking intersatellite of rates those for Acquisition capability though. Ku-Band. that will current data successor. The virtually SGLs are continuous now from the suffice. native there communities This of the is launch an of the NASA's in of of the first Tracking and scientific for the Data Relay and return data Satellite collecmission alter- overall the a trend use number satellite satellites over to toward concept has relay the of used advantages (SGLs) previously stations. accommodate necessary. current Tracking or capability). tion data. the Relay and relay feasible of the multiple mission to accommodate of this USATs. Judiciously that will chosen be in able the timeframe. The ICLS payload package with up to on five the LEO GEO TDAS USATs. post-1995 is the and or and enough a system single satellites. S-Band large timeframe. satellite that communicates simultaneously i-i . then studie_ satellitEi have relay (Within established system the context to that it is conceptually the needs system. USATs in the design these an new augmented requirements. data receiving in stations. and of telemetry T&C politically in a single or carry vulnerable. multiglgabit of the of or being the 60 near GHz data Additionally. interference (intentional or accidental) terrestr:Lally The ing ICLS (Intersatellite areas: Communications Link System) includes the follow- functional 1. is post-1995 for the at not systems. there is virtually attenuation no possibility earth's atmosphere means that tel'restrlally based generated intercept. A the LEO relay satellite expar_ds (for of earth time. TDRSS rate the then. capability timeframe accommodate The the to TDAS support use of 60 GHz for Technology Intersatellite is rates currently in at links has been developed future. between SGL to allows which An station together.With (TDRS). NASA have mission satellites This (TDRSS) System. and overall of Data become of user the satellites. An data overseas and received additional the system the LEO If there with available satellite) are intersatellite time that two of is near in communication real its time field in links contact of view to by for satellite a periods relay providing longer relay satellites contact the two relay relay This expensive benefit real time (nominally) can be mainto to the geostationary tained ground relay need and with the (GEOs). dedicated space-ground links ground Most have limited must its of of and these satellite platforms view means of then in in the of the are earth. ground spliced all not relay mission need can relayed configured allowing separately to similar Additionally. to stations and as commands consolidation mission mission satellite. orbits satellite.

area. and baseband This data implies modulators demodulators. Figure i-i shows the overall ICLS concept of the TDAS and USATS. satellite Therefore. baseband the second A called report. the the data system the "all packages relay TDAS standardized LEO link. mass Mechanical and thermal interfaces transfer consist characteristics. hi-directional ing are more to methods One 2 the of is data a data TDESS others relay complete stream: on-board baseband the the TDAS system spacecraft (demod and were remod) system addressed with conformchannels reis two "all a Gbps current other structure. There satellite lite will be for a the data interface of data between transferring that and the ICLS commands. Three link. 4. The will ICLS packages of a will specified and be modular mounting in design. The ICLS payload package on the USAT that communicates with the TDAS satellite. and This of design not the similarities should be the inherent maximized but the as in much the as above possible and necessary packages.2. in links TDAS). main body to in this the comparisons refers document system". Two in the study. design. Additionally. and burden of the this host simplest have been interfaces defined as follows: I. between It of its study minimized. The at that a communication user-specified the ICLS interface rate. The with crosslink another payload TDAS package on the TDAS satellite that communicates satellite. impact the to host case the define satellites of prime the clean. 3. mission standardized which Whereas of it the is ICLS between they it USAT the on the are is is intent the ICLS interfaces attached. package will will along include be with (all a or suitable partially) clock. field-of-view requirements. and command would attitude normally control satellite's telemetry. systems. (and operational to the reasonable). be resident attitude. the "mixed equipment performance. The host satellite will provide dc power to the ICLS package. com- only hardware minimizes configuration development costs concepts implement the approach in system results lower overall system. systems. system" the ICLS and are LEO payload the LEO packages USAT link. to USAT. mission. package and the host satelin a purpose other telemetry. the to purpose perform of USAT payload this is relay collection that the end. Because monality This as of includes well. 3. payload and same 1-3. merely of the baseband and This in Appendix information frequency "mixed Other of this translated baseband than and IF before signals" of to the the transmission. package and is a the especially TDAS scientific to ensure To the satellite or ICL it packages critical to is desirable and in the the data. is a channelized wherein some channel are concept. with reduced risk. will Table will be These 1-2 the required. the TDAS GEO for that packages (Note of resulting the baseband illustrated USAT the baseline and crosslink Figures be involving system used of in regardless the the on-board the i-i highlights 1-2 summarizes the commonality both IF and Table between major and differences. documented systems. 2. "all-baseband" baseband" I-2 .

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4 M antenna & gimbal (aEO-aEO) o 0.5 W Xmitter Assembly (GEO-GE0) (L_0-C_0) Unique o 0.6 W Xmitter (GEO-LE0) o 3.9 M antenna & gimbal (CEO-LE0) o 2 Gbps 300 o and Mbps i K_ps 1 & Mbps user demodulator TT&C interface demodulators 1 Mbps 2 Gbps and modulator FEC Decoder 1 _bps-300 Mbps modulator o o FEC Encoder more Recommendation is that complex the following i00 300 500 i0 30 50 i00 300 data Kbps Kbps K_ps Mbps Mbps Mbps Mbps Mbps rates less be complex used: 1 Mbps 1-6 . LNA LE0-GE0) Receiver o 360 ° K LNA (GE0-LE0) o Acquisition Receiver o Acquisition o I0 W Xmitter Assembly o 7.USER Common o 360 ° K (GE0-GE0.2 M antenna & gimbal o 1.m Table i-i System Commonality GEO TDAS (All Baseband) LEO .

9 3. the complete Addendum reliability A to this analysis report.2 0.5 99.2 414.7745 0.5 4 GE0-GE0 GEO-LEO Receiver Highest Weight Antenna Antenna Noise Power (Pounds) Size Size Figure (Meters) (M. WSA GEO-LEO For System.9425 0.5 i0 105.5 99. of the Mixed IF and Baseband see 1-7 .9 3.8980 0.8746.Table 1-2 Comparison: All Baseband vs Mixed IF and Baseband All Baseband Mixed IF and Baseband Number of GEO-GEO Forward Return Chann.6 592. 0.8 414.sters) (dB) Req'd (Watts) Transmitter GEO-GEO GEO-LE0 LEO DC Power System (5 Systems) 157._Is 13 22 GEO-GEO Data Throughput Forward Return (Mbps) 2O0O 2000 3.g.g.63 3124.6 (Watts) GE0-GEO GE0-GEO GEO-LEO LEO Frontslde Backside (5 Systems) 244 244 541 192 722 914 541 192 Ps(10 Year Life) GE0-GEO Forward or Return Return Forward 0.2 0.9425 e.60 3. WSA e.

1. decreased. Starting selected The package Also.1 The GEO-LE0 Specifically. allocation link LEO LE0-GE0 led O ephemeris errors (7-9 choice of be reduced. were o o o The High size of the data antennas rate was forced limited a high forced and for by STS launch capability. These included. Minimize burden to LEO user o satellite. impact that no uncertainty and the operations was found simultaneously TDAS antenna front spacecraft. to ensure interface of definition candidate items. course subset the each were until of of llnk component this qualitative the as a process. GEO antenna size further (3-5) and size. among GE0-GEO crosslink and GEO-LE0 Maintain technology commonality intersatellite links. to the can LEO WAEC-79 GE0-GEO Potentially frequency communication large GEO-LEO the thereby simultaneous weight. GE0-LEO unacceptable Since the antennas disturbances sun of will the without be time. 1-8 . areas within 1989 and In addressed initial component sensitivity TDAS ing tive was ground design o o link projected configuration analyses the the time link system design were The was analyzed based and and functional parametric on NASA TDAS into boundary offered a requirements. assessed rules a most used viable followobjec- effectiveness optimizatlon_ Use 1989 timeframe cutoff technology. The the antenna sizes. field-of-view end is for a small percentage noise required. and was upon measure item as a a each system set designed the design of major of configuration component with impact as the an well was the and as interacting system parameters. GEO-GEO EIRP. o Minimize the overall course drove of weight the the and study power it needs was found imposed that on TDAS. QPSK the high modulation data rate seconds) for the 2 Gbps link. key but system not During requirements limited to: certain actually baseline design. the more than system 2 of creating reliability. suitable allocated technical areas and operational allocated for possibilities iterations. slew to in a the the low could reducing LEO It If the ephemeris can be increased the user burden. frame. functional of range trade the of off requirements architectural. Judiciously iteratively. entire was payload developed.

Figure 1-9 . illustrated 1.i-i. power coupled amplifier. and acceleration (not EIRP and G/T) dominated the o Bandwidth llnk.Lty "zime. loss requirement also forced performance improvements in o Gimbal acquisition veloc.1. o A a low beam loss r_quirement approach. failures is critical in assessing the reliability o Gain. 1 Llnk_Qlmaur e__amame_r s The altitudes straints shown in up as operational to 5000 km requirements was here readily in of the LEO satellite to the and coverage following frequency to system planning orbital conas translated Figure i. for must presented improved Techniques Other characterization hardware suggested integratechnol- especially cross-strapping are transmitters. The mixer low nois. antenna scanning and weight considerations led to a gimbal dish configuration. attainable is tion ogy essential. considerations led to a rate 5/6 FEC code on the LEO-GEO Complexity coding of approaches the Viterbi such as decoder AR forced (alphabet investigation redundant) or of LC novel (low complexity). and the to and all these the are TDAS and hardware enabling excellent implementation.1-2. rate is continues tied parts for areas of major the levels. be in improved.These design system drivers: design drivers led to the identification of technology o The led high to a EIRP i0 _. a low the noise amplifier amplifier noise instead temperature of a requirement than 360 ° K. the achievable In needs. from electronics package to antenna favored wave_ide o The EHF low filters. was less end In dictated particular. with the limited antenna size. improvement i.att requirement. i. Considering available Thus ready factor. technologies for all most of are the either technology in 60 GHz work is or currently planned.m front front end. reliability the required technology to directly be Reliability data particular.i. o The rate of of IMPATT power diode amplifiers. to a to be prospects support however. Table 1-3.

DIGITAL o o o o EQUIPMENT Development mega-conversions Development mega-multiplies Development Improved of of a of an 8-bit per per multiplier second.3 DEVELOPMENT TRANSMITTERS o o o o o Eesolution Development Development or development Improvement Improved of of of of parts the stable amplifier devices techniques vs injection-locked to reduce allow parts graceful oscillator. 1-nanosecond reliability EILTERS AND MULTIPLEXEES o o o o Development Development Development of of of low-loss narrow-band designs EH_ to band-pass band-reject filters. degradation larger combiner of TWTA IMPATT which module cross-strapping techniques. filters mechanical techniques for power to combining. minimize Development of thermal effects. count. mission life. LOW NOISE FRONT ENDS o Development of reliable 60 GHz low noise devices such as HEMTs. materlals/heat-treatlng I-i0 . reliability.TABLE SUGGESTED TECHNOLOGY i. characterization. consistent A/D converter capable of with 300 150 to to 500 200 second. maximize tolerances. RAM and with ROM.

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The between capable quadrature amplifier low round sun is loss except in two of resulting geosynchrorlous simultaneous phase and beam for a keying gimbal waveguide. The LEO number of above system of mentioned and work) and shell. 1. periods the with design 160 and is degree reception using as follows: separation of 2 Gbps IMPATT The (83. design none design is based as of on 1989 technology in to minimize the projection NASA the interface acquisition as launch a contract burden to and constraints the least proper delineated are and (statement user In satellites a nut which of the provide the (:an be thermal design onto can be in is the mechanical and satellite (before rate or baseline "bolted" and modular user agile.1. budget shown temperatures calculated The Table (e.i.9_) algorithm accomplishing of the initiating time contactable confidence with plus very effect can acquisition as of be design.2 M a l0 dish watt diode antenna maintained total) parabolic Cassegrain is year During Mbps. secondary or through user with package simple to payload in-orbit mission ir_terfaces accommodate changed data service) needs.0 LEO degrees. in watts) and this performance between be cur- would commonality 1-13 . crosslink and earth Each times package independent orbiting forward using with LEO user correction with a 1. (for (for geosynchronous maximum of a M 1 altitude Mbps gimbal Each up data.01_ of per view.9 mounted return Mbps. Automated at all times acquisition/reacquisition regardless of sun monopulse In (5) llnk a a addition to to the TDAS-TDAS simultaneous TDAS of and 5. growth service different Tables satellite appropriate. 5 data rate could were of b s to the command to link 25 The more to Mbps the if llnk LEO a satellite. higher power calculated transmitter would TDAS and not the in increased be result utilized.1-4. 1.000 data crosslink KM) through stable with year when these the brief is modulation 3. the all-baseband TDAS transmission (QPSK) mounted.05_ with antenna main of beam microprocessor with TDAS-LEO sun. innovative a conglomerate frequency have for been of up to 5. there are five links packages provide intersatellite between having is ter (BPSK) reception information transmitter.1. LEO antenna. seconds having acquisition false error accomplished rate as for ±2. The a SOW LEO TDAS. (from error binary to phase TDAS) (FEC) antenna approximately is modulation.4 M a above. impacted rent TDRSS.000 rate at dish llnk forward users low KM.g. monopulse llnk With automated is at capable any high or an better attitude acquisition and regardless (99.1-5. This br_Lef with link is and effecz.I.95_ of sun.1.I-6 under based loss noise the on show the link of front in are analyses sun.I-i through links i. of capable encoded and a QPSK 7. conducted 60 GHz inter/intra adherence to interference 79 frequency analyses allocation the band. end Figure earth as of all or intersky as in Figure in each communication All with analyses its how effects the RF are attendant system illustrated 1. a 300 tO For Mbps 300 data (LEO) link 600 mW user satellites TDAS to (from IMPATT LEO) capable and a all transmitshift keying of 0. maintained communication (less antenna maintained than field at tracking capability 0.5 Gbps along to traffic with ensure key the from all links planning.1. Figure 1.01_) pointing users ephemeris large To per system the WAEC each accommodate TDAS. 300 are conjunction the periods. receiver fas£ time A W equipped can with TDA_ 50 be capability of when time the maintained for is the in at equatorial equatorial orbits) orbits) controlled tracking acquisition this in 50 Mbps remaining conjunction 0.1-5 instance. low (<0.5 99.1-3 illustrates i.

-5200 K Temp.00 1.00 0.10 0.87 dB-K 2'5. Temp.30 Units dBW dB dB dBi dBW Remarks 10.5 GHz Parameter Transmitting S/C Power Transmit Line Loss Feed Loss Transmitting Antenna Gain EIRP Free Space Loss Pointing Loss Polarization Loss Tracking Loss Net Path Loss Receiving S/C Antenna Gain Feed Loss Receive Line Loss Receiver Temperature System Noise Temperature Effective Received Carrier Level 8oltzmann's Constant Received Misc Hardware Losses ISI Degradation Modem Loss Data Rate Available Required Eb/No Coding Gain Eb/No Margin Eb/No C/No G/T _ Value 10.72 0.60 63.Table 1.26 dB 10.01 degree 0.6O dB 1.043 km 0.10 226.80 1.76 dB BER : 10 -6 .2-m dish 225.50 dB 0. GEO-GEO Crosslink with Sun Effect Modulation: QPSK Coding: None Carrier Frequency = 55.10 K Temp.1-I.0O 84.12 dB dB dB dB dB 83.92 dBW -228.01 degree 63.20 dB 35.1.20 0.6 K at Receiver Input At Receiver Input 300 Mb/s 11.: 290 K 360 K 3866.60 dBW/Hz-K 99.30 dBi 0.63 dB/K -g2.00 dB 0. uncoded 1-14 .77 dB-Hz dB dB dB dB-Hz 3.2-m dish.77 2.0 watts 3.00 0.

.92 2..2-m dish. O0 dB 1. GEO-GEO Crosslink without Sun Effect Modulation: QPSK Coding: Nor.........01 degree 3.84 dB BER = 10 -6 ..043 km 0.]-2...41 35...20 0. .00 dB 0.50 dB O.00 93... = Temp. Temp.01 dB-Hz dB dB dB dB-Hz 2000 Mb/s 12....Table 1...= 290 K 360 K 437.01 degree 0... e Carrier Frequency = 55.........12 dB 63.6 K at Receiver 10 K Input -92.00 0.72 0.92 dBW -228. ...10 0.34 dB 10..2-m dish EIRP Free Space Loss Pointing Loss Polarization Loss Tracking Loss Het Path Loss Receiving S/C Antenna Gain Feed Loss Receive Line Loss Receiver Temperature System Noise "Femperature Effective Received Carrier Level Boltzmann's Constant Received Misc Hardware Losses ISI Degradation Modem Loss Data Rate Available Required Eb/No Coding Gain Eb/No Margin Eb/No C/No G/T 226.20 dB 26.60 dB 1.10 dBW dB dB dB dB 83..60 dB 63. 1.: 10 K Temp.....30 dBi _ 225.I.... uncoded 1-15 ..09 dB-K dB/K At Receiver Input 3..30 dBi O....5 GHz Parameter Transmitting 5/C Power Transmit Line Loss Feed Loss Transmitting Antenna Gain Value Units Remarks .60 dBW/Hz-K _ 1.

0 GHz Parameter Transmitting S/C Power Transmit Line Loss Feed Loss Transmitting Antenna Gain EIRP Free Space Loss Pointing Loss Polarization Loss Tracking Loss Net Path Loss Receiving S/C Antenna Gain Feed Loss Receive Line Loss Receiver Temperature System Noise Temperature Effective Received Carrier Level Boltzmann's Constant Received Misc Hardware Losses ISl Degradation Modem Loss Data Rate Available Required Eb/No Coding Gain Eb/No Margin Eb/No C/No G/T _ Value 8.60 --BTT_7 I.9-m dish.03 220.J Table I.90 Units dBW dB dB dBi dBW Remarks 7.02 degree 53. Temp.660 km 0.6 uncoded 1-16 .00 dBi O.20 0.O0 O.4-m dish 220.20 0.60 56.4O dB 35.1-3. :4400 K Temp.1K at Receiver Input 15.07 dB-K O.89 dB 10. 6O dB I.i.86 -228.71 dB dB dB dB dB 41.: 10 K Temp. LEO-GEO Crosslink with Sun Effect Modulation: QPSK Coding: Rate 5/6 FEC Carrier Frequency : 60.07 0.: 290 K 360 K 3217.75 1.41 0. O0 76.40 dB 1.93 dB/K -105.5 watts 1.99 dBW dBW/Hz-K dB-Hz dB dB dB dB-Hz At Receiver Input 50 Mb/s 6. 79 2.79 dB BER = 10 .50 dB 5.02 degree 0.

.5 watts Transmitting S/C Power Transmit Line Loss Feed Loss Transmitting Antenna Gain EIRP Free Space Loss Pointing Loss Polarization .07 1-17 .03 2..20 0... O0 dBi O.4-m dish 41.]-4.... Temp.. = 250 K Temp.............O0 I..= 290 K 360 K 598..85 220..41 0.....77 23..Table 1.40 dB-K dB/K dBW dBW/Hz-K dB-Hz dB dB dB dB-Hz dB dB dB dB BER = I0 Remarks 7.660 km 0.1......02 degree O.. uncoded 1.77 Eb/No 6..60 C/No _ I.90 63.oss Tracking Loss Net Path Loss Receiving S/C Antenna Gain Feed Loss Receive Line Loss Receiver Temperature System Noise Temperature Effective Received Carrier Level Boltzmann's Constant Received Misc Harward Losses ISI Degradation Modem Loss Data Rate Available Required Eb/No Coding Gain Eb/No Margin G/T 1..... Value Units 8.........02 degree 0.07 0.40 dB 27.23 -I05..17 10.86 -228.9-m dish.00 84.......0 GHz Paraneter ..6 K at Receiver Input At Receiver Input 300 Mb/s -6 .50 5..60 56..03 _ dBW dB dB dBi dBW dB dB dB dB dB 53....75 1..20 0......= 10 K Temp. LEO-GEO Crosslink with Earth Effect Modulation: QPSK Coding: QPSK Carrier Frequency = 60. 60 dB I...

= 250 K Temp.50 dB 0.00 dB 10.73 -117.6 watts 0.00 0.63 dB dB dB dB-Hz dB BER = I0 "6.4-m dish.13 dB 1-18 .68 220.9-m dish 41.08 0.03 0.10 K Temp.38 dB 56.00 20.Table I.20 0. uncoded At Receiver Input 1.I.77 26.70 48.20 0.60 dB-K dB/K dBW dBW/Hz-K dB-Hz 1.I-5.00 2.40 dB 27.660 km 0.6O dB 1..20 -228.07 Units dBW dB dB dBi dBW dB dB dB dB Remarks 0.02 degree 220.6 K at Receiver Input I Mb/s 10.8 GHz Parameter Transmitting S/C Power Transmit Line Loss Feed Loss Transmitting Antenna Gain EIRP Free Space Loss Pointing Loss Polarization Loss Tracking Loss Net Path Loss Receiving S/C Antenna Gain Feed Loss Receive Line Loss Receiver Temperature System Noise Temperature Effective Received Carrier Level Boltzmann's Constant Received Misc Hardware Losses ISI Degradation Modem Loss Data Rate Available Required Eb/No Coding Gain Eb/No Margin Eb/No C/No G/T Value -2. GEO-LEO Crosslink with Earth Effect Modulation: BPSK Coding: None Carrier Frequency = 57.0O 60.02 degree 0.22 1. Temp.60 52.290 K 360 K 598.50 dBi 0.

68 dBW 220.660 km 0....50 dB 0..02 degree 220......02 degree 0....20 0.... uncoded 1-19 .03 0.10 K Temp.38 dB 56.07 dB dB dB dB 41..O0 60..60 dBW/Hz-K _ I.34 dB BER = I0 -6..1-6..50 dBi O......56 dB-K 18. Temp..290 K 360 K 3595.20 dBW -228....94 dB/K -117..20 0......40 dB 35.00 dB 2...00 dB-Hz dB dB dB dB-Hz At Receiver Input 1........ 60 dB 1..6 K at Receiver Input I Mb/s 12.4-m dish.O0 O..22 1. Value Units -2.....8 GHz Parameter ...9-m dish 48.... O0 2..84 dB 10..60 52. =5000 K Temp..08 0.6 watts Transmitting S/C Power Transmit Line Loss Feed Loss Transmitting Antenna Gain EIRP Free Space Loss Pointing Loss Polarization Loss Tracking Loss Net Path Loss Receiving S/C Antenna Gain Feed Loss Receive Line Loss Receiver Temperature System Noise Temperature Effective Received Carrier Level Boltzmann's Constant Received Misc Hardware Losses ISI Degradation Modem Loss Data Rate Available Required Eb/Nc Coding Gain Eb/No Margin Eb/No C/No G/T O. GEO-LEO Crosslink with Sun Effect Modulation: BPSK Coding: None Carrier Frequency = 57.70 dBW dB dB dBi Remarks 0.Table 1...........1..

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requirements.1.2-2.01_ detection. To probability size of must uncertainty the of be extenttnat detection (or azimuth dwell but one is field time less of sweep the signal (subject beamwidth and condition to a given is such false that alarm to allow in than for it achieves the entire such signal target time a given rate). the scheduled illuminate necessarily made very The satellite.kln_.9_ 17 dB signal-to-noise of ratio detection is a shown SNR of (SNR) with in 7-8 in a Figure dB of the i_ detector false 1. the the times 50 50 to This Mb/s MHz are either provide signal (case case.8 Figure in 1. required. detection includes and size requires narrower The are which because return assuming of wide doppler is doppler and carrier by the function cases.Qn In antennas spatial be for order to first and establish be [_rought the to 0EO-LEO within intersatellite each other's field link. the GEO LEO as 1. that the GEO it GEO be unique while made to form a verification reducing the LEO the antenna on simplified to initiate the the detection side I_ alarm very rate slightly.1. spatial Post-acqulsitlon (line-of-sight) initiated the case to of ensure coherent antenna signal communication. further mechanical) the cases require need where detection ks the for situation below complicated threshold the high 95 dB/Hz the to signal ratios detection thus post-detection time than return is to use 83 many dB/Hz link an integration.1. data most minimum larger which frequency to noise bounded a higher communications (electronic which or increases by and signal the scanning bandwidth. signal detection of however. fold. is alarm For for 20 probability characteristic sending capability. radiates using satellite 1-23 .1 __.2-3._i_n_mn:iglr_:. A rate. a than view time. stored LEO it at is least At assumed one the to (not of that the the sateltime the its small contact needs TDAS to scheduled omni its or an hemispherical through that the GEO the antenna requirements uncertainty Since 1.An_i_s in 1.1. antenna). 50 to detector Mb/s GEO effectively of link the and increases relatively almost is use_) detection (more 300 Mb/s C/kT for recommended values the coding enough approach doppler bandwidth eliminate search.2-1. which In is a be or it enough searched greater will The take elevation is equal the to antenna detection to move spatial time from the energy satellite usually bandwidth antenna antenna dictates sweeping. is about ! positions The of view) navigmtion then in scan antenna commands satellite.2.s check LEO its then own two more (on detections detection).2 Ar. (otherwise. Figure worst case sweeping doppler is not illustrated doppler necessary. to below Upon ensure track allow the will This 0. to to to of a routine starts carrier is dwelling a beam. To GE0-LE0 lites the User antenna using antenna illustrated MHz.1. field reasonable will probability misses satellite footprint for region the of can be accuracy the spatial satellites. In required rate. detE_ction l) data would result detection. as GEO minimize is have on b_rden a to the LEO basis satellites. for from energy the LEO However. uncertainty. a a 99. of tracking lock and both view payload to must allow then lock must pull-in signal acquisition.1. the a way the the antenna region that the small in large) to to time another. maJor:_ty decision false only lobe Th. Thus post-detection integrations approximately Upon two-out-of-three process probability will antenna step perform main track and reduces signal dqstection.

g. by the ephemeris calculation If that pointing ephemerides The be accuracy used. is illustrated in 1. Rather command 1-24 . may if time impact the the the detection overall response such as increased its by impact to for other 20 times. developed different to approach as analyze spatial computer of illustrated the GEO open in loop Figure time as initial been for The computer related acquisition methods.2-1. are used errors. resulting presented It tion There computer trade computers already between the be the will and is a as may pointing trade to likely by be more vector between accurate and easier to simply on computer provide board and ephemeris the the ICL predicsatellites. calculated defines satellite. must function. approach beamwidth Whether on board the to the satellite continually ephemeris or and/or calculated the antenna on the pointing ground pointing the The magnitude host control the ICL and vectors upllnked. and other a and having LEO decided performing program parameters has on the acquisition acquisition. vector of are calculated it the may actual attitude will it is be necessary spacecraft errors be correct This is (nominal) on with the attitude. be possible on this the to the algorithm lead if the to smaller impact calculations hardware. is still acquisition region detector is components This time the of uncertainty. inclusion Once information critical will. and satellite is the that how many there the the which be a should on the ephemeris load not the that the calculations. computer attitude so for resident spacecraft's can be attitude passed to assumed in the information pointing. each both it should be remembered Because the sets vector of must by and the satellite. vector be supplied (e. packages be communication than other to synchronized. TDAS baseline and host.1.its time a tracking. the (below detection provide time time.1. compared in that antenna the to the the dependent beamwidths. After radiating 1. are three search analyses illustrated in Table in 1. it the on This for ICLS the its package.. satellite transfer would burdens required ICL do satellite and the own users would ICLS on be the six host 60 GHz will the information packages).2-4.2-5. would host data be placed based such performing host and calculation. will be in requirements with having a each because definition..1. particularly small dB for situations as On the the detector 20 integrations and dependent of is SNR relatively 17 percentage specified e. crosslink pointing will computer for calculation. the ICLS packages Timing will require very will little be less and stop operation. is not The GEO at Note the that same for time high on the total.2-6. enables SNR SNI% its own the detector other carrier total response hand. the host at what on the the for simpler antennas of pointing any and each the target. antenna host spacecraft computer. Eigure 1. package's This on the calculation the one host capability satellite's perform processing whether or mission. may for on the required and the it be for widening may thus ephemeris load of use the a predictions that desire simpler may is algorithms computer burden processing Because placed to minimize performing LEO that host.g. is and which improved minimizing potential the L_O. negligible scan Figure is performance) approximately for a 7 dB which slight SNR the postto integration: a now However. two ephemerides of is both are calculations defined the of the host the to be calculated be position target must done on on of be board. must are with perform track acquisition time low and monopulse autotrack. compared required I0 dB improvement required response acquisition time the spatial input. by the in link order the is to set maintain up. The in performed using LEO.1.

communication at some dropping the link. ICLS and simply of attitude antenna This can positions than gimbals part antenna to may know be more of the to pointing be ing a handled vector. package ephemerides. change steptracked. the a protocol taming can be established for virtually requirement. steptracking have Thls or continuous transfer spacecraft burdensome attitude than autotracking 1-25 . will knowledge requirement target that specifying The baseline combination not antenna accommodate antenna result of host in a spacecraft change track. only host real and vector by the i)rescheduled eliminating time. Because be The and autotracking. instead. very a data gimbals the can expected will the be pointIf will GEO-LEO is used small program-t!'acked requirement requirement the antenna. baseline of is sa_ellite is faster the LEO GEO-GEO ephemeris that the and GEO and part attitude of the is GEO-LEO virtually antennas unnecessary.

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i.2 56.oooo_ 3 16 99.6 35.2-I 60 GHz LEO-GEO ACQUISITION ANALYSIS o 3_'azlmuth uncertainty ±2.0 ° o 3_elevation uncertainty +2.045°/s A_m_L_i_mn__ndi_Isn= o o oInput signal level antenna noise temp gain (3417 K) (l.8 kHz dB bandwidth SNR o o o Acquisition Probability System time of availability visibility (assumed) 50.5 99.0 6.8 MHz o Nominal at signal receiver level input referenced -IIY.0 ° o Nominal acquisition carrier frequency 57.297 % Probability of acquisition 1-32 .0°/s and 1.TABLEi.2.3266_ s 1oo.0°/s 4000.290 ° Rated antenna velocity (azimuth elevation) and 1.0°/S -2 Rated antenna acceleration (azimuth elevation) SEARCH CASE i: SECTOR SCAN ANALYSIS o o o Maximum Acquisition Prediction azimuth antenna scan rate 1.84 dB/Hz dB/Hz o Effective 3 dB beamwidth 0.9702% Number Number Probability Probability of of verifications integrations of of detection false alarm 0.4m) -i17.84 72.0003% 99.8 GHz o 3f frequency uncertainty Zl.dBW o Maximum LEO vehicle velocity 0.56 dBW dB dB-K Acquisition System Effective Effective C/kT 3 dB C/kT 75.

0 4000.TABLE 1.0000% 3 16 99.9 99.1923% s i00.1.0003% 99.2-1 (Continued) SEARCH CASE 2: VOLUME SEARCH ANALYSIS o Maximum Acqulsit.0% 4000.5 99.1923% 100.8 /s kHz dB bandwidth SNR Acquisition Probability System time of availability visibility (assumed) 80.Ln Predetec'zion azimuth antenna scan rate 1.9702% 0.1627% o Probability of acquisition SEARCH o o o Maximum Acquisition Predetection azimuth CASE 3: OPTIMIZED scan rate SEARCH ANALYSIS 1.0000% s o o o o Number Number Probability Probability of of verifications integrations of of detection false alarm 3 16 99.0 kHz 6.0003% 99.9702% Number Number Probability Probability of of verifications integrations of of detection false alarm 0.1627% Probability of acquisition 1-33 .0 6.8 dB antenna bandwidth SNR Acquisition Probability System time of availability visibility (assumed) 42.

for the GEO vehicle will of are another inconvenient tracking.2.1. (300Mb/s maximum by about dc and error The BPSK signal 3 dB tracking compensated compresses to the point receiver to the wideband where tracking they uplink operating are system density bandwidth increases tracking. identifies disturbances contributing tracking 1-34 . a the sequential produce a reference channel multiplexed amplitude modulated This demultiplexed signals narrowband LEO/GEO spectral over full and which signal in are filtering 2 Gb/s) which the then is then AM detected and (Figure generate synchronously 1.1. for on between when the the antenna antenna operation The is RF axis and in indicative the the operating it is tracking tracking tracking noise autotrack signal channel These loop the model principal level mode effects in dynamic losses._ign The autotracking of of the The Figure the number continual system 1. calculations these servicing antennas. to be results platform onboard perturbations ephemeris best. 1.2 T_.I.1 _y__em_D__scnlp.2-8) axis PSK drive to demodulated generate rate signals at commands. signal. (_) The and pseudo-conscan). for as the antennas rate transformed autotracking. (_) output in 00. i.2 An_nn__Au_r_klng I.2. significant system the sourare single lag. system error and The is to the the Thus angle target. antenna currently the tracking additive An including analysis optimization of the of servo tracking parameters. through equivalent are then transformations. sensitivity A the space special craft feature platform from antennas one of this system due another. 2. 90 ° application single aperture of signal which and the difference difference superimposed components error shifter the is is error processed then coupled through onto signal. 2._kinu__r_K_E Tracking apparent automatic of ces the of line of Error sight mode.2. open deal program The technique ticular from El) posite phase a antennas (also called on the GEO vehicle will or use the single-channel In signals contains quadrature.2-9 error. i. antennas be used on is the shown GEO and multiplicity in to spacecraft with by in the block nas diagram because of Autotracking narrow antennas from at and one beamwidths which user would loop antenalso relatively of GEO/LEO moving which. in Figure following is shown to generalized which analysis 1.1. 270 ° to monopulse this are both This parderived (Az and com- pseudo-monopulse reference feed horn. 180 ° . and are is a to In technique periodic this scheme into for high compensating rate the axis slewing rates for of of perturbations user are to measured These which corrections are to GEO/LEO slewing mass-property axis applied rates antennas of the converted then platform into These drives. servo monopulse are evaluated used in autotrack in this receiver paragraphs.2-7.1. a because of users. performance of this system follows.

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Receive P.lse-free = Receiver = Platform open noise/signal rate prediction loop gain ratio accurace - (o/s)/s _ 10.1. = Axis component FIGURE 1.-ll tl eT 1 1 + NIS AGC "1 eA I 1_ m COMPENSATION LOGIC I I FEED & TR_CK RCVR PARAMETERS K o _I/S = _l£._ VAR IABLES eT eA _ep _p = Target = Ar_tenna = Piatform = d'_e line-of-sight motion motion morion to relative platform antennas to stabilized platform relative due to other slewing P )/dr system noise of tracking error -.2-9 SI_LE-AXIS 1-37 TRACKING LOOP MODEL .

2. I.1. other The tracking noise/signal selected estimate systems ratio coupling of normalized using the in tracking (20 feed receiver dB) gradient type.1 Noise noise function gradient noise being of and bandwidth The GEO/GEO receive error _N frequency _hermal_N_ise in the receiving on the and about system dc the noise autotrack which a by random case the are at the Az (primarily and E1 error The antenna signals.2. tracked much of by greater vector both than sum the GEO/LEO the beam and radial and of LNA) this results causes error and pattern a is error the in low a superimposed random system single of "Jitter" signal which target.6/_HP half-power noise-free beamwidth open position loop gain antenna error gradient at tracking coupler _HP factor same error Z-38 .Z)Z/2 to sum coupling factor = zoo (20 dB) K_ = = = K o N/S = The sort. 2. magnitude the modulation loop.2. can be = modulated tracking magnitude characterized rms two-axis following: due to thermal noise error = (z/_) BS = 2-sided (Bs/BR)z/2 tracking servo loop noise bandwidth (Hz) = BR = (Ko12)l(l Receiver = + N/S) predetection 4 MHz bandwidth = normalized system modulation sensitivity = K_/(F = difference . crosslink are antennas bandwidth. system servo being rates parameters. is predetection typical is based for on bandwidth systems experience of this with = normalized 0. secondary channel the antenna signals PSK In such monopulse parameters.

