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BiologyTerms

Agglutination (Penggumpalan) The clumping of foreign substances or microorganisms by antibodies. Agranulocyte (Agranulosit) White blood cells with a non-granular cytoplasm. The nucleus can be either bean-shaped or spherical in shape. For example, lymphocytes and monocytes. Allele (Alel) An alternative form of a gene for a particular characteristic. Anaerobe (Anaerob) An organism that is able to release energy from food in the absence of oxygen. Antibody (Antibodi) A specific protein molecule produced by lymphocytes as a response to the entry of antigen into the body. Antigen (Antigen) A foreign substance that stimulates the production of specific antibodies by lymphocytes; usually a protein, carbohydrate or glycoprotein. Appendicular skeleton (Rangka apendaj) The skeleton that is made up of the bones of the limbs as well as the pectoral and pelvic girdles. Artery (Arteri) A vessel that

carries

blood

away

from

the

heart

to

organs

throughout

the

body.

Atherosclerosis (Aterosklerosis) Progressive build up of plaques that cause narrowing of arteries and obstruction of blood flow. Atrium (Atrium) An upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces the blood by muscular contraction into the ventricles. Autosome (Autosom) Any of the chromosomes in a cell other than the sex chromosomes (that is, not the X or Y chromosome in humans).

Autotroph Producer. An

organism

able

to

synthesise

it’s

own

food

from

inorganic

(Autotrof) compounds.

Balanced diet (Gizi seimbang) A balanced diet contains all the essential nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, fibre and water) in correct proportion to meet the requirements of the body. Basophils (Basofil) A type of white blood cell that releases heparin to prevent intravascular blood clot formation. They are involved in certain allergic reactions. Benedict’s test (Ujian Benedict) A biochemical test to determine the presence of a reducing sugar, for example, glucose. Benedict’s reagent (a blue solution containing copper sulphate) forms a green, yellow, orange or brick red precipitate in the presence of a reducing sugar.

Cardiovascular system (Sistem Kardiovaskular) The system consisting of the heart. terminating in the appendix. the stage of implantation in the uterine wall Caecum (Sekum) Dilated pouch at the junction of the small and large intestines. Carotid body (Jasad karotid) Tissue mass in the wall of the carotid artery containing receptors that are sensitive to the carbon dioxide and pH level in the blood. Capillary (Kapilari) The smallest blood vessel with a wall only one cell thick. consumers and decomposers. Chromosome (Kromosom) A long. a secondary consumer. In herbivorous animals like rabbits and cows. It is a complex mixture of bile salts (that emulsify fats). . It has no known function in humans. inherited feature of an organism. Contractions are produced spontaneously.A type of muscle found in the heart. Chromosomal mutation (Mutasi kromosom) A change in the structure of chromosomes or number of chromosomes. Blastocyst (Blastosista) A hollow sphere of cells developing from the morula. functions to protect bones from wear and tear. without nervous stimulation. blood and blood vessels.Cardiac muscle (Otot kardium). allows exchange of substances between blood and interstitial fluid. water and cholesterol Biotic factors (Faktor Biosis / Faktor Biotik) The living organisms found within an ecosystem. Carnivore (Karnivor) An animal that feeds on other animals.Bile (Hempedu) A greenish-yellow liquid secretion that is produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder for release into the small intestine during digestion. bile pigments. Chromatin (Kromatin) A substance consisting of DNA and proteins found in the nucleus during interphase. and to low oxygen concentrations in the blood. threadlike structure made up of DNA and proteins. Characteristic (Ciri) A distinctive. located in the nucleus. This is caused by cohesion between water molecules and adhesion between water molecules and walls of vessels. Cartilage (Rawan) Non-elastic tissue found at the ends of bones with movable joints. Capillarity (Kekapilarian) The action that causes water to rise in a narrow vessel. the caecum is quite long and contains cellulose-digesting bacteria. It is myogenic. Cell sap (Sap sel) A fluid in the vacuole of plant cells that consists of a high percentage of water and sugars. as well as some mineral salts. These include producers.

