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COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE BASED TEHNIQUE FOR LOAD SHEDDING SCHEME

LUKMAN HAKIM BIN HAMRON

FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA MALAYSIA

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COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE BASED TECHNIQUE FOR LOAD SHEDDING SCHEME

Project report is presented in partial fulfillment for the award of the Bachelor of Electrical Engineering (Hons) Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)

LUKMAN HAKIM BIN HAMRON Faculty of Electrical Engineering UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA 40450 SHAH ALAM, SELANGOR
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A report submitted to Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA in partial fulfillment of the requirement for Bachelor of Electrical Engineering (Hons).

This thesis is approved by:

………………………………. Associate Professor Dr. Ismail Musirin Project supervisor Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 40450 Shah Alam Selangor. Date:………………..

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DECLARATION

It is hereby declared that all materials in this thesis are the result of my own work and all the materials that are not the result of my own work have been clearly acknowledged. Although, certain result on this thesis is effort from other dispute.

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May Almighty Allah bless and reward them for their generosity. I wish to conveymy deepest gratitude and appreciation to my supervisor. generosity and love. Assoc. The Most Gracious and Most Merciful who had given me the strength. v . Thank you very much.T. constant encouragement and patience in supervising this project from the start until the completion if this thesis. May Allah S. bless them all. and I will always be grateful for their sacrifice. Not forget to my friends and anyone who directly or indirectly giving their support and contribution to finished this project.W.T. Dr. They have encourage me throughout my education . Ismail Musirin for his guidance.W. I also wish to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to my family especially to my mother and my father for supporting me along way my journey in this field. ability and patient upon completing this final year project. Prof. valuable time. concern.ACKNOWLEGMENT First and foremost. effort. all praise to Allah S.

This may lead to system instability in forms of voltage and frequency. fuzzy logic.ABSTRACT Losses in generation and overloading effect are two phenomena that may occur due to progressing demand at the load side. The study involves the development of fuzzy rules in order to make decision on load shedding. This method functions will determine the amount of load that needs to be shed depending on the measured minimum voltage of the system. Index Terms—voltage collapse. In order to avoid this problem. system stability. The technique has been validated on the IEEE 30-bus system. the under voltage load shedding scheme can be performed to shed some amount of load before the disturbance occur. This paper presents computational intelligence technique for load shedding. under voltage load shedding vi . The result of this paper will show the performance of under voltage load shedding scheme in determining power system stability by shedding some amount of the load demand.

0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 2.3 2.TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER DESCRIPTION PAGE DECLARATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS i ii iii iv vi vii viii 1.2.2 ECONOMIC DISPATCH (ED) DYNAMIC ECONOMIC DISPATCH(DED) 2.1 1.3 1.4 1.4 Ramp Rate Constraint 5 5 6 8 9 10 PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION (PSO) METHOD TO SOLVE DED vii .5 1.1 2.6 INTRODUCTION PROBLEM STATEMENT OBJECTIVE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT RESEARCH FRAMEWORK OVERVIEW OF THE REPORT 1 1 3 3 4 5 6 2.2 1.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.

2.2.0 CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORKS REFERENCES viii 36 37 38 .1 INTRODUCTION 15 15 3.3.3.2 3.3.1 4.1 3.2 4.0 METHODOLOGY 3.5 Basic PSO Algorithm Particle’s Velocity Update Constriction Factor Approach (CFA) Particle’s Position Update Representation of Particle’s Position 3.3.4 3.4 DED BASED ON PSO TECHNIQUE 4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.0 6.3 3.4 ANALYSIS OF PSO METHOD ON DED SOLUTION 26 26 28 29 32 5.3 PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION (PSO) 3.3 3.4 3.3.5 Objective Function Equality Constraint Inequality Constraint Dynamic Constraint Fitness Function 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 23 3.1 3.2 DYNAMIC ECONOMIC DISPATCH (DED) FORMULATION 3.2.3 DATA FOR IEEE 26-BUS TEST SYSTEM PSO PARAMETERS SETTING SIMULATION RESULTS FOR SOLUTION OF DED BASED ON PSO 4.2.2.2 3.3.

2 3.3 4.APPENDICES 43 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE PAGE 2.4 34 ix .2 30 4.3 33 4.1 3.1 3.1 Single line diagram of transmission line Matrix representation of particle’s position Modification of gBest according to generator constraints Flow chart for DED based on PSO process Variation of Cost with Power Demand Curve for 6 units system Variation of Power loss with the Load Demand for 6 units system Graph of Fuel Cost against Load Demand for comparison between PSO and Newton Raphson method Convergence Characteristics of PSO Method for 6 units system 6 22 22 25 30 4.