1.0001 0.2-10 1.1.006 0.5 K_ = Antenna Error Gradient I deg-I 5.1.12 deg I l 1.2-2 Thermal Noise Error Parameters GEO/LEO GEO/GEO l = Antenna Beamwidth I 0.1 dBHz 99.0 deg-i l 4 BR = Receiver Bandwidth 107.9 C/kT = System Signal/Noise Density 88. as which viewed has from proportional The vertical o the line-of-sight (LOS) rate relative to a stable platform o platform GEO/LEO motion antennas perturbations for routine due switches to from slewing one user of to non-tracking another.0005 (normal) (eclipse) Selected drift. to cover worst case doppler shift and long-term local oscillator 1. 1-39 .2. Table as a Peak function (3-sigma) of servo plotted tracking antenna.4 deg 0. Both factor is of these for factors GEO/GEO are significant for GEO/LEO tracking: the second dominant tracking.2 The dynamic the lag __s autotracking errors platform.2-2.1 dBHz dBHz (normal) (eclipse) MHz* N/S = = Receiver BR/(C/KT) Noise/Signal Ratio 0. position to total loop the apparent will apparent rate be a target has two Type I velocity components: loop.These thermal loop gain noise for parameters errors the are GEO/LEO are summarized in Figure An Table 1.

GEO/LEO 1-40 .2-10 . I.t4_ _P m l | o I r 1 l 0 0 t C_ 0 _J Beam R_dial Tracking Error (Deg) AUTOTRACKING ACCURACY Figure I.

025°/s 0. The loop total two-axis is given dynamic by: lag error (beam radial error) for this configuration = 3ti V K V = loop vlilocity error constant = = K O I(i .2-3 Tracking Rates (Worst Case) GEO/LEO GEO/GEO o Unperturbed LOS O. two The GEO/LEO iner- assumption estimates slewing on maximum pound antenna class Table spacecraft.The corrected drive systems platform dimensional ratios.2-3 of tracking along 5000 with km case altitude orbit.001°/s 0. within given the These ZI0_. N/S) total apparent target angular velocity F _ _ = LOS target angular rate relative to stabilized platform jL_ = platform can be perturbation used if rate rate (error in compensation compensation is performed) corrections Estimates estimates antennas tias acting of of these disturbance at a 2000 rates are rates summarized are of 5°/s.016°/s 0. 1.2-10 as a function 1-41 .1.01°/s Compensa'-ed 0. based and in on latest the Table 1.2-3 of of below.1.1.01°/s 0.01°/s Compensated 0. in worst Table error where in effect a Type oi ] platform loop by motion adding is knowledge be perturbations known also of platform known as can theoretically to the scaled be rates rate The signals there _ithis is rates the a procedure prior can other momentum estimates feed-forward magnitudes (in a in of two- rates).Ol5°/s 0 Perturbations Uncompensated 0.001°/s o Total Uncompen_ated 0.1. by rates perturbation manner) reaction The calculated slew are the basis proportioning by appropriate to be antenna effects of the inertia estimated rates are based to are on expected current platform LOS satellite rates.001°/s Dynamic of position loop tracking gain. errors are plotted in Figure 1. perturbation which in a polar 1.

the open (in rotor the loop rad/s) freloop 2) The for and gain can't attainable in low is limited the A structural frequencies.2. error Also is shown also are = (eD2 + (3_N) plotted several in 2) 1/2 Figure of 1. gain and The below. 1.1.I dB predicted tracking loss).2-10 depending not In a both it on great cases can be seen of is that difference important to the rate optimum between note that value the of is loop used. 1-42 . the will noise yield For a gain any tracking which conditions.3 Because lated. tracking as loss a function by of serve levels given LdB=I2 Since errors minimum discussion increase total of the dynamic with error for the the GEO/GEO loop for lag (e/@Hp) errors there given 2 decrease is an system see set of with optimum is loop gain discussed 1. respect there There gain lower that The are two general reasons optimum: why it is desirable to select a loop the theoretical is always I) optimum are posited On present.. low with However.i implies dB a to by loss) locked-rotor with a 0.4 From gain In minimum is this about case total fiEolL___r__kln_ Figure 2-3/s there errors. which (0.2. particular derived also the still reduces fixed-based is 3 dB structural locked-rotor conservative that bandwidth locked Reducing structural inertla-ratio is Hz) antennas. loop gain on the worst other decrease case hand with by very loop the a stable relative the serve antenna target thermal loop rates noise which errors. factors to be considered. occur which infrequently.2.9 40_ by I0_ of 1 Hz antenna. on requirements requirements stiffness antennas a m loop gain frequency diameter body can of achieve the order tenth of beamwidth i/sec or tracking less. is 1.1. natural frequency theoretically Ko. nominal than have experimentally (which be made (in much and rule-of-thumb greater quency gain design. The tracking required attain about GEO/LEO with loop. maximum the __h/_=al._: dynamic total lag and lag error the and is thermal evaluated noise noise as error: errors the are not spatially (RSS) correof the peak root-sum-square dynamic 3 sigma eTOT This loop gain.2. practical "optimization" GEO/LEO tracking system Section i.2.1. gain/bandwidth. rate which is probably not difficult The requirement could be reduced accuracy compensation.2. whether deal it platform compensation the theoretical predicted to are beamother error levels at the optimum loop gain are relatively widths (less than 0.2.

will a for variance have temperature transmission A coefficient line typical of and is very expansion. The GEO-LE0 can LEO be be on data easily the ranging rate modulo data 1 is is set 2 complicated at added The 300 of 1 to Mbps.__s_mm The baseline transmitted LEO the the GEO satellLte. Processing induced uncertainty c. delay nanosecond will of low if the change the range.1. 1. Hardware induced uncertainty b. Transmission especially group Jacketed ppm/°C. data rates if at or near the could rate these alternate substituted. the code can range lower the chipping be modulo At chipping include this of time 3 we Mbps as recommend although well. delay. contributing mixers. group of filter filters The 50°C thus bandwidth temperature negligible. rates between recommendation Table l-l) Judlciously-chosen Mbps.erally However. wide to for last than the disparity GE0 the two the a will range techniques PN in not code data be to will the for rates the be same implies for all to be that of the the the GEO method possible via the l) For of returning users.1. Kbps and subset USAT Mbps. Link induced uncertainty Circuit transmission proportional have exhibit a flight very group quality The line.4-6. less of than this In 1 type the fact to etc. the of the require rates preamble than re-construction rate.7 a uncertainty has ns be significant. semirigid approximately amplifiers copper-50 do not phase-vs. contribute group lines waveguides. 2 added appears stream. and This the PN code that at higher will For the data data. However. It data rates stream. to little components amplifiers.1.3 Ba_nlln__Egnu/_. the by the With a various PN data code data rate rates of 3 expected. wide the group delay are delay filters bandpass edge. in the are that the GEO GEO by and the re-transmitted baseline Figure diagrams is presented: aboard 1. rates i. accuracy: has There been are evaluated essentially by identifying three types and of a.1 Eans_rau_ Potential budgeting sources timing that affect navigation uncertainty the ranging performance sources. slgnificar_t 1-43 . filter this system will of is Group bandpass 400 at MHz band 0. delay ger. stream however. of group Wideband delay coefficient mixers uncertainty. and have is between transmitted been to design 100 Kbps specified for channel.1. much This 2) to returned to can LE0-GEO data data have code accurate implemented: be muxed into code. over is a bandpass in a in filters.3-1. not using return techniques. Mbps the to The code the to some 300 forward data The (see rates. long. equipme:_t is shown in two-way to the The aboard Figure ranging USAT: block the LEO system then consists recovered of shown of and the in a PN code generated to system 1. the delay cable or 2. code.-temperature 50°C amount change.01_ filter bandwicth.3.


forward ranging In other in the separate errors a within range no error. due to uncertainties stability. that a in the a 5_ 3 Mb/s code tracking DLL experience performance used. capability. i. factors comof ranging system for Doppler contributing trades. assessed implies that ns. improve The of ranging simplest the and range performance. tracking ranging Our code error is ed_Kr error data error ror due to less than can by easily error be "real-tlme" indicates as treated data processing that by is using a matter buffer consideration.67 obtainable.2 cm/sec is very frequency stability strated Our in ATS-6 has analysis on careful Nevertheless under averaging conditions time design and performance average seconds.2 Eanua_Ea_a The in in concert the point due Consideration best with must design to the method thE_ be of given extracting to other Our and concept sources analysis The measuring and of has the error shown rate no Doppler total and need 1. ranging inclusion I. several shows provide of throuch a data schemes such for smoothing a code forward Hardware really assumes identical synchronized assu_e other may the allocated allowable designed period. can derived be inclusion improved data. be. two 5_ be of noise and should ranging the the noise not be in error.E_Quessin__Indua Timing meriting memory readout. based propagation by link is and a should errors loop range it to budget each. space-delivered would technology Assuming about 16. functions and a very time receiver oscillator quantization. broken yield return is to the down bias the link that half be of be to treated rms order the into errors total code to half the as of to bias and rms is both of GE0. timing Link error is introerror ground small atmospheric tropospheric strong be to the and induced providing Accuracy components. lumped Since length link error words. error 5 such the meters loop SOW.5 requirement will has Z0. range as can the is the that code LEO of reasonable and 5 meters Therefore stated determination above. orbital demandi_ of ixl0 an pensation dynamics. Timing study. can are error not involved. requirements There definitized clock With further range-rate rate the are analysis and/or to need. SNR. range system this of of 2. Initial processing introduced in this is code analysis essentially has been real-time. Since duced can be by made measurement._d 1-45 . Doppler require a been demonmeasurement. one-way the chip code with the to clock budget the errors tracking As of the ranging the and be range of specifications induced tracking scheme llnk then epoch. 3. be Link which are induced timing of such error items includes as the error noise. experiments assum. is to code of increase if the a more range smoothing processing algorithms tracking accuracy Doppler noise.0uracy must be developed design.

also of be i00 be the assumed size These 200 relay A represented would be here.1. loaded into tag command execution the two generated memory. and with the optimized system functions. if a multiple A necessary. of the is outputs selection redundancy undesirable are inter- is discrete Where in that units the simultaneously command damage the Critical fire) provided before to commands they reset may the require be sequence executed. of command host without control to allow microprocessor has been spacecraft system interfaces. executed.6 T_dmm=nn__and_C=mmanaRm_r_m_n_s The telemetry to The command a variety and be and command system for will use This either a approach the central approach LEO will or be GE0 modular mission to selected Figure to allow system major telemetry operation shows capacity redesign. divided commands.6-i telemetry For the discrete a spacecraft type should (28 v.4 _imGk__iaur_ma The are presented block in diagrams Figures of 1. and be desired When processor.I.4-9. also 1-46 . prevented.00 .1.1. disable is arm.2 attitude cm/sec parameters LEO it accuracy in satellite impacts signal time. acquisition acquisition LEO ±0. serial and coincide. 50 data tagged stream time stored 500 into commands about of 300 adequate. the central as a discrete pulses. decoded. has has profound been detection The as to bandwidth. 1. and clock The range stability rate requirement 1. command critical sequence command (enable. It line and attitude and control tracking factor in and are approach.1. with the redundant desired member units.4-i the GE0-LE0 through equipment 1. (resulting locked so by the spacecraft commands operation of or situation is which both mutual is configured choose redundant interference). configurations. imporAs designing spatial the uncertainty of a major its acquisition even impact the on for selection steering. ms) and accommodated. When made pair. base also design acquisition much as a timing determined requirement_l_f of lxl0 Z2. load commands can should for memory onboard from be later in adequate.I 1. aboard the GE0 satellite The tant target design. errors translates of satellite the navigation link acquisition is antenna. execution the order closure total of time data the stored the Serial data load commands stored commands the compared is central with shifted Within can of time.


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definition housekeeping and Final telemetry digital system data. spacecraft equipment hardware without For utilized low power for RF ground test link checkout.1. mission. for i0 inches link by by would either of be a a hardllned spacecraft spacecraft) means The baseband umbilical spacecraft. changes The This will will be Levels will types either serial for of be command a 28 volt data signals by will the output pulse interfaces or a with be TTL. and formats to be one to a a Use it allows and bit conforming rates to the have ADS LEO command error has no ground been Standard or GE0 considered. temperature frame exists. The signals. dedicated the on command. Data clock control the command Discrete load and and comenable mode link. telemetry o o Normal Dwell PCM PCM data data stream stream 1-56 . executed. of system for 32 serial measurements. The data length A word will and accept will analog provide will be signals. be used. relay will closure. A of error polynomial detection/correction coding is desirable in the X 7 + X6 + X2 + 1 (from gives be ADS 7. output up port will be: to six provided Outputs simul- with frame.5. purposes. prior the ground execution Three commands mands signals.command Some form link. mainframe will be subframe will be bits maximum more adequate decision length of made provides 8 The words. "Inner Convolutional protection for for and discrete verification Block Error Control The to Coding decoded if Standard") command necessary. digital these streams will ground (and to be appropriate Redundancy station the via be exercised control command will processor allow time generate commands telemeter) loaded and spacecraft tagged autonomously Various desirable bit rates appears are for address structure. taneously This system dwell the will mode normal include will PCM be the ability on to a from dwell. rack or space) interface interface interface It umbilical by the shuttle same to the inch utilized a small access of selected 19-1/2 require generator (approximately would generate command with one which on-board manually commands of the computers. can satisfactory telemetered to commands. conditioning either with a when 64 or bi-level for 128 ISL words length complete resolution status package long. (radiated through can would be it Access or the is assumed to the to that system the the can command be obtained or connector. of 48 or The The formats The bits a most and adequate either and support either standard including provides 7 bit discrete/proportional standard of this use of Hamming format existing frame code on station control impact memory load message complexity modification. clock. data. temperature Status words. 4.

6-I SYSTEH INTERFACES COMMAND 1-57 .HOST S/C CONTROLLER I P SATELLITE BUS Nodal PC._ _ / _/ 2L6 Di-c=et.1. 5 Data Load ANTENNA CTRL DATA i I l 1 I # I CP. Modulated Sub-carrier Bi-Phase Modulated Sub-carrier 2f FIGURE TELF--METRY AND 1. V I I l J [ L. PC. o OUTPUTS 28V Pulsa Dwell PQI ANT CTRL CHDS \ .OS SL INI( ANTENNA CONTROLLER I I Cormands Discrete Data Load Conraands I m L -= Relay _:losure Serial = Data I I I TELEMETRY AND CO_MA_D SYSTE9 INPUTS Analog Data Bi-leveL Status Digital Data _ r i Dwell .

results and in a a major time frames.192 seconds.6-1. out configuration source units as selection) a serial digital stream to data the (TTL level) clocked data telemetry. As in the minor read a memory down shown for in later in the is Figure 1. tle can also A recommended separate be provided.6-2. and analog Bilevel data data from will be the used will various for be status sources (on. monitored to the by checkout telemetry.1. for (in the A Orbiter separate checkout bay) can cover bit a any stream hardwired of the will funcbe telemetry through orbiter pre-launch umbilical Modular reconfiguration Typical telemetry design of and the of the system telemetry for lists are the and command system mission will host allow spacecraft. easy various shown in command Table 1. Because the of For made: crosslink hardware initial the sizing the data. Pre-launch tions returned connection. of telemetry to a 0 to unit 5 will volt accept range.1. produces frame frame svery 8. into the output of on the telemetry the configured preceding unit crosslink so word is stored or on one being readout case being of transmission The memory either be the link will while that is frame out for word loaded memory transmission. have been telemetry purposes housekeeping MIHQE__TA Analog Status Serial Temperature Analog Status Spare Spare Overhead (Sub (Minor (Minor (Minor (Minor (Sub Digital (Sub Frame) Frame) Frame Frame Analog) Digital) Frame) Frame) Frame) 64 4x16 22 3x32 4x16 2 14 9 7 This frame of 256 consisting ms per leads of manor to 32 a 128 minor and word minor frame. 1-58 .The downlink. backside a digital satellite output data the should following requires will also be multiplexing provided. and a LEO. A a bit major word rate of length 4 Kbps 8 bits. PCM baseband format output is in NRZ-L an to NRZ-M conserve format bandwidth for use by the on the shut- A conditioned off. be multiplexed To of maintain into assumptions TT&C data into uniformity the downlink.

1.6-2 1-59 .d Mul t i_ Analog plexers q _ _[Analog Sub Mux ___ To Analog Digital Conv. -h ( f f Mixer Frame Digital Ou t pu T Iing Control _ Memory 2 -( Sub Mux Digital TELEMETRY FUNCTION Figure 1.

Table Typical Unit: Command _Qmman_s Telemetry 1. slew limit Yaw slew limit Auto Data scan load select Pitch Drive to motor Yaw drive to motor 1-60 . on/off auto/manual manual patch On/off Mode.1. i. Controller status auto scan/manual data dump slew Slew. unit on/off status Spacecraft Telemetry Unit: Transmitter Csmmand_ Unit Mod Mod Unit: on/off index select source select Telem_ On/off status Mod index selected Mod source selected Receiver c_mman_s Phase Phase Receiver Unit: System Controller and Gimbal Drive lock lock AGC loop loop lock stress status voltage C_mman_a Unit Track Slew.6-1 and Command List Command process address data) (selects unit to Command Execute Stored verification flag and sequence readout Critical command enable/disable Data load _o controller Stored Unit: Telemetry program time lag Cnmman_a Unit Dwell Dwell on/off mode word(s) select select T=lem_r_ Frame sync Subframe counter Dwell word i.d. manual yaw Pitch.d.

2.2.frequency sampled test USAT. target initial immediately the field out satellite test of It the is five corsidered ISL payloads unlikely must that test. course give ing tion also the one with some error of acquisitior of an the updated of launch one this or other should TDAS fail ISL and comm the systems with acquisition USAT is should still attempt in the TDAS field(of This may acquisition target. begin. steps series tracking is returned locked time by the receiver. to GEO pointing under a master is that Doppler the #2).1.1) will of is (assuming then GEO navigational antenna onto a 60 is GHz through and USAT. i. be there To test through checked will reduce of an the When ISL time one on the be out more the for than time target one spent to begin is in is LEO on available as much as for possible. acquisition The target comm ISL satellite system computer of signal The the ephemeris. and can necessary. 7 O_rati_nal Conc=_s i. (LEO) the case.. calculates_ ISL payload to information target's is beamed antenna 60 GHz slewed location. all ISL comm When checked for turn-on. signal so couplers verify to the ground levels. 7. If of-view. data is of the sent the rate.g. towards and proper sent power the A (locked transmitted via telemetry . i.7.1.6. _e GEO antenna The ur_til tracking lock is USAT the that containing its ISL comm pointing system vector attempts strategy information acquisition (see Section accuracy) a the has with also the simultaneously. by test each Attempted five ISL payloads which is of important payloads personnel of the failure.3 Qn-Orblt T_SZ All acquisition.mmand so.1 Launch_Se_uen_[e The TDAS launch sequence is described in Section 1.i_n The payloads Eirst operating testing can all is ISL original necessarily components are contact a part are powered-up with of enabled a the target in-orbit and prepared satellite testing for for each of the of the five payloads. personnel can A been TDAS ensures illuminate pre-programmed controlled to the GEO: sent time-line to the LEO cc. pointing the cause vector) of receiver available) to is the aid that particular failure etc. of the in indication due more to than in (TDAS e. the and systems begin. i. 1.i. tests checked (acquisition performance. antenna pointacquisi- damage. TDAS as vector test is profile from is the given to source) by calibrated the and time of (via of the contact the of GEO-GEO The and the a ground in ephemeris this the TDAS.7. achieved signal carrier acquisition complete. USAT phase t SAT) (if malfunction._2. and initial we to recommend continue if payload the ISL next after of view for and acquisition for acquisition performance) that USAT payload orbit. payload This mance of the next link phase is of the on-orbit These tests test are is the to ensure as that those the perforin adequate.1. determining cause 1. same described 1-61 .2 _. and operation. that the the baseline acquisition reasonable moves signal At and is this its 1.

simulated direct any USAT. a equipment of (demodulators. real-time of up-loaded circumvents maximum mode executed associated time-line. A back-up trouble-shooting.3. 7. basis. target The Since USATs will be according technique is are to the not should location. i._L_Qn Ee-acquisition up-loaded for a to original real-tlme further from the of ground.4 _L___par atlon Scheduling Priorities prior on the to ISL table phase. interest it A placed could test may of be more rapid checkout feasible package Not of the to five utilize the all GEO-LEO the diversity options be payloads STS of as LEO a . be tested. All the the redundant ranging paths system shall and be the checked range out. minimize some time computations pre-positioning to the target method spent 1-62 . information for the ISL user will be a ground will be function. real-time delays of the utilization will be intersatellite for back-up and links. nel but to the test could the the TDAS. of long tame etc. etc) is the it initial may be out. the operational checked utilization time. will Two the anomalies the crosslink (such as resources solar or llnk.Section tor must 1.5 _. and commanding controller. rate extrac- Since checkout very This for long should traffic and time not there launch before preclude this of will LEOs all probably transmitting of the be long at the time gaps other between data rates. 1. telemetry available all Various crosslink t-he antenna receiver states will is operation allowing (bandwidth. be under data ground ahead the rate. resolved load position acquisiwhere is used is and the for conjunction) reduce the for form use the intersatellite ephemeris To in antenna computational of a timethe track mode mode) position look-up tion antenna special from a be modes the supplied should user where and the be during self provlded--a a tlme-position (as the times. the autotracks applications look-up will table be This antenna from acquisition Gimbal driven error up-loaded at ground. Additionally.2. in closed-loop mode. crosslink equipment during In aboard special options out.) As and as in well the as case the of on with a interconnections this This ground information mode control.6. be STS customized aboard act results as containing only could station checked person- ground with trained interpret trouble-shooting.LAG_I.7. control provided i.economically USAT the a and STS. control. the same being be time-llne as done available that on re-acquisition ephemeris of in terminal slewing acquisition. i.

minimum arcseconds are originates the varies to mean Z0. an arcminute sur. 1. assigned defined An the size Instead to as the the the of intersatellite the of disk sun. 32 arcmin limb to lhm__m_A___o_GHz 60 As GHz solar from degrees) _s radiation the earth.2.8.1.s. brightness.533 brightening have i0_ a few uniform from tens "hot" the antenma sizes in size. considered degree Since angular noise. using of body flux p. total maximum.2. approach for the be cause size.1 _he K_h The The data E f_cts_oI_ _ar th__Sun_and__Qlar izatlon 290°K. of the the solar sun. the impact on of a 60 GHz the intersatellite apparent with a 360 Since a system K noise temperature 1. A 60 7200 GHz K. The of and apparent the is antenna beamwidths considered an are as apparent a smaller point than source the of is cannot flux temperature of which GHz the would sun result temperature visible disk at the 60 is black solar Allen. beam noise 60 GHz. sunspot flux surface optical Although minimum changes by "hot" above than increasing However.2 Sun i. times hotter than from sun. have interference since many uniform the beamwidths considered the sun can angular system one half arcminutes temperature.1. observed 7200 in K ("Astrophysical of the sun will Quantities".5 first The to to circularly solar from angular arcmin order 60 but the GHz near the size over sun solar at in and They their crosslink a solar size may will may be visible of the at the year.i.2 The the is some appears less spots sunspots. or sidelobes temperature. beamwidths disk of i00 of sun viewed (0. have an antenna surface temperature 1-63 .1. spot of spots average maximum appear more These than as antenna polarized temperature. required effect GEO-LEO of earth link basically accomodates and receiving adds this an added noise effect without the temperature loss of of any transmission capability.8.8 1.1.1. 192).8. sun link antenna be density. "and observed. temperature density.1 Genezal_Di_ussl_n Solar radiatlor link temperature falling antenna of the adds sun in to is receiver the the 7200 main system K is at large.

As contrast. maximum antenna power integration percentage with The antenna antenna temperature OHz multiplied background was of the to remaining filled radiation..73 1...... .0 0...9 0...i. 4500 250 i0 5000 250 i0 5000 250 i0 5100 250 i0 5200 250 I0 + ..52 I Antenna Pointed Pointed Pointed ..0 0..78 3...4 0. temperature at at at sun earth sky • (K) 7200 @ 290 _ K K 3 K .. 1-64 ..... 1.....38 0.54 i... account out An for for the a uniform additional aperture factor of energy antenna 1..50 1. [ I [ 4400 250 I0 ..0 0. tabulated the earth antenna of additional The resultant antenna temperature in Table 1......8..... and for different two other cases pointing at an antenna sizes are are considered: 18 degree diameter (290 TEMPERATURES BEEORE NETWOKK ..25 0..84 1... the since at over sun.ii 1.76 1.... depending temperature area the is percentage this Kmr_ima_e_o sun Antenna on antenna occurs of of 3 K is f_Maxlmum_An assumed full size when the the power and to t=nna_T_m_enntun__due____mlnn_n_=_=_n_ be a uniform range pointed pattern on K..2-1 at cold sky (3 K)...8...----...2-1.........----...3 The diameter.....73 1......5 0.. pointing K).....1... ...2 dB scattered with loss 4_ (76_ into calculation the was area required blockage efficiency) sidelobes.. carried antenna.............2... sun An gives sky is beamwidths illumination is power falling by 7200 function..53 0.......1.84 The center disk The of to 0.. the 7200 K from the the disk 0........04 2............23 of of antenna 60 the the degrees degrees... ÷ l Antenna Eull Diameter diameter power beamwidth between 2nd (m) (degrees) nulls (deg) _ I ) 0..... TABLE ANTENNA 1.. antenna sun..----...8...... .

.. 1..0047 1....0 0.50 1.2-2 causes the "_ to minutes of__olan_K/_e_ta has solar of 1:48........ Size_el_SoLar_Interference_Region i_ to could this (-20 the dB) disk of of For cause the the a up antenna sun..0097 2...84 1....... 1. 1.6 up energy to 72 K is received in from antenna of an area noise 500 K..i...0021 Diameter Area ....... i Solar Interference (degrees) (_ of sky) Region I I I 2.......i .8.4 If responding perature example...5 0.. (LEO) to GEO so Two satellite solar This the of are GEO Section random.. the center degrees...2-2 A tapered 1985) and of 0.... would receiver dB link temperature degradation.54 i..9 0... Ii 1....6 .53 minimum solar different Progress interference antenna Report #6 can earth orbit total in The section: from from geostationar_... comes significant in diameter interference (see of the terms _e interference sun..04 2.0033 I.... illumination calculation Monthly solar TABLE 1..1 . 8....0051 1...52 ......... estimate links and from in of the region motions in interference...........3 ....i.8..2...... sky" for indicates different per known be given..1.....56 1.0 0.0 0....... I:I0.. can direction.... of to the degradation satellites interference" precisely tl..... a better different to is GEO... cortemfor increase noise occur.3 ... interference translates motions maximum considered to LEO.000 to 51 probability antenna year..... for March.000 [Link are given data on the If a size the and solar area plus of sizes..i...... 60 to GHz 0...6 ....76 1..8.... sizes.7...1. However.73 1..2. margin Solar design) This if criteria the interference sun gives stays a will beyond circular [If the solar of Table the sun stay the "solar below first this sidelobe level ring (with around around careful the main the antenna beam.... antenna interof is that area the of for interference" within area thus gives aperture is assumed for its the this is area area defined boresight ference position the sun.78 3.1..2.5 Table the were between from sun "solar this llnk ii and sky which Duratlon 1...0083 1...38 0.2-2 SIZE OE SOLAR INTEREERENCE REGION I Antenna Full Diameter power diameter beamwidth between 2nd (m_ (degrees) nulls (deg) l 1 I 0.4 0..25 0..8.. occur.. io_ orbit (GEO) considered 1-65 .....











Figure (altitudes has radius orbits. time LEO of an from apparent up to The year. and 9.0

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satellite The

orbits earth in mi on mi LEO sun Table mi LEO

satellite. orbits degrees degrees degrees for for

degrees I00 varies mi

and orbit from above and

satellites' to 15.7 +23.4 16.3 degrees interference As of the year

range 3100

path For

depending for 100 since 3100 mi the in i00

solar declinations llnk close

declinations above cannot enough to cannot year for

orbits, the never

orbits, will

LEO-GEO pass solar

experience the LEO occur 3100 mi for


satellite. 73%

shown for, orbits, and

interference 51% of the




As east motion much disk as of across is 39 the 4

viewed the

from region





will by

appear satellites. solar LEO) of this as the is every


pass Since

from the



potentially there LEO) block only earth to the be 6 can 65

occupied be min sun

solar for as the mi LEO

degrees/hour, min earth there (I00 mi will will of the

potential (3100 mi part a day

interference day. For However, I00


time. LEO

satellites around LEO the satellite time

minutes solar on

satellite At solar

comes higher inter-



interference orbital to 65 min inclination, window

possible. more

altitudes, is possible

depending within the















LEO Time %

satellite LEO of

period eclipsed by earth

(minutes) (minutes) (%)

90 49 55

200 47 24

satellite time

Maximum Including Time


radius solar transit





(degrees) (degrees) (minutes)

9.0 9.6 39

15.7 16.3 65

antenna solar

interference of region












of number

possible of dates of days of days


interference (days)

Feb24-Apr15 50 Aug28-Oct17 (days) 50

Feb4-May5 90 AugS-Nov6 90

other number % of




duration LEO satellite) of noise >70 K (minutes)


varies with orbit

Maximum (for

continuous single



e,,,,-I e,-,4 LII

I'--'4 L£-


tion two and modes: in



Table The, recommendation


interference is to size

is the

limited LE0-GEO

in llnk




No be being

solar used. in

interference. (Antenna the field

Lower temperature of view).

power will

and/or be 240

higher K due to

data disk

rates of

can earth


With power

3250 and/or


sun lower

increasing data rates

antenna could be

noise used.



The sun during recommended would be a sensors. solar

change The

between alternate

modes to which

could dual are to mode


based operation


ephemeris is to shut

calculations down It times the is as

or link not this

"outages", to great size waste the in

predictable include solar

far margin


advance. at all














The llnk as except viewed

geometry for from and being the the K link. LEO sun.

of in

the the

GEO-to-LE0 opposite the more solar



the A





LE0-to-GEO is target However, being in effects that GE0

direction. earth cannot


difference the occur.

satellite, Thus

come time

between can

satellite there the for is field the


no 240 of view. GEO-LEO

increase Table

in antenna

temperature summarizes


due to the earth solar interference

Since required link, sizes to 1 data Mbps

data rate vs on with as the full

transfer is much much as

is lower 300

primarily for Mbps. the Thus

from GEO-LEO the will


to llnk

GEO than link,

satellite, for with the its

the LEO-GEO antenna margin

GEO-LEO have more

based operate

LEO-GEO 3600 K

requirements, solar interference.













Maximum increase in receiver noise temperature (K) 3600



of number

possible of dates of days of days


interference (days)

Feb24-Apr15 50 Aug28-Oct17 (days) 50

Feb4-May5 90 Aug8-Nov6 90

other number of




duration LEO satellite) of noise >70 K (minutes)


varies with orbit

Maximum (for

continuous single

1-68 Rolar_nZlmn i.I.8.3.1
incident This and means oriented with is will vector

G_n=raLDiauua_lon A receiving
electromagnetic that in the the space antenna wave polarization identically antenna. of to the the along the but between extracts when it the is of the The direction direction a llne terminus rather two it maximum polarization the wave incident that would of of amount of matched wave is energy to from the an wave. to trans-

ellipse with

identical from

result an the

mitting field which field polarized. does not

receiving in be always general, a straight can a circle terms normal directed

polarization in of the of space

electromagnetic electric If the be field ellipse. line field electric linearly vector These (linear

described always is In trace

propagation. field the is said


however, line vary

electric an a straight


polarization polarization) results at the from

ellipses and the


(circular field vector about shown that circular be broken and an

polarization). rotating axis linear clockwise parallel polarization polarizations into perfect and of unity is met wave. the while symmetry. respect polarization and for to polarization circular If the the none can that two

Elliptical or to counter the is of counter circular of be the

polarization clockwise of of amplitude. circular contains (orthogonal) from any of the is two

electric frequency

excitation It rotation polarization of sense of

direction composed

propagation. counter Elliptical polarizations only sense one of



(orthogonal) can

equal rotating

unequal circular

amplitude, polarization Efficiencies

polarization opposite

polarization. as long as

achieved the

polarizations polarization polarized wave angular from usually polarized antenna variation polarized acquire efficiency. cularly required. where respect the to and a to

the the

condition incident to

receiving and of

antenna elliptically the incident

matched antennas achieve alignment must maximum because that a wave must in waves track If polarized, Thus is

to be

Linearly ellipse polarization incident

aligned efficiency of its with the moves track of

requires wave originates there the the there for


source be

moving in source and

receiving orientation

antenna, of


variation as acquire the the

linearly receiving will be a


efficiency Likewise ellipse the receiving to

this the

variation. polarization and ellipse wave and again in the

orientation as the the both no circular the source

elliptically antenna must maximum are tracking for moving systems with ciris


polarization incident

order receiving acquisition the best

achieve antenna and choice are

polarization polarization source and

orientation is the normally receiving

transmitting one another.


It wave incident antenna due to on that

has the







effect the as



polarization of the


the wave the


medium, antenna wave. is

therefore, the same

polarization the polarization

the receiving launched the


The tion ratio Linear has an is of in the

most terms

common of axial

method ratio. the an unity.


describing The axial of axial in dB to for

the ratio the ratio dB

ellipticity is the

of major field circular

the to vector

polarizaminor axis traces.

ellipse has of



electric while the

polarization axial for and ratio linear any and is a two


polarization varies from Figures polarization when and are shows both Figure

Expressed to be used Figure polarization 0



infinite 1.i.8.3-1 loss

polarization can antennas.

circular the is are

polarization. range "best" aligned of case

determine ellipses polarization in one


transmitting The energy

receiving "worst" to case


the mismatch

ellipses polarization

orthogonal. up in the




orthogonal polarization
Figure axial ratio for gives the the circular


in of

degradation cross-polarlzed case.


polarization energy as a

isolation. function of


In isolation thing taining orthogonal For hand increase considered utilization: circular circular. the less


antenna two infinite

system, orthogonal isolation purity pair the take between




possible However, due to

to in

have practice

infinite somein mainof an

between than

polarizations. is the horizontal pair of achievable antenna and is this

difficulties An linear hand example

polarization polarization polarization Systems isolation for

within is

feed. vertical right

polarization. and left to been

orthogonal advantage communication the


polarization Three for

isolation ways have

channels. systems








and between

receive them is

channels achieved

have by











tranmsit to

and each

receive other.

channels Isolation between


placed between them


polarizations is achieved and by by

orthogonal the inherent

isolation multiplexing.