ammonia. Coccyx (Koksiks) The small vertebral bones found at the end of the vertebral column. bones and (Kolagen) cartilage.Closed circulatory system (Sistem peredaran tertutup) A type of circulatory system in which the blood is always confined within the heart and vessels. Examples are alcohol and barbiturates. modified for food storage. Collagen Fibers found in the matrix of connective tissues such as the skin. Diaphragm (Diafragma) 1. such as nitrites. pulls downwards. it is qualitative (a feature is either present or absent) and is controlled by a single gene with two or more alleles. Crossing over (Pindah silang) The process of exchanging genetic material between two non-sister chromatids of a pair of homologous chromosomes during Prophase I of meiosis. thereby preventing pregnancy. 2. Dicot (Dikot) Short for dicotyledonous. Collenchyma Plant cells with thick cellulose walls. when contracted. and eventually to nitrogen gas. A type of flowering plant characterised by seeds with two cotyledons or seed leaves. forms the tail of animals. In the respiratory system. enlarging the chest cavity and causing air to be drawn into the lungs. Continuous variation (Variasi selanjar) The continuous range of differences that can be observed in a certain characteristic of a species. D Denitrification (Pendenitritan) The action of certain soil bacteria in changing (reducing) nitrates into simpler compounds. normally found beneath the (Kolenkima) epidermis. Depressant (Depresen) Drug that slows downs the activity of the central nervous system. DNA (DNA) . a muscular membrane forming the floor of the chest cavity that. Discontinuous variation (Variasi tak selanjar) Clearly defined differences in a characteristic in individuals of a species. A birth control device that is placed over the neck of the cervix to prevent sperm from entering the uterus. such characteristics are controlled by a large number of genes.

Ectoparasite A parasite that lives on the outside of the host. disease the presence extra chromosome Dry The mass or weight of mass an organism after the (Berat water content has been kering) eliminated. Embryo A structure in the sac ovule of the flower (Pundi that contains eight haploid embrio) nuclei.Deoxyribonucleic acid. E Ecology The branch among organisms as of well as the biology interactions which studies between organisms and their (Ekologi) interactions environment. for example. Down’s A genetic syndrome caused by (Sindrom of an Down) 21. for (Ektoparasit) example. phenotypic heterozygous Double fertilisation (Persenyawaan ganda dua) The process of fertilisation seen only in flowering plants (Angiosperms). involves the fusion of a male gamete with an egg cell and another male gamete with two polar nuclei in the embryo sac. Embryo The a early stage of the development multicellular of a zygote (Embrio) in organism. Ecosystem All within the organisms a and their defined physical (Ekosistem) environment area. Endocrine The system of endocrine system glands secreting (Sistem hormones directly into the endokrin) blood. Endoparasite A parasite that lives within its host. . Dominant An teristic allele allele both that in the produces homozygous (Alel the and dominan) characcondition. fleas. consisting of two deoxyri-bonucleotide strands coiled to form a double helix. Effector A cell or organ such as muscles and glands that produces a physiological (Efektor) response. (Endoparasit) tapeworms.

Foetus (Fetus) The later stages of mammalian embryonic development when the developing animal has recognisable adult features. A protein molecule that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions. it is the (Hembus act of releasing air from nafas) the F F1 (F1) Short form for first filial generation. Fibrinogen A plasma protein that is converted into insoluble fibrin during (Fibrinogen) blood clotting. Food chain (Rantai makanan) . Facilitated The assisted membrane. Enzyme (Enzim) Biological catalyst. the energy. Fermentation (Penapaian) A form of anaerobic respiration that when undertaken by yeasts and plants. Erythrocyte Red blood (Eritrosit) cell. movement by It diffusion of molecules specific proteins does (Resapan across a embedded not require in berbantu) membrane. fermentation produces lactic acid and energy. When undertaken in muscles. ethanol and carbon dioxide. F2 (F2) Short form for second filial generation. lungs. The offspring that is produced when F1 individuals are crossed or mated with each other.Endosperm Storage tissues and formed by two polar with the triploid fusion nuclei nuclei of in a found male the (Endosperma) in seeds gamete with ovule. produces energy. Fertilisation The process of fusion of a male gamete and a female gamete to (Persenyawaan) form a zygote. Exhalation In mammals. The offspring that results when plants or animals from the parent generation breed.