2 4.3 4.8 Initial output power and Ramp Rate limits for IEEE 26bus system Load Demand for IEEE 26-bus system of 24 hours Transmission loss Coefficients for IEEE 26-bus system PSO parameters Optimal MW Generation for each unit.5 4.LIST OF TABLES TABLE TITLE PAGE 4.4 4.6 4.1 Generating Unit Capacity and Coefficients for IEEE 26bus system 26 4.7 4. Transmission loss and Fuel Cost of 24 hours Comparison of PSO and Newton Raphson Result Result for the Variation Number of Particles 27 27 28 28 29 32 35 x .

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ED DED PSO SED AI FACTS DP GA SA EP LP NLP QP DE ANN HNN CFA IEEE - Economic Dispatch Dynamic Economic Dispatch Particle Swarm Optimization Static Economic Dispatch Artificial Intelligent Flexible Alternative Current Transmission Systems Dynamic programming Genetic Algorithm Simulated Annealing Evolutionary Programming Linear Programming Non-Linear Programming Quadratic Programming Differential Evolution Artificial Neural Network Hopfield Neural Network Constriction Factor Approach Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers xi .

This study is based on the fast calculation of indicators of risk of voltage 1 . Penang and Kedah due to the occurred fault. From this situation a load shedding scheme is initiated to avoid the system from collapsed [2]. There are several studies that indicate about voltage stability of the power system. There are many factories have take improvement step to prevent this phenomena happening again by developing a new alternative extensively to ensure the power system network operates in the normal steady state condition conveniently [3]. the balance between load demand and the available generation is important to make sure the stability of the system is in good condition [1]. This situation happened due to the load demand used by the user has exceed the limit that the available generation can support. Perak.0 INTRODUCTION 1. there are many situation occur where the demand load have reached the limit of an available generation in certain place.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY In power system operation. One of these studies is about estimating the voltage stability of power system [5]. When this condition occurs. The main factor for instability is the inability of the power system to meet the demand of increased reactive power.CHAPTER 1. or change in system condition causes a progressive and uncontrollable drop in voltage [4]. A system enters a state of voltage instability when a disturbance. including Perlis. Literally. it will cause the system collapse. Nowadays. increase in load demand. there will be same situation as in 2005 where there was power outage in Malaysia where many states of Malaysia’s northern peninsular.

fuzzy load shedding based algorithm is performed by using voltage stability indicator for averting voltage collapse. fuzzy logic is performed by monitoring the minimum voltage by running the load flow. In [6]. In this paper. These indicators can detect on-line voltage instability and signal the tendency towards a critical situation. The load levels increase are divided into several different loading factors. 2 . This algorithm provides solution as decision making to determine which load bus that need to be shed and how much load will be shed to make sure the system recover to the normal operation. there are several methods to perform the load shedding technique such as under-voltage load shedding and under-frequency load shedding. Then under voltage load shedding will be perform to get the system back to normal operation. The variable is selected from the load flow results. The study involves the development of fuzzy rules in order to make decision on load shedding. Fuzzy logic was a useful algorithm where it can be used in wide area of study. In [7]. In [8]. In order to perform the developed technique. a fuzzy logic algorithm was proposed. In this paper load shedding is applied to the selected bus so the voltage minimum will increase and the system become stable. Results from the experiment indicated that the proposed technique is successful to solve the load shedding problems. This technique is proposed to make sure the system in a balanced condition. The best way to perform load shedding scheme in a system is by minimizing the amount of load to be shed [7] for voltage collapse prevention.instability has been developed. The fuzzy technique is applied to each case to select load bus to be shed and to calculate the amount load to be shed to prevent voltage instability. Several methods have been developed to prevent the voltage from collapse. While in [9]. fuzzy logic was used to solve the unit commitment problem. This paper presents computational intelligence based technique for load shedding scheme. the paper study about the practical approach to perform the load shedding scheme.