Two placed

transmit on two

channels orthogonal the




frequency Likewise, two placed



polarizations. same frequency band

receive on two

channels orthogonal

utilizing polarizations.


Figure that depend the and polarization solely antenna. receive of and is on The channels the filters used

gives to to



illustration channels. The and also filters. achieve seen further from






co-polarlzed receive channels the

systems into transmit it takes between that link.

multiplex polarized the antenna


transmit system with to

orthogonally into

multiplexes However,

advantage transmit frequency The transmit

orthogonal channels.

polarizations It the depends between polarizations. purity can

isolation of while solely re-use the

receive re-use to almost receive channels

be traffic

Figure capacity

doubles isolation and

bearing on channels Consequently,

solely receive

filtering relies

isolation on the

between isolation place

transmit between more stringent

orthogonal polarization







j_ 3d8 '4riB ' _" -_ 0..._..._" "1 2 3 4 5 6 7 / 8 (clB) <". i i 0 0.7 0. ) \\\\ _" I //.LIPSES BETWEEN ELLIPTICALLY ARE ALIGNED (MINIMUM POLARIZED LOSS) ANTENNAS FIGURE 1.?'...4-TdB I.1.POLARIZATION LOSS SAME SENSE (8=0 °) I 0.9 .6rib 9 10 TRANSMIT AXIAL RATIO SAME SENSE POLRRIZRTION HHEN THE LOSS EI.". \ \L \ "Sd_" SdB _" o...\./ .6 9clB "' 2ctB 0 _" _O.2 -S_B./ //'.3-1 1-71 .'__'I_.8.S " 0._ 4d_..

_B 1 2 3 AXIAL 4 5 RATIO 6 7 8 9 10 2aB (riB) OF TRANSMIT POLRRIZRTION WHEN THE LOSS ELLIPSES BETWEEN RRE ELLIPTICflLLY (MRXIMUM POLflRIZED LOSS) ANTENNRS ORTNOGONRL FIGURE 1.//.._../"l O .J Z O I.y_ _ _ S _. _. 10dB 9dBI_ 4 _ E-. ._ _..8.- < N m Q_ < O a. i.POLARIZATION (SAME LOSS SENSE) (e-90% "O V 5 .3-2 1-72 .1.

I o u_ O3 0 u 7 6 AXIAL RATIO VS LEVEL OF CROSS POLARIZEO ENERGY BELOW PRINCIPAL POLARIZATION (CIRCULAR POLARIZATION) 5 4 3 0 I 1 I ! I 2 S AXIAL RATIO 8 (dB) tO t2 t4 Figure I. 8.tOO co -o S Z 0 b--q iN Q_ .J bJ > bJ J tm W 4 R" .J O_ J O.3-3 1-73 .AXIAL (PRINC 3 RATIO (VOLTAGE) R" _ t_ .XPOL) dB " 20 LOG - t/ 2- tO8 8 _.. U Z O_ n C3 -J Ld t-_ .. i.


When tromagnetlc polarizatlon within circular machining 27 dB and the reflector wave purity feed. the The symmetry degree and between of the to elecwhich depends at dB and frequency reflections orthogonal with typical between much more Basec isolation achieved VSWRs. schemes polarization spare. as schemes diagTams for far as are the impact equal.3-5. On orthogonal switching polarization spare to perform the polarized. polarization. polarized. feeds and polarizations and 35 to fabrication dB are readily techniques t_pical and of reasonable re-use Isolations require attention fabrication matching techniques. showing implementing respectively. the on the in-orbit 1. any that all three two the co-polarlzed.1. to the replace choice" of the i) on coa the in-orbit investigated. satellites orthogonally spare. polarization From these the None systems. 1. be to on configured determine the if complexity schemes are: Briefly.1. -6 and all and the polariza-7 required and A and are utilization block spares re-use B it is the require can same the Figures two GEO simplified in-orbit frequency polarization diagrams spare schemes antenna. is type usually car be on of antennas accomplished achieved experience up to 27 are used. are the polarization feed.2 InaQnhi__Z_an___nul_naKl_nu The impact spare 2) in-orblt of the two of has each been of the three polarization These and 3) which objective has any three utilization schemes re-use. in-orbit of in the the ir. required utilization polarization to block configure schemes. in the upon C-Band.3.-orbit switching 1-75 . utilizatlon in-orbit In tion summary. represer_t be seer_ for diagrams.8. polarized single either of orthogonally spare GEO has frequency can is impact been assumed The E:atellites.8.




.9 ___VerlZlgation_A_agh To verify the system plan performance addresses links tracking digital the and as as interface combination system early level.... The environmental tests at subsystem and system level are the final verification of the performance...... Frequency GEO transmission Band must bands.. .Because it the will be on used achievable circular for all polarization will be used to polarization intersatellite isolation. b.... receiver.... ... imply with in Band require reception 2 would be equipped as shown another P_ transmitters 1... Analysis development made.. transmit each within baseline receive placed orthogonal polarizations antenna polarizations system: ......... . .... i... will the still GEO another #2 on #2 communication transmit band..... equipped 2 would Similarly. z. c.. RHCP LHCP LHCP RHCP RHCP LHCP LHCP RHCP GEO#1 GEO#I GEO#2 GEO#2 GEO GEO LEO LEO Transmit Receive Transmit Receive Transmit Receive Transmit Receive from to from to from to from The The location GEO occur: receive Band i: transmitter Frequency however. functional the areas system of: test and verification a.. to not which the use its is on of by location..................... in the are that of analysis.............8.....i. ... for GEO#2 GEO#2 GEO#1 GEO#1 LEO LEO GEO GEO the does not require In and order polarization to system.... 1-79 . Frequency frequency.... can not simulation............ The and receivers along with spare tuned two satellite. Data primary communication and and Acquisition Command telemetry involves subsystem be System and the used performance the for predict verification tests at can performance system performance parameters tracked such performance conditions system measurements acquisition those dynamic elements easily determined by under various system analysis.. take channels The tracking..... is used cycles Simulation be to so is the of three the 60 GHz crosslink. to both freand Figure polarizers switches..... advantage have following of been links. ....... quency necessary configuration of #1 the will Note tuned to two that on that still of GEOs GEO each can transmit #i GEO be is on depends interchanged Frequency only on its and Band role...3-6.... .1..


and a procedure 60 GHz band frequency large not depend measurement due standards performance To with the an readily on an available. testing sequencs thermal. 1-81 .9. the qualification The environmental and of: and subsystem vacuum. As much as at that procedure.l. and measurements. C/N output non}inearity. adequate accuracy measurements maximizE_ inert gas. Test methods transmit/receive isolat_Lon antenna.1 Perf_mmanc___mrL_Iga_Im__A_m_ggh A developed system munication performance put early data in baseline to functionally communication test and the performance crosslink A is shown flow in verification during diagram Figure analysis system subsystem of l. crosslink.9-1. to minimize In usually formance for TDAS ground by to based a loop satellite back and except tracking scheme to systems verify the equipment ranging selected approach be through performance noise can an be actual is perused or tested and range LEO measure testing calibrate that the biases. subsystem performance set-ups will at antenna will the with polarization done for at the BER pattern level. noise) frequency group conversion) delay. thermal functional vibration measurements shock. sequence uses a of link the this performance intrasatellite throughare made measurements process. testing o o o o o Saturated Transmitter Phase Frequency Frequency spurious error power _ain (AM/PM stability re_sponse output) figure. control should calibration waveguide. (local (channel phase oscillator. possible. subsystems verify under transmit system One calibration Because accepted of the the area of concern for fre_Lency at this the for system RF tests suffers are will of be should level the verification at the is subsystem attenuation the and development system to the oxygen of level. in Testing and will the performed predicted on isola_:ion allow the time during frame for primarily system the the to study implement gain. test can system The baseline performance approach to for form both the one measurements is end receive to build of and a a is the satel60 GHz using In of this the way flight _'ound we equipment BEE test.1. Functional acceptance conditions and acoustic test include load. o o Noise Transmit/receive isolation Investigations be 60 available GHz. be testing show that standard the equipment test loss. purged possible. One evaluation lite simulator of of the the most end-to-end important BER. ground the test utilized use testing the whenever same system the verification system equipment variables the subsystem and affect calibration. loop-back The same will simulated "transponier".1. BW. The RE at is the to be performed and throughout system mechanical includes level. to as predict the plan has been and com- development baseline Note the that qualification performance sequence rate the capability development acceptance. environment. gainslope.

This computer concept is identical The selecting to impact a. For the GEO-GE0 transmit This crosslinks power is uncoded. package. the and baseline C/N therefore BER measurements test concept as is no is described to use in to telemetered d-above. the 60 GHz It received requires for processors comparison. On by BER the the links FEC using containing decoder mission overhead. Cooperative tern BER test with host satellite processor on test pat- transmission. before considered this concept. on transmitted a C/N benchmark continuous interruption however.The purpose crosslink input will BER The may to have is system the a is to receiver of the built-in-test the while performance the system feature of is a the of link on-orbit. to only buffering I verify Mb/s will test end-to-end concept system return in evaluates adopted performance. This This concept concept of measures provides the 60 transmitted the GHz most crosslink power direct and received power. check. on except the it host utilizes processor the must host be processor. continuous data link advantage but it does overhead. Self contained built-in BER test pattern measurement. of the measurement for performance and making equipment This and measurement concept received diagnostics can power supply on a an corrective information basis. can coding. Monitoring of the activity of the FEC decoder. rate the (LEO-GEO) TDAS for a forward be as while be the required high round-trip complete Some of the built-in test concepts include: a. memories package buffering data b. d. interruption. link there FEC decoder 1-82 . the from intrasatellite the Since that transmitter the system verify output demodulation/modulation as data the rate as 300 baseline (GE0-LEO) Mb/s. This and the concept tested addition and for uses errors of a test all pattern within and the that 60 is GHz in transmitted. Thus method is function. e. Continuous data frame. of decisions. data test pattern check on each transmitted/received This every concept data is frame similar that system to would attaching be a known check sum tail by the on the link of use continuously to verify has the the system test the checked that intrasatellite quality providing some of the is a processor This monitor capability concept on for adequate. crosslink will require traffic. be data or monitored without traffic the number as any a of direct errors detected of measurement off-line additional processing. Telemetered transmit power and receive C/N measurements. c.

sources.i0-i. in with a and occur that degradation be made the C/N warrants further only measurement. crosslink signals.5 GHz) dB. etc. currently in and waveguide accessories as are are that counters with to for use and curthe development. resolutions resolution Signals this time. (40 offers to 80 up network analyzers. generating of unit receivers.i be attenuators. should baseband such as capability level GTE. To tests cost. in-orbit of traffic Benchmarks test need diagnostics can phase only be established for when can at real-time the the factory monitoring. analyzers values are a at noise operating frequencies level of frequencies for with the a 1 to available.i.) A of and waveguide at vector and can 0. signal terminations. to 75 both G_[z) U-band signal are sources. and the unit the will spectrum the digital The GTE provided built Mb/s. Additional baseband of testing These require analyzers RF data host able GTE satellite to transwill be with modulated receive functionally diagram GTE will of the be for in The be BER BTE a similar GTE through test tester used subset ports and is to simplified testing with ports will up and not need block the are have to 300 a shown RE Figure waveguide.05 of 9 dB Hz frequencies analyzer phase. BER This test concept with concept as is described impact to monitor in the e. For the GE0-LE0 the above GHz activity provides system return of a hardware link. will be the test development in the. ll0 GHz test spectrum Typical 70 ±2. also a part Considerable the frequency range progress of has been made available in the test up past year towards At are equipment and an extending this time commercially at equipment. system level the to same GTE should be used to problems perform and minimize To package For this package. 60 dB to GHz) dynamic 60 GHz are operating typical 0. (up to of needed -95 dBm crosslink kHz bandwidth accuracy Vector accessories U-band network degree generated and (e.monitor during Interruption BER for the errors. scalar isolators. Most IF interface. at currently range and a available. crosslink i. calibration simulate it must reason A of and the the be the GTE interface will computer the 60 60 a 60 in GHz GHz GHz automated. 1-83 .g. Indications and there V-band. power meters signals which are equipment of the GTE. with frequency Network at power rent V-band meters rate of system (50 for analyzers. adequate test equipment crosslink 1989 time frame. level data patterns converters for of but and TWTAs the tests and may measurement modulation. baseband mit and at The the the maximum subsystem extent and be possible. the direct and FEC the baseline decoder. 60 BER no measurement impact on the minimal or on overhead traffic.


11 In_erfnren_n__al_l___n__T_n_ml_XEnu_l_=_la_l_l_n_E=_l_m_nta Assuming intra-system input/output addressed. Jc(f) antennas are GEO receive respectively.1.i In_rf_r_ng_____KQ-G_Q_Crom_lln__E_g_iz_r In the GEO-GEC headend to out-cf-band transmitter's or coupling. polarizer include lower a feed-thru the order command antenna major of source the of interference transmitter's link) intercepts (forward sidelobe Assuming by the use of provides GE0 a the 3.1-3.1. isolation) - JF(f) - Jr(f) -Jc(f) dBW where and Jt(f).1.6W) - 40 (Ant. transmitters C/If =-76 + [ Jt(f) + Jr(f) + J(f) ] dB C/I2 =-51 + [ Jf(f) + Jr(f) + Jc(f) ] dB where allowable dB) due the notation loss to either due to [ C/I ] is denotes 0. then averaging the 33 minimum dB in C/I frequency. GEO-LEO If the intended signal at the same input ks taken to be: C = 70 - 226 (path loss) + 63 (ant.ii.I is dB. assessed and links isolation. receiver input interference ks transmitter presented Ii = i0 - 27 Jr(f) - Jr(f) - J(f) dBW Similarly.1.2 a GE0 transmitter and of 27 dB has a i0 an W effective transmitter. (for equal C/N If the total = 15 (thermal) transmitter (assuming contribution). a baseline among frequency the plan as shown in links Figure is 1. out-of-band illustrated is the Other emission in septum sources through Figure 1. gain) = -93 dBW the The resulting C/I due to C/N (thermal) is are about therefore: 15 dB (at 2 Gbps without sun effect). mitter is: the interference due to the Forward (command) link trans- I2 = -2 (0.1-2. EIRP and of 71 that the dBW the realized septum _[ antenna minimum feedthru polarizer of the polarization to the isolation. Forward Jr(f) transmit and JF(f) J n dB. the the are interference isolation Filters are intersatellite among which the will GEO-GEO give requirements recommended and the GEO-LE0 required i. dB as Isolation expressed above. are filter responses and GEO-GEO and of J(f) GEO and transmit. the as receiver emissions.I. As such the cor_bined filtering must provide a minimum rejection of: [ Jt(f) + Jr(f_ + J(f) ] > 109 dB [ Jr(f) ÷ Jr(fl ÷ J(f) ] > B4 dB 1-85 . between modulation is assumed spectral to be 40 factors.

50 Rx 55.75 Tx 62.75 (dB) Chebyshev GHz Jr (f) 2 Gbps QPSK (dB) Total Rejection (dB) 54.25 54.75 63.50 61.50 56._or the The above requirements GEO-GEO interface.50 56.i dB with ripple 7-pole for the transmitter 1-86 .75 57 58 59 60 61 61.50 (dB) Chebyshev GHz Jt (f) 7-pole fo=62. can assuming be implemented a 0. above receive isolation and characteristics filters. the can be met with assessment is as the following considerations: illustrated below: EREQ (GHz) Jr (f) 7-pole fo=55.00 (band edge) 0 0 > > > > 36 35 32 28 28 26 25 22 20 15 12 10 0 - > > > > (band (band center) edge) 0 0 0 ii 53 74 89 i01 136 125 123 120 106 90 68 34 0 0 0 0 0 168 153 151 157 184 186 177 150 117 118 115 > • • • (band (band (band edge) center) edge) 105 108 115 > > • > The Chebyshev filters.75 64.

the the is 7-pole required expected.796 57.00 57.50 56. 1.000 (band edge) 0 0 > >46 >46 >46 >46 >46 >46 >46 >46 >46 > > > 70 60 45 3g 31 21 19 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 > >116 >106 >91 >85 >88 >93 >93 >92 >86 > (band center) 0 0 (band edge) 0 iI 26 28 33 (band edge) 40 45 45 47 47 47 46 40 20 15 i0 0 - 91 85 67 62 57 47 - (band (band center) edge) 47 53 The can filter dB to can IF the be be above performance.75 57. with with exceed a which 3-pole. results 400 MHz GEO 84 The in an average ripple filter.50 (dB) Chebyshev GHz Jc(f) (dB) Jr(f) 3-Pole (dB) Chebyshev GHz Total Rejection (dB) 1 Mbps BPSK fo=57.798 57.The assessed as interference illustrated due below: to forward link transmitters can be similarly FREQ (GHz) Jr(f) 7-pole fo=55.800 58.11.250 57. and is interference _le interference GEO-GE0 link transmitter transmitter Following expressed the as: analysis of the previous section.799 Tx 57.1. the to the return link due due receiver to the to can closest the Forward be similarly analyzed.395 57. implemented in conjunction will equal receiver dB. isolation) Jr(f) - J(f) - Ju(f) dBW I4 = -2 (0. calculate it as 13.600 57.50 Rx 55.50 56.25 54. I3 and I4 are I3 = i0 (EIRP) - 40 (Ant.725 57.2 Interference I__LEQ-GEOL___g_iy__K Interference We refer called will to I4.736 57. 1-87 .800 54.30 57. rejection bandwidth An of 58 dB. 30 so dB Chebychev additional problem 30 due at IF quieting forward obtained no interference transmitter by another additional rejection 7-pole filter.6 W 1 27 (SP isolation) - Jf(f) - Jc(f) - Ju(f) dBW where Ju (f) is the return link input filter response.

92 61.00 (dB) Chebyshev GHz Jr(f) 7-pole fo=62. should more.56 60.00 60.80 59.85 Rx 60.15 60.20 60.75 (dB) Chebyshev GHz Jr(f) 2 Gbps QPSK (dB) Total Rejection (dB) 59.50 61.10 61.Let C which and such = the 64 in intended 221 a C/N The rejections ÷ + J(f) Jc(f) (path signal loss) at + of C/13 the 54 same (Ant. is The analyzed interference first: to the return link due to GEO-GE0 transmission (13) FR_Q (GHz) Ju(f) 3-pole fo=60. i0 C/14 input gain) dB be: = (at -103 300 then dBW Mbps be with 25 dB earth or effect As results FEC the minimum [ Jt(f) [ Jf(f) (thermal) minimum about or are: aS dB encoding).46 61.75 (band (band (band edge) center) edge) 0 0 0 0 0 21 29 34 39 43 46 73 72 68 64 63 52 45 37 28 17 4 0 0 0 >19 >19 >19 >19 19 17 16 15 14 13 12 12 i0 0 >92 >91 >87 >83 82 90 90 86 81 73 62 59 61 62 (band (band edge) center) 47 51 62 1-88 .74 60. required ] ] > 98 • + Ju(f) + Ju(f) 99 for I3 and I4 respectively.28 61.75 Tx 62.

500 . average provides interference a 99 total dB.875 58.864 57.800 Rx 60..800 (dB) Chebyshev GHz Total Rejection (dB) 57.801 Tx 57. filter The rejection rejection 40 in the dB of of is II0 IF about dB. The required minimum filter. quieting 70 This dB. assessed..802 57.804 (band center_ 59 59 59 59 0 I0 15 20 0 0 0 0 59 69 74 79 57..800 57. 19 >46 50 >115 59.200 (band (band (band edge) center) edge) 0 0 0 >46 >46 >46 54 57 59 >i00 >103 >105 The IF quieting.-') (dS) 3-po Ie Chebyshev GHz fo=60. The the of 98 7-pole dB implemented transmitter forward link Chebychev 40 dB be of IF receive quieting.000 60. Chebyshev to the interference due similarly FREQ (GHz) Ju (:. 58 58 (band edge) 56 53 37 40 46 >46 >46 >46 0 0 0 12 41 98 104 >102 >iii >124 59..000 58. is can which. 1-89 .O0 Jc i (f) Mbps (dB) BPSK Jf(f) 3-pole fo-57.The can be average isolation w_th filter tr_insmitter a is 3-pole add can about 60 dB.200 59. greater be with than 40 dB the required another minimum 3-pole of Chebyshev obtained with receiver.000 .

2905 15. of as extreme as noticeable interference out-of-band properly 1-90 .11. 1.119 2. on-board S-Band THe and TDRSS the Ku-Band receive TDAS are frequencies not defined will are: be in the capabilities retained current generation E_=eiv_ MR SSA TDRSS Users KSA User User Uplink 2. frequencies. atmospheric is absorption anticipated and emissions attenuation to or from are rejections at any the ter- Because 60 GHz band. 1. the the long 1.i.11.4-3 contain crosslink calculated spacecraft. the 60 on GHz board been of receiver at and must 26 GHz 3rd We the occur has order have GEO.119 to to to to 2.4-1.1.4-2. of of TDRSS the have any demodulation centered Image local evaluated.3 Im_m_En/nu_imn_QQnslden_s Because at been product and the ensured receivers relatively selected various that or none in of high for the IF all that wide data bandwidths An on from the IF GEO involved. frequency spacecrafts.200 14.1.2845 14. receivers result transmit in of the any of frequencies 60 the mixing frequencies band other oscillators crosslink GHz fall band receiver the receivers 15. source.1. per it communications is expected TD_ Syst_m_ systems that both TDRSS.0204 14.887 2._L_ithother Although other SOW.0359625 2.887 to to 2. no restrial handled.25 GHz GHz GHz GHz Shuttle GHz GHz GHz No receivers the receivers image listed on board or image 3rd and GEO order Tables 3rd products order fall products within for the each receive and of bands the of the above.11.1.59 2.11.4 _m/.300 15.

600 Transmit to 58.750 13.950 GHz GHz 13.000 36.500 L.11.750 130.050 96.100 151.750 GHz 17.700 83.350 to to 21.200 (Return) 23.850 94.750 145.: Imau_ GE0 Freq: to LEO 57.1.450 131.350 GEO#1 Freq: to GEO#2 to Transmit 56.000 (Fcrward) GHz 20.250 76.500 152.250 GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz 54.150 19.450 96.GE0 (GE0-GEO Freq #i Receiver: crosslink) to 64.000 93.750 GHz GHz 15.850 133.0.250 131.4-1 1-91 .500 78.300 156.700 157.300 82.900 79.800 Transmit to 60.750 72.550 to to 23.950 LEO Freq: to GEO 59.250 150.250 94.000 to to 20.250 to to to to to to to to to to to to 15.500 GHz GHz 16.500 91.250 TABLE 1.650 133.750 127.750 GHz GHz 61.

500 1.500 152.O.300 to to 30.500 87.200 90.400 86.500 GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz LEO to GE0 Transmit (Return) Freq: 59.500 123.700 89.: crosslink) to 29.100 118.500 56.000 145.000 91.000 157.000 98.100 to to 28.900 119.600 144.500 117.100 87.500 93.000 GHz 32.700 to to to to to to to to to to to to 1.500 93.500 61.700 116.100 GE0#2 Freq: to GEO#1 to Transmit 64.000 GHz 28.700 GHz GHz .500 120.500 GHz GHz _a__Qn_r__rm_u__ 1.1.900 5.200 GHz 30.800 90.200 149.11.000 85.750 GHz GHz Imaum GEO to LEO Transmit (Forward) Freq: 57.000 to to 34.GEO #2 Receiver (GEO-GEO Freq: 54.600 to 58.800 to 50.500 GHz GHz 2.500 TABLE 1.800 149.250 L.300 89.4-2 1-92 .

750 147.000 13.000 150.500 GHz 95.500 6.500 94.000 (Forward) GHz Imag_ 23.000 TABLE 1.600 Transmit to 58.500 124.000 98.250 to to 22.000 GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GHz GEO#1 Freq: to GEO#2 to Transmit 56.250 GEO#2 Freq: to GEO#1 to Transmit 64.750 54.000 92.000 61.11.600 91.000 162.250 74.600 149.: 34.000 157.500 1-93 .200 125.500 27.000 126.250 GHz 88.000 81.750 79.250 142.500 to to 30.Return Link Receiver (LE0-GE0crossllnk) Freq: 59.000 132.1.O.4-3 to to to to to to to to to to to to 10.200 20.750 GHz GHz 11.000 129.000 GHz GHz Sourc_ GEO Freq: to LEO 57.000 GHz GHz 4.500 122.600 to to 24.750 90.000 89.400 82.800 to 60.200 L.000 GHz GHz i0.

order striplines line 1. is briefly (e. approximately The are give tant presented the Q) of of TEOII for frequencies 40-50_ Field Typical the are 12. development possible.1.11.11-4 from in small resonator The the reduced facts very high necessary is Q required filters can also require be the used: Dielectric resonators substantial One of the candidate such shown a (center in Q resonators is frequency. cavity all practical bandwidth is heavily bandwidths consideration expectation parameter addition. development required multiplexer of frequencies components these 1-94 .1. links. discussed. critical the is In intersatellite required.1. Figure of such value filters. 6000) is these a and 1.1. for in narrow this band area.000. necessary. and order about Q of occurs greater.11-2.11. this The section. Q=4000 will at EHF impor- resonator.11-3 of this In a theoretical expected narrow when relative into Q it resonator However. implementations type resonators. on is filters and the on a is the TE011 in mode Figure mode on the is the that or have 4000. (5000 mode Taking 3_ TE011 in are resonator presented physical parameters dimensions. and filter further using these Theoretically. (5_ loss and is above). implementa- Suspended Fin line Metal strip stripline Suspended frequencies: present losses a are on better the Q substrate fin of choice. proposed in is far is 3-pole Figures away performance.g.5 To proper requirements feasibility EKE_EllXmr_and_Z_l_Ip/_a_n_Te=hn_imsy reduce are of Operation the at actual at on and intrasystem receive defined filter high and in interference transmit Paragraph among 1.1. (spurious is 1. (Figure order to moding 1. Chebyshev 5.11-1) of 500 at and these designs typical therefore Higher use of waveguide however.2_ surprisingly bandwidth) order the (proposed realistic 7-pole and However. 1. distribution design also shown).1.5 dB or for Achievable Q's a are metal 2_ are susceptible septum on the filter. condition of filters order assumed filters art of . of metal surfaces o Extremely mechanical small dimensions of typical components and very stringent accuracy applications insertion substrate or septum requirements. the Two system.1. filter the filtering frequencies implementation frequencies of areas. 60 GHz) This factors imposes is which new especially have to and microwave difficult true be in taken demands the into filter passive components are: multiplexer consideration o Additional losses due and increased dielectric to decreased losses in conductivity dielectrics. loaded.. maturity.1. lower Q elements Typical can be used In wide band and in filter design tions include: o o o still acceptable.

18 i i FIGURE 71_11 m)K FZ_. ! I ¢ • t. 1.:"J I FIGURE METAL. 1-$5 .!1-[ ) FILTER CONFIGURATION.'. wb- • " t 1 I"r _ .1.• f"F-:_'.g['_:"_.11-2 $ONF%Gt_ATZON. $EPTUM (FIN-LINE I..D 1.

23 TEl2 84090.23058 11913.11-3 T1011 _ RESO_TO_ _SIG#.45 FIGURE 1.25008 0.00 8.80 95054.75 68737.TEB11 F= D= L= Q= 63080.75 77027.47 TE21 52548.00 TMII 63000.00 TE31 68110.88 TM02 86794.73 948?8. 1-96 .11 TM2I 81292.00 62645.86 58174.03 TM31 97455.98 81260.94 92588.78 TM81 44274.45 77027.40 B.34 TE41 83891.01132 TEll 37682.47 TEO1 63800.1.

I..-' N '..I.1 0.1_ li.-. I REJECTION/RETURN LOSS DB 1-97 . "T" I.. Z ::D m.REJECT ION/RETURN LOSS DB W I. I..I a N '!" ! 0 0 0 _r ii 0 o.I.r I. _J 1.J _.

mmq 0 0 ..L..mmml mwm _m ' m.... Inm.. I..4 "I_._ 0 U'_ n- '-.._ qm_ _ mmmo m _mb _' m gm" D ql amp .-_-_..I Q. ..¢3 k !..._ I..I --._! @.. I #.._.m j _m.--_-_-. amm'mmm_ _ _mm 'm_ 0 ¢ 0 0 II 0 -o o ! C W ...-. _ mmmm..i. REJECTION/RETURN 1-98 LOSS OB .REJECT ION/RETURN LOSS DB I.

06 errors operating receive rate. sidered negligiblE_. equal for operating experience 2 (one The to the the mode degradation at data symbol extreme IF) of the of utilizing filters. performance of the ISI presents a been I&D data rate I&D detection obtained a 2-pole dB at filter 2. should QPSK needed and one Table 1.5_ "Integrate phase Dump" optimum offsets. a 2-pole The the 7 7-pole detection rate. is con- filters.2. degradation group the delay 7-pole distortions filters in the will case to and be of be inters_bol 1.e. Butterworth about 2_ for filter used. (at for degr.03 3-pole the data is receive rate an clock in phase when this IF as increases shown type: Replacement increases Table sun. filtering-caused of 50 Mbps.11-2. ii.1.1. the of the filter.11-4 Gbps with the The shows no 7-pole clock sun that present) transmit phase with is a a better the normal will filter and are -2.5 due to of nsec. the the 1.11-1 to maintain a 3-pole the in Table receive llnk BE]< shows of t_at l0 in an the additional LEO-GEO another dB when link 0. & be filter. to at a Butterworth degradation 0.83 dB using of one power 3-pole filter is 300 will transmit at Mbps.1.Ii-3 t_ the only 1. system in a the givd_n and form has been done on computer was are filter distortion programs have to in the the and been cascaded following in intersymbol developed filters tables. the a mismatched transfer data optimum sampling data filter. dependent when a be data detection However.e.11-5.2 these nse¢:. The is the The presented IF llnk receiver degradation in Table filter is expected 1. 6 EllZerlnua_u--ied Filtering of QPSK L£nR_Des=ad_ion data can lead to link The 3-pole group degradation group is caused delay 0. Butterworth (at clock degradation configuration of in 0_). I&D the performance this application improvement is that would utilization enough matched filter technology warrant development Table crosslink 0. the link in sophisticated The the of the simulation results applied shown power crosslink are maintain results to additional required BER. sampling a channel time is optimum For the matched time. determined a possible that this degradation technique the loss due will is to severely to develop impair the quality filters of compensating to overcome transversal equalizers bandlimiting. by dB (2 1. I. _. offsets bandwidth match Butterworth Butterworth poles. to data is filter by Adding 1. of the filters delay Therefore. is narrowed dB in The the GEO-GEO data 320 rate MHz__nd of i0 link is when reduced the in solar to 300 conjunction Mbps: to 150 thus MHz. In to data from significant this i. 1-99 . Extensive interference to in The order simulate the (1.ide that interference. A Offsets" perfectly transition time usually time is parameter or sampling used t_me to optimize error.idation The 1.1. In the the system case performance of an ideal is "Clock Phase with the data sampling example.92 receiver filter I000 caused is MHz.3) these research and effects._ phase filter.77 BER If the and/or link. with on 2-pole delayed th. is function detection signals.1.i. distortion i. filter of to given.5_. IF) both has at case the to the second data are a filter Results The minor in reduced and a in bandwidth correspond detection an Bltterworth resulting not De deemed required.

Leong. California. on 2. April. 1971. Y. and Satellite Communication Communications Channel". S. 3. "Analysis Final of Performance Report. Huang. Ford California. Effects COM-19. J. Aerospace Department. Trans. Analysis Communications and Distortion Final Synthesis Corporation. "Filter IEEE pp. Interference Vol. September on BPSK/QPSK/SQPSK/MSK 1979. 2. K. i-i00 . December. Aerospace Systems and Department. Palo Alto. J. PSK Jay Jones. 120-132. J. a Jay PSK Jones and W. Memo for 242. Division. Palo Alto. No. Degradation Technical WDL Division. and Intersymbol Technical Memo WDL Effects 289. Distortion on and Communication Intersymbol Technology.REFERENCES l. Signals". "Filter Signals". Report. Ford Communication 1974. Sciences Corporation.

i for Transmit Filters Number of Poles.76 0.45 0. 3-dB Eandwidth (MHz). Ii-I 2 Cascaded Eilters Number Number Number of of of Chebychev Chebychev Poles. (dB) 0. (dB) 0.I for Receiver Filters Data Data Rate (Ms/sec) Filter Detection Integrate & Dump Results CLOCK PHASE OEFSET = 2.5 PERCENT AVERAGE PROBABI BIT EPd_OR QPSK LOSS (DB) 0.61 0.52 0. 3-dB Transmitter Receiver _andwidth Eilters Filters (MHz).88 0. 180 540.Table LE0-GE0: No Sun Effect: i.96 L 1%_. and 1 1 Ripple 3.83 0. 540.93 0.69 0." 1 e-01 1 1 1 e-02 e-03 e-04 1 e-05 1 e-06 1 e-07 1 e-08 1 e-09 1-101 . and Ripple 3.

10 1. 540.5 PERCENT AVERAGE BIT ERROR QPSK LOSS (DB) 0.85 0. 3-dB Bandwidth (MHz).51 0. and Ripple 3.15 1. (dB) 0.i for Transmit Filters Number of Poles.19 PROBABILITY 1 e-01 1 1 e-02 e-03 1 e-04 1 1 1 1 1 e-05 e-06 e-07 e-08 e-09 1-102 . 180 540.74 0.62 0.95 1. and 1 2 Ripple 3. (dB) 0.I for Receiver Filters Data Data Rate (Ms/sec) Filter Detection Integrate & Dump Results CLOCK PHASE OFFSET = 2. 3-dB Transmitter Receiver Bandwidth Filters Filters (MHz).11-2 3 Cascaded Filters Effect: Number Number Number of of of Chebychev Chebychev Poles.1.03 1.Table LEO-GEO: No Sun 1.

540.77 0.81 0.0 PERCENT AVERAGE BIT PROBABILITY 1 e-01 1 e-02 1 e-03 1 1 1 1 1 e-04 e-05 e-06 e-07 e-08 E_/_OR QPSK I&D LOSS (DB) FILTER QPSK LOSS BUTTERWORTH 0.34 0. and 3 Cascaded Filters 1 2 Ripple 3.74 0. and Ripple 3.84 0. (dB) 0.62 0.I for Receiver Filters Data Rate (Ms/sec) 25 Results CLOCK PHASE OFFSET = 1.Table 1.55 0.79 0.68 0. 3-dB Transmitter Receiver _andwidth Filters Filters (MHz).81 1 e-09 1-103 . 3. 60. 540.48 0.40 0. (dB) 0.i 0.1.73 0.65 0.86 (DB) FILTER 0.68 0. 3-dB _andwidth (MHz).71 0.11-3 LEO-G_O: With Sun Effect: Number Number Number of of of Chebychev Chebychev Poles.76 0.I for Transmit Filters Number of Poles.