Glomerulus (Glomerulus) A dense network of thin-walled capillaries. spore or pollen grain. Genus Taxonomic group containing related (Genus) species. located within Bowman’s capsule of each nephron of the kidney. A food chain starts with a producer (usually a green plant). cluster of the cell ganglia) bodies of (Ganglion) neurones. It determines the characteristic of an organism. where blood pressure forces water and dissolved nutrients through capillary walls for filtration by the nephron. Gene (Gen) A basic unit of inheritance which consists of a specific sequence of nucleotides in the DNA of chromosomes. . Fresh The mass weight of a (Berat living basah) organism. Germination (Percambahan) The initial stage of growth and development of a seed. G Gamete A reproductive cell that is (Gamet) haploid. It contains: (a) the enzyme pepsin which breaks down proteins into polypeptides (b) the enzyme rennin which curdles milk (c) hydrochloric acid which kills most of the bacteria present in food (d) mucus which coats the walls of the stomach to prevent it from being digested Gene A sudden random change mutation in the sequence of (Mutasi nucleotides in a particular gen) gene. Ganglion A (pl.A linear feeding relationship in a community which shows the transfer of food energy from organism to organism. Generative The nucleus in pollen nucleus that divides to (Nukleus become two male penjana) gametes. and arrows are used to show the direction in which energy and nutrients flow. Gastric juice (Jus gaster) A mixture of chemicals secreted by glands in the walls of the stomach to help digest food. Genotype The genetic composition of an organism that determines its (Genotip) characteristics.

Heart The muscular organ that pumps blood through the circulatory (Jantung) system. An organism that feeds directly and exclusively on vegetation. Heart attack (Serangan jantung) A severe reduction or blockage of blood flow through a coronary artery. a primary consumer. Heterotroph (Heterotrof) An organism which is unable to make its own food. located in red (Hemoglobin) blood cells. causes the blood to clot very slowly. Also used . Homeostasis (Homeostasis) The maintenance of the physical and chemical composition of the internal environment at a constant level. H Haemoglobin Respiratory pigment containing protein and iron. thus cutting off the blood supply to heart muscles resulting in death of tissues. Host The organism on or in which a parasite or another species (Perumah) lives. secretes the hormone oestrogen. Herbivore (Herbivor) Plant-eating animal. sex-linked disease caused by deficiency of clotting factors. and thus depends on other organisms as a source of food. Heterozygote (Heterozigot) An organism or cell having two different alleles of a gene for a particular inherited characteristic.Graafian follicle (Folikel Graaf) A mature follicle in the ovary of a mammal that contains the secondary oocyte. Granulocyte A white blood cell that has granular cytoplasm and a lobed (Granulosit) nucleus. Haemophilia (Hemofilia) A hereditary. Hormone (Hormon) A chemical substance secreted by endocrine glands into the blood and transported to target cells or organs where it induces a specific physiological response. Hybrid (Hibrid) An organism that is the offspring of parents differing in at least one genetically determined characteristic.

this is the act of drawing air (Tarik into the lungs by enlarging the chest nafas) cavity. It involves only two neurones. Examples are the hip joint and shoulder joint. Examples are the elbow. For example. The joint is held together by various muscles and tendons. allowing for movement between the units. Hydrotropism The growth of plant roots towards water or (Hidrotropisme) moisture. Knee jerk (Pantulan lutut) A reflex action when a tendon under the knee cap is tapped. Implantation The process in which the blastocyst attaches itself to the (Penempelan) endometrium. and plasma cells and their products. an afferent neurone and an efferent neurone. Inheritance Acquisition of characteristics by the transmission of genes from one generation (Pewarisan) to another. I Immune system (Sistem keimunan) A system in vertebrates for the destruction of disease-causing microorganisms. Immunity (Keimunan) The ability of the body to defend itself against infection caused by pathogens or the harmful effects of their toxins. Inhalation In mammals. the earthworm has a hydrostatic skeleton. Hydrostatic skeleton (Rangka hidrostatik) A type of support system that uses fluid contained in body compartments to provide support and mass against which muscles can contract. (b) The ball-and-socket joint allows considerable movement . knee and knuckle joints.to refer to the offspring of parents of different species. . (a) The hinge joint allows movement only in one plane. It consists of white blood cells such as lymphocytes.the bones can swivel and move in many directions. The reflex will cause the quadriceps muscle to contract and bring the lower leg forward. J Joint (Sendi) A flexible region between two rigid units of an exoskeleton or endoskeleton. forward and backward (like the hinge of a door). arranged according to size (Kariotip) and shape. K Karyotype A display of chromosome pairs of a somatic cell.