This reason becomes the why a new method is needed to overcome this problem. 1. Each generation that was established in Malaysia is enough to support the load demand in certain area depending on the load usage. it will cause problem to all consumer. There are some cases where the load demand is higher than the generation level. For example in 1995. A generation has their limit to support the load demand in each area. The reason why this situation happened is because of the hot weather at that time. To develop load shedding scheme in power system To identify the Selected bus for load shedding and amount of load demand that should be shed for stable power system operation iii. To improve the power balance in power system operation by using computational intelligence 3 . ii. When this situation happens.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT Everyday people are using equipment continuously and the load demand for each distribution network is increasing with the increasing of electric usage among the user. blackout situations happen in Malaysia due to high load usage. This will cause voltage collapse in the area. When the consumer load demand has gone beyond the limit of available generation. The same situation occurred in 2005 where the biggest blackout happened in Malaysia where there is no electricity due to the fault of the main cable transmission line grid. This condition will burden the generation to support the load demand. As the usage of equipment is increasing.1. it may lead to blackout.3 OBJECTIVE i. the load demand will also increase.

Moreover. The data will be taken from legal resource as the first step of this project. active power and reactive power at load bus will be assigned as the input variable to fuzzy logic system.4 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT The scope of this project is to analyze the balance between the load demand and the available generation. This fuzzy system will be implemented using MATLAB software. this project will show the performance of fuzzy logic algorithm to be effective and useful in problem concerning the load shedding. The under voltage load shedding scheme is employed in order to determine which load and amount of load that need to be shed. The voltage magnitude. Flow chart in Figure 1 below summarizes the involved process: Preparing the system data Initialize the load shedding scheme Develop the fuzzy logic algorithm in matlab Determine the shedding load to balance the system Figure 1: Scope of project 4 . The results of this method will be used to decide which of the load is the most suitable to be removed for maintaining the stability of the system. The proposed method gives satisfactory results in term of blackouts prevention and minimum voltage improvement. This technique is used to develop an algorithm as the solution for solving the load shedding problem. it will be analyzed to match with the load shedding technique. A selected load bus will be chosen for shedding based on the output of the develop algorithm. Later.1.

1.5 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK START KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION LOAD SHEDDING DEVELOPMENT OF SIMPLE LOAD SHEDDING TECHNIQUE AND UVLS FUZZY LOGIC ALGORITHM MATLAB PROGRAMMING DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF LOAD SHEDDING DEVELOP THE PROGRAMMING CODES IN MATLAB IMPLEMENTATION OF FUZZY LOGIC ALGORITHM FOR LOAD SHEDDING Figure 2: Research framework 5 .

1. The last parts of this thesis are the references and appendix. 6 . theory of fuzzy logic and its application and some literature review on method to solve the load shedding problems. Chapter 1 describes an introduction of the project which includes the objective of this research and also scope of work to complete this project.6 OVERVIEW OF THE REPORT This thesis consist of five chapters explain about solving under voltage load shedding (UVLS) schemes implemented by using fuzzy logic system. In Chapter 2. Next is Chapter 4 that illustrated all the results obtained together with the discussion of the results. On the Chapter 5. All the tables and graph plotted are discussed clearly in this chapter including the analysis of PSO techniques on DED solution. a conclusion that has been made upon the result obtains and the last chapter is Chapter 6 which discusses the recommendations for future works in order to improve the solution for DED problems. This chapter also indicates the flow chart of DED based on PSO techniques. This project thesis was followed by the design methodology that explained clearly in Chapter 3. This chapter explains the DED formulation algorithm including all the constraints and the PSO techniques algorithm and lastly implementation of PSO techniques to DED problems. under voltage load shedding and fuzzy logic systems are reviewed and explained properly. the theory and basic of voltage stability. theory of UVLS scheme. The summary are include the full details of problem in power system.

the concept of voltage stability and the conventional method of voltage stability analysis which is undervoltage load shedding is presented. the problem and the challenges keep coming causing the power system that being operated closer to their stability limits and the voltage in the system dropping where it become unstable. undervoltage load shedding and underfrequency load shedding [10].CHAPTER 2. unacceptable value as a result of an avalanche of events accompanying voltage instability [11]. and it should also be secure in the event of any credible contingency. In this chapter. Once associated with weak systems and long lines. The undervoltage load shedding scheme the being implemented by using one of the artificial intelligence technique which is called fuzzy logic. voltage problems are now also a source of concern in highly developed networks as a result of heavier loading. To prevent the system collapse. Nowadays. The disturbance that occur cause the voltage decreasing continuously and lead to voltage collapse where the value of the voltage below its normal value. the operation condition should be in a stable condition where the voltage and the frequency is in equilibrium state.1 POWER SYSTEM VOLTAGE STABILITY In a power system. Voltage collapse is the process by which the voltage falls to a low. Voltage instability and voltage collapse have been considered as a major threat to present power system networks due to their stressed operation. Simulation results on test power systems are presented to illustarate the problem of voltage stability and the under voltage load shedding scheme to analyze the problem. lots of mechanism has been develop such as VAR compensators. That is why it is important to maintaining the system in stable condition and secures the power system operation. It means that the criteria of the system operation should be meet the various operational. 7 .0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.