1.i Data Data Rate (Ms/sec) Filter i000 2-Pole Butterworth. (dB) 2640.79 0. i000 MHz BW Detection Results CLOCK PHASE 0RESET = -2. 3-dB Transmitter Receiver Bandwidth Filters Filters (MHz).95 0.84 0. 3-dB Bandwidth (MHz).1 for Receiver Filters for Transmit Filters 2640. 0.98 1.73 0. (dB) 0.5 PERCENT AVERAGE BIT ERROR QPSK LOSS (DB) 0.Table 1. and 1 2 Ripple 7. and Ripple 7.68 0. Number of Poles.00 PROBABILITY 1 1 1 1 1 1 e-01 e-02 e-03 e-04 e-05 e-06 1 e-07 1 e-08 1 e-09 1-104 .88 0.11-4 GEO-GE0: No Sun Effect: 3 Cascaded Filters Number Number Number of of of Chebychev Chebychev Poles.92 0.

74 0.5 PERCENT AVERAGE BIT E_ROR QPSK LOSS (DB) 0.i for Receiver Filters 2640.I for Transmit Filters Elandwidth 2640. and 1 2 Ripple 7. 150 MHz BW Detection Results CLOCK PHASE OFFSET = -1. and Ripple 7.82 0_84 PROBABILITY i e-01 1 e-02 1 e-03 1 e-04 1 e-05 1 e-06 1 e-07 1 e-08 1 e-09 1-105 .70 0. Ii-5 3 Cascaded Filters Effect: Number Number Number of of of Chebychev Chebychev Poles.63 0. Number of Poles.i.TABLE GE0-GI[0: With Sun i. 320.59 0.80 0. (dB) 0.67 0. Data Data Rate (Ms/sec) Filter 150 2-Pole Butterworth. 7.77 0.i 0. (dB) 0. 3-dB E_andwidth (MHz). 3-dB Tr_Lnsmitter Receiver Filters Filters (MHz).

transmitting map chosen far in white dimension is to as optimum signals chosen code that to is possible channel in the channel The codewords signals where the bandis a allowed possible the noise noise) to in terms sequences. in a ignores problems implementation: such then coding discuss or LC complexity considerations approaches coding.12.1.1 _latlon_an__Ca_Ing_Xaamms The choice obtain The to not of the AR coding technique of Ungerboeck maintaining is to is motivated bit by error coding a way the rate and that need of to6 i0 high bandwidth efficiency underlying philosophy of achieve coding when the the issues gain without AR while coding a integrate modulation is increasing and combined the bandwidth coding design. 1. decoding of the shapes algorithm decision used: sequences and that the dlstance-preserving mapping of To minimum probability signals code that and are that simplify analysis distance of the first any by the factor. a fixed as to rate achieve across into the a lowest given probchannel. how error of there digital signals is no a modulation much of closer possibility demodulator-decoder ing code with approaching is minimum used. For signal of the apart terms separation limited Euclidean and the AWGN measured (additive of characteristics. On major shapes regions finally. channel the of duration Euclidean of the the space space signal is transmission If bits error BPSK space the into is is that separation measured on distance. pair errors set that be in of one initially At confusion the many focuses high of SNR on the the two Euclidean of are error between dominated If is they the weak. channel. need optimal signals. bit with into coded a data two-dimenslonal cannot QPSK. system concept code complexity over (LC) provides a 400 code MHz of a QPSK modulated The the signal code encoded chosen redundant with will bandwidth. in AR codes potential will of start this coding. signal space. complexity a general we as AR clarify design modulation of of be the created discuss in (LC) of discussion complexity lead to its independently.12 C_gmla_Imn_Zm_h_d The LEO-GEO a be (AR) rate either Ungerboeck modulation 5/6 the algebraic low code.1.12. scheme than signal in to formed there the combined pairs space. to signals.2 Coding and its Limitati@ns As ability the or are of is error well for will are be as known in information data many from data the as of Gaussian proportional at bits theory. unavoidably a bit-by-bit achieve unconstrained. of section principles can alternative advantages setting that why Ungerboeck applied which is 300 the to and the their application principles an low-complexity because Our of the Tanner circuit from attractive Mb/s system. it is only the small achievable subsets subspace signal if one possible probability For example. Tanner or alphabet 1. we are will in possible To the The same (1981).1.1. the the Euclidean probability distances regions: the actual properties of bit between error pairs is affected of signals of being data bit the by and three the the are optimal realized decision by second. factors: of an AWGN first. due to by are Euclidean no matter a digital in is the closest. Hamming performance a system Dfree complex correctwith Consider distance where is used combination a 1-106 . the data of uncoded signal mapping some constrained of larger mapping the BER the than of operate space.

of encoded those should As possible. signals unconstrained square be as low minimization minimum Euclidean . sequences much as separating are differ apart standard codes is to of combined use a and closest in in corresponding in only the one signal signal bit. property However. terms with for of this each signals. decision by the ability regions. space code mapping a e. 1-107 . algebraic in it the can decoding Euclidean be Justified codes regions high SNR.g. space Sequences than systems.._Ain Like any other gain car_ communications be upper bounded resource. To modulation must ing try data to bit reduce scheme achieve the and a BER that will the relation Euclidean the data bits result mapping from of the data the use bit Hamming of any fixed to codingsignals separat- algorithm. coding gain its For (with limit.1.n. respecta PSK Coding satellite to an capacity for Eb/NoC°mmunJcati°n= 9.4 8..3 _hann_. by the coding Shannon bound gain is not without theorem. the signal on is much are the binary space. usually channel the BER system Gray guaranteed symbols. monotonic and the sequences distance the between distance signals that that be forth.12. to in in two one the correspond that differ sequences should and of so further In the differing this bits by one motivates to the 8-PSK bit.4 7.. complexity that often from the is decoding zode states the code generally Viterbi that is means algorithm convolutional used to decode optimally error-correcting itself far optimal. of is the widely of demodulatingrecognized. the of In Convolutional algorithm exponential encoder practice . in coarse 3 bits level to small which bounding optimal symbol-error distance-preservlng modulation probabilities. symbol If of as the the D fnee o_ space._lng. basis greater commonly optimal of the algorithm decision creates instances.. on used the is an codes can satellite It of perform dependence decoding._nclQn. does necessarily code symbol. the Viterbi that number weak. 1.6 dB atChannel°it_)Shann°nBER = 0 is Code Rate Shannon Bound 1/3 1/2 3/4 7/8 Since depending able for on future the the cur_-ent code l-ate state R.Dbecause the in bot_ parts of the The decoding Hard sequence (In that than used some the that on importance to of the second optimal followed decision at algebraic issue. a of head the room art of 2 for to 5 coding dB 10 9.1 gain is is about 5 availdB theoretically improw_ment. zlcularly of error-correcting codes).modulation schemewherein... by in the two-dimensional distance the can Dmi n. mapping symbol.. mapping two of symbols sets of Euclidean arbitrary. effective of competing achieve demodulation sub-op':imal par D.. are separated by a minimum binary distance minimum decomposition bits to between can be symbols is the ultimate obtained independently. use The of convolutional Gray code noncatastrophic distance subsets permits the not property of bits symbols.. _ree channels should Viterbi be noted.C.:onvolutional because however..

is With of may gain improvement gain at lower not the recent the next considered advent deal processing at this suitable and parallel applications algorithm hybrid VHSIC computation block/convolutional coding. technique and convolutional data bits a can to path be in constrain convolutional and The determined corresponding significant is constrained in the the mapping codes.e. b. Viterbi coding decoding gain. path can edges. advance the in be 1.6 dB Figure 3 suggests the following: a. that by are paths a large the the carefully assignments for over making relatively because be far the apart. to of be achieved. technology however. is thereby As in to the use philosophy the finite the of state AR coding memory can of a of be addressed. codes the the without few rate.i. 3-4 dB coding gain. codes. BCH The codes code and rate E-S R codes should can not be be used less to than provide R = 1/2. 2 dB This code. of the block Elias codes listed in reduc- the the literature Elias bound over Eigure as codes improvement inordinate block codes suggesting already illustrates of code listed a significant an BCH The the foreseen rate R. the channel are are Simple that heuristics differ only distance chosen to assignments few edges guarantee separated they nonetheless in which Euclidean channel symbols differ themselves 1-108 .6 AR Codln u With Ungerboeck's code channel through read the off signal to govern symbols.5 Advanced DecodiD_ By additional has reported Viterbi at requires space borne a concatenating coding such BER = great gain a a beyond suitable that showing even of block Viterbi code with decoding a convolutional may be of BER.12. distance at a BER All = cg_ing i0 gains are For other referenced BER. bounded bound code illustrated normalized information Since bound documented are coding tion in very presumably in near gain code is the Hamming bounds distance the coding indicates itself. JPL over the scheme for scheme I0 and of a coding greater and time. code Eigure distance is i.1. 9. these to gains the AWGN will be threshold adjusted Eb/No = accordingly.4 Ellas-_L__n_C_inu_Galn For further The versus Elias the algebraic by is rate an block Elias expressed R (i. i. those 2 a D . the sequence Euclidean of subsets bits channel data of distance the select symbols trellis of the space separating The key of diagram. and and side side Reed-Solomon ordinate ordinate block denotes denotes function Hamming left-hand right-hand normalized coding gain. the to A more no coding survey efficient gain. bound in the the (Elias.12. a this background. minimization of bits to distinct gain coding by trellis. terms normalized of existence 1955) the of as any particular by Hamming bit size).. be signals to distance symbols used to the emitted minimum by between sum in signals of the is squared trellis that finding to minimum paths of AR coding selected distances diagram. developments approach years. of convolutional code provides up to 5 plus dB 1. _n is as that related well.1. 12.

In contrast with the rE_sult when th_ of the the arbitrary underlying mapping convolutional not yields found in code a completely its the miniin independent D. algebraic distances (1983) codes an more technique combine that In the are contrast techniques comparable algebraic efficient B of Tanner to theory than of power very to Tanner of well con- (1981). for a parallelism VLSI a i0 chip Mb/s of pipelining for unpublished block could fit NM0S substancode on 64K study.12. the 1-109 . Biglieri confirmed potentialL i. operate single The to decoder decoder that would of complexity of equivalent satellite an have RAM. of outperform algorithm to LC yield codes a show can used code. to the time. decode B The many is in Tanner's Hamming Tanner of decoding such not in permit those is any construction the best with algebraic that known can leads code be developed previously pp. approximate be this is for and able to an Although optimal algorithm decoding a Viterbi on the done a optimal.i. of weaker suboptimal necessary these thus compete symbols the that be channel with scheme philosophy with of the superior flexible has coding. construction type. an 4096) channel contrast. D m i of mln_mization the signal achieves Thus larger improvement modulation of the is Euclidean To uses deliberately distance take the advantage optimal achieved. states. channel. in the search Ungerboeck error-event on the techniques (1982) probability nonlinear common in the construction that AWGN coding of stangains (1984) demonstrated are satellite possible. 541-542) algorithm codes using it of a has (1981. coding by coding. minimum Indeed. a much of this independent set . the constrained mum the than ultimate for construction. is amenable algorithm uses bounded and precision arithmetic levels. tial miniaturization weight a lvantages._s codes. to a preliminary on VLSI Comparable power and floorplans disk channel decoder developed. algebraic adapted volutional the of Tanner code to that with construction parallel with of Viterbi cod.7 LC CodlnS Another technique has shown is the it low-complexlty is possible coding to decoders in VLSI. as each is " A its potential for on the reducing order hardware of real 6 number dB "Improvements Viterbi decoder symbol integer at a were roughly many abou¢ each B 2 _state requires arrives. combined A_ this the code-modulation current plausible. to of us. a number on To algorithm algorithm stronger assignment in accordance cases. In and In (4968. require computations Tanner's to complete codes advantage As with for stated of by LC i0 decoding Ungerboeck . Ungerboeck Viterbi decoder. Euclidean algebraic chosen LC distance theory coding of as properties. Tanner the by Ford use appears approach Aerospace thus baseline The complexity. Using dard of up convolution to 6 dB this computer codes._d the any to probabilistic implementations high-speed codes decoding. and problem. distance shown to may using it bits Euclidean been LC AR with to code AR subsets of AR information.

12-2 R-S and BCH Code Performance Envelope FIGURE State-of-the-Art 1._IOIIqTY LOGIC CO_V0LUTIONAL COOLS 0. k/n I 0.3 CODE I 0..8 I TM 0.4 I 0.9 0.2 0.10 RATE.1.7 I 0.4 E E = 0.8 0.50_ I 0.10 -- I 0 0.I C.1 z < c z g 0.12-I Coding Gain 10 "_ g.i. FIGURE Elias Bound on I.3 0.? 6 0.30 --_ "_0.7 0.9 0.5 I 0.401 _ X NO CODES FOR LARGE EXIST n >IN THIS 100 REGION r \ "%_ELIASBOUND d 0.12-3 Decoder Envelope ORIGINAL l-llO PAGE IS OF POOR QUALITY . 0.5 0.10 ol I 2 BANDWlDT_ _ £XWANSIO_.2 I 0.6_ 0..6 0. 3 CODE RATE FIGURE t.6 R .2 0.5 cl "'R" • ELIAS BOUND :i gD s 4 3 _.4 0.20-- 0.6 ! 'I I IOEAL PSK IUNCO0|O II l=m " I0 "S' M. I I 0.1.1 0.3 0.

as those are The increased equipment. 533-547.3! Ii 4x4x18 I l I ! I [ - 0._ : 'V _ :7V . size and power table weight power for the intersatellite llnk equipment aboard the _q)A_ follows. 5x4x2 Ix3x3/4 3x6x2 4_5__1 3x4xl ! ! l ll LEQzGE0 Receiver (RFPor.___| I Convert@r PER SPACECRAZT ! 1 ! 10=0 ! i08. 1981 IEEE Trans.M.0 ! I I __a_6_a 2 I _IK_i_l__S_l.__. Approach No.9 Drive (0. "A Transform Quasi-Cycllc Quebec.14.zs.6 ! [ I I 4=1=.. given dependent antenna redundancy power requirements of are not considered the systems assumed Assessment. Theory.. 3. 1. Canada Codes". "Codlnc _ for Noise Channels.L__. R. IEEE International 1983 Symposium Information September. Tanner. Inform.2! 6./_O) & FEC De_Dder QPS__D_modulator _r_nsmitter _d _n_enna Gimbal Olmbal Assembly (0. Class Theory." IRE Convention Record... the TDAS: equipment. Power W I I in x Size in x in Redundancy I 1 1 4..13 _@_ht_ PowQr_and__iam The weight.5__..3 3.3 [ ! !9".9 ! ! ! 1 _.3 4 0. to pp.M. Elias. Tanner.i.3 7.5 28 16 0. Electronics_ & Trac__L_iver SYST_ USAT SPACECRAFT PER A{_uisition _E_TIONAL _QTAL T_Q_L DC/DC TOTAL PER PER !_1 I !. table.8.3 28 5 | 0.0 7_.E. 1955 P. (including herein are Weights assumed this equipment The Reliability crossllnk) GE0 EQUIPMENT (GE0-LE0 LINK) i Qty l I ! ! Weight Ibs. i. for a Low Complexity September.. of the redundant of any the one redundant time.5 2 x _9 x 1 x ..EK[KEKSCKS 1.6 m) W) Subsystem..t. IT-27.. R.2.3 x m_x x 13. The units The TOTAL because PER in the consumption of any TOTAL PER USAT row does not increase redundant and power on the controllers for all levels Prediction PER UNIT DATA pair will reflects with be the the weight the addition at the in the the only SPACECRAFT one operational 5 USAT systems weight are and reflects aboard other this same the DC/DC converters The microprocessor and in in powers Table Section of 1.0 I I I I I I * Average I **Peak l-ill OF Pu. "A Recursive Vol.7! 4 3_x6x2 86.. Part 4.(32"*)! 14 ! 5x4x2 3. Theory on 5..9 1. 1 ! i ! i ! i ! i ! i ! i USAT I [ 1_. of Codes". 2.1.2 1 I 58..

summarized ISL I0 year Reliability GKQ_aoGK_* ISL without redundancy 0.1.14 EeliAhill__En=_l=_l_n_&_a=_mnn_ The reliability information considered.14.7745 0.1. include: without model the basic Redundan_ (baseline) reliability for the ISL without for redundancy the baseline is Figure model assumptions reliability o High long reliability life spacecraft parts and components An accordance with typical o Part for derating I0 year policies mission life in accordance with MIL-STD-1547 and PPL-17 o 12 year design life for electronics and active mechanical assemblies o Operating operating temperatures in geosynchronous for assemblies orbit typical of 3-axis spacecraft Failure Notice rates 1 for piece parts in accordance with MIL-HDBK-217D.14-1.2588 0.1. and without as The been GEO of updated to GEO the to and design incorporate GEO are to LEO dis- current design configurations cussed compares reliability An reliability following with are reliability assessment The configurations for i0 years hardware follows: redundancy. 1-112 .1 The shown in E_llahlll_M_Z_el ISL reliability 1.9425 *Results do not include the antenna microprocessor or controllers 1.4911 ISL with redundancy 0. more ISL detail design results in the prediction for The the assessment ISL with has both aspects sections.1.


1.1. MIL-HBDK-217D estimates estimates.1. is circuitry. to encoders.14-1 probability reliability in the gimbal drivers.14-3. assembly and is not passive practical mechanical for passive items in items the such antenna as filters. the time could analysis. level and feed redunfor windings.14. 1-114 . is incorporated and electronics.14._E_=n_anu_ Figure 1. level year practical sufficiently failures).1.1.14-2. the The details failure designs engineering for the rates for reliability the com- similar parts. requirements. for feed model model are and of improves drive This a is i0 not is is included 1. transmitter.1.. success to shown in in The the Figure higher 1.3 Antenna and Feed Reliability The The appropriate antenna and results feed from Figures reliability this 1. feed and design the required meet required The baseline the if i0 for modulator for year a two for one ing for gimbal redundancy and one acquisition redundancy driver This electronics demodulator. level It of also a design for including modulator.2 L_L. of mission. in the optical considered at redundancy in this for this antenna the ISL the incorporating input and and receiver.1. both components of failure to low modulator and the the practical in for necessary and antenna passive components or restricted probability structural mechanical 1. component and on current programs. incorporated trackTwo the motor redundancy is Higher also windings. and feed o A standby failure assemblies rate of I0_ of the active rate for nonoperating electronic 1.4 Hardware Rellahlll/_ The estimate ponent of items following the are hardware derived sections items from for piece in provide the ISL. is confor and (primarily the one reliability configuration dancy redundancy optical sidered other risk in the models has a of i0 antenna without when motor redundancy Redundancy implement low two year The of 0. reliability in trans- is lower reliability ISL design considerations include: addition assumed o A minimum two assemblies for one redundancy motor point is required for for l0 all year powered mission eleclife tronic and including of single windings avoidance failures o Redundancy switches.9066 design. spacecraft mission mitter design. the minimum to be drivers.1.x1_h. is sufficient levels than to of assumed those encoders.9846 0.14-2 for all provides active receiver.14.

--v n o L/J ' 2|0 0 0 ] a. _- -5 0. 11. _ . _I00 E] _- @$ i11 IJ. ° l >if) E] n_ i-- 1-115 . = g _._ ..__ .% n _ I ] 0 0 n to- o -% Q.

.co. L t:: | I IL 1-116 ORIGINAL OF POOR PAGE IS QUALITY .] [.l OO O_ E.I E.1 i i % L o i o i o.ow P-:l_ E] E_ E_ p- ] [] i E.-1 E-] E] E] [] [. il !1 1 l-1 t-1 E'. ..

600 i0 5 20 filter amplifier 5 20 30 30 (UH_) 30 50 20 90 Total failure 4 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 rate ___ 20 20 300 600 i0 i0 20 5 20 30 30 30 50 20 Amplifier Low pass Correction Multiplier Divider SAW XTAL Loop DC/DC VCO oscillator amplifier converter 1508 1.1. (GaAs FET) 103 V-Band Isolator Power Mixer V-Band Loop Band 5 Divider i0 i00 GUNN filter pass filter Osc.ailmr. i In_u___ecei _er The failure rats of the input receiver is calculated as follows: I_put Receiver Failure Rate (10 -9 ) /_em RF preamp (HEMT) 50 i00 1 1 1 1 50 I00 103 Mixer IF AJnplifler L.4.i._f.n_ma_m I00 pass filter filter 5 20 20 25 75 50 filter 5 30 60 i00 converter 90 Total failure n 5 4 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 rate _al failmrn_rate 500 20 20 40 25 75 i00 5 60 60 I00 9_ 1095 Mixer Low Loop Limiter VCO Summer Sample/latch Bandpass T/2 PPL Clock DC/DC 1-i17 .2 Dem_ The failure of zhe demodulator is calculated as follows: Demodulator Failure Rate (10 -9 ) _m Com_gnmnt.14.4. i.O. 14.

O.3 A_lsl_i_n_an__T_a_inu_E_u=ix=r The failure follows: rate of the acquisition and tracking receiver is calcu- lated as Acquisition /-_m Mixer IF AM DC L.4 The failure rate of the modulator Failure is Rate ra_ estimated (10 -9 ) D 1 1 2 1 1 _otal failure i165 i0 260 i0 i0 rate as follows: Modulator Item V-Band (see 3 3 db db Biphase oscillator input switch power combiner transition receiver) divider power Component failure 1165 i0 130 I0 I0 Microstrip/WG DC/DC converter 90 Total failure 1 rate __9._ 1545 l-ll8 . Scan Timing Summer Threshold Demux DC/DC converter logic generator generator Amplifier detector filter amp (GaAs filter EET) Bandpass Lowpass and Tracking Receiver Failure Rate (10 -9 ) i00 103 5 20 5 20 400 200 250 75 90 50 90 Total failure 3 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 rate 300 206 5 20 15 20 400 200 250 75 90 50 90 1721

5 The dependent the the number diode _Q____KQ__n_naml_=n failure the rate of the GEO to GEO the In (see operation.1. Failure this 1.1. oven) Component failure i00 250 150 i0 520 rate n 1 1 1 1 1 Total_lail___e i00 250 150 i0 520 FET preamp Isolator Amplifier DC/DC (i IMPATT) converter 90 Total failure 1 rate ___ 1120 1-119 .% 1. FITs allowable successful GE0 to analysis. osc over) i0 520 "1050 2120 4240 3 1 1 1 1 30 520 1050 2120 4240 i00 250 1 1 I00 250 combiner IMPATTs) Converter 120 Total failure 1 rate _ii_ 8430 1.14.1. assumed failure required transmitter GE0 Transmitter L_m Mixer Crystal (temp Isolator Amplifier Amplifier Amplifier 8-way (8 DC/DC controlled controlled (I (2 (4 IMPATT) IMPATTs) IMPATTs) & ampl. The fol lows : _Tr__ failure raLte of the GEO to LEO transmitter is estimated as GE0 to LEO Transmitter Failure Rate (10 -9 ) Item Mixer Crystal (temp controlled controlled osc.5) The Rate transmitter IMPATT diode and estimate (10 -9 ) that is is almost failure it is all as entirely rate diodes follows: and that are upon of for assumptions diode is 500 rate concerning failures.14.

6 An_a_trml___nl_ The baseline a centralized (AC). IMPATT provided application reliability. Notice I. Aerospace definitive failure rate It some approach IMPATT can useful is only data. as follows: Rate (10 -9 ) Component Processor 4/( x 8K x 8 ROM 8 RAM circuits converter circuits failure 500 250 600 150 90 Total r_ n 1 1 1 6 1 _L_ifil/d_r_L__ate 500 250 600 900 90 2340 Interface DC/DC failure rate ACM Failure Component Rate failur_ 500 250 600 (10 -9 ) raK_ n 1 1 1 2 1 Total failure rate 1740 Tm_al_L%ll_r e rat e 500 250 600 300 Processor 4/( x 8K x 8 ROM 8 RAM circuits Interface DC/DC circuits 150 90 converter 1-120 .1. which required be hoped As a is both Corporation or data on IMPATT that result attributed in terms manufacof the to of future.14.i. The 217D data. redundancy and a conservative derating. lack of data. 14. is as some The best source The point estimate based on a small data. rates of and These work the users The for IMPATT diode is 500 FITs (I0 -) amount of available IMPATT for power diode data diode in engineering differentiate the nature and failure history ratings. of IMPATT clearly to diodes indi- with reliability researchers data.1. antenna A control antenna separate electronics AC provides in the the ISL (ACM) positioning The failure concept which design feeds rates 6 to for consists antenna the the of control microprocessor controllers signals antenna ACM and gimbal mechanism AC electronics for each are estimated ACM Failure ISL transponder. no by more serious uncovered cated that no I) substantial there is discussions in progress apparently characterize failure rates for RADC (the authors diodes turers is of unlikely these risk IMPATT diodes of 217D): 2) in devices associated the near with will the Air Force. frequencies. provide using design reliability diodes. however. Previous discussions technology.5 //_JLTT--D/mdn_Eellmbllin_ The reliability estimates on the assumptions for on IMPATT diode is MIL-HDBK-217D. 1. data 217D as does well not or provided transmitter in this assessment reliability which are in heavily turn are dependent dependent reliability per diode.

the is and the ACM and cross-strapping that minimize of some redundant between is further ACs 10 ks year communication of such signal a scheme scheme It be the success estimated probability would greater A This for approach the second would redunda_%cy redu.Figure and AC processors.3254. This 1.ze electronics the ACM backup of unit success being 3540 and approach the number and AC unit for FITs could of also be DC/DC would since to integrate converters an from number busing ACM 14 with to of 6 only ACs. the include windings drive with strapping integrated windings 1-121 . Further antenna (combined) cross-strapping for The the integrated positioning work is required to scheme. two processor between integrated reduce internal for scheme than 2 the interface be used. the for It ACMs that than 0. One full assumed used to redundancy approach to sort oF num])er for 6 sets is of to 2 use for bus paths. the assumed year rate probability for each greater 0.14-4 The The provides simplest ten i_ not year three concept concepts is the for use of implementation of one for spacecraft and AC ACM this of and the six ACM ACs is without 0. is at optimize the However. The failure i0 circuits A second functions would this is be type could used of for with 1 redundancy. crossto each integration to unit).1.91. and some probability viable of the success a scheme application approach with considered redundancy for ACM concept :_ull processors is required. redundancy. 2 1 for 1 redundancy ACs. At of to reliability some this the the time 6 ACs gimbal circuits motor sort it of of is within drive the entire electronics approach take approach could also motor place for integrated assumed each that unit electronics would suggested. the output cross-strapping the (or gimbal dedicated circuits.95.

I. 14-4 .ANTENNA CONTROL 1-122 . AC I-At" ' - To trans_er antenna gtmbal drivers AC I-Concept WIth Integrated and Redundant Electronics Redundant Figure I.• • • To transponder antenna gtmbal oYJvers Concept w Ithout Redundancy Concept With Full Cross-Stripping I I i ACM ^c IAC . AC '.

two At geosynchronous therefore we worse. continues acquisition 1-123 .1. again until antenna achieved.1 Link_E/ma_L2m Link closure r au_ parameters are presented in Tables i. its the upon a scan GEO of points The pattern.2. areas projected range trade of off within 1989 configura- The the time allocated in functional operational allocated suitable boundary functional possibilities iterations. period.2. qualitative analyses In addressed initial component sensitivity TDAS Also. acquisition performed occur rarely. and was upon until were a each system set designed the used major of configuration component with impact as well developed.z A__n_mnd_Zz_ak_n_ It at all should be is intended including only The that solar the once. Minimize 1. 2. tion and The GEO-GEO have link been system analyzed and for design and technical areas parametric is based into turn and on of offered NASA the a requirements. and power needs imposed on TDAS. 1 (see GEO 1 satellite 1.2. satellites the that as assume is maintain acquisition re-acquisition in contact sequence will Figure times. GEO success to its seven positions it signals satellite. signal acquisition the If time the GEO 2 GEO monopulse receiving fixed and initiates the its monopulse GEO 2 within scanning This tracking. assessed following ensure Use along ground an 1989 a most design effectiveness objective timeframe overall optimization: technology. order was the to o o link the as a course subset the each of of link this process. 1.2-1).2 1. frame.1-2. I. Judiciously iteratively. GEO-GEO sequence illustrated The pattern seven GEO GEO from of i.i-i and 1.The requirements architectural.2.2.I. Figure satellite starts signal does it not moves searches searches through tracking.2-1. conjunctions. entire as payload viable a measure Starting selected The package was of interface of definition component candidate items. was the and as in interacting system item way rules design cutoff weight the parameters. position pattern process the through locations. 1 of its GEO antenna 2 If the and success 1 GEO to 2 position then finds from receive its is 1 the the a of its scanning the the The also signal 2 scan from 2.

2. required implying is a little to meet that better all 0. unique to the GEO-GEO system are shown in Figures The motion onboard system tion later factor dramatically By the relayed. making illustrates use of design a presumed a the utility of the platform compensation computation for advantage. antenna are relatively constraints subsequent straightforward on the gimbal reduc- mechanical with weight i.2. 2.3-5.3 Bl_uk__l_rama The block diagrams 1.2.1 is a 0. The tracking 3. different it can from be that seen of that the the situation for the in GEO/GEO Section GEO/LEO discussed o Platform motion is rate its compensation only dynamic can be quite important.2. this scheme.20_01_O__nu From antenna i. is Figure somewhat 1.3-1 through 1-124 .i.1/sec.2-2.2 m loop gain/bandwidth loss is 0. because platform tracking requirement.2. process.i needed Hz dB from locked- antenna structure rotor-frequency.i that than beamwidth/0.

rotates its axis to form 7 sequential lobes. GEO 2 .Signal GEO #1 of acquisition 4. 1170 1-125 .Worst case total search time is 27 sec. . Both GEO #1 and GEO #2 initiate monopulse tracking main BEAHWIDTH 0. for each of GEO #1 main lobe. GEO 2 .2-I GEO-GEO ACQUISITION Either one of the 2 GEO can acquire the other as follows: 1.2.% FIGURE1.3 0 3.Perform optimized spatial search requiring 4 sec. as shown 2. GEO 1 . 0.

2. -2 .GEO/GEO 1-126 . 2.OOt S.O.O tO.| AUTOTRACKING Figure ACCURACY 1.



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Lt I I Configuration I I Power I I Status I I I ) ) i0 2 Watt GBPS MBPS Tr. Re-Acquisition.Modes: Normal. Acquisition.2.1-1 1-133 .3. System Evaluation I I Satellite I I Un.lnsmltter Modulator M_dulator Receiver Demodulator Demodulator & Acquisition ON ON OFF ON ON OEF ON ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ACTIVE OPERATING NON-OPERATING OPERATING OPERATING NON-OPERATING OPERATING 300 GEO-GEO TDAS #1 2 GBPS 300 MBPS Tracking Receiver Antenna Control ON ENABLED OPERATING Microprocessor i0 2 Watt GBPS MBPS Transmitter Modulator _lodulator Receiver Demodulator Demodulator ON ON OFF ON ON OFF ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ACTIVE OPERATING NON-OPERATING OPERATING OPERATING NON-OPERATING 300 GEO-GEO TDAS #2 2 GBPS 300 MBPS Tracking Receiver Antenna & Acquisition ON ENABLED OPERATING Control ON ENABLED OPERATING Microprocessor TABLE 1.

3.Stand-by Mode I Satellite ] Unit I ) Configuration I ) Power I 1 Status [ I I I i0 Watt Transmitter Modulator Modulator Receiver Demodulator Demodulator & Acquisition OEF OEF OFE OEE OFE O_'E OEF ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED PASSIVE NON-OPERATING NON-OPERATING NON-OPERATING NON-OPERATING NON-OPEEATING NON-OPERATING 2 GBPS 300 MBPS GEO-GEO 2 GBPS 300 MBPS TDAS #1 Tracking Receiver Antenna Control OEE ENABLED NON-OPERATING Microprocessor i0 Watt Transmitter Modulator Modulator Receiver Demodulator Demodulator OEE OEE OEE OEE OE_ OEE 0_ ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED ENABLED PASSIVE NON-OPERATING NON-OPERATING NON-OPERATING NON-OPERATING NON-OPERATING NON-OPERATING 2 GBPS 300 MBPS GEO-GEO TDAS #2 2 GBPS 300 MBPS Tracking Receiver Antenna & Acquisition Control O_'E ENABLED NON-OPERATING Microprocessor TABLE 1.2.1-2 1-134 .

maneuvering. desired lite is station returned longitude to minimal mode to satel- sun-pointing maintain power. shortly orbiter deployment particular and burn. fraction altitude AMFs is fired to The for Between command to among at the the perigee split synchronous the three inclination phasing requirements maneuvering. ascending spacecraft spacecraft. is first powered up about are two hours checked The before The Spacecraft established attitude internal is based systems and calibrated. operations. of three be the spacecraft by and the will come dedicated Ground upper maneuvered deployed into view of ground will a provided stations separation mission controllers stage. Following prior out and to deployment the will and spacecraft launch from the the attitude to the spacecraft shuttle reference desired will be for ground antenna A after thrusters on the are the is orbiter. Payload normal on-orbit The Figure 1. constraints injection parking desire To this to end.2.6.1 Launch__e_uence The Kennedy circular will (GTO). 2. will three and DSN command The solar orbit first array phase.2. elliptical thruster reduce orbit is the which transfer be fired such restartable perigee satellite and then multiple that a radius inclination equatorial geosynchronous established.5-degree into main an inclination. are controlled stability the near selected. or Injection descending midnight. is effected a and safe soon by dis- deployment of from injection may stage is separation the from orbiter. 1-135 . followed into to provide for be TDRSS. as well after Support as the injection. the At so to the near-geosynchronous will and Once and minor the this be used equatorial for satellite fully control thrusters deployed mode. will large to be position prior deployed and to the establish start of cycles._ sprLngs: following extended.6-1 sequence shows of the major satellite mission orbit events geometry. of the be health if status required. minutes may injection.onal___on_ __ i.1. attitude. be spun to _ its maintain the The after be on an all on the Depending for inject ozcurs node. Attitude required to impart executed.2. ground determination.6 OR_r_a_. Eollowing apogee this the altitude. spacecraft upper Just spacecraft local noon fired deployment. times circular to inject The raise Space spacecraft Center. burn. chosen obtain the th. satellite mode maneuvers stationkeeping is transitioned established will be the performed on-orbit antenna fine-tune testing earth-oriented reflectors the can station then begin. to the are calibrated The cf ant determined with the reduce by main satellite thruster required to zero. through automatic Erom by deployment the activities sequencer Shortly ground station evaluate spindown orientation. attitude. and the by a sun power orbit satellite will After apogee and satellite total impulse the be will partially sufficient maneuver transfer the sensors AMF a time firings is is has elapsed will reoriented by raise exact arrival AMFs. if necessary.6-1. during the station. point solar the array the the smaller may be three satellite AMFs is and in a maneuver at perigee to adjust orbit. after means tance the the maneuver the deployment switched deployment communication boom nonis spinning spacecraft enabled type prior into or of to spacecraft orbit rev early TT&C battery on STS the power. orbit satellite _'ill The at STS be launched will place by the the space shuttle into a (STS) nominal an upper from 160-nm stage orbit spacecraft from geosynchronous will orbit parking the 28. is presented in Table 1. deployment has to upper to GTO the achieved recapture stage injection about 45 and orbiter.