mercury. the pressure of which is . Locomotion The ability of organisms to move from one place to (Pergerakan) another. For example. lymph capillary in each villus of the small (Lakteal) intestine. The symptoms are a distended stomach (potbelly). One side of the U-tube is connected to a gas supply. Lignin (Lignin) A hard material that is embedded in the cell walls of plants. similar to tissue fluid but does not contain red blood cells. platelets and plasma proteins. L Lacteal A blind-ended. each member of a pair of alleles may combine randomly with either member of another pair of alleles. It increases the strength of plant tissues and thus provides support in terrestrial plants. The basic manometer consists of a U-tube containing a known liquid. Lymph (Limfa) The colourless fluid carried in the lymphatic vessels.Kwashiorkor (Kwasyiorkor) A protein-deficiency disease. The pair of alleles segregate during meiosis and only one from each pair of alleles can be present in a single gamete. Manometer (Manometer) An instrument used to measure the pressure of a gas or liquid. M Macrophage A type of white blood cell that engulfs microorganisms and destroys them by (Makrofaj) phagocytosis. Usually refers to the growth and spread of (Malignan) cancers. usually occurring in children raised in tropical countries. Malignant Life-threatening and invasive. Leucocyte White blood (Leukosit) cell Ligament The elastic tissue that joins two bones (Ligamen) together. single. changes in skin pigmentation and diarrhoea. Law of independent assortment (Hukum pengaturan bebas) During gamete formation. Law of segregation (Hukum segregasi) The law of segregation states that each individual characteristic of an organism is determined by a pair of alleles.

It is also commonly used to refer to the medulla oblongata of the brain.to be measured and the other side is exposed to atmospheric pressure. a type of flowering plant characterised by embryos with one seed leaf or cotyledon. Medulla (Medula) 1. N Negative feedback (Suap balik negatif) A situation in which a change initiates a series of events that tend to counteract the change and restore the original state. The inner portion of some organs. Nerve tissue (Tisu saraf) . Mesophyll (Mesofil) Specialised parenchyma cells beneath the epidermis of a leaf. (Morula) the repeated blastocyst stage. and structure formed before of from the just (Morfologi) things. the adrenal medulla and the renal medulla. Myelin sheath (Salut mielin) A wrapping of insulating membranes around the axons and dendrons of many vertebrate nerve cells. For example. as compared to the outer cortex. the closely packed upper palisade layer and the loosely packed lower spongy layer. bound together in a (Saraf) sheath. 2. Nerve A bundle of axons of nerve cells. It increases the transmission speed of nerve impulses. Mutualism A symbiotic relationship in which both participa-ting species (Mutualisme) benefit. Morphology The study Morula A compact mitotic division of ball of the of a form cells zygote. Monocot (Monokot) Short for monocotyledon. living Mutagen An agent such as radiation and chemicals that causes mutations in an (Mutagen) organism. Negative feedback in physiological systems maintains homeostasis. There are often two layers or mesophylls. Mutation (Mutasi) A sudden random change in the genetic material of a cell that alters the genotype and hence the phenotype and functions of the cell or organism.

Nicotine A poisonous and addictive organic compound found in cigarette (Nikotin) smoke. it controls and coordinates responses of the body. which contains a lot of chloroplasts. It consists of neurones and ganglia. Ozone layer (Lapisan ozon) The ozone-enriched layer of the upper atmosphere that filters out some of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. which covers and protects the gills of (Operkulum) most fish. that includes an open space (the haemocoel) in which blood directly bathes body tissues. Nervous system (Sistem saraf) The system which is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. . Neurone Nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses through the nervous (Neuron) system. P Palisade cell (Sel palisad) A cell of the mesophyll layer. Ovulation The release of the secondary oocyte from the Graafian follicle in (Pengovuman) the ovary. Operculum An external flap. most common in elderly women. Nucleotides (Nukleotida) The building blocks of a nucleic acid. O Obese Excessively (Gendut) fat Open circulatory system (Sistem peredaran terbuka) A type of circulatory system found in some invertebrates. weak. such as arthropods and mollusks. brittle and easily fractured. Osmoregulation The control of the water content and the concentration of (Pengosmokawalaturan) salts in the body. just beneath the upper epidermis.The tissue that makes up the brain. each consis-ting of a five-carbon sugar linked to a nitrogenous base and phosphate group. supported by bone. Osteoporosis (Osteoporosis) A condition in which bones become porous. spinal cord and nerves.