and so that both power and voltage are controllable. Dynamic modeling of loads is often essential. In these studies. the long term simulation is required. voltage stability is being defined as ―Voltage stability is the ability of a system to maintain voltage so that when load admittance is increased. stability is usually determined by the resulting outage of equipment. 8 .2 SHORT TERM VOLTAGE STABILITY The short-term voltage stability in power system involves dynamics of fast acting load components such as induction motors.2 VOLTAGE STABILITY According to the IEEE Power System Engineering Committee. this voltage collapse is one of the major problems which electric power networks might face [13]. it will become voltage instability and lastly it will cause voltage collapse. the long-term voltage stability involves rather slow acting equipment such as tap changing transformers.1 LONG TERM VOLTAGE STABILITY In power system. To analyze system dynamic performance. And nowadays.2. So.2. load power will increase. and generator current limiters. The voltage stability practically can be classified into two subcategories which are Long term and Short term. short circuits near loads are important. If there is disturbance occur and the voltage in the system dropping. This kind of voltage instability could easily happen in the result of a serious fault occurrence in the power system network. thermostatically controlled loads. and analysis requires solution of appropriate system differential equations which is similar to analysis of rotor angle stability. 2. rather than the severity of the initial disturbance. 2. In contrast to angle stability. and HVDC converters. it would have close relations with electric power system protection methods [4]. electronically controlled loads. The study period of interest is in the order of at most several seconds.2.‖ [12].

2.0-1: Power System with Remote Generation Fig. Es is the voltage at the remote generator buses 4 and Eg is the voltage at the load center buses.2. Figure 2.1 illustrates a simplified power system with a remote generator supplying a substantial portion of the load at the load center through six transmission lines.0-2: Real Power (MW) vs.3 VOLTAGE INSTABILITY Figure 2. the MW power flows over fewer lines resulting in increased Var losses. As lines between the remote generators and the load center trip. Voltage (P-V) Curve 9 .

High levels of motor load combined with capacitor bank support of load center voltage tend to make the voltage drop very rapidly for a small increase of power at the nose of the curve. 2. As illustrates in Figure 2. In power system. System conditions are secure and stable to the left of point A1. disruptions. The problem comes when there are disturbance. The system must be operated to stay well inside the load level for the nose of curve B. The set of P-V curves illustrates that for baseline conditions shown in curve A. rather than six. and high winds can cause power line disturbance and also will affect the voltage in the system.2 illustrates how voltage decays as lines trip. the shape of the nose of the curve depends on the nature of the load at the load center. The reason why this type of P-V curves is called as nose curves is because when there is condition starting from a base-case system (all lines in-service). equipment failures. After a contingency occurs. For an example there are lightning. irregularities and nature of electricity occurred.4 DISTURBANCE IN POWER SYSTEM Usually all the electrical energy that has been provided by the electrical utility is safe and reliable. This is because the power being transmitted from the remote generators now follows through five. a stable voltage cannot be sustained and the system voltage collapses. If electrical equipment is being used and the is power disturbance occur.Figure 2. to avoid going over the nose of curve C.2. then the next worst contingency must be considered. the voltage remains relatively steady (changing along the vertical axis) aslocal load increases. all the planning engineers call this type of curves as nose curves. The system operators must increase local generation (Eg) to reduce the power being transmitted for the remote generators to reduce losses. as well as increase voltage at the load center to within the safe zone. the new condition is represented by curve B. transmission lines. computer-generated load flow cases are run with increasing power transfers while monitoring voltages at critical buses. If the B contingency occurs. Generally. such as a transmission circuit tripping. When power transfers reach a high enough level. it will cause data or memory losses. the utilities system planners use this type of P-V curves analysis as an analysis tool to determine the real power transfer capability across a transmission interface to supply local load. altered data and other 10 . with lower voltages (relative to curve A).