.T'""-.6-i 1-136 . PARKIIIG ORI/T FIGURE 1.-_':__.2.DRIFT ORBI_ ..

if required Transfer orbit injection (upper stage burn) Initial acquisition of signal (AOS) by ground station Upper stage separation (ground command) Initiate spln-down (if r.SEQUENCE OF MAJOR MISSION EVENTS EVENT EVENT TIME (HR :MIN) STS llftoff TO = Spacecraft power on Begin S/C checkout Calibrate S/C attitude reference Orbiter maneuver to deployment attitude Switch to S/C internal power Spacecraft deployment from orbiter Deploy TT&C antenna. i f required Arm S/C thrusters. initiate injection attitude maintenance Spin up S/C.2. sun acquisition Partial deployment of solar array Transfer orbit determine_ Prepare for ist AMF (calibrate. reor) ist apogee maneuver firing (3rd apogee) Return to sun acquisition mode Prepare for 2nd AMF 2nd apogee maneuver firing (6th apogee) Return to sun acq mode Prepare for apogee adjust maneuver Apogee adjust maneuver (7th perigee) Return to sun acq mode Prepare for 3rd AMF 3rd apogee maneuver firing (9th apogee) Return to sun acq mode Switch to earth aquisition mode Deploy solar array and slew to sun Spln-up momentun wheel Switch to on-orbit (3-axis) control mode Deploy KSA/SSA reflectors Uncage and reorient crossllnk reflector Begin station acquisition maneuvers Start on-orblt testing Start normal on-orblt o_>_rations T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 = T5 = T6 = T7 = TBD T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 TBD T1 T1 T1 T1 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T3 T2 T3 T4 T3 T4 T5 T4 T5 T6 T5 T6 T6 T6 T6 T6 T6 T6 T6 T7 T7 - 2:00 2:00 0:30 0:15 0:05 + 0:03 + 0:04 + 0:30 + 0:45 + 0:20 + 0:25 + 0:30 + 0:45 + 22:35 0:50 + 26:22 * 0:25 0:50 + 50:00 + 0:15 0:20 + 35:20 + 0:i0 0:30 + 35:00 + 0:i0 + 4:30 + 4:40 + 5:50 + 6:10 + 23:00 + 24:00 + 48:00 + 24:00 + 72:00 TABLE 1.6-1 1-137 ._lired).

satelllte-to-satellite commands. with for the commands TDAS received will C/N TT&C simulated relayed station ground measurements) evaluation Therefore linked. A) B) C) D) Time of Contact Information for Profile LEO-GEO communication Ephemeris Data Doppler Rate Other for more data sola_ USATs which conjunction in will be and communicated operating comprises instructions timed for switching expected times (data of rate) two or conjunction.3 _n_IDd Initial On-Orbit Teal Because operational TDAS the other results by test spacecraft ground orbiting (e. the normal (signals are not orbiting from The test The to a on-orbit the TDAS testing via ground to the directed channel.g.1. of the two The following TDAS initial sequence acquisition of events and will on-orbit be used testing to validate are necessarily performance spacecraft.2 Gn_undZ_at_lll__Cnmmunlua_i_n_CQn=e_a The between that (TDAS a station.6. in view the DSN TDAS #2 White facility from that the initially stations). personnel.6. 1.2. with tests of the absorption transmitted possible.. #i) is GEO-GEO ground crosslink station and data on a provides. via TDAS transmitted station analysis. which the visible for is communication not GEO in view of While transmitted between the ground channel.z. and the the satellite relay data. 1-138 . A. up-linked act as by oxygen to and of from EH_ the energy ground) will the at 60 of be GI"V-. Initial (The of will the be system/payload assumption dedicated controlled is that turn-on the Sands TDAS for #I each will and one of host be vehicle. baseband multiplexing Examples ground will include of commands to the non-vislble satellite (TDAS #2) from the A) B) C) Equipmen On-Orbit Redundancy t Turn-on Test Commands Commands Commands Switching Examples updated contacts of with data User which will be sent Included to TDAS for #2 each via USAT the will TDAS be #i are satellites. etc. Geostationary the TT&C among other satellite things.2. Component GEO #2 to the The #2 and operating ground USAT's TDAS station mission #i for status via data mission and the will test 60 be measurements GHz crosslink will and to its be the sent GEO ground from #I the TT&C channel. test will be accomplished on the 60 GHz data by stream.

operation moved in a of small electronics amount C/N ks off measured ks received 1-139 . Transmission frequency be measured of source and 60 in GHz the signal. Timed 1. Transmit Receiver Carrier Demodulator power C/N lock lock after response system and verification switching test.B. as a simulated to of the the The ground ground tests testing station for are: will with be the done using telemetered Some validation of i. spacecraft to ground assuming the use of power a master shall (transmitter control station).2). 6. relayed C. TDAS (bl-directional). E. Comm the test system testing other results operation. 4. 2. Antenna verified. can c3-operative When antenna search is for locked other onto TDAS antenna comm (see Section signal. An of 3. Power Frequency End-to-end Data levels routing F. testing begin.2. 5. using known bit pattern amplification in receivers 3.2 meter antenna data to estimated may be position provided via of TT&C other or may be (Initial processor ROM). boresi9ht. ephemeris m. Slewing TDAS. to verify pattern the The the testing. antennas resultant antenna wall Once be drop alignment.

ability to 0n/off be and provide status provided. measurements read-out positions couplers component continuously R2 power Gimbal/antenna Accurately calibrated provide A end system system that evaluates (see will be BER Section is planned 1. to a Due redundancy in of the switching event command component should can extremely the that useful number functional reliability analysis However. power be be kept of simplifying that are operations allow for fast of the TDAS XL exists by and of a sequences These outage. the crosslink the 1-140 . During and status spacecraft to operation the ground the for performance performance is monitored continuously telemetered verification. and/or identified. Automated Sequences The using routine detected sequences commands hardware.4 spacecraft be continuous _nrm_i_Q_r_ian Normal are operation completely at are necessary An 2 Gbps of the GEO-GEO out.6. will monitored levels. the shooting data.1.2). minimum to the so automated command between qualified On verification of is design flight not of ensured. in rare _ailure instances. 2. for as the If method the to verify of which the end-tolink will Further be performance the in traffic the quality degrades. [all_rm_Z_nl_nlng The performance and temperature crosslink and status communication of each unit for will can package defined each be will in have Figure the 1. to automated possibility command sequences. using telemetered Examples cause loss immediate of receiver of other hardware and failures/operating testing are discrepancies loss of carrier which lock will and reaction lock. analysis failure redundancy will has been will _rontside be control initiated detected. automatic troublemeasured interrupted the by a C/N measurement is satellite will be whenever directed BER ground threshold personnel exceeded.2. relayed. during The the Commands under ground link can commence link of the when is time data the assumed when rate two to the (perchecked except conjunction. the system contrary. diagnostic Eedundancy Control Except ground crepancy been control. be made during expected.i.3-1.9. redundancy effort maximum high frequent every ensure swltchlng/failure will reliability. are communications small to portion reduce satellites form the solar switching) control. be will once Once be an the retained operational trouble by TDAS dis- hardware redundancy data area the occurred has switching (via the accomplished TDAS if the through failure ground in generated the Backside telemetry Satellite).

7- Polanly.7-1.2.7 Eff_u__[_EaK_]1___unan___l_KiZn_i_n 1._tion The polarizatio|_ effects are discussed in Section 1. the GEO values intruding in sun Figure from into 0.7-2 antenna p_-obability as one intrusion of It of a day also but presented beam of sam.2. 1-141 . a day separation information sun the time is affect 1.7. values._ percent intruding of day. width and on any the view the day angle probability was (_ was of the as assigned sun shown used.20 beam degree:s.1 Earth The earth will i_ave no appreciable effect to the GEO-GEO links.8. communication manner as re-acquisition obtained 1.2. the detailed sun intrudes are stud'/ has into been the conducted antenna 160 to beam determine when (_) two apart the percentage of the linked as geostationary shown in Figure satellites positioned degrees The degrees beam The occurs also of-sight does Figure into other the not of figure twice important of to one total 0.2. the satellite.05 the satellite shows a year to each that for note other the is calculated beam days as the by the widths during two 1.7.2 _un A time (GEO) 1.6.2.% 1. not be is assumed that In can tracking the be unlikely will be event in continuous that the the same and that re-acquisition stream the original is necessary. acquisition.2.5 E_L_ial_i_n It will broken. 1. intrudes at a beam of satellite the percentage 1. only It is for two "zhat (not narrow three long intrusion periods.2. are within to as equinox antennas their The that the into different lineangle in eclipsed of the earth).

FIGURE 1.7-I Intersatellite Link Geometry r _Ea 1-142 .2.

........I£ tl-_.........7-2 ii " " " ' " ': " ! " ': " ': " _ " !_'A..._!'.... i..........ze.. i i ...i.............. ".... i.... i .. i.'...... n....... .... i. :. i............... _.....i . i.....FIGURE 1... J b- O.. : 1 . I1:_'_.....: . i .........' ... ... i ..':* _i.._ .cjrj 3e 61) 9e 12e Ige 1Be 218 24e 2?9 3ee 336 368 39e TIR£ $INC( IJRN" IDRY$) 1-143 ."2. i _ i .2..... i...............-........... ! ............. l i1+""' i . ii-.. 11-....... ......i .. ... " i ---'--] • i i i i i i :...-..... _:D_.

..5 0..__x___x_l___l 4 x 4 x 18 1 6 (_2"*) @ 3.4 ! -....._ ! ! 1 3 x ____2 ! I OPERATIQNAL SPACECRAFT SYSTEM _ [ 1 ! 115._i_ter (ZOW) bed Antenna 300 _bal Gimbal _i_ition TOTAL TJ_T_L DC/_C PER PER MBPS Assembly (312 QPSK Subsystem Drive & m) Demodulator . 112 In_ _ 1 ! .5 60..__a___a_2.l___.1..9 The reliability is discussed in Section 1.1 0. 1 ! ! ! ! ..IL/__/____ ! 4 x 8 x_i/2 ] 1 }. t ..2. i. 91 3 x ! 14 1.. ! ! ! Receiver ! 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! 28 x 4 _._..1..3m._a_.._ 28 l_____x_/l_ 3 x 4 x 1 6___ ____. Tracking Electronics .0 I I ! I 1 1 ! 157.0 I.8 Eelsh__P owen_an___iz e PER UNIT DATA Size in 5 x in x x 2 ! in GE0-GE0 EQUIPMENT } I Qty I I Weight ibs._Q Tran....5 o..____l___ ! ! ! _Ul_nna--_Mstem Antenna Antenna TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL PER PER PER ...%...5 3 !9"._____x_/___/ I .5 7..i.2._ ___iii__ _.2 J ! ! I ! Converter Control Controller Control OPERATIONAL SPACECRAFT SPACECRAFT Microprocessor SYSTEM (CONTROlLeR) Electronics_! 4 3.5 2.2_x .. I I [ 1 ! 1 1 ! I I ..1 ! 138.---------I__I_---L____ ! 1 ! I.2 I - 5_______2 . 5 1.14.! 1 1... 1-144 ...2 244 * Average **Peak I I I I l 1._5 x x 4_X_2 13.6 x x II 5-71 ] __ 1 1 ] _ 1 I t ! _ _9.. ! 6...5 [___Kg____. 4 x_8 _. I ] 2_ ... Power W Redundancy Reu_iver_/EE_EQ_llon) l_S_Ps__=moaulan_r_/QPsE) QP___Z_I_r___L..o o. I ! 1.

SECTION ANTE NNAS 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS. FIGURES & TABLES Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 Antenna Antenna Dimensions Systems System of on TDAS Satellite 2-1 2-4 Schematic Baseline GEO-GEO Link Antenna 2-5 2-9 2-12 2-13 Link 2-17 Gimbal GEO-LEO Detail with Beam Waveguide System GEO-LEO LEO Block Link Diagram Antenna for Data Communications of of Baseline Baseline Dimensions Dimensions Antenna Table Table Table Table Table 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 Baseline Predicted Gain Loss GEO-GEO Reflector vs Link Antenna RMS Distortions RMS Antenna Error 2-3 2-7 2-8 2-li 2-15 Reflector Link BaselineGEO-LEO Baseline LEO Telemetry Link Antenna .


o I_j_ZEI_NNA DES_"I_ZP2Z_I The TDAS satellite (Eigure 2-1) will have a 60 GHz orbit (LEO).GEO .3 _[][RS) PHASED AKR. (i) (2) (3) TDAS TDAS LEO TDAS satellite satellites in in geosynchronous low earth orbit antenna antennas satellite for these for for GEO GEO .LEO for crosslinks command . [|7 60 GHz X-LINK ANT SMA /" .GEO will links data be link LEO antenna antenna The baseline designs systems described. _Z_NA SYSI_Z__ 0 __ID___u_I_LLITE ORIGINAL OF POOR 2-1 PAGE IS QUALITY . communications (GEO) Three and five antenna "crosslink" "command/data systems are with another links" with required.% 2._Y (60 ELEMENTS ED SOLAR PANEL 2-I.

000 azimuths] Frequency opposite Satellites to Link i0 360 GEO-GEO link. full duplex plan: operation GHz apart loss.75 degrees path other with senses spaced km polarization. i 2.000 Duplex WEE polarization circular from 213 full 25 to link 54. [18.5 satellite field of view _ required 1990's) 19g0's) based antennas power field a few of on on would view.1.I _NNA_DESIG__IQE_GKQ__LI_K S_atem Consi_l_na determining antenna design for the high data rate crosslink are The factors as follows.1. minutes these both be Since a year.0 GEO i0 plane. TDAS sun (early (early in in 77.25-56. and shown 2-1 of X-LINK different system components remaining schematic Section 2-2 2-2 oRIG|NAL OF pOOR pAGE IS QUALITY . estimate GHz in Figure is given ANT". at communications operation power low link noise amplifiers receiver capacity budget gain antennas data of to calculation 63 dB. or the it. factors ends required solar the of and the to 61.1-2) diameter transmit the only for requires operate is antenna Larger at not full around degradation sized GEO-GEO accommodate The in The will Table be baseline 2-1. and/or rate with links (Table 3.1. to 160 dB 226 with available available degree range. GHz. o o o o o o o The the to link noise Up to 2 Gbps and data of rate.2. K 83. discussed The antenna antenna in the system is description in shown subsections Eigure in are and performance as the "60 form 2.2-m sun in increased occurs 1.5-64.

o o Axially Mechanically of o Each view with TDAS fed Cassegraln steered necessa-y spacecraf_ operation or antenna spare). has between with _wo channels will capable for be of the on being transmit the switched basis and of between receive frequency links. links. and antenna around two with axes and a single of shaped via slew reflectors gimbals speeds. GEO-GEO TDAS orbital antenna position to support (frontside, the to for cover best efficiency. field required

acquisition contains regardless

communication backside, o Each Separation polarization,

channels channels

EEEE_I_I_E F actor
Aperture Blockage Spillover Phase

E STZ_E E_;L_=Le.mc__LdB l
- 0.40 - 0.50 -0.70 - 0. l0 -0.10 RMS (.12 ram) _IT EFFICIENCY _O -2.10

Polarization Surface

The 65.4 Table the ideal dB. l.l.l-2, antenna per gain The of a 3.2-m gain, link loss reflector using budget, budget at the includes in Figure 55.5 above losses 1.1.1-4. GHz (wavelength efficiency, for = is components 5.4 mm) 63.3 is dB. n._t th._ the


o o o The feed is an aperture-matched is is implemented three. unit (a the system c._nter on the by and a of of body Eocal connection guiding gimbals. of the horn with via a length is mirrors) This satellite system the main -20 dB subreflector polarizer. chosen such that the feed edge taper. Circular System to o Beam signal unit o Tracking for o the to polarization% magnification septum is short. is allows and (single beam. steering the antenna to each used the to transmit the RF

receiver/transmlt_er waveguide through be is error is position.

receiver/transmitter inertial using TE21 loads. modes

located achieved patter:_

reduces horn)

monopulse TEll by for

Acquisition search



MECHANICAL o Composite thermal o Mass of

DESIG_ materials stability the 3.2-m 0.48-m antenna dia. in will the system reflector be space is used for maximum strength, minimum weight, and

environment. estimated as follows. kg kg kg

24.0 i.i 2.3 __l__kg TOTAL 29.0

subreflector support ass,_mbly

Subreflector Eeed horn



The aging

3.2-m and

reflector deployment




















LP vj V

















2.1.2 _u_nn___om_r Antenna is high Cassegrain efficiency. low are aperture chosen of to the geometry in antenna The and _ is shown to is of losses and in keep used feed (0.3 to Figure antenna with horn dB). place 2-3. size taper The to and the major a design shaped shaped feed and consideration An axially fed gives length to the for focal close enhanced


order design


reflectors Magnification

combination spillover


minimize antenna.





Beam__axe_id_ Beam waveguide to to the beam on Alternates are much body is of used the for (0.5 of of beam low to loss 1.0 transmission The dB) the spacecraft such baseline would be electronics rather as of RE energy by the through was that the the and the

gimbals loss and due

spacecraft. having the waveguide, lossy.

assumption offset package than and

wave_uide advantages the body to more

electrical with


(receivers rotating rotary

transmitters) antenna. or flexgulde




_---Z M-3 f/d " 0.30

"_"-.625-'z,'_ 0.900


2. i. 4
An is will

aperture-matched For 3 to 5 the wavelengths horn required 20 long. (Burnside) degree with coverage -20 dB subreflector the smooth, edge flared taper horn

chosen. be



The monopulse the from will link and (H and V) error 4 be tracking pattern out signals in symmetric carried system couples _or on be 2-2 the brought is also TE21 each receive out. coupled around mode H the energy and V waveguide signal. could Some off of to be the from the are However, the direct the feed horn signal required. due receive TEll sum to



signals. positions only must either Figure


coupling Tracking possible signal, mode and 2.1.6

reconfiguration, 8 coupled as shown



difference _eptum The septum and may or into be the LHCP)

trackingsignals. Polarizer polarizer LHCP either The two to of separates Due (55.5 the septum A frequency of bands. are the to or circularly possible 62.75 polarizer is used of to GHz) go polarized link and to to and loads. incoming signal the separareceiver The

into signals (EHCP tion and unused 2.1.7


components. outputs frequency the the correct switch

reconfiguration, either filters connect polarization for the


transmitter outputs Mechanical

combination connected

frequency matched



Camposite The face the of a combination

materials proposed rib of a It design stiffened thin provides with shell of uses to meet the the is a a machined the sandwich reflector lowest possible sacrificial RMS and weight. sandwich graphite of one pitch curing layer surface. the connected are a 0/_60 angles of weight by 75 and cycle of low Its structural in front composed epoxy fibers thermal under modulus thickness of prepreg. radially vacuum will a 6 mm A Kevlar quasiin The on to fibers kept shell that layer error. stiffening all the The on the front attached suris a to and


structure ribs structural




thermal The core a gore with isotropic sandwich

requirements reflector faceskins laminate lay-up shell to the will provides


unidirectional degrees) excellent fabricated A shell to rings with

(0/!45/90 be

oriented pressure be

stability. graphite

a precision is added a minimum The main the high is basic modulus high assured clips,

graphite amount inner in and rib reflector pitch bending splice all by

mold. order outer

sacrificial minimize are The


increase. radial same ribs type and of of constitute construction three plies the as of which Joints and


structure. shell, i00 caps

ribs each in

the degree Load


consisting lay-up continuity held in

material and shear and with

configuration across by rib doublers place

provides angle

stiffness. shear






After reflector the will required be removed. integrity) with The graphite epoxy a thin completion will be surface The of measured, RMI_. remaining wtll be layer the shell/rib best-fitted Only a portion fibers with silicon will be a a structure and of then the assembly, machined sacrificial do not the in contour order layer contribute deposited to to of the


thickness to aluminum enhance RF with the

broken coated of

(which layer of in

structural passivated reflectivity. tubular

vapor order

dioxide monocoque

subreflector struts.



The tion for of 3.2 0.12 meter mm

ur_a_-e D1s_m_nl_n
GEO-,DEO reflector inch) thermal and about A has a maximum allowable of this analysis expansion solar cases was position the within 2-2. 2-3. RMS the The has surface been for (one with a distorallocated 3.0 meter

(0.0047 due to

one-fourth distortion of cases In expansion contained is shown all thermal of

distortion using one GEO-GEO reflector

effects. coefficients

reflector cal to the and the


different was were by

theoretirespect of inch gain

experimental) antenna caused

done. considered. thermal


distortion 0.001 60 GHz

allocation. loss vs


The analysis results are reflector surface tolerance

in Table in Table



Eef I ect or_EMs -6

D_nni_n__In_hn_ -6


Full side

sun of

normal primary



(concave) (E.O.L.).





Full antenna












Full side

sun of

normal primary








Full antenna











Full normal

side to

sun. antenna

(Solar focal

vector axis).




Worst gradient from a


frontside after eclilpse


backside exit (taken











the center of Figure 2-4 shows Use of beam the gimbals a detail of the waveguide will require a for passage of focussed baseline gimbal plus beam 0.07 0.3 Power 5. document.30 .7 Control 1.25 .1.0 8.36 4.86 LOSS 0.02 0.20 .3 22.6 79.5-83 the of the to discussed following of this document.1.5 1.2. Progress appendices o Structure Sections 5.1.40 0. Two gimballed antennas consisting gimbals are of a reflector for and the subreflecrange of orthogonal-axis required motions required.35 .8 Host Spacecraft Interfaces The proposal.025 .15 .2._LK_2z/. 2. waveguide concept. areas this host have spacecraft been document fully or interfaces. 2-8 .47 3.4 53.7 Control and 5. in Monthly as discussed They are Reports on page in are which 2.0 mm) mm .6 6. baselined.Monthly Progress Thermal Control Sections Electrical Sections Tracking Section 5.12 .3. wavelength GAIN dB 0.71 2.5 43.27 0. o o o o Attitude Requirements Report and and of 5. this document. 5.4 32.1. of of this this document.62 I.1.39 6.4 = 5.05 .2.15-m hole through 60 GHz radiation.2 document.2.10 .50 Ulmhala Independently tor are used.7 of #8.i0 1.7 this .40 . (Frequency RMS ERROR _ = 60 0sS_x__ELILICIQE_EZ__EEEOR GHz.9 63.8 13.


satellite. llnk. data command rates are link. factors determining o Eull 1 Up duplex Mbps to operation: data 300 rate Mbps for data Maximum GEO-LEO rates over from ranges.1 s_m_Con_l_nra_Amn_ Five separate on the GE0-LE0 TDAS links will The be formed by five separate antenna gimballed design are reflectors as follows. declination.8 60.2.0 view.5 W on available (1990's) Table LEO effect passes altitudes 1.1-6 satellite could the gives orbit occur the GEO-LEO link and or up budget height.1. varies Table diagram is 2-4 shown gives in the Figure baseline 2-5.6 360 WEE K low loss] five satellite LEO satellites communications power noise amplifier receiver with 7. transmit receive field of 57. for an 160 218 links on TDAS.2 TD__AIf_I_I_j_ILF_B__E -__=_E_. antenna parameters.000 km degree km.2. to once period with and every sun solar orbit effects. dB three path to LEO [30.LII_K 2. The system block 2-10 . 5000-km Orbital orbits.000 o o o Simultaneous 0. as from the 90 Depending the LEO min on solar inclination not at all satellite for 160-km limb to 200 of min the for earth. GHz GHz R/qCP LHCP LEO-GE0 up to to to 32 5000 222 o LEO LEO satellites satellite to tracked _ititudes 51.

transmit the basis and of receive frequency links. channels £KE[Q_ZA__L_IIZAI_ Eactor Aperture Blockage Spillover Phase Polarization Surface RMS (. steering the antenna to each used the to transmit the RF receiver/transmitter waveguide through to be is error receiver/transmitter inertial using TE21 loads.10 mm) -0.i0 NET An_nna_Saln The 55. field required acquisition channels Separation polarization. 2-11 .135 m antenna dia.0 0.8 5.9-m any reflectors and will deployment fit in the shuttle for launch. polarization magnification septum is short. modes reduces horn) monopulse TEll by for the Acquisition search accomplished mechanically MECHANICAL o Composite thermal o Mass of DESIGN materials stability the 0.0 57.9-m gain gain The of net a EFFICIENCY reflector using used as the a -2. 0. antenna reflector is 52.70 -0.50 -0. GHz.3 1. is allows and (single beam. and environment. chosen such that the feed edge taper. minimum weight. 2. packaging problems.00 at above transmitting 60 GHz (wavelength is at = 53. and to for cover links.7 dB. LL%D_D/_ o o o The Circular System to o Beam signal unit o Tracking for o Ic_ feed is an aperture-matched is is implemented three. not pose 0. m in _ill the system reflector be space is used for maximum strength._SCRIE_IQ_ o o o Five Axially Mechanically of Each view with antenna separate fed antennas Cassegrain steered necessary has between two required antenna around two for with axes and for will be different shaped via slew the on satellite reflectors gimbals speeds.9 0.8 kg kg kg _g_ kg subreflector support assembly Subreflector Feed horn o The and five should one-piece.i0 -0.9-m gain.0 the net ideal dB. system center on the by and a of of body Focal connection guiding gimbals. estimated as follows. best efficiency.5 TOTAL 4.40 -0. unit (a the located achieved pattern is position.0 dB.0 1. is efficiency. of the horn with via a length is mirrors) This satellite system the main -20 dB subreflector polarizer. mm) is When the 0.

]__ 2.2.FIGURE 2-5._.J__.OOHz I i-T I MODULATOR/IF H BASEBAND TRANSMIT PROCESSOR I I SUPPLY POWER I _. ATrlTUDE/POSITION TRANSMIT DATA _'_ DC POWER I CAT IQ_. low aperture are chosen vertex of reflectors Magnification combination spillover subreflector to the minimize antenna.3 _m_=LMaX_m_Lda Beam waveguide to due body to of the beam of the body having is of the used the for would electronics low be loss transmission The offset package baseline by the (receivers of RE energy and through was that mechanical on the the gimbals loss the advantages spacecraft.3 to Eigure antenna with horn dB).oo. blockage position 2. place 2-6. size taper The to and the major design shaped shaped feed and consideration An axially fed gives length to the for focal close enhanced is high efficiency order design a minimum. GEO-LE0 COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM l DRIVE I ELECTRONICS GIMBAL DIPLEXER I H FRONT .L. transmitters) 2-12 . I-_ _ COMMANDS TELEMETRY SPACECRAFT I . GEO-LE0 COMMUN _.z H'FOEMODH'ECE'VE b END ULATOR BASEBAND PROCESSOR RECEIVE DATA & TRACKING PROCESSOR J v I CPU p .2.2 Antenna Antenna Geometry geometry in antenna The and is shown to is of losses and in keep used feed (0. Cassegrain efficiency.BLQCy_. assumption electrical and waveguide spacecraft.

2. the the feed horn signal required• due receive direct to to produce signals.4 An taper flared 2._tric carried coupl.qOo Z -F 2. wavelengths Mono_U/mn_Trauki_S_st_m The monopulse the from will link and mode (H error four be eight and tracking par'tern symm. TEll tracking reconfigu:-ation. positions only either signals coupled polarization. the Some sum be of and from the are However. also polarization difference signals. 2-13 . will For be 3 th_ to 5 horn horn 20 (Burnside degree design) subreflector long.X # V) is out system couples _or on must off the be TE21 each around receive brought to produce mode H the energy and V waveguide signal. coupling Tracking possible signal.2. could out. with -20 dB subreflector the edge smoothly coverage angle.5 is aperture-matched chosen.

stiff at each The and guarantee will during tape ascent.7-dB height occur deterioration and once every varying in inclination. 2.3 LEO SPACECRAFT ANTENN_ The telemetry in Table baseline link 2-5. _Imbals Independently tor are used.2. of meter high ft. o o 300 50 Mbps Mbps data data rate rate without with solar solar effects. present.3-dB loss efficiency. into the separates The transmit the circularly of receive the polarized septum bands. incoming polarizer signal go to RHCP outputs and 2. orbit orbit lank performance. 500 km solar will of effects be 92 in to a 96 (90 of 300 to 200 to continuously min. with be distortion location honeycomb to allow be coated dioxide alignment a monoque structure to edges for provide are temperature. is The Each in a proposed honeycomb shell is a honeycomb faceskin gore a very faceskins.1. margin a pressure added launch.6 The into filters Se_m septum and for Polar_z_ polarizer LHCP separation components. aluminum support Misali_unments and Surface Distortion The in reflector rms surface error is .0 the Transmit and 1. required.i0 mm. graphite epoxy subreflector struts.2. budget receive calculations. prepreg lay-up properties configuration.1-4 LHCP.2. Tables 1.0 0. and The a adequate sealed with then front thin perforated surface layer be made of for atmospheric with to depressurization aluminum reflectivity. altitude 2-14 ._LZa The a thick t _r i ala design sandwich consists quasi-isotropic The low insert exposed fiber for the shell of 2. which will give a 0.4-m to the antenna antenna GHz link on the shown and LEO in satellite Figure 2-7 at for and 57.15-m and the subreflecrange through of the orthogonal-axis of for beam passage required a motions center require 60 GHz hole radiation.1-3 considered. of the gimbals Two Use gimballed antennas consisting gimbals waveguide of will focussed are of a reflector for . are reflector is at show 60.8 Two the LEO-GEO described GHz cases RHCP. and solar min). and with spacecraft tubular will silicon vapor-deposited enhance at sub-system design RF provision should The optical will be integration. effects Solar Depending declination. pitch and over diameter modulus aluminum 75 the GEO-LEO graphite core unidirectional particular lay-up Doublers of safety sensitive during passivated A link epoxy reflector skins. is approach a 1. The Space effects on the Station with period LEO can cause satellite up to orbit can 6.7 _hani_al__ c oml_c_.9 with ib/cu.1.

4 kg kg kg kg subref]ector Subreflector horn __kg TOTAL 7.4-m gain. steering receiver/transmitter loads.3 2-15 .70 -0. the the feed R_ Circular System to Beam signal unit to the polarization magnification implemented septum short.lished mechanically M_CHANICAL Mass of the 1. 4. chosen used the such to edge that taper.9 the gain ideal dB.40 -0. field links. unit of of body TEll by horn Focal connection guiding gimbals.i0 -2.50 -0. transmit the basis to for cover and of between best efficiency. of for the with via a is This system the main -20 dB is is subreflector polarizer. antenna When reflectcr receiving o o o o The feed is an aperture-matched is is (a the system center o_ the by and a three.L_LL2-_5 _SCRIET/L_ o o o o One antenna fed required Cassegrain steered • for _LINK_L_Q_IKL_Z_IEX_LI_K_A_T_NA TDAS satellite with two axes and for will capable be of via link.8 = 56.4 0. necessary acquisition has two channels between with channels channels switched _KE[_EZ_ICK_LITIZATE _A_tor Aperture Blockage Spillover Phase Polarization Surface RMS (. and required receive frequency links. efficiency.4 1. m system reflector _upport assembly is estimated as follows. 5.21 Feed m antenna dia.0 0. reflectors gimbals speeds. the mm) is net Am_mna_Galn The 58. length mirrors) satellite receivertransmitter waveguide through be is error is position.4-m is gain The 56. 1.00 at above 60 GHz (wavelength is at 57.5 of net dB.9 GHz. Axially antenna around shaped slew the on being Mechanically of view with The antenna Separation polarization. DESIGN located achieved patter_ transmit inertial using antenna TE21 to allows and (single beam. is used reflector using as a the -0.0 dB.i0 -0.i0 mm) NET EFFICIENCY a 1. modes each reduces horn) the o o Tracking for Acquisition search monopulse accom.

2 epoxy to reflector meter skins the to TDAS is sublayer will meet for term a be the this reflector.4 is core also meter similar and provides mechanism. an environmental and thermal of variables cycling. durability thermal establish of these a high the key vacuum. supported reflector of low sandwich rib interfaces epoxy struts modulus after sacrificial surface to machined 0. of confidence be structural for carefully the composites design investigated adhesives economical the design system. to All requires control level evaluation coatings. to the is on large requirements The concern systems.i0 mm of error RMS requirement. variables should 2-16 . the existing are The atomic thirty materials and of an in oxygen. years such mission films. phase. long for reflector within spacecraft related environment used stability variety of antenna Eor ultraviolet space as in thin order LEO applications. reflector assembly Secondary LEO always space environment.!_aM_t_n_E_fle_t The be used proposed on a A by a low thin backup and graphite completion surface are the mainly space components design earth o__De siun configuration orbit (LEO) shell structure. radiation. a major diameter to graphite support A front in order the 3. to fibers the the on reflector for satellite of Kevlar which gimbal the the 1.

0 -_ 2-17 . _ C.•?"q?" • =i.---.O •--.--._?.--I F2 ( F1 ! Z T "_-.I.


1-3 Basic Circuit and IMPATT Oscillator Amplifier or 3-5 Injection 3.6-2 3-12 3-13 Techniques 3-14 3-18 Amplifier 3-20 3-21 3-22 Important Amplifier Watt Power Power 0.2-4 3.4-1 3.1. FIGURES & TABLES lig_re N_ 3.SECTION 3 TRANSMITTERS TA/_LE OF CONTENTS.1-2 Comparison of GaAs and Si IMPATT Diodes of Pase 3-3 3-4 Present and Anticipated Millimeter Wave Power Performance Sources 3.1-4 Transfer Amplifier 3.6 QPSK BPSK GEO-LEO 60 60 GHz GHz Modulator Modulator i0 Watt Power Amplifier 3-17 .1.2-3 Coupling TE01 Mode 4-IMPATT Efficiency Summary i0 Watt of Locked Characteristic (from Kuno & of a 60 GHz IMPATT 3-6 English) to 3-11 of N Rectangular Wavguides of Circular Guide Hybrid of Combiner a Hybrid Combiner Combining 3.1.i-1 3.1.2-2 3.1.


Amplifiers is a (TWTAs) thermionic are characteristics devices below. technology.1. and frequency transmitters This technology systems. vacuum described in devices Transistors The first tube. 1 _r Eour Am_i/Xl=L/m_hn_inS_ types Field of power Effect . transmitters similarity draw requirements. frequencies silicon and devices arsenide with superior performance approximately Watt at to Silicon 60 a with GHz Read 13_ is several hundred available a GHz in double (5). High 1989. spacecraft. application this seems reasonable be noted expectation that of expect 1 IMPATTs Watt that at space pessimistic. profiles This which difficult require the realizing superior GaAs of be the at drift frequencies. crosslink). Rel If a were achieved case and particularly state-of-the-art long life diodes. to be the At diodes can below device DC to be made about from 60 GHz. that The suggests the the of IMPATT performance diodes of is the summarized two of materials GaAs at 60 in Figure currently the GHz lower perfor- superior that superior for 60 GHz the performance best GaAs the at R&D GHz by hope performance double lower programs. source receiver transmitter one and the the for one subsystems: link for from the data approach will of on a the have requirements reservoir make will will use of of one the link rates for GEO for the TDAS from for links to the the LEO these each different the EHF the of between low earth the spacecraft links these differing baseline antenna each However. summarize be avail- amplifier of the 3. or have capability Watts at silicon proven and 14.1.2). 3. which space a distinction at such results operating we unduly mature feel point tha'_ achieved For usable 1. GHz to one (3).15 At date. make be a performance least at of IMPATT performance in Watts it a is should two 60 objective will in is not it unreasonable is important. silicon 60 The 3. to can for frequencies.1. three The status are Gunn solid and for use diodes state in and the transmitter: Traveling devices of and each Wave the of IMPATT Tube fourth these diodes. of these characteristics of these because transmitters Similarly source and transmitter frequency and links. extending improved to higher Read frequencies. efficiency efficiency silicon gallium diodes are doping efficiency a strong now achieved given produced by Raytheon higher Both 60 well GHz. detail are candidates (FETs). present It at 60 is performance seen GHz. 1989.1 __s IMPATT (1. either gallium to both For at 44 gallium arsenide power example.5 application.1 Qx_nxl_ There are GEO orbit to and the the three TDASs (LEO) GE0 different (the user q_AS. between a a for reliable.% 3. Therefore results we long qualified 3-1 . arsenide diodes output 2. mance This have task that lies will given is 2 the Watts in however. It However.i-i is similar (5). its make milliwatts (4). drift Gallium favor its output Gallium capability arsenide have promise at well the above using commercially profile at argument requirements in 56 IMPATTs produced of higher its than 1 configuration arsenide's although use less Watt efficiency more demanding at present established processing GHz. implementation power same the able amplifier modulator EHF for power all common will section which technology.i. Because of of three of the will the technology.4_ frequencies superior of has the been have have with RF respect conversion.0 TRANSMITTER DES(_IPTION 3. ago as 1971 represent 50 GHz relatively reported as (Laboratory (6)).