that is. normally with respect to a specific genetic trait. consisting of the clavicle (collar bone) and scapula (shoulder blade). produces fruit without seeds. Pathogen A microorganism or organism that causes (Patogen) disease. Pelvic The bones that form girdle the hips. Diffusion is an example. Peptide A chain composed of two or more amino acids linked together by peptide (Peptida) bonds.Parasitism (Parasitisme) A symbiotic relationship in which one organism (the parasite) benefits by feeding on the other (the host). Phytoplankton (Fitoplankton) Community of photosynthetic microorganisms that drift or float in the well-lit surface layer (euphotic zone) in an aquatic environment. Pectoral The muscles that are muscles attached to the sternum (Otot and collar bone of pektoral) vertebrates. which is normally harmed. Parthenocarpy (Partenokarpi) The formation and development of fruit without fertilisation. Pectoral girdle (Lengkungan pektoral) The bones that form the shoulder. Phloem (Floem) The vessels that transport dissolved organic substances from the leaves to other parts of the plant. Petiole The stalk that connects the blade of a leaf to the (Petiol) stem. . coordinated contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscles of the digestive tract that moves food through the digestive tract. from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. No energy is needed for this process. it forms a (Lengkungan joint with the femur or thigh pelvis) bone. Peristalsis (in the digestive tract) (peristalsis) Rhythmic. Pedigree chart (Carta salasilah) A diagram showing genetic relationships among a set of individuals. Phenotype Any observable or detectable characteristic of an (Fenotip) organism. Passive transport (Pengangkutan pasif) Movement of substances into or out of cells along a concentration gradient.

an area of known size used to measure some property. Plasma The liquid part of the blood in which the blood cells are (Plasma) suspended. Recessive allele (Alel resesif) The phenotypic characteristic of a recessive allele is only expressed in the homozygous condition. Reflex arc (Arka refleks) The pathway taken by impulses in a reflex action. afferent/sensory neurones. the pathway involves receptors. automatic response to a stimulus which is not under conscious control. distribution number in a population. Reflex action (Tindakan refleks) A rapid. Q Quadrat (Kuadrat) In ecological studies. they are mainly zooplankton. In aquatic ecosystems.Placenta (Plasenta) A temporary organ derived from foetal and maternal tissue located in the uterus of higher mammals. for example. Also known as herbivores. Primary consumer (Pengguna primer) An organism that feeds on plants or algae. they fuse with a male gamete to form the triploid nucleus of the endosperm tissue. Platelet A cellular fragment in blood that plays an important role in blood (Platlet) clotting. R Receptor (Reseptor) A cell (receptor cell) or a group of cells (sensory organ) specialised to detect a particular stimulus and initiate the transmission of nerve impulses via afferent neurones. It carries male gametes to the ovule. Polar nuclei (Nukleus kutub) The two nuclei in the centre of the embryo sac that are involved in double fertilisation. it is not expressed in a heterozygote. it is the site of exchange of materials between the foetus and the mother. rodents and ruminants. Pollen tube (Tiub debunga) The tube that grows out of a germinating pollen grain. the . these organisms are mainly insects. Pollination The process in which pollen are transferred from the anther to the stigma (Pendebungaan) of a flower. In terrestrial ecosystems.

forms the wood of (Sklerenkima) many trees. The exposure of Rh-negative individuals to Rh-positive blood triggers the production of antibodies in response to the antigens on Rh-positive blood cells. S Saprophytes (Saprofit)/ Saprotrophs (Saprotrof) Organisms. Replication (Replikasi) The copying of the double-stranded DNA molecule. muscular or (Gerak behavioural activity that reacts to a balas) stimulus. Root pressure (Tekanan akar) A force that pushes water and dissolved minerals up from the root into the xylem vessels in the stem.central nervous system. Rh factor (Faktor Rh) The antigen that determines the rhesus blood group. Also called sekunder) carnivores. relevant data are gathered. . Scurvy A deficiency disease caused by lack of vitamin C in the (Skurvi) diet. It is a protein present on the red blood cells of some people (Rhpositive) but not others (Rh-negative). Scientific name (Nama saintifik) The name of an organism formed from the two smallest major taxonomic categories – the genus and the species. Scientific method (Kaedah saintifik) A system in which a problem is identified. that get their nutrients by breaking down organic wastes and dead organisms. Also known as decomposers. producing two identical DNA double helices. Sclerenchyma Plant cells with walls thickened by cellulose and lignin. Secondary An organism that consumer feeds on primary (Pengguna consumers. Root hair (Rerambut akar) A fine projection of an epidermal cell of a young root that increases the absorptive surface area of the root. mainly bacteria and fungi. and finally a conclusion is drawn. Root nodule (Nodul akar) A swelling on the root of a legume or other plants that consists of cortical cells (cells of the cortex) inhabited by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. efferent/motor neurones and effectors. a hypothesis is made and tested through experimentation or additional observation. Response The physiological.