furnace igniters or ignition systems. In power system and if there is disturbance occur.05p.95p. electrical power tools. downtime and expensive troubleshooting. The voltage that considered as stable range is between 0. utility recloser operations and storms. a transient voltage may exceed the normal voltage level by five or ten times. In power system. 2.. sags. sags are the most common problem compared to others and it can be assume that voltage below 0. is considered sags.u.4. transients.4. 2.u.u. Air conditioners.4.functional errors. The affect of surges in a system is it will damage the equipment used. Present. as well as equipment damage. the transients normally caused by a lightning strike and the normal operation of 11 . generators or voltage restoration technologies. then it may cause scheduling problems. They may be seen more frequently in facilities with rapidly varying electrical loads. down lines. noises and power outage.. This problem can be corrected by using backup power sources such as UPSs.1 SAGS Sags is the condition when the voltage in a system is lower than the stable range which caused by power failures. 2.3 TRANSIENTS Transient can be define as a change happen in voltage causes by the short duration and sharp impulse.5 CAUSES OF DISTURBANCE There are several types of irregularities that affect electrical power which are surges. first thing to do is by understanding the causes of the problems.95p. Before proceeding to the preventive method. electrostatic copy machines and elevators are most likely to create surges.2 SURGES The different between surges and sags is the surges is the condition when the voltage in a system is above from the stable range. And if there is no preventive method towards this problem. to 1. often caused by the switching on / off of electric motors (inductive load switching). arc welders. 2.

combination between protection engineers and system planners.5 POWER OUTAGE In power system. the presence of transient voltage can only be detected with special monitoring equipment. The system planning engineers will analyze numerous studies using P-V curves as well as other analytical methods to determine the amount of loads that to be shed to retain voltage stability under credible contingencies.4 NOISES Noises can be classified as interferences that can be generated by any electrical equipment. computers. Usually the noise comes from equipment that not being installed correctly and properly. Practically. fluorescent lights. So if the load demand increase higher than the generation can support. 2. Even a momentary outage.4. This equipment may include: radio transmitters. Normally. Generally. it may lead to the power outage. of only a fraction of a second. plugs and loose electrical connections. the power outage also can be caused by electrical load switching in utility power stations. It means that when there is voltage instability occurs due to a disturbance and the load shedding is performed. This condition can be momentarily or last for extended periods of time. the power in generation system must be equal to the load demand by customer plus the losses. wall receptacles. who together can determine the amount of load and time in the shedding program is required to develop the undervoltage load shedding program. Voltage collapse is most probable under heavy load 12 . Besides that. power outage can be defined as total losses of power. business machines and even simple devices such as light sockets. will affect a computer and can result in data loss and the need for data re-entry or reprogramming. These types of disturbances can result in computer errors. the philosophy of UVLS is that when there is a system disturbance and the voltage drops to a pre-selected level for a pre-determined time.4.electrical equipment such as switching on/ off electrical motors. the voltage will recover to acceptable level thereby avoiding a more widespread system voltage collapse. 2. then selected loads are shed.6 UNDERVOLTAGE LOAD SHEDDING SCHEME Theoretically. 2.

While a decentralized scheme is where it has relays installed at the loads to be shed. it is obvious that it would be not effective in arresting voltage collapse. But if tripping too much load may result in transitioning the system from an under-voltage to an over-frequency condition as the resulting system will have more generation than load.6. there are many research indicate that as certain the amount of load that is appropriate to shed under given conditions. These schemes require high-speed and reliable communication to properly operate. 2. There are three main areas for consideration in under voltage load shedding which are the amount of load to shed. In [11. In under voltage load shedding scheme. Load characteristic in power system play an important role in determining the ability of the system to regain a stable equilibrium after a disturbance. As been mention before. The incorrect presumption of load characteristics in load-flow and dynamic studies may render a UVLS scheme ineffective and perhaps even inadvertently impose an over-frequency 13 . A centralized scheme is a method where it has undervoltage relay installed at key system buses within the area and trip information is transmitted to shed load at various locations. it is been shown that load shedding is an effective counter measure against voltage collapse. Moreover. If there is less load that been trip than necessary.conditions where large amounts of power are to be transported from remote generation sites and the bulk of the system load consists of motors.1 THE AMOUNT OF LOAD TO BE SHED Theoretically. 14]. there are two types that being applied in the system which are centralized and decentralized (distributed). generally undervoltage load shedding scheme is designed to shed a specific amount of load from one or more locations within a power system after finite amount of time upon detecting the onset of voltage collapse. this type of scheme is similar to the under frequency load shedding schemes. Many of these schemes are categorized as ―special protection―or ―wide area‖ protection schemes. sometimes the additional logic is applied. and the location where load is to be shed. The relays will start to shed the load at the selected location when the voltage condition at the locations begins to collapse. As the security is added to the system.