The injection-locked multiple-carrier fact separate On the better somewhat strated phase amplifier the same size. caused budgets amount 1. can is reproduce demonrate stable amplifiers bandwidth broad band sufficient. translates number efficiency. centered signal oscillator's free-running frequency. applications A operated shown power succeeding near point tic signal on Any the is in as typical a stable transfer amplifier taken characteristic (i.1-3 IMPATT reactance. of and the power out circuit would of but the in free-running practice will the is effect related is oscillator lie in the of to the the cirratio to a analysis the locking much as include bandwidth a stable output amplifier subject gain-bandwidth limitation. state-of-theThe projection operat- devices.1-4. signal. corresponding At this the The English. 20-100 culator of the range. with effectively With not an cause On an conditions the at oscillator the the resistance matching but circuit can the diode will to the still association load presented amplification mode it applied if it to the appropriate oscillation.1.1.25 of of over Kuno dB/dB 22 and transfer i0 an of 5 dB characterisfrom a small point. The oscillator signals or output is the and and included ILO power (ILO) anything will to mode reproduce than an with diode gain than modulated signal no In a free-running mechanism other hand. modulation. can and if suitable lead stable their for to smaller components It has high but (7. diode applied circuit Under will in amplifier. conversion be on operating degrees order AM/PM signal in degradation the link Losses". input input is unless present. lower that modulated mode temperature both ILOs signals is more better reliability. 0. oscillator) To achieve (discussed must to the 980 be operated mW output Eigure and sections 3.1-1 distortion 1. bandwidth weight. signal. per has as dB. other allow signal. present off more This The the stable to of fewer amplifier stages and been data the for and the output. presents certain hand to oscillator will lock in the injection-locked which lock input to causes an matching oscillate. from in not Kuno the the as an and of an IMPATT power amplifier is the in injection-locked English (26).9). input are Q e A but and the is more in input power a function accurate any event powers.8. where is the are either two of Either matching terminal two can modes: be circuit a negative devices as implemented determines an which can be used as two or of port as a injection-locked by the which in the general mode oscillator circuit is Figure The some to of the an operative. the choice of modes ks important cannot other be turn gives from a systems amplitude angle no when a viewpoint.IMPATTs art given ing in 1989 Our will not offer much are more summarized at capability in a Figure than present 3.1-6) included laneous (Tables through "Miscel- Hardware 3-2 . efficiency of at a this point output used baseline power transmitters amplifiers document). point gain AM/PM would by this saturation in _igure approximately the is slope down of to the about at the of such 3.e. been about value basis and dB. in this projections assumes figure operation reliable. IMPATTs amplifiers stable 3. VSWR. space-applicable condition. given Pin and Pot respectively. within a impedance the input lles by: Specifically band.

i i Ii I 2 4 6 i0 20 GHz 40 60 i00 FREQUENCY Fig. 3. 1 I . i. I-I A COMPARISON IMPATT DIODES OF GaAs (From AND Si Haugland Ref.1. 5) ORIGINAL OF POOR 3-3 PAGE IS QUALITY .Figure 3. . I.1-I m I • n 4 \ "1 I .t _ O.'f@._.

1988 TWTA'S S \\ \ ' tSSS 4 o. p.0 3 POWER \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ IMPATTS \ EFFICIENCY 2 \ \ \ \ is× t t 98i'6 S 4 I _.1-2 ANTICIPATEO PERFORMANCE WAVE POWER SOURCES OF MILLIMETER - 3-4 .0 FREOUENCY I I I I I I I EFFIC-[ENCY \ \ \ tSe5 zox \ X. I I I I I I I ! I 4 S G 7 8 S t tO (GHz) Z 3 4 S G 7 8 8 t tO0 PRESENT ANO FIGURE 3. • _ I0 t B 8 rY c) n '7 _ _ .O0 S4 3 2 ..1.



Recently it diodes InP The has offers efficiency electron in better performance of effect and a InP is in higher As Gunn a millimeter twice as wavelengths high to in 200 efficiency i00 as about InP effective voltage 60 GHz an around twice is GaAs advantageous has about 6_ at wavelengths._s As technology.1.1-2. in and Transistor by 1989. (16)).1. resistance. as high 60 GHz The a at been (15). (78 expect space tive devices much for more small milliwatts that in the Even in case InP V-band more basis for of IMPATTs. and the GaAs IMPATT EHF FET and range. an electrons make the circumstances proper circuit or technology. they though FETs devices The require stable than circulators amplifier separate considerably At lower broadband with a are other to at 60 three-terminal as to rapidly. characteristics LOs for mixers and suitable signal upconverters 3-7 . device will Therefore be will the much than in 1989. as be takes Phosphide. they are like "bulk operation IMPATTs. rapidly have 20 been GHz technology.2 In technology Gunn Devices Devices available advances techniques. is very as hand.1. even that by such FETs the offer FET will This efficiency is able shown to in IMPATTs. l0 that two-terminal well developed. transferred frequency millimeter obtained whereas frequency. Junction. place the:_r in This an under transferred Gallium in which to Gunn this effect and certain a lower like a certain semiconductors. demonstrated now commercially With material the at High 60 They GHz are the output at E-beam of new with offers 35 power GHz further growth Electron will threeinput easier frequenbe photolithography.1._vice or of At as 20 _ where On devices of not a FETs lithography.3 Gunn Effect De_ce Gunn IMPATTs. milliwatts Thus Gunn power noise use in achievable not be qualified with IMPATTs have devices On _l transmitter superior IMPATTs for other to IMPATTs hand. effect" depends are devices on a two-terminal which do not devices. expect GHz technology be is speculative one Watt much 1989. increasing some _. electron voltage excites can notably effect transferred voltages state. replacing into been are reported. of effect dev:_ces. a devices contrast has made at lower as of to the relatively strides and mature in recent moving as 69 GHz at has IMPATT years.12).1. from GaAs an Gunn InP milliwatts of milliwatts effect are with of diod. The which design use do of d. devices usable several bulky such output as power advantages. this of used to are make based oscillator on GaAs amplifier. 3. dramatic frequencies high one 93 in Watt milliwatts frequency of operating capable (ll. reliably 3. the development (HEHT).3. which Indium range mobility negative can Gunn that (14). to is one. at about InP is threshold result diode capable at a adjustment stable resistance majority demonstrated as GaAs. Instead. (i0). utilize electron Arsenide for move device negative The vast been such that of a to act Unlike a p-n however. Mobility realized terminal and with cies superior moving produce Figure output. at reported 200 Gunn 60 in effect GHz devices extends back are at a rather least we 9 mature years. do not on competiGunn and are and a development was 1976 per effect source. substantially than amplifiers.

3. state Several will section. I.3 bandwidth.5 temperature attainable from be combined.2 Power Combining Techniques The described performance.1. space operation (17) .1. combining. reliability candidate unreasonable level is a lower frequencies. handle is 3. chip level be more Watt several for power will requirement have to available their techniques advantages can level active devices. 3-8 . a has tube tube a state-of-the-art gain way bandwidth has to 15_ develop and NASA-Lewis coupled cavity under GHz 3. than output devices combining and 1. more than of about catastrophic rate hours At more physical present density technology these GHz a as power reasons at higher frequencies Higher such voltages as are 60 OHz required so the TWT and higher design at the voltage problem same becomes time the are current GHz tube For at 60 for challenging. much a of i0 power is only device capable reliable. size not must has of only the in structure the and been tube this developed but decreases also degrades as to in that DC/DC lifetime as same TWT stresses Cathode the the converter. IMPATT. for the ISL. point Therefore. so small severely devices which and can is limited be not GHz. (2) circuit combining spatial 3. slow corresponding wave can structure dissipate to the type the and helix and type structure but higher output.1 state along devices with is.1 Chip Level Combining By tion of "chip level combining" chips in is active an area modes. for 60 GHz power of to 1 Watt amplifiers anticipated be per in device 1989. disadvantages into and three (3) be divided categories: combining.2. combination in and offer Their have with a bandwidth More 24 million 200 per performance been random produced impressive. 60 extensively expect the the frequencies. present. 4 Trax_llau_Wavm_Tu_es Traveling communication cies tubes.1. at were 1989 the the projections and of low Watt promises around Junction will be highest however. a helical cavity The with program with a 3 offers more heat for efficiency a 40_ space efficiency. Nevertheless leading amplifier Two of slow wave basic types of used. in this wavelength manner. GHz is the well best tubes Their have use filled as a space In of space have has clocked failure high been crucial based comparison gain. combined small devices compared parasitics by using to a wavelength. limited small i_terconnection explicitly of trying the solid to complicate circuit is combining typically account output that avoid state combine devices many One devices method of in chip a area necessarily limitation. at a not to meet output are and solid 3. devices. considered. response techniques. efficiency. TWTs up to they 20 wave satellites. TWTs can The be considered. These in this (i) operating in sol_d 1989. greatest can tubes weighs 75 Watt. techniques described.1. 60 GHz coupled structure present 35 dB power Such levels. taken the such a into power way we a mean region making which at a series is 60 or small parallel compared The connecto a is If the semiconductor This that extend very over unwanted and must In by heating does not be addition in approach few wavelength. The combining the Even and probably candidate in Section The it. much 5 Watts pounds. of at the lower of increase not it is tube. conservative. broad role in the history at other frequentypes and than h_urs i0of high 2800 of of transmitters with established. the instabilities.

of a power output resonant twelve-. As on the an It suffers is small limitations cavity application. of be :ombiners. weight devices N-way one circuit. the (21) active to at N.1 two-diode Watt Watt four-diode 40 GHz.2 Qir__uitL_zel_Camhlnl_Q Many various and by circuit level These Circuit combining have been combining techniques reviewed have in papers been by studied Chang resonant coupled at of 60 and and used Sun combining at (19) frequencies.I less desirable mo. chips not have reprodlcibility that for zhlp 60 combined. number combiner and in of is devices.% level combining studied had we poor feel which by Dffers Rucker some at 40 and level GHz. combining potential other approaches 3.ztangular use. 2 or does 3 the series connected even could the be at 40 IMPATT GHz the As of the arrangement results a result. 60 at GHz It result respect _hereas TRW loss has is of nonresonant._ by cavity technique less at V-band with Harp Magalhaes which N the version in a and at Stover devices couple lower For output (23). etc. efficiently for size must to of our especially and 60 GHz in a at lower frequencies. efficiency.s than possible danger resonant else instability combiner excitation with a addition of less narrowband 3_. line must techniques combiners. has the in either a of advantage The typical waveguide size at range. GHz in which terms can application number their combined.5 of or bandwidth off has applies low a type microstrLp as a with loss. At resonan_ Thi:s somewhat cw mode combiner appropriate has been symmetrical used at quite millimeter combiner have cavity locations successfully wavelengths. and in the frequencies instance and about l0 Watts a successfully a 2. from to rectangular has not to been take mode waveguide. resonant or in widely version combiner. cylindrical are to placed the re. advantage rotary as TE01 readily 3. size. in conventional in couple the TE mode and This rectangular guide. loss. be considered hybrid combiners. which at laboratory only GHz the 1 inch GHz. It and also the 8-way had size combiner How sver.1._iode (24). rectangular combiner produced The capable from two of resonant combining important either the combining mal%y devices technique. promise GHz only is (18). inch.2.2-1 incorporated would A combiner the shown of directly efficiently mode 3-9 . for this and include chain circuits. generally it is In shrink. with been 1. size. described the has guide radial to output the and of our knowledge if one particularly in is the much TE 0. a limit or frequency number over-moded of unwanted bandwidth of increases diodes cavity modes. reduces A large the physical approach microstrip a 1 the in is higher (25). Another waveguide broad trade version price waveguide about microstrip only even 3. two However. place in placing the and is cavity. either combiners Probably the combine the most an almost arbitrary used of N-way Kurokawa (22). be higher GHz 20 diameter._e than wants the that Joints combiner the loss can in be Figure of circular guide. bandwidth. was 60 in would 1 dB of smaller loss 1 The coaxial approach would be line which combined and to output then the bast probe from the coupled TRW radial to combiner is probe coupled Another previously. Russell radial All of these (20).4 reported has resonance. inches radial loss. the is used physically wlth the th. combiner This the to a fact loss is type that and the of it radial combiner is combiner.1. size. than reported less Our than 16-way dB over radial the developed combiner 55-67 a diameter. The in of N-way version.

phase accuracy other phase requirements become important. is case are The type interdigitated used hybrids amplifier. (19) : the devices) a gain from number or I0 for plot and the following / / equation Sun f" - 'h. more than strongly plot of as per limitation the hybrid approach loss of approach unwieldy per the a is devices the becomes the power stages This gain at the Figure to loss on : and the of dB. is G is the stages.3 of dB N are uses to hybrid combine At is the been couplers. power ratio greater The than unity._ t t- \ the -_i- t"a of but " '' expressed is per as number device.1. way It should be efficiently possible than to the combine power mode the can is outputs be the combined natural into the into 0 rectangular more since a circularly symmetric output radial Another widely used at nonresonant microwave microstrip loss. device.3 Spatial Combining In are the made phase to spatial add all in combining a the on a phased particular radiators. 3.1. required size._"i efficiency a function device Chang and of (the of 4. waveguide Figure the combiner and have power combining depends is a shown output used reflection at major Such as 4-diode efficient. wavelengths the hybrid to minimize also used..2-3 power of 0. the determine amplifier an individual sinking. that less depends of the systems If power systems approach.2. L is the per hybrid device with more meeting IMPATT loss and K gain the gain better amplifier anticipated .2-4. the angles array number required their an Generally approach in the hand. transistors.1. The Figure 3.. is and extensively The four on millimeter of combiners.1. many the outputs direction Whether of by many proper coherent control combining radiating and is elements of adjustment an appropriate of spatial level The elements whether problem solution applicability determine overall appropriate. the 4-6 of efficiency range is data considerably for QPSK an with dB realistic ra£e bandwidth requirement high characteristics. characteristics of important types of combiners ape summarized in 3-10 .2-2. array is simplified On the and element. tracking is sense new requirements it is regarding is. output hybrid based . 60 GHz in of This in technique which hybrids 3. of will power from heat radiating considerations beam width and and regarding scanning size.the TE _ of a circular mode in guide.. this waveguide combiner. ratio the 6. separate the A combiner frequencies hybrids 4-way input combiners broadband that for efficiency 3.

1. ORIGINAL OF POOR 3-11 PAGE IS QUALITY .FIGURE Sketch the TEOI showing mode coupling of circular of N rectangular 3.2-i waveguides (excited in phase) to guide.

2-2 Combiner Hybrid 3-12 .i 2-IMPATT MODULE 3-dB INPUT HYBRID COUPLER .! -_ OUTPUT- FIGURE 4-1MPATT 3.1.



will the combiner As a result approach 2 efficient a broadband used is output to handle required such in as here the Gbit/s will broadband with a hybrid consequent efficiency. tice amplifielshould amplif_Ler design bandwidth restricting greater be plan this. using driven to in the GHz a baseline the radial approach combiner waveguide to would by turn. slightly when than be a output Thus. one-diode attainable stages the level IMPATT bandwidth.5 bandwidth Eor rate. power in Figure IMPATT used the in ADDED matched Of devices the can solid-state at 60 for produce close devices. English as (26) demonstrated each with producing a 6 GHz milliwatts at 60 GHz. were here are be the driven signal Hsu and output and those described will The The i0 be in Section an 8-way will output dB gain.1-2 GHz IMPATTS It type be in the are been outputs optima[. 1. which stage Simonutti. In a amplifier On other will be combined efficiency low loss and one. combining with the or broadband low techniques gain per stage hybrid radial combining. an output on a then.1. Higher considerably realistic. two-diode should be but probably stage. If IMPATT if must is the bandwidth IMPATT baseline Such a the be modulation bandwidth 1 nanosecond then the sufficient. 3. an is is is amplifier to 6 dB an to the the dB saturated as power ther_ output devices band the can input be as approach reduction for our will are used optimally approximately reason than to shown amplifier oscillator. the design and amplifier such as substantially. QPSK. that l0 Watts of the should sort be which which basis combines in IMPATTs Kuno or stable has demonstrated amplifiers bandw_dth greati_r taken as of than the would be could we is will that are the the either capable amplifier reciprocal Injection of following is of Locked high Oscillators data rate (ILOs) phase the time. will point amplifier. our successfully GHz does bandwidth impact Gbit/s the 2 Gbit/s design achievable. stage high-tel it can be expected eight 1989.1-2 results 250-300 bandwidth N for of IMPATTs an Kuno broadband be output the true four power is IMPATTs. used narrow amplifier and so output that (i_ circulator a the narrow when an oscillator. combining amplifier. oscillators. stage so that bandwidth be This. from if the a driven in at EET approximately driver. requiring in accordance gain-bandwldth On 3. On attainable should be this from available basis. necessary all stage in separate combiner approach. described feed be a output Watt 3 rectangular with it 2 GHz must beam waveguide. phase-switching time bandwidth.1-2.3 _ttPo_r___l_ None desired promise frame. combines 3.2. found with for the that 4 a for absolute be required maximum to than operated on but to a 2 it switching have 1 Kuno GHz 2 In Gbit/s pracGHz QPSK. limitation.1. bandwidth as_umed 2 gains 3-15 . a reflection power will oscillator. the Specifically. obtained and output power.% 3. to 5 have Watt by a level gains could less.25 expect in the Figure combining bandwidth) of the the a an times IMPATT 3. more number In to a power of that of optimum produce hand less can band. stage. has of equal At shown [[MPATT gain. be achieved for the down hybrid by a combiners. combiner from a approximately shown optimum and oscillator. to the IMPATTs 1989 the time power by and output gain the highest shown matched output 3. outputs Kuno operated of the (8) i0 still The from that at device 3 of Watts to power an the with have candidate a the single solid-state device.1. data be of rate. case the amplifier N That who in 1 Watt this combined a as four-way the times is these which Eigure by the considerations.1. version be in the of the basis of these considerations for a l0 Watt by the expected four-diode.1.

4 IMPATT are dB loss amplifier assumed and have a to ks be shown of the of in Junction 3 Eigure type. 3. be as diodes required. The devices Broader bandwidth loss. power Watt basis. be available would weight.5 to performance Watt DC or and 0. i0 Watt Also weight of the DC converters. than whereas tO DC for converter the be smaller (approximately efficiency since will be converters about case.5 candidate amplifiers. less IMPATT a about either course. on 1. at dB. 60 rotation isolators higher about The IMPATTs point. 3-16 . TWTA promises the a version IMPATT particularly.1. compares the characteristics efficiency. would to the instance output efficiency DC power risk" combiner addition.3-1 i0 not Watt however. 5 begun it On this immediately. will produce are of Figure about the goal 3. of would "lowest radial scenario combiner. increasing use size would a 24-diode and not lower which Such amplifier can IMPATTs they power the size radial In good. TWTs.3-i.1. 1989. Watt As tube Section state-of-the-art Watt tube could be it that Table The of weight.3-1 1. so that adding these be considerably less advanced weight. amplifier high 15 voltage volts. to be diodes and combined the stage. GHz 1. For ks devices.1. The efficiency. be availTWTA in the best based power lighter 6 of the KV) DC such frame.5 weight Watt of devices. development the 1989 combine of The Watt the DC the the of time two the developed: will a 3.1. offer amplifiers.5 of Watts present in have For as the more the ks at based a R&D In on the long and that a availability life there they operating is are a of reliable. The indicated with unless able 1989 in would 15_ in only viable alternative 3.The isolators can band give and less Faraday I0 Watt circulators than 0. ks assumed Therefore. to TWTA IMPATTs will DC considerably for TWT biased 85_ the requires at in particular and level. programs the event in good not.3-1 amplifiers estimated shows the assuming estimated either 1. probability more. Such GHz. In principal a tube the a is to present i0 the IMPATT combiner is is a the 5 TWTA. Table IMPATT shown power is the 3.

ibs. I. 3.6 13.9 130 Ibs.6 6. Ibs. W 5Z 3. ibs.% TABLE 10 WATT 3.7 6. ibs.i AMPLIFIERS POWER CHARACTERISTIC TWTA IMPATT (assuming 1.5 W IMPATT (assuming devices) 38 dB 2 GHz i0 20O W W 0. W WEIGHT TOTAL POWER OF DC/DC CONVER_R WEIGHT INTO 3-17 .2 DC/DC CONVERTER 7.6 i0.3 4. Ibs. 6 3.5 W GAIN BANDWIDTH POWER DC OUTPUT INPUT 38 dB devices) 38 dB 2 GHz i0 lll W W 2 GHz I0 67 W W POWER EFFICIENCY WEIGHT OF RE AMPLIFIER 15 6.3 235 ibs. 8O W 9 _ i. Ibs. Ibs.

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3-19 . in-phase a before The 90 concept and shifter switches). and lower the power to achieve.%TT FET requires possible diode.i): which using are amplifier. is shown modulator power by circuitry. modulation. output the IMPATT stage amplifier stage sufficient essentially transmitter. bandwidth this GEO-LEO amplifier.=Q_ba._.i.. to a 0.eS_ Although BPSK link. first consist i0 Watt amplifier slightly in easier are shown in IMPATT the GEO-GEo The 3.6-2.6 realize Watt this transmitter in 1989 will will of The the much will of with have aboard an output the GEO stage gain single by a This Thus.The spacecraft. planning to be per within is amplifier be used. QPSK a is data acceptable rates bandwidth Frequency rates modulation stable might stable for involved limitations.5 _g___r_:-_ A stable or for in the to such detail same as RF sou:ce provLde a in the Techn_lau_ is a required signal is the to in be the transmitter modulated.4-1. Crosslink higher Return modulation data WARC-79 bandwidth Section the 1.1. combiner.I-2 bounds to communication frequency of the allocations Crosslink thus will data not rat_ required an 3.1. diode. increased as the two in-phase (implemented has been biphase microstrip baseline adopted modulator.i.Sulation Their power degrse one of divider phase the at 60 GHz of an has the been shown to be feasible by which Chang(27). A switch shown will in simplified be used version for direct of the BPSK circuitry modulation implementing at 60 GHz. high since capable following Direct Grote includes switches path length and an and QPSK mo. _$ource _ection crystal same The 4. QPSK modulator in Figure 3. will desireable amplifiers the in low both force Figure the Due be data the a rate (1 Mbps) and M-PSK allows of the the broad (see ILO as of on the Command llnk. for source proposed the for either The local the for to drive an upconverter available described will be directly as that technology oscillator transmitter the LO.1. 6 I_u i:.1. specified if (2 _ffset be phase GHz) QPSK. i. only Such a one biphase is circuit Figure 3.1.6-i. frequency oscillator stabilized 3. smaller make the of amplifier compa-ison to amplifier amplifier power significantly amplifier characteristics i_igure 3.1.3. coupled for those modulation the with da_a at the high severe paths. which to of but this be the with uses driven FET a a GEO-LEO It should link be IMP. necessary.

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result the larger this link operating conser- estimate that can to The of weight achieved these IEO-GEO 3.6-1. for rate (I baseline device.1 Cooling The SystenL transmitter (_CHP) will _s The to and be be cooling radiator mounted part of ammonia OSR's will in the as will will cover system system an panel the be be will plus aluminum structure. capable The but in a gain could of power with per be will biased amplifier.1. at meeting However.3-2.1. if using power and over essentially lo_er in the the power the the maximum same baseline data as the point. rapid IMPATTs this simplest 600 of the its uses FET assumed transmitter is required an could IMPATT be because a output designs.1.999%) interface. source Those agaim who crystal-controlled need the full antenna. the crys- Figure modulator waveguide will be source The size.6 watt of Gunn to power Figure minimize by amplifier 3. overall controlled dominated 3. heat attached applied all other transport to to the the exposed utilize heaters faceskins. 3. rate I0 This plan. baseline established The shown The Figure The tal in frequency baseline 3. from stage for more of the will the effitheir only milliwatts design the be therefore. prefer rate to of users utilize a smaller transmitter and/or could be device. develop is Mb/s) The a system the and. FACC fluid outer a variable for conthermal aluminum anticipates contained panel faceskin of baseline pipe VCHP's such purity tube.1. minimum i00 Kbps.5 Watt be at be a transmitter.1.3-2. faceskin multilayer ductance control.4-1 transmitter integrated is and the stage power IMPATT will with consist the be of BPSK in the 0. honeycomb utilizing by at an the heat The panel high inner and (99. 0.5 Watt as in the 300 oscillator Mbps For a data 4.2 GEO-LEO Trans=itter The Because transmitter require output cient only stage. transmitter and the not the QPSK is thus an integration of Figure of rate of Figure may data the the power The amplifier frequency of Figure modulator 3. of Watt will of must 300 be Mb/s. will requirement.6-2. weight oscill_tor.2.3-1 is do consumption since narrower bandwidth exploited improve baseline characteristics. output 3-23 i . of losses. crystal will consumption stabilized oscillator 4.3 LEO-GEO Transn_itter The transmitting amplifier diodes vative stage LEO-GEO 7. the RF transmitters stage could use only one active or less. approach of GEO-LEO the in one If in capability low the FETs t=ansmitter data active 1989. pace. aluminum transmitter insulation honeycomb surfaces interface the ICL. GEO-LEO so that transmitter.3.1.

3.3 with the QPSK modulator described in Section 3. aluminum honeycomb panel such as to be part of the panel structure.1 Cooling System The baseline transmitter cooling system will utilize a'variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) and radiator system plus heaters for thermal control.4. Not only is the required power output (I0 Watts) higher than in the previous cases.1. 3-24 .1.1 Cooling System The baseline transmitter cooling system will utilize a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) and radiator system plus heaters for thermal control. The transmitter will be attached to the honeycomb panel at the inner faceskin interface.3. but the bandwidth (2 GHz) makes this power harder to achieve. The VCHP's will be mounted in an aluminum faceskins. aluminum honeycomb panel such as to be part of the panel structure. The VCHP's will be mounted in an aluminum faceskins. FACC anticipates utilizing high purity (99.4 GEO-GEO Transmitter The GEO-GEO link imposes the most difficult transmitter requirements of the three types of links. The baseline approach combines the lO Watt power amplifier described in Section 3.999%) ammonia as the heat transport fluid contained by an aluminum tube. 3. 3.999%) ammonia as the heat transport fluid contained by an aluminum tube. OSR's will be applied to the outer faceskin interface and multilayer insulation will cover all other exposed surfaces of the ICL.6 and the stable source of Figure 4. OSR's will be applied to the outer faceskin interface and multilayer insulation will cover all other exposed surfaces of the ICL. The transmitter will be attached to the honeycomb panel at the inner faceskin interface.1.3-2. FACC anticipates utilizing high purity (99.

12.J. Solid 3. Vol. IEEE MTTS International Microwave information. W.REFERENCES I. J. Ta_euchi. S. 4.Chu."NASA & RF. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. Characteristics and on Microwave Theory Transient Response and Techniques. 13.L. "A Packaged 20GHz i Watt GaAs MESFET with a Novel Via-Hole Plated Heat Sink Structure" IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques. IEEE Trans. Vol. "Gunn More Versatile". "Analy_is of Nonlinear of IMPATT Amplifie:cs". Sept. Material for Prototype Millimeter 15. p1222. No. Theory and Techniques. I.S. M. Yamasaki. D. L."Broadband IEEE Transactions on Microwave Hughes Millimeter-14ave Haugland. L. No. R. No. J. T. "InP Wave Devices". Yong-Hoon "Ka-Band Symposium Yun.A. Ion-Implanted Millimeter-Wave No. MSN. S. "A 69 GHz Monolithic Symposium Digest. _igust Products Characteristics of EHF IMPATT Diodes". Liu. 1973. L. Kuno. D. 6. M. Berin Fank. Vol. No. MTT-24. D. Kuno & D. 14. p1893. Transmitters". p266. p280. Ideal p. 60 GHz IMPATT Diodes". Microwave Effect Devices Journal. Crowley. M. 7.Vol.3 March. L. 8. No. pl00. November. GaAs Power FET's". F. MTT21. and 16. 5. Myers. No. 13. p. F. State "Solid-Szate Sources Power Millimeter No. Jolly.Ying. Nov. Aug [971. 1983. IEEE Trans. Digest. 12. product Y. Yamamoto. Vol. Maki. VoI.ll. "InP Devices for Millimeter-Wave Amplifiers and Oscillators". Camisa. Become Emerges as Near February. Seaking High-power 1984. 1984 Schellenberg. Ronald E."Double-DriftIMPATT Diodes". Hamilton. Kosemura. David E. Seidel. Edward J. "Nonlinear and Large-Signal Characteristics Millimeter-Wave IMPATT Amplifier".. H.6. 1985 Catalog. F. D. IEEE Trans. Davis. 1975.MT'r-21.C. Y.T. Raytheon J.Holway & S. D. 143. Omori. G. International S. of I0.8. Microwave R. English. J. C. S. Oscillator". 9.H. H.]{uno.7.136. Yu-Wen Chang.MSN. P703. Noll. Wave Transmitter Module". on Microwave Theory and Techniques. "Perfo:cmance Parameters Devices". June. FET Ii. "High Data Rate Solid-State Millimeter on Microwave Theory and Techniques. Gunn Ef 3-25 . 1973.English. G. Fank & J. Fairman. Examined for Millimeter-Wave July. B.MTT-23. 1976. 1984. Taylor. MSN. Bechtle. K. Vol.59. Liu. Fank. H. 14. p694. p. Igarashi. MTT-32. pA70. R.ll. B. p62. E. 1982. Hirachi. Vol. Nov. H. MICROWAVES Thomas Region Voi. of the IEEE. Move Up in Frequency 1982. Nov. Proc. 2. Jr. F. 1983 IEEE MTTS S.L.30. R. Iglesias.ll. 1984.59. Long.

91.5.. 25 T. 1663. "Microwave Power Combining Techniques". and Future". Stover. p. 24 D. J. W. A. C. Dec. 21 K. 1979. Vol. p. 1984 IEEE MTTS International Microwave p.. Hsu. 1971. Harp & H.472.N. Nov.T. 18. MTT-32. J. Sun. "Millimeter Wavelength Combiner at V-Band". 1981 IEEE MTTSInternational Microwave Symposium Digest. M. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques.l18. p. p. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 175. No.Proceedings of the Seventh Cornell Electrical Engineering Conference. HughesAircraft Co.W. "60-GHz Integrated-Circuit High Data Rate Quadriphase Shift Keying Exciter and Modulator".102. 23 Y. English. F.347. 20 K. T. 27. Jan. M. 19. p. Ma & C. p. Electron Dynamics Division. No. CA. Proceedings of the llth European Microwave Conference (Amsterdam) Sept. p. "Millimeter-Wave PowerCombining Techniques". Russell. MTT-31. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. Bayuk.1981.2. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. 1984. No. 1973. "Millimeter-Wave IMPATT Power Amplifier/ Combiner". Proceedings of the IEEE. p. "41 GHzI0 Watt Solid State Amplifier". 1983.Amoss. Power Divider/Combiner Symposium Digest 26.876. K. Mooney& F. May.12.ll. Sun.1976. No. Albert Grote & Kai Chang. S. 3-26 . Simonutti. Vol. Aug. Present. MTT-24.299. Kuno & David L. "Chip Level IMPATT Combining at 40 GHz". Torrance. Vol.HilI. "Space Tubes: Past. Changand C. Magalhaes.17. Vol. MTT-27. H."An X-Band i0 Watt Multiple-IMPATT Oscillator". Feb. 22 R. 1979. 758. "A Wideband 60 GHz 16-Way Net-_ork". Appleby. Kurokawa. Modules". G.Rucker. "Power Combining of X-Band IMPATTCircuit 1973 IEEE-ISSCC Digest of Technical Papers. J. J. Feb. L. p.

3-3 4.2.5-2 4.3-1 GUNN.5-3 Comp_irison Schenatic Estimated Block and Diagram Predicted of Noise Values of 60 GHz for Noise Balanced vs IF Loss LO RF Receiver Figures Mixer Noise and Figure Mixer for Temperature 4-11 Oscillator 4-12 4-13 4-2 4-3 4-6 4-7 Figure of Solid of for Mixer State Devices Local Diagram Noise V-Band Local Oscillator User ISL RF Receiver RF Subsystem Receiver Subsystem 4-17 4-19 4-21 4-28 4-29 4-30 LEO-GEO RF GEO-GEO QPSK Receiver Subsystem Subsystem Demodulator Data Rate Variable BPSK Demodulator Demodulator Comp_irison of FET/DR0.2.34 ._rison GUNN Diodes of GaAs and InP Materials for 4-14 4.3-i Local GE0-LEO LE0-GEO GEO-GE0 Oscillator RE RF RF Receiver Receiver Receiver Size.3-3 4. Weight Weight Weight _j_f_r ences 4.5-1 4. Weight & Power & & & Power Power Power 4-15 4-16 4-18 4-20 Size.1. FIGURES & TABLES EaU_ 4.1.2-1 4.1.i-i 4. & 4-14 Comp. Size.3-1 4. IMP_FT Oscillators 4.2-2 General Present Photograph Overall SeveFal 4.I-2 4.1-1 4.2.2-i 4. Size.1-1 4.1.SECTION RECEIVERS 4 T_J_LE OF CONTENTS.1.1.3-2 4.1.


