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# 3 Geometry of Single Point Cutting Tools

Convert ed via ht t ps://cloudHQ.net Creat ed: November 26 2013 UT C, 02:35:04 Modified: November 26 2013 UT C, 02:35:04 Source URL: ht t p://www.scribd.com/doc/13501530/3-Geomet ry-of-Single-Point -Cut t ing-T ools Not e URL: ht t ps://www.evernot e.com/Home.act ion#st =p&n=3e42d831-7fa3-4563-a902-e9aba449e82b

Geometry of Single Point Turning Tools and Drills Fundame... 2 Basic Working Principle, Configuration, 4 Conversion of Tool Angles From One System to Another Machining Science II LM-04
Arvind Mani richardcaroncstj richardcaroncstj DIPAK VINAYAK SHIRBHATE sampadvyas

3 Geometry of Single Point Cutting Tools
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5 Mechanism of Chip Formation Theory of Metal Cutting-Theory of Chip Formation 6 Orthogonal and Oblique Cutting Theory of Metal Cutting-Tool Geometry 7 Use of Chip Breaker in Machining tHEORY OF MACHINE 8 Machining Forces and Merchant’s Circle Diagram (MCD) -Intro-to-Single-Point-Cutting-Tool-Geometry
richardcaroncstj Rizwanul Fattah richardcaroncstj Rizwanul Fattah richardcaroncstj spectrogkn richardcaroncstj nelsonsingh

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several angles or slope of its salient working surfaces and cutting edges. Those angles are expressed w.r.t. some planes of reference. In Machine Reference System (ASA), the three planes of reference and the coordinates are chosen based on the conﬁguration and axes of the machine tool concerned. The planes and axes used for expressing tool geometry in ASA system for turning operation are shown in Fig. 3.4.

rake surface

Auxiliary cutting edge Tool nose Auxiliary ﬂank (clearance) surface

principal cutting edge principal ﬂank (clearance) surface

Fig. 3.3 Basic features of single point tool (turning) in Tool-in-hand system
V C Zm (

)
Ym

Ym Xm

Xm

πY
feed

πR

πX

Fig. 3.4 Planes and axes of reference in ASA system

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The planes of reference and the coordinates used in ASA system for tool geometry are : where,

π R - π X - π Y and X m – Y m - Zm πR
= Reference plane; plane perpendicular to the velocity vector (shown in Fig. 3.4) in the direction of assumed longitudinal feed

π X = Machine longitudinal plane; plane perpendicular to π R and taken
= Machine Transverse plane; plane perpendicular to both π R and π X [This plane is taken in the direction of assumed cross feed] The axes X m, Y m and Z m are in the direction of longitudinal feed, cross feed and cutting velocity (vector) respectively. The main geometrical features and angles of single point tools in ASA systems and their deﬁnitions will be clear from Fig. 3.5.

πY

Zm, V C
πX πY πR γx αx πY

Xm Ym Xm
φs πR πX

φe αy

πX

Ym Zm
πR γy

Tool angles in ASA system Fig. 3.5

Definition of: • Rake angles: [Fig. 3.5] in ASA system

γx = side (axial rake: angle of inclination of the rake surface from the reference plane ( π R ) and measured on Machine Ref. Plane, π X . γy = back rake: angle of inclination of the rake surface from the reference plane and measured on Machine Transverse plane, π Y .
Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur

Clearance angles: [Fig. 3.5]

α x = side clearance: angle of inclination of the principal ﬂank from the machined surface (or V C ) and measured on π X plane. α y = back clearance: same as
• α x but measured on

πY

plane.