In this case. The design should also take into account the impact of intentional load shedding on distribution feeders serving. In this case. In [14]. hospitals.6. the load buses are ranked in the order of the weakest to the strongest. 14 . In general. Small disturbance analysis coupled with dynamic simulation and in some cases optimal power flow methodology is some tools employed in the determination of the location of load shed [15]. schools. the paper discuss about procedure to calculate the amount of load to be shed where the amount of load to be shed is calculated based upon the difference between the pre-contingency (steady-state) power drawn by load and the instantaneous power drawn at the instant of system disturbance. dynamic load model parameters are estimated on-line using a non-linear least squares method in order to calculate the load shed amount. Therefore. In an actual power system.2 THE LOCATION WHERE LOAD IS TO BE SHED An important factor to consider within a UVLS design is the location where load is shed. the granularity with which load can be shed is limited due to pragmatic considerations. prisons and army bases. the distribution feeders served out of a particular substation in most cases have different aggregate load characteristics and demand profiles making the predetermination of the amount of load available for shedding challenging. the smallest block of load that can be shed is equal to the load served through one substation-class distribution breaker since it is this breaker that is employed to interrupt the load. police and fire stations. power plant or bulk transmission system control centers. 2. Furthermore. This means that the design of a UVLS should incorporate the impact of errors as a result of the differences between the load that is presumed to be shed and the load that is actually shed. for example. often it is this bus that is the most appropriate candidate for load shedding initially. The weakest bus tends to have the highest component and tends to be most susceptible to voltage collapse given the relatively large reactive power consumption for a small reduction in bus voltage.condition upon the power system.

This was followed by a common ranking of the load buses as it was postulated that the optimal load shedding locations will be nearly the same for all unstable scenarios of the set. The preceding approach identifies the common weakest buses for all conceivable contingencies and optimizes the location of the load to be shed. this approach does not distinguish between the bus at which the reactive power demand is increased and the adjacent buses whose voltages follow suit.7 CONCEPT OF UNDER VOLTAGE LOAD SHEDDING 15 . In [15]. the UVLS is triggered at that bus. 2. as noted by the authors of the paper. N-2 and N-3). Rather than shedding load at the weakest one through ranking buses. training scenarios consisting of eight different system configurations were subjected to these contingencies. Furthermore. the proposed UVLS scheme detects voltage collapse at every bus in the ten bus system considered. is that the optimum amount of load will not be shed given that the power-voltage characteristics of the lines would change upon load shed at one bus. This means that the load at adjacent buses may be shed in the case where load rejection at the weakest bus alone would have arrested voltage collapse. The resulting unstable scenarios were identified and the weakest buses were noted for each unstable scenario. each bus is monitored for voltage collapse and upon detection of this. In this instance.In [14]. A major drawback to this approach. the system overcomes this approach by pre-determining the weakest buses in the system under various contingencies (N-1.

western cultures are mired with the yes or no. Data below shows the acceptable range value to be the reference during generation of data. In practical. Min(Vm)<0. fuzzy logic is a powerful problem-solving methodology with a myriad of applications in embedded control and information processing. In some research. load shedding schemes requires coordination between protection engineers and system planners to set up the amount to be shed without affecting its security. of the binary Aristotelian logic world and their interpretation of the fuzziness causes a conflict because they are given a negative connotation. The philosophy of UVLS is that whenever the system is perturbed and voltage drops to a certain preselected level for a certain pre-determined time period.95<min(Vm)<1.8 FUZZY LOGIC Seminal paper on fuzzy logic was introduced by Prof. Since the 1970s Japanese researchers have been the primary force in the implementation of fuzzy theory and now have thousands of patents in the area. fuzzy logic resembles human decision making with its ability to work from approximate data and find precise solutions 16 . then selected loads may be cut off [17]. many developments have taken place in different parts of the world. Eastern cultures easily accommodate the concept of fuzziness because it does not imply disorganization and imprecision in their languages as it does in English. Zadeh in 1965 [19]. On the other hand. Some function has been created to devide the results to determine their range of stable voltage. the voltage instability or voltage collapse could be experience by the system [16]. Fuzzy provides a simple way to draw definite conclusions from vogue. ambiguous or imprecise information [20]. Moreover in computational intelligence. by shedding some of the loads in a system the voltage magnitude will recover to its normal level.When a transmission system becomes stressful due to the overload. Lofti A. guilty or not guilty. Practically. The world response to fuzzy logic has been varied. On the one hand.95 = unstable 0.Since then.05 = stable 2.