100GHz 4. for low reliability. c_alculations.1.0 report dB. requirement them unsuitable greater preamp. summarizes of will technology. paramp have complexity. for a pump an weight.8 range.3. in High with Electron the technology Transistors (HEMTs). brackets of the to arid negligible preamplifier.4).1 to technology moving rapidly amplifier gate an frequencies. minimum gain. 30-60 figures At of 56 noise figure and be 44 GHz 60 3.5 Clearly GHz yield results but substantially that further would expected improvement. cooled.5 in than low 3 that noise dB dB mixer noise cryogenic paramps their at ISL amplifier. early GHz 60 will +/-i.0 GHz. can from space be an to poor noise obtained Figure from paramp a 4.4 FETs (2. h performance a gain. following mixers technology 4. receiver temperature. gain gain a 9. utilize and of Since much their the 1989 requiresame technology RF respects. realization A Eigure general The block ¢iagram noise for the RF portion T e .1 RF Technology Ov_r__ Three ments are receivers similar This to the in section =ust many be considered they the the RF in this study. In amplifier they have quarter 8. been ambient a limited temperature extent and make at Although lower frequencies._s figure by of a around and used size. at 60 GHz. Biased A dB reported micron with 17. Avantek quarter-micron better development than at the 60 this has achieved amplifier reported EET(5).. (1). conversion discuss oscillators.4. preamplifiers.2 dB at it from dB noise 30 noise three for 12 with dB figures associated dB stage-amplifier noise. 2. the receiver sideband will operation is to make noise state may preamp and 60 noise GHz be and of such available the second be accounted is assumed with a term will technology the the of for low lowest noise the noise IF for by low in be loss in the If a separately the noise the that relative noise equation. mixer and is by the compared On IF achieved mixer sections and local _A' other temperature preamp that amplifier by technology omitting the loss the temperature set The accepting temperature temperature amplifier. GHz low indicate from using of noise that Hughes one7.I-2. their demonstrated 7 dB gain the results. to the hig T_. preamplifier sufficient the hand receiver the temperature. 4-1 . as Watkins._ll_ Up offered a lower noise noise followed figure to the present time low at enough obtained 60 to GHz be by This only capable going is at parametric of straight seen 60 GHz in making in amplifiers a to receiver a low have with noise A non- temperatur.1. than for Gallium at EHF but their Arsenide noise and figures Indium of Phosphide around 15 dB Gunn are amplifiers not competitive have been with built direct conversion.1 60_ GHz Low N_ise. The rapid Mobility advances situation in is Gallium changing Arsenide rapidly FET and dramatically. and however. significant and figure at with 44 are GHz _.0 RECEIVER 4.1.1-i. of is a receiver by: is shown in 4.9 dB are a very short at time microwave into noise the GaAs FETs have come Recent to dominate results et at 30 al. applicable current portions projected the receiver. given Te The antenna = TA ÷ and link ((LDtD-1)T0 lirke losses ÷ LDTIF)/GA before Single RE G.1 to 60 GHz as GHz low they to 5.


0 Z 6S4- 3- 2F I I I I I I I I I I _.tO t.O tO FREQUENCY [GHz) too FIGURE 4..t-2 4-3 . .' I I I t t t t 3 4 S B "7 891 2 3 4 5 6 "7 88 t t.t. 9 _ 8 7: G 5 4 MIXER lS85 FETS t989 FETS HEMI NON CRYOGENIC PARAMP 9 2 m tJJ h- AMBIENT PARA 9 CRYOGENIC PARAMP e.

mixer amplifier noise In if available. 7 6 dB dB Hughes (ref 12) 60 GHz signal.5 (including contribution) dB cony. up to to high becomes conversion amplifiers considerable The has than millimeter wavelengths. Whelehan et et al(ref al (ref (ref 8) 9) 63 57 60 GHz GHz GHz L0. sealing representative Paul. loss loss (typ) (max) loss Alpha Industries(tel 11)60 GHz signal. L0. becomes: F = (LD . will and not low and be amplifier directly characteristics temperature available.i)(-1 + To129o) + LDFI_ If the temperature the familiar loss Since now. 57 63 GHz GHz signal. figure of If the an is the lowest mixer. 6 dB 6 dB 9-10 figure conversion conversion dB noise 5 dB loss loss figure IF noise I0) 1.2 _ As discussed noise the however. been years mixer devoted of diodes such as results performance. silica and summarized if hermetic below. sum of the in expressed available. + LDTIF the high IF frequencies of the ISL approximately and the noise for F. 4 GHz IF.4. and with figure that a preamplifier it the will noise the will case be the with establish figure achieved noise of required a sufficiently the receiver IF going the by high noise is of not the gain figure. quality The the beam at development beam lead reliability of lead and adequate low loss be are of the the result IF low mixer that noise noise mixers.1. loss previously. 4 GHz IF. cony. Schottky should effort development resulted with the on point-contact substrate diodes properly provided. Chang. L0. diodes better mounted is is the figure approximately noise with figure all have room is the quantities not in in good older a hard Some been has recent EHF temperature. signal. if are fused this mixer dB. GHz IF. critical. 6 conversion 4-4 . = (LDtD .I)T 0 unity figure. into a receiver high performance becomes: T e t_ will be D application.

Junction. temperatures loss Super-Schottky claimed of makes 5 the necessary the Kelvin use super conductor-semiconductor detector reported(17). 4 approximately about 1 will dB.5 still if a 6 using dB enough loss frequency the a basic 1.1. but an such diode for sensitive been noise 18 as dB a paramp. image would and reactive placing in the In potentially principal. 4-5 . IF can noise of the will noise mixer depend situation be as figure figure to on of obtain the (tip the the IE amplifier figure must of be the of MHz added receiver. and resultz_ bl. mixer with unsuitable high-reliability is results balanced shown film in for are mixer Figure a "high for Industries se_iling. to the This conversion IF noise noise and bandwidth to as frequency 500 For be a For a the such relatively IE as 2 noise GHz. connections. bandwidth) bandwidth higher. dB figure by while Thus.4 conversion By to 15 at by remains paramp low Kelvin as noise (2. Although as to radio realize benefit approach deal of this results noise such can An the astronomy the lowest great complexity the case the obtain possible these noise. achieved with the cryogenic down conversion indicate ultimate direct approach. the curve The As tive the cooled extremely and and neling Diode conversion cryogenic temperature. be this and the improved can be by very cooling. noise and enhanced a 1.2-2. a by filter extent low the micrcwave low.5 Whelehan(10) to the calculate effect "mixer" of theory Dickens mixers.t Alpha use Duroid substrates for performance which are convenient use in reliability" singly-balanced at for this experimental application. conversion as low (13). applications be ISL that tolerated application. The hermetic mixers. The loss figure narrowband figure the dB.Some of these work. 85 GHz amplifier cooling Kelvin 33 a most have low GHz temperatures dB noise figure) reported have Weinreb tun- Kerr(16). frethe keep is the accomplished This some the appropriate some By to keep IF of by has the used loss using the diodes. distance from will IF of to mixe_ dB mixer IF. the IF.5 the conversion and degraded improved resulting of of Barber(14) image enhancement be 5 dB. Maki(15) achievable loss. effecloss of a contribution is illustrated and of figure) diode. to be at of to cryogenic where the 92 an GHz ultra the cooling a 350 at small by the (3. termination a bandpass signal of path image it is can be improved can image an be and significantly improved sum by by close image by performance to filter the providing frequencies. IF of amplifier. can be 260 indicated as mixer long noise by as the the performance above IF low. the IF noise This of expression the mixer for noise is can also figure. Nevertheless. diodes noise been using Kelvin.2-1. little broad contribution significantly approximately The means to This the offset quency image the IF 3 of dB is mixer performance enhancement. of Figure performance The 4.1. on signal 5.5 dB Ford This Communic_Ltions beam and This mixe_" le_Ld _ates has diodes Corporation bonded directly given two thin waveguide loss metalization for the as a and fused L0 substrate. All of of a these 60 GHz is to to (two-diode) Aerospace mixer silica uses A photograph developed 4.8 The is Figure mixer dB 4.1-2. low. to in reject noise by introduces enhancement.1. filter figure 2. result. the ks equipment is not low useful of microwaves. possible a low which an loss benefit range. including is filter assuming dB IF contribution.

1. _ 2 3 4 5 & Corporation 6 Ford Aerospace Communications CM Figure 4.2-I Photograph of 60 GHz Balanced Mixer 4-6 .0 O _ _ !i_ I 0 1.

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3-2(18). by and best. the be L0 met same diodes. we 57.3 Local The R2 Oscillator power and with that sources FETs. far most Gunn recent years it for are Gunn use summarized diodes technology demonstrated 4. devices are are reviewed and projected in Figure 4. the and of the been rapid it at is 60 inferior output at that will that 1989. require GHz soon they from produce will be being At a made the at present 60 in GHz. can at complexity the power candidate. following 1989 power capability Characteristics of and compared in for the candidate each of these devices Table 4.3-1. so will by Present shown in as that be the the even LO so solid-state devices isolator of considered connecting IMPATTs sufficient. advantages application about better 10-20 than have They and spectral characteristics superior better than in terms IMPATTs IMPATTs of noise in AM close (b) IMPATT IMPATTs Diodes are useful devices for transmitter power sources because at to they offer 60 GHz. 75 be _ noise these of the (19) avoided of solld-state are indicates by the device inferior that these characteristics careful power. expense so the material Filtering of added the for and also maximum at the Gunn additional Gunn's.3-1. notably transferred-electron oscillator has been at in of around dB FETs semiconductor Arsenide Phosphide. those inferior control (20) noise. materials.1.3 are milliwatts device(21). _ypes GHz. this laboratory usable competitive FETs 2. being close are not FET oscilbroader lators bandwidth device.5 a three-terminal to the carrier capable has With it is GHz.3- GaAs. carrier. are power reported advances that GHz frequencies and date to advantages associated with their noise characteristics Gunn's. stability stabilizing considered. that approaches interest superior (c) Field FET Effect technology at To Tra_si_Z_ is lower moving rapidly into offer the higher EH_ region. levels biasing be used only of weight. for LO are are millimeter Table 60 both wavelengths. technology power with at Gunn 60 probable FETs by possible oscillators 4-8 .1. of more power output than any other However. Some at to But evidence can about reduce even with that here. efficiency. the paragraphs (a) Gunn Gunn for tain making Diodes diodes use at use are of By in a currently the lowest noise They effect Gallium solid-state are bulk which oscillators effect occurs and devices in ceron has of from power of either or and FM to the Indium millimeter wavelengths. but important these Figure output type FETs. have Gunn to those is based that InP Some As adequate diodes of seen advantages 4. an Tight methods available About 7-10 and dBm and for use for will noise the as use be losses. is efforts. noise.4. requirements oscillator the local as required the 10-15 will must oscillator transmitter: to drive dBm be have the from to are the Gunn mixer. their noise characteristics Gunn noise devices.

The from of is the greater of the of the DRO. to temperature the free-running mode. noise Close that Such SAW of source is the locking specification. the power voltage-tuned GHz output to long close is chosen than to the and source. long the carrier. the noise the the the reliable the frequency establishes reference the low noise requirement. that of the far stability The away locking where the establishes the of Gunn the the oscillator DRO DRO. -170 the output noise levell_ill of meeting the 10/sec a by low noise 4. Systems stability the will analyses be for on LO required on this of the a project LOs. back sampling to the signals voltage-tuned (d) Dielectric stability. temperature-stable the oscillator output oscillator. approach (DRO) required to a low is for used 10-15 the as dBm LOs. stable (Invar) oscillator reference in either cavity a can be or coupled transmission reflection (c) A hlgh-Q. the time realized simply the loop hardware. less be phase-lozked but rapidly. It Gunn is Dielectric readily basis. of R_ge 10the of accuracy. of a frequency is not must compatible phase-locked lock. of 10stability can propose the A 60 translate by requiring however.1. establish (b) A high-Q. accuracy Figure earlier accuracy rate be met show that very good and tight requirements into a requirement handling stability. ture stable important coupling stability. Gunn oscil- resonators. the an LO is capable establishes illustrated kHz. high-Q. 4.1. filters active applications the s_ch achieved.001_ A microwave to over the a oscillators. frequency and feeding discriminator correction can be used. 4-9 . loop in some the required use to can loop. stability producing phase-locked A the SAW of carrier. on a meet short to the so that carrier. extremely temperature 100 degree dielectric resonator-stabilized under development at Eord currently Aerospace. and good to the by short This stability implemented GHz The by a close reference means more where of a frequency phase-locked and with varactor multiplier. of they and device C very high temperatemperature have found By good range.3-2 requires standard meet baseline Oscillator or the achieve circuit specification. is lower source. Either an needed.Several these solld-state stabilization frequency techniques sources: exist which can be used with any of (a) The ('10 can millimeter-wave Mhz) be oscillator can be crystal locked to a low The frequency crystal term can to be 60 te_perature-controlled used and to low either establish phase by extremely noise multiplying or be oscillator.3-3. distances quencies oscillator better than source. 2 Gbit/s criteria reported Both range data can rate /sec. FM noise level At be that stability at moderate oscillator as 10 of carrier than order Figure offset of the freSAW single-sideband dBc/Hz(22). within in Since the the past few development years. 60 GHz is resonator as 0. changed with applications. has lator been for stable resonators resonators Yhe dielectric can be resonators used for are obtaining small. atomic To as Resonator capable The DRO of is the requirements term oscillator a short term a crystal B_th short stability oscillator oscillator we /sec. while bandwidth from the crystal oscilloop where will locking of oscillator lator locking the be noise that of term carrier.

Table The 4. further by by such a circuit is will capable be given a of to meeting the the possibility phase requirements of detector of simplifying such the consideration using. size. et for al hardware" instance.Although GEO the LO.3-3. weight. sampling as described Takano. and power consumption of the LO are summarized in 4-10 .1. (23).

01 L_ I--I-- 9 8 "7 6 S 1985 w c_ 0_ -7 n I-- t985 3 - t988 "7 0 2 • l 1 9 876S4GaAs GUNN 3- 2 I 2 I 3 I 4 I S I S I 9 I I I I 2 1 3 I 4 I S I 6 1 ? [ I t 891 8 9 t.O FREOUENCY tO (GHz) 100 COMPARISON FIGURE 4.i.FMPATTS ' 989 _ _.10 9 8 ? 6 54:31985 _. .. \ "__ 2_ t989 t..3-t OF SOLIO STATE 4-11 LO OEVICES . _.

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Table Comparison of FET/DR0.1. 4.54 .3-2 Comparison of GaAs and InP Materials for GUNN Diodes Parameter " GaAS (GUNN) InP (GUNN) i) 2) 3) 4) Peak-to-Valley Efficiency High Noise Frequency prop to coefft diff.5 kv/cm 10.1.5 kv/cm Zl__A_nlz_auA_u_L_na_b 4-14 . Ratio 1 (unit): 2 2_ Limit D/ of electron) i00 GHz 4_ 200 GHz 142 cm2/S 72 cm2/S (D=Diffusion ( =Negative 5) Thermal W/cm°C mobility) .3-1 GUNN & IMPATT Oscillators GaAs PARAMETER DRO FET GUNN OSCILLATOR Phase-Locked IMPATT OSCILLATOR Phase-Locked Power Out 20-30 mw I00 mw 300 mw Efficiency Short FM Term Stability < (DSB) Improvement 1 x 20% l0 -7 1 x 2_ l0 -i0 1 x i0 -I0 Noise Depends - on the Circuit - Q > -140 dB 50 dB dBc/Hz @ 100 kHz AM SSB Noise -Noise -160 40 (aBc/Hz) Table 4.68 conductivity 6) Threshold Field 3.

25 4 5 TOTAL ~5X%X2 64 17 4-15 . 25Xl.P. 125X0.3-3 LOCAL Size. 25X0. _eight.5 3 0 Isolator(EHF) (2 req) 0. ITEM SIZE (£nches) WEIGHT (ounces) POWER CONSUMPTION (Watts) Crystal Oscillator 2X_X2 24 7 SAW Oscillator IX2Xl/2 2 3 Loop Amplifiers (2 req) 3/_X3/4X1/2 4(total) 2 L. P.1.75X0.75XI.5X1. power OSCILLATOR consumption estimate.5 4 0 Isolator (microwave) IX[. Filters (3 req) IX2Xl/2 4 (total) 0 Isolator (UHF) i. iXl. Filter IX 2XI/2 2 0 Multipliers (5 req) IXiXl/2 l0 (total) 0 Mixers (3 req) lX2Xl/2 3(total) 0 B.Table 4.25 4 0 Gunn Oscillator i.

and the LO. the preamp and amplifier Therefore.2. However. the paramp. i fiIQ_LIQ_EE_Re_=Ix=r The required baseline LEO receiver to handle a data discussion.1. low noise estimated amplifier area to size. the noise figure On the basis for (360 K).3-3) LO MODULE iX3X0.2 Baselln__E__Ea_ive_ 4.2. can be the preamplifers without a preamp. but is of the receiver a 3. and an ultra-low noise viable 60 LEO required the approach GHz noise receiver for figure. GE0-LEO ITEM SIZE (INCHES) RF FILTER OSCILLATOR Table MIXER.0XI. that will IF be This by noise 1989 capable direct mixer is not low of a downconversion receiver. are 4.4.8X0. using Because very low.2. IF amplifier such ISL. WEIGHT. of the overcome it contribution amplifier making IF sible to use instead of a a small MIC large waveguide mixer integrated mixer. and the receive be noted RF should the that GHz The baseline has this LEO been RF receiver in depends is on as shown receiver in Figure subsystem.0X0.1-i It being in the filter included the realization adequate develop power Table R&D devoted to the 60 this time frame. receiver components.5 dB 1 Mbps. IF 4 3 73 i0 FILTER TOTAL 27 4-16 .2. weight. including TABLE SIZE.1-I POWER RF CONSUMPTION shown in the technology consumption of 4. noise the figure for mixer noise receivers.0 1. EET of "1 to and/or the dB. 4.8 5X4X2 RECEIVER WEIGHT (OUNCES) 2 64 17 POWER CONSUMPTION (WATTS) LOCAL (per PREAMP.5 dB noise only as a it low and is HEMT data the other the pos- only technology conclude requirement figure can be met by a by means of a cryogenic cooled projected devices rate. noise figure will be less than A preamp with a gain of of both the IF for the larger 25 dB will be and with an IF bandwidths sufficient MIC mixer.75 2.5XI.1-1. funds 4. we has rate of that a 3.

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of bandwidth receiver amplifiers over of affect the obtained through GHz band.0X0.8X0.0 WEIGHT (O_CES) 3 64 POWER CONSUMPTION (WATTS) RE _ILTER OSCILLATOR Table MIXER. the preamp of conversion figure amplifiers can to greater way. waveguide noise 4. in noise not noise cryogenic mixer we figure conclude (360 and approach preamplifiers figure.5 dB in ('0. K) that can for A a the If.75 3. mixer.I is as is technology for with by to an IF noise this dB) shown shown instead a a This 1989 overide noise of 3. temperature be size possible and The figure available. achieved use with RE mixer.8 5X4X2 4. figure. weight.4. for a a 2 required both match handle the that poorer will 4 other since dB Gb/s requirement what approximately the with lesser amplifier. figure can 60 be GHz per- bandwidth noise the more extent. receiver The sensitivity from a the narrow noise which of a narrow types by is band.3-1.3-1. The of to the a IF will band On the be the using preamp mixer overall as will the noise noise met IF ISL.3-1 POWER RE CONSUMPTION RECEIVER ITEM SIZE (INCHZS) 2. the this mixer. EET gain with 6 noise by of GEO-GEO the receiver a figure optimum 2 is GHz of the most to difficult the impacts RE can and be 2 of the IF the three rate. and/or of dB downconversion a cooled will loss be with an a MIC small projected be ultra-low paramp. 360 K it requirement direct amplifier However. reducing weight GEO-GEO and receiver consumption Figure Table estimated size. increase in in projected.2.5 discussion. dB is low the the figure than In of the that are fact. GEO-GEO 4.3-3) LO MODULE IX3X0. IF 17 4 4 75 i0 FILTER TOTAL 27 4-20 . power TABLE SIZE.2. The so sufficient negligibly contribution that preamp. over not at the narrow be 60 basis of the such it H_MT 30 dB is will will be GHz. capable a viable 60 GHz devices required noise of 4 of with noise dB.2.2.5XI. 2 GHz the is of a a broadband 1 dB requirement bandwidth making affected obtained prsamp centage noise figure relatively the baseline as receiver system only that be and 3.1.0XI. 4. LOCAL (per PREAMP. WEIGHT. it On so the about the much performance seriously instead hand.3 GEO-GEO RE Receiy_QE The because to handle degrading achieved and.

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623xi0-4 -) (60x109)) i/2 (1/TTc) I/2 (I/TTc) (1/TT c) (I/TTc) T C = = = 3.-3 At doppler (rather counter Develet's given by: re c 60 GHz a velocity If the a than the change doppler fraction 1 of of 2x10 shift a which error m/s is period).4 Hz time change of in the is frequency.5)) oscillator given by The error of required 2 ram/see) stability S = 1/(2 i/(2_ x0.65 (2.39 x I0 -II or approximately Ixl0 -I0 4-22 . results measured the the in by a 0.65 time T T of 1/0.S5V 12._' T T O = = = carrier counter 1 radian frequency averaging coherence time time of the oscillator C Using the specification of 2 mm/second the above equation becomes 2xlO 2x10 -3 -3 = = 1/2 (3x108/-2(2[ 5.65 1/12. than must measuring be greater counting delay. velocity exceeds from (26) formulas oscillator = (C/[2 _ 'oT) (T/Tc) 1/2 where r e = = velocity speed of error light C .0316 S U = 2.04 = 0.5 sec (caused Tcfo ) is by thus the maximum range rate sec Eor an T averaging = C 1/(12.0316x60x109) = 8. instability cycles Using averaging ranging second.

. 8xl06sin (277_ t/5400) dt = - (5400 x 1. and average This frequency error can is be 2617.547x109(-4.5)/5400) cos 0) = - 1.9803 Hz then 0. f = 1.0628 error the Hz. 4-23 .y._o 2_.4.9902 reduced by Hz and the frequency the known error is thus calculating acceleration subtracting. ( dt = i.8 x i06/2.3.__rror__ _u___.-7)(cos(2_(2.9274 Hz The average frequency is given by (fl + f2 )/2 and if fl = 0 and f2 = l'8x106sin(27_(2"5)/5400) = 5235.8 x 10-6sln(2_t/5400) and 2_t/5400 is f the angle from nadir.5__ec__AMfiK_gtn_ For an orbital period of 5400 seconds.2 [r__p_h_I1F.231x10 -6) = 6544.8184 Hz sec (l/T) v _fdt = 2617.

3 Veln___r_r.)_ range and a rate error normalized normalized _. = 78540. cm/sec.'o/_ n C) (2 (S/N)) 1/2 A carrier natural tO noise ratio of of 5 95 KHz dB and an in undamped S/N = 43 second-order dB.n_s Again according can be given smoothing J _> = re ( Du____l__t_ to factor Develet in terms <_ (26) of a the effect of range additive rate noise error on . For large _ ... Thus.3.5 -6 sec. r e = j Ie _< _h _ r e = = = _' n T and for = i0 -4 T = 2. 4-24 . phase-locked loop frequency results .4.125 x 9xlO an d which is negligible.e(60x109/Sx103x3x108 ) (2x2O0OO)1/2 or. _._= $ . i/-_4_1.

modula- techniques. implementation alternative decision on complexity and which is provide based on individual experience. data. phase They and freare: quency of the carrier quadriphase a. MSK than certain signals carrier nonrandom ratio. Phase with and ambiguity encoding a it relatively carrier either demodulation.4. 4. c. In may such circuits cases. When at four times Costas carrier the IF loop acquisition frequency or a may is performed be difficult at a to high IF frequency. A the above trade-off factors the The among into the alternative From carrier scheme acquisition the acquisition to use past methods of must take all of account. incorrect be implemented plus signal noise. the with data a double clock Costas acquisition loop. extract the 4. demodulation detection energy and input as scheme detection effectively requires to possible. or with the process becomes 4-25 . of it the is bit-error-rate demodulated necessary to baseband performance signal. stable commonly This signal carrier used method for is method is coherent is the times-four simple to circuit implement. carrier data from transmission synchronous demodulation the noisy matched signal. standpoint schemes often bit-error-rate similar circuit performance. quadrature the acquired components carrier of the is used to coherently signal.2 __vmbol Timing Recovery Optimum tion time. d.4. decislon-directed feedback be Carrier circuitry ing result other in is more acquisition sensitive With reconstructed feedback with to QPSK data QPSK and patterns MSK. technique a double to build. used with utilizing acquisition data For QPSK and times-four utilizpatterns this MSK may reason.1 Cannlnr_A_=isiti_n_an__Tma=klnu Four alternative carrier of methods a suppressed may be used to acquire the signal.% The rier data. b. the is achieved To provide information with the synchronous correct from the detecsampling baseband extract timing When decision-dlrected the carrier feedback is acquired method. a most loop. of at This the of the input must of the be receiver processed consists to the and The most extract consequent of the a modulated useful possibility processes efficient cardigital of must data filter signal presence the Because detection of the as coherent noise and data. Times-four Times-four Double Costas circuit circuit loop followed followed by by a a narrow narrowband bandpass filter loop phaselocked Decislon-dlrected feedback technique In the inphase all and cases. through differential acquired or resolved data word of through unique recognition. a low and carrier-to-noise techniques are often decision-directed tion schemes. easier implement. results. demodulate four-phase The phaselocked provides of the the data.

data result 4. c. BPSK and Integrate-and-dump QPSK data. data and realized error with a convolucorrect the one-halfcoding bandwidth efficiency encoding alternative equipment correction provide and Other power correction trade-offs integral part methods of the are carrier as follows: acquisition circuit. e.4. When decoder The error convolutional is used power at encoding is the receiver improvement is about used to that 4 dB. at decode can the the be transmitter. Inphase Early Half Rectify and and midphase late delay filter phase and detection detection multiply technique symbol and technique and filter technique Differentiate. practice. of efficiency. circuits widebandMSK In dump filter shaping circuits. data may deletion in a valid nificant in block-synchronized information. Adaptive work the with equalizers must different be used in and and cases channel must where the receiver has or to when significantly signals is marginal characteristics. bit-error-rate performance 4. performance degraded low From technique loops is require the the standpoint simplest one of to circuit implement.4 Error Correction tlonal errors. rectify.4. and first signal. 4-26 . rate schemes efficiency. d. integrate-andthe lowpass with the spectral is transfer filter receiver to produce designed the desired conjunction effect. timing which recovery results bit. Bit-error-rate excessive The also of consider data bit data loss trade-offs the problem involved of in clock selecting cycle of an the slippage. The provide with a schemes data the rectify that have with and filter phaselocked less Jitter. The the noise plication signal-to-noise baseband ratios. bit of Introduction extraneous systems. be improved. the circuit performance diodes are circuits even used is at to low operating signal-tomultiat on the last perform rectification. b. When function at the lowpass cosine at transmitter filters rolloff the are often used shaping instead is in of used. ratios. In two methods They have provide three and integrate-and-dump good methods. Alternative data clock acquisition a. but complexity.3 Matched F_Iter Detection Matched rate decision wideband used for because the filter matched detection filter of digital data the provides the lowest ratio bit error at the for be maximizes circuits Weighted filter signal-to-noise serve as matched circuit. additional performance components is degraded clock Jitter. method in or the should loss of a sig- integrity. matched filters must integrate-and-dump detection.

4-27 . synchronizers detection. and provide to decoder PLL The error derives and error The data. The is half timing symbol The recov. and bit phase and filter reliability. capable by Sony. data which Quantization is is converted sufficient noise 40 dB D to D in from to the digital benefit precision a great the achieve PLL could algorithms. channel and inputs data.1 _KQ The baseline The of also GEO-GEO double building avoids and systems. (sign FEC and Normally quality). by a rectify deemed 4. BER current performance should be improved Such improvement may degradation a degradation adaptive dB only at a 2.2 LEO-GEO The demodulator demodulation accuracy the problem is large to be numbel- of data for rates the prevents entire difficulties rates a range. the FEC the analog are also the the manner A feedback the signals which signal VCO input. method was The propagation required circuit to be inphase/midphase degradation caused performance excessive.5 of a EHE. approach frequency chosen difficulties Costas feedback quency loop multipliers with that been modem associated the noise has the is a to techniques multiplier demodulator project and with 2 Gbps corresponding data BER dB rate__t of i0 at that . modulator) 20 but GHz. technically the to to D approach and the PLL to I weight and to both decoder. as demodulator Costas phase-stable hang-up alleviates A an similar IR&D problems some of loop is as shown was in the block because at decision is built operates of present (along at 2. multiply. technology. device under development Analysis complexities require is by a data of extensive detector of the the carrier interaction acquisition of When carrier these is the and second clock are bit rate major prior overcome below problem. which Costas drives Loop digital the VCO signal actual in the then data converter in the Algorithm verified Bit Sync Output.5. to of of One 8 bits dependence a reliable such drive This (approximately on 8 A bit is to A dynamic range).mented digitally to a keep solution with in process required provides In are a creates sampling that a an is FEC because A extreme hybrid manageable. directed in frea diagram of of the The Figure 4. demodulator processed The I&Q Q usually signals. Such LE0-GEO a hybrid demodulator link. converter converter of 150 conversions second.5. single conventional Handling the data entire frequency impl. to lock the its The will result maximum simulation.% 4. clock is and digital can D is to done A bit extraction by a digitally. be done clock for however. The has block been selected is as shown the in baseline _igure 4. delays by either as shown It are was too in the chosen high demodulator for for the or its block simplicity sophisticated early/late diagram. which (or can difficulties for any be optimized changing software firmware). The performance by 1989._ry delay and method. for the communications diagram This its analog most approach to a of 2 bit the the places It requires M is not without form from level deal development per problems.0 require equalizers. manageable signals obtain converted Once converted sync processed rate adaption from the efficient.5-2.5-1.

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w_r__l_Ennnn_._ The at at code llnk type expected the lower and LE0-GE0 data rates Algorithm (Tables quadrl-phase is 6 communications rate this of is 300 link Mbps will (or We The 50 utilize Mbps with FEC coding solar when interference) operating but maximum data an optional. should TDAS-required The GEO-LE0 link requires no forward error correction coding. lnn_. decoder. developed the theoretical gain The of codes Although available more (a than rate the in GEO-GEO 1. be have are frame. this llnk. more rate power 11/12) Tables is i.1.% 4. receivers If the can feedback (a be frequency and this VCO path (doppler) has a between detector gain error value in perfect infinity integrator and error the good approximation). error rate) or will static have approaches zero.i. designed in decoders time development.C_.Conre_r. O/_ or tJ i = S 2/ (S 2 ÷ Z _n + _/n 2) o ..n. velocity (frequency phase a finite approaches given by Acceleration (27) where phase error (radians) frequency w rate (radians/sec 2) loop natural frequency (radians/sec) Jerk so that its order can be error effects loop written (frequency must transfer as be acceleration) estimated function in over does the not time produce of a constant Assuming transfer error a func- occurence.3 The is shown in BPSK Figure demodulator 4.i-i required been still and in 1.5..5-3. for the GE0-LEO link (equipment aboard the USAT) 4. to show two operate they link different at 2 margin LC Gbps._ Assuming a frequency acceleraton (jerk) input of 4 4-31 .4 _. assumed code budgets for a conservative. and link If a and budgets. the second tion standard notation.4 is been dB a coding rate 5/6 gain A and Low Complexity in of the this B-type i.1. 4.1-3 signal dB.0 8/9 encoders the dB.i-4) recently recommend 5. and has 1.1-2.5.6 Doppler Compensati0_1 Effects of Ranqinq _Dynamics on PLL Bandwldths A expected path second to track the order both phase the dc phase pi_ase lock and loop as used in phase lock errors.i.

The which for to sees doppler have minimum twice tracking loop for the PLL bandwidth dynamics with large for for would loop the user a therefore 107 Hz is loop Since as 17 Hz and the to TDAS allow require safety bandwidth it is noise._/(s A°" 2 + 2_ _. the positive Assuming minimum loop then a the maxi- acceleration of as mum allowable frequency can phase error be calculated 15 ° (. The natural frequency. factors.262) 1/2 = 107 radians/sec = 17 Hz. n + _ n 2) Simplifying to a critically damped loop (an approximation) 6_ o = _'((i/s2) The time domain solution can (i/(S÷Un) be found 2)) to be o (t) = (_J "_/Un 3) ¢&/n t -2 ¢l-e ../ n 2 = 0.262 follows: radian) then natural The errors total is phase given error by _ e which is composed of the acceleration and Jerk e where the = -3002/ij n 2 + 40.262 acceleration is the first term and the Jerk is the second term.then o = (1/s2)(D._'nt ) +/Jnte . If total time acceleration that the from maximum can change negative is 150 to maximum seconds. T is then equal to / A" goes _2 or 75 seconds. _/n is thus ((-3002 + 40.02(150))/0.02(150)/6. I O O (t) = (J_Q/&_n 2) t I'J n t > i00 l Given of the a maximum acceleratiog (40_02 Hz/sec be calculated _) as: of and 10. reasons such desireable doppler larger bandwidths dynamics other be phase compensation loop will unnecessary. and the a time maximum period Jerk for .012m/secJerk can assuming oe A(t) = (t)dt or dJ 6_2 dt where T is the time to reach maximum acceleration.47 m/sec 2 (3002 constant Hz/sec) Jerk.&/n t ) If A/n t is expected to be greater than I00 then the error can be approximated by: • I. 4-32 .

). not off failure telemetry is (non-failure-mode) and complexity the of overall needE_d. GEO evidenced LEO) Solar Maximum however. redundancy for are the various given in receiver recommendation 4-33 . by rather case. we have evaluated in the 1989 the various technologies evaluations recommendations of 1. sufficient be added Depending may to be necessary to to meet system capability failure requirements.1. the event of a provide on the for component of must different Suitable lines. The standpoint. the are predicted the reliability baseline levels These of timeframe. used. a function sensitivity effects. This replacement changing. lines and also It levels switching power. satellites. In using than any still more range reasonable mission of missions. considered is nevertheless with the externally internally failure mode along failure. the specific failure s1_bsystem rates depending is of on critical low-noise frequency. in power. component reliabilities are redundancy not must failure. redundancy be and provided components.14.7 _J_L___l_%blll t___n___ e _h_Id a n cy Considerable the system timeframe. have to be analyzed carefully reliability. reliability on it effective appropriate ensur_ lifetime high components in-situ repair levels redundancy relying operations. hardware specified but will It is components design It whose around is be attention use is has anticipated. of power Their discharge actual must be desired a number technologies (overdrive. dramatioperating anything to assess that its (or qualifiable) This implies gigabit be on available system available. mechanisms though an usual necessarily induced generated reliability. telemetry. driver. that to expected is interface costly is to therefore complexity fly equipment necessary against its command. that useless as that the in of the been paid It to ks not a be the expected exercise in that use developed be reliable in reliability to the may any and build required be avail- of a useless available components almost so as will to to specify preclude components their unreliable operational thus over the the essential system the host concept ICLS study configuration 8-year mission assumed life satellite. range in but i_ 1989 not circuitry. static of their that to front consider ends from can level. and output in lines. space-qualified yet would as Digital would be technology used in has the improved hardware that demodulator. the rE_dundant system. If overall backup actual different of adds input losses individual reliability in rates. R_ It allow This changeover switching and normally the rate cost to commands. architecture. figure from etc. satellite out cost and of the as (in is of especially failed c_mponents by by of to STS important is the Mission repair recent in a spaceborne impossible. the power and of not receiver The amplifiers. High-speed could cally in might impact the also in be recent a digital reliability years. able system.% 4. of the system where That repair situation Mission are is much or is virtually repair 41-C. a approach and to reliability those noise burnout EMP.ffort in terms on of the ICLS Study. trade equipment optimize A_ receiver These defined components Section part of our I. We have also factored for into appropriate subsystem.