Cutting angles: [Fig. 3.5]

φs = approach angle: angle between the principal cutting edge (its projection on π R ) and π Y and measured on π R φe = end cutting edge angle: angle between the end cutting edge (its projection on π R ) from π X and measured on π R
Nose radius, r (in inch) r = nose radius : curvature of the tool tip. It provides strengthening of the tool nose and better surface ﬁnish.
• • Tool Reference Systems • Orthogonal Rake System – ORS

This system is also known as ISO – old. The planes of reference and the co-ordinate axes used for expressing the tool angles in ORS are: R - C - O and X o - Y o - Z o

R - C - O and X o - Y o - Z o which are taken in respect of the tool conﬁguration as indicated in Fig. 3.6

Zo V Yo Xo

C

)
Yo

Xo

πC πR

Fig. 3.6 Planes and axes of reference in ORS

Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur

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where,

π R = Refernce plane perpendicular to the cutting velocity vector, V C π C = cutting plane; plane perpendicular to π R and taken along the
principal cutting edge and π C and the axes; X o = along the line of intersection of π R and π O Y o = along the line of intersection of π R and π C Zo = along the velocity vector, i.e., normal to both Xo and Y o axes. The main geometrical angles used to express tool geometry in Orthogonal Rake System (ORS) and their deﬁnitions will be clear from Fig. 3.7.

π O = Orthogonal plane; plane perpendicular to both π R

πo πo

Tool angles in ORS system Fig. 3.7 Definition of – • Rake angles [Fig. 3.7] in ORS o = orthogonal rake: angle of inclination of the rake surface from Reference plane, R and measured on the orthogonal plane, o

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= inclination angle; angle between longitudinal feed [π X ] and measured on

C C

from the direction of assumed

Clearance angles [Fig. 3.7] o = orthogonal clearance of the principal ﬂank: angle of inclination of the principal ﬂank from π and measured on

principal ﬂank from π C and measured on o o’ = auxiliary orthogonal clearance: angle of inclination of the auxiliary ﬂank from auxiliary cutting plane, C ’ and measured on auxiliary orthogonal plane, o’ as indicated in Fig. 3.8. Cutting angles [Fig. 3.7] = principal cutting edge angle: angle between assumed longitudinal feed or π X and measured on 1 = auxiliary cutting angle: angle between C ’ and • Nose radius, r (mm) r = radius of curvature of tool tip

C and the direction of R X

and measured on π R

Xo

πo

πC Y o
'

C
'

πo πC

'

Xo
'

C

αo
'

πo
'

πC

'

Zo
'

Auxiliary flank

• Normal Rake System – NRS

Fig. 3.8 Auxiliary orthogonal clearance angle

This system is also known as ISO – new. ASA system has limited advantage and use like convenience of inspection. But ORS is advantageously used for analysis and research in machining and tool performance. But ORS does not reveal the true picture of the tool geometry when the cutting edges are inclined from the reference plane, i.e., λ≠0. Besides, sharpening or resharpening, if necessary, of the tool by grinding in ORS requires some additional calculations for correction of angles.

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These two limitations of ORS are overcome by using NRS for description and use of tool geometry. The basic diﬀerence between ORS and NRS is the fact that in ORS, rake and clearance angles are visualized in the orthogonal plane, π o, whereas in NRS those angles are visualized in another plane called Normal plane, π N . The orthogonal plane, π o is simply normal to π R and π C irrespective of the inclination of the cutting edges, i.e., λ , but π N (and π N ’ for auxiliary cutting edge) is always normal to the cutting edge. The diﬀerences between ORS and NRS have been depicted in Fig. 3.9. The planes of reference and the coordinates used in NRS are: π RN - π C - π N and X n – Y n – Z n where, π RN = normal reference plane π N = Normal plane: plane normal to the cutting edge and X n = Xo Y n = cutting edge Zn = normal to Xn and Y n It is to be noted that when λ = 0, NRS and ORS become same, i.e. π o≅πN , Y N ≅Y o and Z n≅Zo. Deﬁnition (in NRS) of • Rake angles γn = normal rake: angle of inclination angle of the rake surface from π R and measured on normal plane, π N α n = normal clearance: angle of inclination of the principal ﬂank from π C
π and measured on α n’= auxiliary clearance angle: normal clearance of the auxiliary ﬂank (measured on π N ’ – plane normal to the auxiliary cutting edge. The cutting angles, φ and φ1 and nose radius, r (mm) are same in ORS and
N

NRS.

Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur

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