in which individuals are either a member or not a member. fuzzy reasoning can be used for manipulating this information. +1].8. Complexity is inversely related to the understanding we can have of a problem or system. the fuzzier becomes the solution. and there is a very precise and clear boundary to indicate if an entity belongs to a set. closed-loop forms are enough to describe the systems. In a specific way. Zadeh suggests by his principle of incompatibility: ―The closer one looks at a real-world problem. The mapping then provides a basis from which decisions can be made. As Prof. Thus. The fuzzy rule is a set of if-then linguistic term [15]. a theory which relates to classes of object with unsharp boundaries in which membership is a matter of degree [25].‖ and thus. In fuzzification. For the defuzzification. 2. fuzzy logic is almost synonymous with the theory of fuzzy sets. Fuzzy inference is the process of formulating the mapping from a given input to an output using fuzzy logic. the fuzzy set theory accepts partial membership values μ ƒ ϵ [0. imprecision and complexity are correlated [21]. The fuzzy logic system consists of three parts which are fuzzification. and ambiguous distinction exists between a member and a non-member for any well-defined set of entities in this theory. and therefore. in a sense generalizes the classical set theory to some extent. In this 17 . More complex systems need methods such as neural networks that can reduce some uncertainty. A sharp. This means that many real-world problems cannot be handled by classical set theory.Classical set theory is based on the fundamental concept of a set. crisp. in classical set theory an element is not allowed to be in a set (1) or not in a set (0) at the same time. fuzzy logic can be implementing by using fuzzy logic toolbox as the decision making. Lotfi A. 23]. fuzzy inference and defuzzification [22. On the contrary.1 Concept of Fuzzy Logic A simple way to define fuzzy logic is logical system which is the extension of mutivalued logic. When systems are complex enough that only few numerical data exist and the majority of this information is vague. When little complexity is presented. In MATLAB. it converts the fuzzy output values back into output actions. While fuzzy inference system is used as a drawing conclusion from the set of fuzzy rules. it will involve the process of transforming input variable into a membership for linguistic terms of fuzzy sets.

trapezoids. and as long as a region of transition exists between adjacent membership functions. It associates a weighting with each of the inputs that are processed. the membership function is a graphical representation of the magnitude of participation of each input. Once the the functions are inferred. bell curves or any other shape as long as those shapes accurately represent the distribution of information within the system. 2.8. fuzzy logic algorithm is allowed to determine the suitability of each bus and the one with the highest suitability chosen for load shedding. and combined. they are defuzzified into crisp output which drives the system. 18 . It is a curve that defines how each point in the input space is mapped to a membership value between 0 and 1.It is the first step of the fuzzy logic control process where a fuzzy algorithm categorises the information entering a system and assigns values that represent the degree of membership in those categories. Input membership functions themselves can take any form the designer of the system requires triangles. defined functional overlap between inputs.paper. scaled. The FLS Editor displays general information about the fuzzy inference system. The rules use the input membership values as weighting factors to determine their influence on the fuzzy outputs sets of the final output conclusion. and determines and output response.2 Membership Function The purposed of membership function is to determine or find the input and output of the system. In fuzzy logic.

especially in real-time implementation.Figure 1: Membership function Due to their simple formulas and computational efficiency. 2. they are not smooth at the switching points specified by the parameters. there are two type of fuzzy logic system which is Mamdani and Sugeno. and the fuzzy rules. The process of fuzzy inference involves all of the pieces that are described which are the membership function or fuzzification. both triangular membership functions and trapezoidal membership functions have been used extensively. In fuzzy logic toolbox. Mamdani’s fuzzy inference method is the most commonly used in fuzzy methodology. fuzzy logic operators. or pattern discerned.8. 19 . Mamdani’s method is among the first control systems built using fuzzy set theory. The mapping then provides a basis from which decision can be made. Mamdani’s effort was based on Lofti Zadeh’s 1973 paper on fuzzy algorithm for complex systems and decision processes. It was proposed in 197 5 by Ebrahim Mamdani as an attempt to control a steam engine and boiler combination by synthesizing a set of linguistic control rules obtained from experienced human operators. However since the membership functions are composed of straight-line segments.3 Fuzzy Inference System Fuzzy inference is the process of formulating the mapping from a given input to an output using fuzzy logic.