Stroke (Strok) An interruption of blood flow to part of the brain caused by the rupture of an artery. Tertiary The complex. Sino-atrial The specialised node neuro-muscular tissues in the (Nodus heart that act as a sino-atrium) pacemaker. Stimulus Any change in the external or internal environment of an (Rangsangan) organism. Synovial fluid (Bendalir sinovia) The clear fluid present in joints that acts as a lubricant. the abnormal haemoglobin distorts the red blood cell into a sickle shape and reduces the amount of oxygen that is carried to tissues thereby causing anaemia. Sickle-cell anaemia (Anemia sel sabit) A genetic disease caused by a gene mutation which alters the structure of haemoglobin. Taxonomy (Taksonomi) The science by which organisms are classified into hierarchically arranged categories that reflect their evolutionary relationships. Tertiary A carnivore that consumer feeds on other (Pengguna carnivores (secondary tertier) consumers). Symbiosis includes parasitism. Symbiosis (Simbiosis) A close interaction between individuals of different species over an extended period. Skeletal Muscles which are attached muscles to the skeleton. or the blocking of an artery by a blood clot. Loss of blood supply leads to rapid death of the area of the brain affected. structure three-dimensional structure of (Struktur a single peptide tertier) chain. they (Otot contract to bring about rangka) movement. mutualism and commensalism. T Taxis (pl. Sex-linked A gene gene located (Gen on a terangkai sex seks) chromosome. gravity or chemicals. taxes) (Taksis) The directed movement of an entire organism (as opposed to part of an organism) towards or away from a stimulus such as heat. .Sex A pair of chromosomes chromosomes containing genes that (Kromosom determine the sex of an seks) individual. light.

Transpiration (Transpirasi) The loss of water rapour from the plant to the atmosphere. it is the segmented region between the head and the abdomen to which structures used in locomotion (wings and legs) are attached. V Variation The differences between individuals of a (Variasi) species. a line. Ventricle (Ventrikel) A lower chamber of the heart that receives blood from the atria and pumps it into the arterial system. Translocation The transport of organic nutrients in the phloem of (Translokasi) vascular plants. Vertebra Small. Transect In ecology. it is the area above the diaphragm which includes the heart and the lungs within the rib cage. U Ultrafiltration (Ultraturasan) The process in which hydrostatic pressure causes water and small. Tube nucleus (Nukleus tiub) The nucleus in the pollen tube that guides the direction of growth of the pollen tube. a strip or a profile for counting and (Transek) mapping. dissolved molecules to filter out from the blood plasma in the glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule of the nephron. Tropism (Tropism) A directional growth response shown by part of a plant in response to a unilateral stimulus. . certain mosquitoes are vectors for the malaria parasite. 2. In insects. Trait Each variant of a (Trait) characteristic. Vector-animal vector (Vector haiwan) An organism that carries disease-causing organisms (pathogens) from one living thing to another. It occurs mainly in the leaves through stomatal pores.Thorax (Toraks) 1. Vein A vessel that carries blood to the (Vena) heart. For example. In mammals. uniquely shaped bones that articulate with one another to form the vertebral (Vertebra) column.

villi) (Vilus) A finger-like projection of the inner wall of the small intestine that increases the surface area for absorption of soluble food material. parasitic particle that is composed of hereditary information (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat. (Zigot) . Z Zooplankton (Zooplankton) Non-photosynthetic. Villus (pl. membrane-bound sac within the (Vesikel) cytoplasm. Y Yeast Unicellular fungi that reproduce by (Yis) budding. A virus multiplies within a cell of a living organism (the host). Virus (Virus) A non-cellular. X Xylem vessel (Vesel xilem) A vessel that transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to other parts of a plant. Zygote The diploid cell that is produced when two haploid gametes fuse during fertilisation.Vesicle A small. microscopic animals which feed on abundant phytoplankton that exist in the aquatic environment.