Barber. GHz Design on Trends State-of-the-Art Techniques. IEEE p. March Maki. and 1984 of Yen. Uses MSN. IEEE April Theory Industries Alpha Brochure. IEEE T. R. J. 14. J. Vol Receivers. J. Schellenberg. Ii. Private N. "Noise Figure IEEE Transactions November 1967. M. Niori Communication. Microwave FET p. on Microwave Noise and Millimeter-Wave Techniques. Weller. J. MTT-25. "Beam K. Schellenberg Theory "GaAs at UP to and FET 60 and Yamasaki. No. Yamasaki Theory M. Heralding 3. Receiver". p. 268. "Low Low Theory Noise and Integrated Techniques. Transactions February 10. Lead Theory Circuits Berenz. E. Herman Using Theory C. 198. Nakano. and Conversion on Microwave Loss of the and Schottky Techniques. J. Communications". Amplifier". Millimeter-Wave MA. No. L. Barrier Vol. Blocks". Papers. February P. 5. "A 20 GHz High Electron 1983 1983. 60 Watkins." MTT-31. FET 145. 4-34 . Chang et on 1983." Yuan. Microwave Watkins. J. p. Mixer 15. May 1984. IEEE 2. p." 12. and 0kean and Alexander Building Vol. al. M. MTT-23. 1982 IEEE Digest & P. 4. "A M. Hughes. Industries. Micron 1983. Image Theory and Techniques. no. 01801. Aircraft Co. Edward MIC Gate. Feng.. Techniques Symposium. High Electron Monolithic Mobility International Transistor Solid Amplifier Satellite Conference K. 140 372. Theory 15. W. 13. IEEE Microwave "LowNoise Millimeter-Wave 81 Crossbar Mixers Symposium from Digest. Y. Kai Paul. to p. "A 30 Digest. Microwave Whelehan. GHz GaAs p.ii i. unpublished results. No. Vaddiparty. Kelly. Symposium L. 6. Diode. E. Dickens and and Sum Enhanced. E." Vol. 1982 Watkins. H. 4. CA. GHz. Microwave Woburn. Digest. State 7. Circuit Vol Receiver. 1983 16.p." Products Division. L. Microwave 2.. 52. 60 Microwave Techniques 9. "Millimeter-Wave Products 1985 Catalog. Dielectric and Mobility Circuits J. 4. Torrance. IEEE 1975. Techniques Amp GHz". "An Integrated-Circuit Transactions on Microwave Balanced Mixer. Alpha p. "Active Inc. H. and and Opportunities T." MTT-25. IEEE Hackett. D. Hughes Components and Subsystems. and for T. Transistors". "Low-Noise IEEE April Receiver 254. Symposium 0ne-Quarter December H. and 83. James Transactions 1977." ii. Saito. "V-Band 146. Transactions 1977.

" No. Berry. p. Nov IEEE 1982. 2nd ed. Dielectric 274. at Wilson. (18) L. MTT-29. M. "Gunn Technology's Low Noise Advantages. Examined 14. 80. "A p. "Novel 1984 IEEE GaAs MTT-S FET Phase Symposium. p. Digest. Weinreb and Vol. Operable to Ka-Band". NO. (25) Robert 1983. Resonator GaAs FET oscillator". Oscillator". Ediss et al. Myers. for p. Microwave Theory Techniques. (22) T. E. 80-96. Vol. July Parameters 1984. H. Robert Schottky Theory L. "SA_ Controlled Oscillators". 92 GHz. "AM and Noise from IMPATT Vol." February 17. G. 30. Yamasaki 1981 and IEEE D. August. Wavelengths. Transactions p. X-band p. "Performance MSN. William Performance Vol. Millimeter-Wave 266. Develet." MSN. p. No. 2012. No. "Cryogenic IEEE 1973. Microwave Journal. Microwave Journal. Solid-State Devices". on A. InP 71. Electronics (27) Floyd M. (21) J. Symposium. 1978. Symposium (24) K. 66. Takano. GHz FET Oscillator". J. March "mm-Wave 1981. W. Doppler and Jr. 8. Merriam. al. Sander Millimeter Circuits. October (23) T. et Digest. Accuracy 1961 IRE Limitations Transactions is a on Two-Way Space Measurement Telemetry. "Fundamental System". Gardner - "Phaselock Techniques". Symposium H. Lee et al 1982 . ll. (20) G. 69 328.16. Schellenberg. and Anthony R Kerr. on "SuperMicrowave Mixer and Techniques. MTT-S W. 4-35 . "A IEEE varactor MTT-S tuned Symposium. Dickman. 7. A. Cooling Journal of of Mixers Solid-State for Centimeter SC-8. Gunn Devices: Status and Trends". pp. Maki. (26) Jean Coherent A.. 381. Wandinger. Detector p. (19) F. and IEEE August Gerald Transactions 1981. i. Parker.


2-1 5._imbal Pointing Pointing Pointing Pointing Pointing Characteristics Errors Errors Errors Errors Errors (Sum) (Constant (Long (Short (Daily Terms) 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-4 5-19 Terms) Terms) Terms) .1-3 5.3-3 5. 5.1.1-i 5. FIGURES & TABLES 5.1-2 5.SECTION MECHANICAL 5 DESIGN TA/_LE OF CONTENTS.6-1 TDAS Layout Surface Surface Surface Area Area Area for for for 23.1.0 83.6-i 5.5 Degree Degree Degree Sun Sun Sun Angle Angle Angle 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-12 5-15 5-18 5-26 Radiator Radiator Radiator ISL Antenna Earth System Orbit Control System System Electronics Configuration Configuration Configuration Geo-Low Low Earth 0rbit-GE0 Geosynchronous Crosslink Tm_le No.1.6-2 5.1.3-1 5.5 60.1-6 Subsystem Subsystem Subsystem Subsystem Subsystem .1-4 5.1.5-1 5.3-2 5.


0316 0. due error by by budget time time In Long have period 5... subsystem method for of prior pointing errors....0613 0.0316 0. short period epochs errors indicate effects....1 MECHANICAL DESCRIPTION -C....._.... include of not azimuth segregating spacecraft errors are Constant seasonal longer diurnal.....1788 0..5.. by and elevation programs grouped errors and than eclipse each type aging behavior..1-2 errors through and pointing extensively [.0537 _L_VATIQL 0..1 5.g.0 5....0316 0. . I CONSTANT LONG SHORT DAILY TERMS TERMS TERMS TERMS AZIMUTH 0.. errors Daily lasting 5.0197 ___KLIYKTI 0_[____ 0..0254 0..1788 0...0613 0.0000 0...... effects include strictly more circadian approximately subsystem Tabl_...0625 0.0537 ___AZIZLrI____ 0...1-5 link in link The method.0316 0.0000 0..0625 5-1 .QzLED_Ze chani:_al _D_ s i_n l_mnmal-_nn__Zmg]mnigal_Eangn__m_gm_ The summation is has into are shown been to in pointing Table 5... (e. and effects). alignment....1....1-1 error period.. behavior this period spacecraft/payload utilized. and or 1 daily errors periods hour the tracking RSS or mode....0254 0.0197 TOTAL ERROR (DEGREES 0...1-1 60 GHz LINK SUBSYSTEM POINTING ERRORS (SUM) ERROR SOURCE I I ERKOR I OPEN LOOP MODE (DEGREES) I CLOSED ERROR LOOP MODE (DEGREES) CONTRIBUTIONS CONTRIBUTIONS .0112 0.-t 30 other time mechanical constant.s behavior contribution Table 5..0112 0. of period approximately Sho.

.003 0..020 0........010 0.....020 0..00 0..00 .1-2 ERRORS (CONSTANT TERMS) ERROR SOURCE ERROR OPEN LOOP MODE (DEGREES) CLOSED ERROR LOOP MODE (DEGREES) CONTRIBUTIONS CONTRIBUTIONS .. o_1..00 WAVEGUIDE COMPENSATION FIXTURE S/C POINTING KNOWLEDGE 0..050 0.... 0..050 __ELEYA_QN 0...010 0.00 0..00 SUM OF SQUARES 0.010 0.00 0...00 0..3 5-2 .....00 0.003985 0.00 0.Table 60 GHz LINK SUBSYSTEM POINTING 5..... ORTHOGONALITY AXES 0..____ 00 K_$_KP_OR (DEGREES) ! o...00 _.. I ..00 ENCODER TO OF 14 RESOLUTION BIT...003985 0. GIMBAL/S/C (to nominal ALIGNMENT bearing OF axes) GIMBAL 0.....020 0..022 0.00 ENCODER BEAM GRAVITY 0.0613 0.022 0..020 0...003 0...... ERROR IS (2 1/2 0.... __ELEMATIQH____.010 0.00 0...00 RESOLUTION) ALIGNMENT ALIGN..

...005 0.011 0.....005 ___L_QII/__ 5-3 ....... ..010 BEARINGS GIMBAL STEP SIZE (MOTOR EES) ENCODER ACCURACY [1/2 0..010 0.00 0.. __KLE_KTIQE___ 0...020 0.....005 0.....020 0.1-3 ERRORS (LONG TERMS) POINTING ERROR SOURCE ERROR OPEN LOOP MODE (DEGREES) CLOSED ERROR LOOP MODE (DEGREES) CONTRIBUTIONS CONTRIBUTIONS ....% Table 60 GHz LINK SUBSYSTEM 5....000 0.............011 0... ..000 0......005 0...00 0....00 0..00 0.00 0.010 ___AZIZUI_ 0... AZ_ RUNOUT CLEARANCES IN BEARING IN AXIS 0.010 ..00 5SB) RF SENSOR 0..

.0010 0..010 CLEARANCES ANTENNA WAVEGUIDE DISTORTION THERMAL DISTORTION _QUARES L%I_KEEQ2__/DK_EEE S) ...../...00 0.Table 5.017 0...0010 l 0.00 0..... I ..00 0....010 I 0.0010 L { RSS ERROR (DEGREES) 0...017 0.. 017 0..00 0.0316 I 0.010 0...0316 0.........00 0... AZIZLrlN___ __ELK_T__...00 0.._L: ___9_..050 0._7 5-4 f ..O....010 0.010 0......010 I I SUM OF SQUARES 0..AZIMUI___............030 0..017 0..030 l I 0... I GIMBAL THERMAL IN DISTORTION BEARINGS 0..010 0..... i ...9...............030 l { 0..... 0... CONTROL L00P RESPONSE AUTOTRACKING ACCURACY I I 0.....050 0..0316 0..0010 0.....1-5 60 GHz LINK SUBSYSTEM POINTING ERRORS (DAILY TEEMS) ERROR SOURCE { I ERROR OPEN LOOP MODE (DEGREES) CLOSED ERROR LOOP MODE (DEGREES) CONTRIBUTIONS CONTRIBUTIONS I ...1-4 60 GHzLINK SUBSYSTEM POINTING ERRORS (SHORT TERMS) ERROR SOURCE I I ERROR OPEN LOOP MODE (DEGREES) I CLOSED L00P MODE (DEGREES) CONTRIBUTIONS I ERROR CONTRIBUTIONS I ....010 .0316 Table 5...............030 0....

The electro nechanical heater system two systems and movement (gimbals) will employ will will a allow. be the faceskins to the main honeycomb fabricated reflector graphite The are necessary will baseline in order design tc that is deploy function.9 5.5. be area tradeoff of electronic radiator function sun dissipation indicated by various 5. i. such the (Figure five 0. 3 l_enmal_Conm_/_/_nc The baseline thermal e_s control concepts are.3-1 spacecraft through locations.3-3. core. a. no masts The or dual booms axis Gimbals provide 5. 5. is will heater internal be system to covered will the by be dual axis gimbal/elect-onic Kapton thermal multiLayer control of aluminized employed for blankets.1. panel. all the GEO-LE0 and ICL electronic components will structed core.1. these C.2 _stmm____r_ug_unmZZmghaniggl_Dmmign The baseline and brackets ICL structure of honeycomb contain the variable for the electronics composites to which are heat module attached mounted pipes the (VCHP's) will to be an a truss framework graphite-epoxy panel aluminum comtempera- faceskins/aluminum ponents ture and control.1. The Beam Waveguide module assembly which No assemblies. (a reflectors truss surfaces covered heater module for covered multilayer will structure multilayer of module is required blankets.2-i) meter that antennas.1. the be a of receiver which covering pipes contains an (VCHP) components of All will be A the microprocessor a panel con- box of aluminum aluminum are embedded are panel not by system honeycomb in mounted will contain in the to Variable All interior solar" and the Kapton A conductance E31ectrical of the electronic The (0SR's). employ multilayer a thermistor blanket controlled system where the axis 5-5 . exterior optical 0SR's aluminized employed. The electronic module ir_cluding the truss containing transmitter. of The The reflectors tripod epoxy will holding tubes. electronic for conductance The graphite subreflector epoxy antenna will be with an a axial Kevlar is fed Cassegrain. structure faceskins heat and panel. angles) Figures b.

N_//__.9 M_ OISH QTY 5 GIMBAL <. 572 M_ 0.!.80" E l _ /I f_\ Ix r-SATELLITE J I I.15" S FIGURE 5.2-I TOAS LAYOUT 5-6 . STS ENVELOPE REFLECTOR .mS/A YOKE _iO M* DISH MBAL <O°-BO" <O'-BO" E W f ._ l STS ENVELOPE 4.

NOIlVdlSSIC] 31n001/_ SOINONIO3"I3 5-'7 .SJ_LVAA_.

0 SI IVM._ NOIlVdlSSIO 37R001_ SOINOHIO3"F:I 5-8 .

NOIIVdlSSla 37nGoI_ SOINOIgJ._.J..VAA.O::I7=J 5-9 .SJ..

plate Loss Vacuum and at 25°C. 1.3.9 GE0 meter It line is spacecraft GEO-LE0 seen sight that of depicted the reflector plumes or it mounted TDAS earth radiating any mission surfaces phase of thruster apogee. risk contamination since in general: of the system is considered unlikely.1.3. layout the (+Z within perigee.3.5. The layer and will system All to Cassegraln blankets on be the reflector attached concave with provide are if to the to side white system to of the the will gimbal have side aluminized of the All as a in blankets second the kapton main other surface solar will be multireflector surfaces mirror spectrum. thruster surface radiating access antennas llne surfaces. Referring utilized facing for north/south to for surface the five Figure elecfor 0. the the 0.9 no thermal presented Intersatellite 1984. surfaces not same contamination as past of spacecraft.2-1 again. values acceptable Loss) to (Volatile__ondensable hours at i0 torr. phase east/west is intended control antenna similar firings Based through Volume not on stationkeeping that the will and be on to have flight 2. examined subreflector.1. to the surfaces. firings. 3 _hermal_Emn_l_Conce_a__Con_ d. A detailed thermal Progress analysis Report No. optical optical degradation will protect from direct thruster plume impingement 5-10 .e.2 module meter antennas. thruster stationkeeping 5.g. spacecraft. In i. be painted A/_y with All insolation blanket a diffuse that other could black will be coating grounded which to the is standard practice.2 indicates meter to R_ for GE0-GE0 the the baseline antenna and face are e.1. Shielding if necessary. 2. radiators on facing RF of and WDL-TP6033 Proposal for the sight the a north of five axis).i_ ° for VCM 24 to regard minimize as for to contamination and as other from consequent deleterious materials are other sources..4.0_ the is ASTM Condensable TWL surfaces. exposed a polished of aluminum for Total condenser Mass in a Test from Collected 0utgassing Environment. same same location indicates as past as of past spacecraft. i. equivalent surfaces. low summary technical then.4 II-Technical be a a the direct baseline mounted south thermal GE0-GE0 Again. six sun conditions can be found in Monthly 5..3 experience of discussions "60 GHz April Study" should 30 system. problem With selected thermal out-gassing and 125 0. Materials Propellants Relative History surfaces.4 _M_u_L__amln&Kion Figure (TDAS) antennas none any of with the 5. blankets spacecraft e.2-1 3. and Material) when the condensate Testing Volatile is per sample collected E595.4. materials of Maximum (Total optical allowable Weight is on Method Materials are and outgassing well contamination effects. to act coated and to that paint diffuse employ blankets critical contribute reflections multilayer could spacecraft such an areas determine cause and effect multiple ICL will FACC structure. for 13. tronic the meter mission radiator by Links plume sections Definition contamination 3.

a of consists iE0/GE0 the design of two that was investigated components. feedback to size. 5. Microprocessor. satellite position and antenna power. design required o Acquisition capability limited by slew rate of Gimbal Mechanism Based meet the on the above based requirements. described block The diagram design and separately.A which could requirements study meet used was the to made to determine of configuration a the possible configuration Link ASCE are as of Study.1. follows: the ASCE The requirements define the Intersatellite of the o o o o o o Acquire Acquire Fixed Trajectory Ability Contain intervals) and and scan track track search data 5 1 LEO's GEO pattern uploaded 3 of each LE0's stored satellite each from while ground acquiring data tracked for 24 based technology hours on open RF loop and stored 2 LE0's (i0 minute An RAM to 24 track hours for trajectory to be o o o Capable Capable Estimate implement of of tracking dithering weight. Each is an shown Antenna in Figure Control will be basic Antenna Controller. component 5-11 ._i_Deslun A 5.5-i. system has been studied which can requirements 5. on 1989 a technology. z a_C. z.


o o Provide Provide checking. hours ACM A tracking position test status for the data AC controlled in ROM. In worth with self of addition. stored an devices. has Antenna function. and mode status for TLM error data to ACM. reformatted thence.5.5. A summary of the functions proposed for the ACM are as follows: o o Provide Provide from Commar. All communications are must are track be a pass deterLEO or to the is communication data on how or to receiver/transmltter ground data or to ASCE controlled into mined GE0 one the by commands or it will proceed the over six the ground command by (AC) the acquire. and ArM. of tracking o Provide data satellite based on tracking o Provide from function based on RF error signals system. acquisition sequence. o and track target satellites Provide ASCE status to TLM 5. 5-13 . TLM transmission Satellite. s.3 Antenna Control/j_r (AC) The controlling have These in R0M identical components are AC one consists antenna designs consist of gimbal and of and and a six identical drive controllers Each which of 4Kx8 the ROM. identical sequence. acquire. 2 An_nnn__Ni__ssm__/KCMl The with the ACM Spacecraft by ACM. i. decisions When been _ as the All the Controller for system commands employ to ArM units from the search.status for to ground. of target uploaded receiving o Provide status c_mmunication ho_ir tracking from ground. antenna gimbal also included A summary of the AC functions is as follows: o o Provide Provide data and Antenna a fixed targ. satellite of the received processed. The search are six and capable controllers 8Kx8 of electronics. the the All ACM. and the ASCE. and. will from each passed with AC's Satellite Controller PosJtlon and and which data then of commanded received Bus. by the the ACM function_. acquisition satellite sequence position after system. data and function the necessary f:-om the ACM from is functions and the save are it provided in RAM and to to receive provide 24 the drive. on from RF Ephemeris ground. Hard for a CMOS fixed contain Radiation provide tracking RAM. pattern programs acquisition from 24 uploaded dithering communicltion position self _est Slew pattern command search before pattern Search based Sequence. a microprocessor.1.d communication closed loop Decoder for path Antenna from RE Control communication Eunctlons Link to AC's tracking storage AC's for AC position and status data for LEO and GE0 tracking data uploaded o Provide from temporary ground TLM ACM all to o o o Provide Provide Provide formatting error control checking functions to cause AC's to search.

1. The two gimbal orthogonal will have axes If an angular range complete of +/-20 deg of in the each 5000 to of Km allowing these the change to permit coverage are also range altitude Molniya accordingly. for the routed identical There mission missions through for will specific are be gimbal mechanism (GEO-LE0.0w 5.4 _elght_ Power an_ze An estimate of the size.5. Five (5) gimbals Each will gimbal be will required support on a the zero geosynchronous point nine (0.1.4w 1.6. three detailed a. capabilities: mechanism i. gimbal zone. antenna pointing.6-1 will have have shows the low 160 spacecraft 5000 gimbal km.1 Gen@ral Requirements The ing and electro-mechanical will be via a be four a mechanism two-axis reflector.5.5 3.6 ElecZromechanical Mechanisms 5. configuration range critical missions mechanism pointing their despin requirements. Transmission positionof the the minor antenna the gimbal three variaand below RF tracking will This signals axis. meter diameter antenna. orbits antennas angular may the required will be track then Such a extended of view. Geos_vnchronous for up this to system five (5) from is Low to Earth have altitude km to The Orbit the TDAS Link - The primary requirement with orbital this follow- spacecraft which Figure communicating may 5.1. weight and power required is shown below. Size (inches) 4x8xl/2 4xSxl/2x 112 in 3 Weight (pounds) 0. assumptions. will LEO-GEO. 2.1.9) spacecraft.1w 0.5 0. the require necessary a modification field of installation 5-14 . to gimbal beam be and allow The used for mechanism. proposed tions angular with in waveguide virtually GEO-GEO). altitudes system ing configuration.5 ibs Power (watts) 0.

6-1 Geosynchronous System Configuration - Low Earth Orbit ORIGINAL 5-15 OF POOR PAGE QUALITY _'3 .b Figure 5 '.

6-2 shows identical geosynchronous The llnk spacecraft. which should maintain adequate reception 4. in This coordinate may of to cause the many cartesian problems occurs. result gimbal options. Low motion Earth to orbit detect spacecraft the will perform a pre-programmed scan geosynchronous spacecraft. Maximum attitude spacecraft tracking motions. for a particular characteristics a. will to the systrackrange. and the Of prime its are scanning requirements.6. acquisition these coordinates. Hz) to of the an 1 deg/sec. The Location maximum of angular the antenna the gimbal to in polar. three different Minor mechanism missions will configuration all be performed will The by the same in basic several changes mission. The angular resolution pointing and will RE be 0. Geosynchronous Earth orbit spacecraft spacecraft guarantees throughout the to illuminate the attempt. b.1-6. The the tion acquisition degree pointing of time scanning errors.0 and deg/min GEO for 5000 km orbits. acquisition following is driven speeds. disturbances 1 (approx. High quency ceptable speed of scanning approx. method assumptions by inertias.1. I. spacecraft Due pointing target pointing of the determine mechanics tems ing whether of the used. will 160 km allowing be to for approximately LEO orbital 6. are summarized each optimized in Table 5. will vary according to that the to the slew initial angle acquisi- and required Assuming the LEO target. Acquisition used during scanning closed speeds loop must be of the same order as those tracking.2 Gimbal Mechanism Design The gimbal design. Low tively only Earth the one Orbit reverse low - Geosvnchronous of the GE0-LE0 Lin_ system linked the to - This with to terminal the one is exception effecof orbit Figure spacecraft 5. eliminate the GE0 spacecraft times adewill quately be less illuminates than 2 minutes. the GE0-LE0 will be following differences.5.1. 4. 5-16 . extreme regions lie close Unfortunately.1. mechanical made concerning Assumptions requirements in importance terms is The of the gimbal angular target The design range. acquisition 5. Acquisition system etc. two range and full a will gimbal 180 change deg be on +/-90 the can deg host be in both axes.1 G_nenal_Ea_ulnaman__Csn_ 3. acquisition: i. gimbal with the mechanism system that for configuration. low acquisition 2. points expected 5. entire cycling antenna will with cause a freunac- host spacecraft.011 deg margins. in the rate. 3.6.

tachometer and encoder. tracking motions superimposed Only this LEO-GE0 should the total missions be limited require due speeds time. 2. and Therefore. Gimh_l___Qnli_z_ion spacecraft tively acquisition scanning. rotated 90 degrees and and of the strikes axis. which a The toward The on a four (4) radiates reflector the through which can another The to a mirror the the beam beam on 90 be waveguide to a RE fixed The about and fourth first others is transmission planar beam the is reflector then beam directed are feed turns the reflector beam degrees. components tachometer are of a box and mounted bearing structo be enccder. Thus. highly rinqfs strongback.1. 3. scanning to should accurate not to acquire position have an a target knowledge.2 Glmhal_Z_uhanlam__sisn_nK_ b. To permit simple mounting of the motor. reflector Each shaped by the shaped reflector the gimbal sections is housed bearings.5. 1. on the scanning acquisition adverse effect The gimbal is centered system. Mounted optical onto support ture a on the protruding The sculpted which are This These bearings shaft and are the drive motor. housing.6. 5-17 . slow the beam To minimize motions gimbal and will the disturbances will perform be performed slewing to the at motions acquisition host relaand scanning The speeds. heavily configuration are: The braced housing by permits webs consists from three functions accomplishec. and fixed set at relative essentially Their arrangement an orthogonal to the antenna. identical is third second image fourth reflectors respectively. shaped beam the is turned through third reflector. of the within The gimbal a tube support which structure bearings are located which are is all supported within the crive behind reflectors. axis. To maintain accurate alignment and orientation of the ref]ectors. To provide a stiff load path to transmit launch loads.

1.6-2 LOW Sysr.h Orbit to Geosynchronous Configuration 5-18 .em Barr.Figure 5.

../32W peak 5-19 ......0 deg.....4 +/-90 +/-90 5...... 3.....011 6......... I [Angular +/-20 +/-20 5...0 1 1 meters deg...... Kg avg......0 deg....... deg/min.... Consumption Rate 0.. ]Angular Maximum Gimbal Power Resolution Tracking Mass... deg/sec min....9 meters 1...7 9W deg......0 12.. Elevation Azimuth Rate... i I I I IMechanisms/Spacecraft 5 0....TABLE 5..............1-6 GIMBAL CHARACTERISTICS I I PARAMETER . Maximum Slew Maximum AcquisitJ on Time 1 min. deg........ deg... deg..... Gimbal GEO-LEO I Crosslink LEO-GEO Mission I GEO-GEO I I I I .... deg/sec 1 min..2 1 meters i IAntenna Diameter Range...... deg/sec +/-I0 j+/-35 2..

2_ __ this the required readout approximately 0. be the antenna The sized various to main rotation. accuracy of information approx. exhibit environment temperature It to is assumed that the main gimbal with the Active benign structures bearings thermal will and control environment blanketing motions be to of titanium beam be used the be allow maintain compatibility thermal a distortion. variations. released against orbit. installed. f. stepper Ramping motor of to in drive the the Monthly will motor host be step used to rates minimize are discussed disturbances in detail spacecraft. Th_. The motor. stowed smaller on station. The caging the device major prevents loads. gimbal encoder As the only a will be mounted of could 180 directly deg be geared could all in of to the shaft. mechanisms d. antennas launch be once the A antennas launch and spacecraft caging system during still be necessary configuration. e. thermal experience._I_HI_I. relatively possible. extensive Where though use of angular gimbal techniques. Only an optical under the environmental Therefore a 2optical will be incorporated.6.. provide and for redundant Therefore. will not insulating 5-20 . is Just required its by this would as for from the the maximum encoder a (to by the 2:1 be motion to increase be achieved and due to resolution. I0.5. installation than offset improvement used reduction for missions) accuracy backlash. Report No.1.2 Glmhal_Zechanlsm_D_alQn__C_n_ C._QI__will FACC will be based on The the with large material thermal similar selections conditions equipment. P_Q_iti_l__ acquisition expedient must provide - Position knowledge Pointing are to be is errors achieved. a standard be more However. Mo_E_ly____Mst_m_ drive will _ese each be axis used to of the A geared gimbal. stations width). structural while the gimbal of accelerathe transmits gimbal tion members launch and mechanism loads imposed will by withstand antenna launch configurations. acquisitions position (ie. to an required must for be telemetry minimized the and if encoder purposes.01 degrees encoder can conditions encoder with of the beam performance lifetime. the such large reduce will within will waveguide to maintain thermal multi-layer mechanism. in the for the gimbal From design previous orbit. ___f_Kal it to support The D_I_ the - The antennas construction through will The body may larger of the gimbal without caged does some for will deployed depending not permit form of and stowed once upon on the launch be caging.

antenna and total module and size module.3 Kg 5._chanical and Rf components etc.9 each 21.. btankets.8 Reliability is discussed in Section 1.2- Kg Kg Kg Radiators and heat pipes Truss. 188. GEO-LE0 meter for Kg.13 RF which square 1. i. 3.3 of 25 Figure power. for and the The elecmodule has panels of bracktruss 6 components heatpipe handles melters. brackets Total Mass 234.1.3 25. crosslink module is then: Electrom. 5-21 .1. elements. crosslink panels three The of from meters southeast crosslink southeast module truss.1. The weighing are the total mass estimated scaled GEO-LEO including 5. southwest. of area meters have dimensions mass of and radiator/ panel.1. 7 E_e_ze_a__ _eiuht Paragraph tromechanical has The an have square ets overall The total three south area an etc.0 21. radiator area module southwest square a radiator blankets. margin.2 of 1.4 an indicates for the the 0. Kg a The facing weight south.

with the 5. the 0. If the north would necessary. The less or thermal radiator south power control area facing when system since those will be more efficient can area be part by of requiring the north less radiators radiator not panels. five 0.1. Concepts packages. face either east or west depending 5. 6. truss the projected TDAS supporting uses the extensions a larger various of for a the bus (body) as can is have expected. Reduced thereby number reducing and length of errors. the system Less is also requires heater operating.2 on meter spacecraft GEO-GEO location antenna in can orbit.1. No deployment and booms lowering or mast mass are necessary increasing thereby raising system reliability while stiffness.5. components to spacecraft interface pointing 4.9 GEO meter The the spacecraft GEO-LEO depicted thermal antennas Some mounted control are TDAS for on the earth the north layout electronics five GEO-LEO surfaces radiators located system south and spacecraft features of the i. The porated electronics in a single for the module. Electronics gimbals waveguide thereby packages cutting are placed down on directly R_ losses behind by the shortening two axis beam runs.9 meter antennas can be incor- 7.9 _m_In_un_n_and__k_h_ _igure (TDAS) antennas modules systems respectively. 3. their panels if that then south/ which becomes structures acting easy antennas TDAS components provide as north/south solar array stowage interfaces larger 5-22 . The single 3. follow the "Bolt-on" concept of attaching the crosslink 2.2-1 3.2 indicates meter to GEO-GEO the the baseline antenna and face GEO-GEO and are: layout the (+ Z of five axis).

2-1) meter that antenna. no masts The or dual booms axis Gimbals function. this C.1.1 l'nnnmal__n__Z_Ghi_niual-Knn_r-_dg=_ The writeup both the of paragraph ICL and 5. be the faceskins to the main honeycomb fabricated reflector graphite The are necessary will baseline in provide desLgn order tha_ to is deploy such (Figure the three 5.2-4.1. 5.3 Thermal Control _onc_DJ. optical 0SR's aluminized employed.2.2. all the GEO-GE0 and ICL electronic components will structed core.2 GKO:G_Q_Me_hani_Ll_De s _Sn 5. employ multilayer a thermistor blanket controlled system where the axis 5-23 . structure faceskins heat and panel. The electronic module including the truss containing transmitter. the be a of receiver which covering pipes contains an (VCHP) components of All be A the microprocessor a panel con- box of aluminum aluminum are embedded are panel not by system honeycomb in mounted will contain in the to Variable All interior solar and the Kapton A conductance electrical of the electronic The (OSR's) exterior . angles) by Figures b. of The The reflectors tripod epoxy will holding tubes.2-2 spacecraft through locations.2 the of this report ICL. The electro mechanical heater system two systems and movement (gimbals) will employ will will a allow.1. core. provides the subject budget for GEO-(. is will heater internal be system to covered will the by be dual axis glmbal/electronic Kapton thermal multilayer control of aluminized employed for blankets. 5. panel. will blankets. and contain which are heat elecfor the variable conductance (VCHP's) The graphite subreflector epoxy antenna will be with an a axial Kevlar is fed Cassegrain.EO GEO-LEO The a truss baseline and ICL structure bl-ackets of honeycomb for the GE0-GE0 electronics composites module attached mounted pipes the will to be an framework graphite-epoxy panel to aluminum tronic temperature facesklns/aluminum components control.S The baseline thermal control concepts are: a.1. (a reflectors truss surfaces covered heater module for covered multilayer will structure multilayer of module is be area tradeoff of required dissipation indicated electronic radiator function sun various 5.5. The Beam Waveguide module assembly which No assembly.

spacecraft one at primary an orbit is This spacecraft angular to is is required of deg.aminattnn The contamination the discussion problem of for the 5.1. The layer and will system All to Cassegrain blankets on be the reflector attached concave with provide are if to the to side white system to of the the will gimbal have side aluminized of the All as a in blankets second the kapton main other surface solar will be multireflector surfaces mirror spectrum.4 s_um__Cm_.QGessor Pointing Contr_l The cussed in pointing Section control 5.hanical Mechanisms sidered The in design Section of the 5. reasons: _n i. this result is not in a slower concern allowable for the missions. is a always longer visible initial and GEO-GEO acquisition links will be is period acceptable. equivalent surfaces. to to up to crosslink +/-160 to deg. gimbal mechanism for GEO-GEO applications is con- In another The this system. to act coated and to that paint diffuse employ blankets critical contribute reflections multilayer could spacecraft such an areas determine cause and effect multiple ICL will EACC structure. antenna.6-1 steer illustrates a 3.2.6 __o_.2.2. required The motions following than larger for the inertia other of the GE0-GE0 antennas However. The long target term.3 l_rmal_Con_r_l_Cnn=_R_a___n_ d.5 M_D/. be painted Any with All insolation blanket a diffuse that other could black will be coating grounded which to the is standard practice. spacecraft Therefore.1.2. 3. Slew angles are relatively small permitting short slew tames. electronics for the GEO-GE0 crossllnk are dis- 5.5. The GEO-LEO and LEO-GEO antennas are not tracking during GEO-GEO slewing. blankets spacecraft 5. crossllnk system is covered by paragraph 5. examined subreflector. 5-24 .2.2 meter this configuration.4 GE0-GEO of this 60 GHz report.6. 2. similar separation be 25 minimum orbital separation assumed gimbal Eigure support and 5.1.5.

1. north for the elec- com_. blankets. motors.d on ho_.2-1. 5.3 8. gains.. Size and _h_ Paragraph tromechanical The meters have an area and module which by 1.t spacecraft so angular spacecraft would would and be be does attitude one of not move rates rates).6 E I ectrmm_hanlca/_Ze=hanlams__C_nt Trm_kinu_ i.5.0 Kg Kg Radiators and heat pipes Truss.2.i square etc.8 RE has weighs mass Figure _ndicates of the the power. mass blankets._a_aa_=_ha_ Paragraph 5. total weight crosslink panel and size module.14. 71.7 Power.1. the on would gimbal the basic be as range. report covers system integration for both the GEO-GEO and GEO-LE0 5-25 . GEO-GEO pipe module margin.9 _m_Intmmu_. truss. restricted acquisitidn Differences arrangement 5. the options encoders to system. for any control relative will be to lower the host (rates spacecraft tracking gimb_is the be_m waveguide. brackets Total Mass Kg 5.8 R-llabllia_ Reliability is cLiscussed in Section 1.2. Electromechanlcal and RF components etc.1. gimbal.2. brackets GEO-GEO estimated overall dimensions crosslink are indicated module is then: 5.onents a 05 radiator/heat 8. The depend The Configuration other loop mission. GEO-GEO of caging target ar.9 ICL ¢.2.7 5 Kg Kg.7 __5_9_K@ 85. The The including facing The truss of the of i.2.f this packages.

O" Figure 5.ti.6-1 Geosyncnronous Crosslink Confzgutation 5-26 ORIGINAL PAGE IS OF POOR QUALITY .2.