2. After the aggregation process. Other methods include the maximum. It enhance the efficiency of the defuzzification process because it greatly simplifies the computation required by the more general Mamdani method. Generally. height. that used the weight average of a few data points. the means of maxima. It is possible and in many cases much more efficient to use a single spike as the output membership functions rather than a distributed fuzzy set. Sugeno type systems can be used to model any inference system in which the output membership functions areeither linear or constant. and the output of the defuzzification process is a single number. Sugeno type systems support this type of model. which finds the centroid of a two dimensional function. The most commonly used method is the centroid. This result is obtained from fuzzy inference system where it maps an input vector to a crisp output. Mamdani type expects the output membership functions to be fuzzy sets. 20 . Many defuzzification techniques have been proposed in the literature. there is fuzzy set for each fuzzy output variable that needs fdefuzzification.8. the basic idea is much the same. Rather than integrating across the two-dimensional function to find the centroid. The input to the defuzzification process is a fuzzy set (the aggregated output fuzzy set). This is sometimes known as a singleton output membership function and it can be thought of as a pre-defuzzified fuzzy set.Although the inference process describe differs from the methods described I the original paper.4 Defuzzification A defuzzifiation process is use to obtain the crisp output. and modified height method.

Figure 1 illustrates the single line diagram of IEEE 30-bus system. four under load tap changing transformers.1 INTRODUCTION The objective of a UVLS scheme is to restore reactive power balance in the power system.CHAPTER 3.0 METHODOLOGY 3. In the base case the total system load is 2.4 pu real power. while the other generators generate 0. four under load tap changing transformers.2 UNDERVOLTAGE LOAD SHEDDING SCHEME 3.5687 pu. The program for the implementation of fuzzy logic to the UVLS schemes was done using MATLAB programming. fuzzy logic has been implemented to the UVLS schemes by testing it o IEEE 30 bus system that has six generators. two shunt capacitor and thirty seven lines. the swing bus (bus number 1) generates real power of 2. 21 . If the load demand is higher than the generation can support. two shunt capacitor and thirty seven lines. to prevent voltage collapse and to keep a voltage problem within a local area rather than allowing it to spread out by shedding some loads [18]. The system has six generators. the power generated by the generation system must be equal to the load demand and the total losses. the it may lead to voltage collapse. To solve the problems.1 Preparing System Data The test system used in this study is the IEEE-30 RTS.834 pu. 3.2. In power system.

one slack bus.2 Power Flow Analysis Power flow analysis. As IEEE 30 bus system.2. Load shedding then perform by selecting the weakest bus. it has five generator buses.Figure 0-3: IEEE 30-BUS TEST SYSTEM (Source: ljs. In this project. operation and economic scheduling. The load shedding technique is performed by creating several conditions. the system stability will change and may cause voltage instability due to the load increase in the system. Load factor is increased in order to indicate load variation in the system. the transmission system is modelled by a set of buses or 22 . It is use for planning. 3. 6 intermediate buses and eighteen load buses. By increasing the load bus.org) Fuzzy logic load shedding need data to perform the rules. coomonly referred as load flow is an important tool of power system analysis and design.academicdirect.

1 Newton-Raphson load flow In power system. the 23 .2. 3. UVLS scheme is perform when the system in unstable. known as the power flow equation become non-linear and must be solve by iterative solution. Upon completion of the load flow.3 Load Shedding Algorithm Load shedding algorithm involves several steps before it complete. Newton-Raphson method is mathematically superior to the Gauss-Seidel method and is less prone to divergence with illconditioned problems. the power flow equation is formulated in polar form. After increasing the value of voltage in the load bus. To makes system unstable. this method is widely used to solve the simultaneous algebraic equations. Newton-Raphson load flow is implement in this project to get the desired output. The load bus consists of active power (Pd) and reactive power (Qd). power are known rather than current. So the resulting equation is in terms of power. the Newton-Raphson load flow will execute.nodes interconnected y transmissionlink. First thing to do is by creating the cases. Upon execution. the system is already stable. but more functional evaluations are required at each iteration. the values of the load at the load bus need to be increased. Generally. the programme will read the bus data of IEEE 30 RTS and run the power flow solution.2. Gauss-Seidel and QuasiNewton methods. Because of its quadratic convergence. 3. real power and voltage magnitude are specified for the voltage-controlled buses. the Newton-Raphson method is found to be more efficient and practical. connector to various nodes of the system inject and remove power from the transmission system. Since the power flow problem. The programme also will call necessary routines to display the desired results. it is a fact that in base case.2. The most common technique used for the iterative solution of non-linear algebraic equation are Newton-Raphson. However in power system. The number of iterations required to obtain a solution is independent of the system size. Generators and loads. Newton-Rahpson method is a successive approximation procedure based on an initial estimate of the unknown and the use of Taylor’s series ex pension. For large power systems.

The used of fuzzy logic system in this project is it will implement the method of undervoltage load shedding by determining the suitable location of load shedding and how much the value of the load that need to be shed. the programme will determine the weakest bus in the system to perform the load shedding. then the programme will increase again the load until the system become unstable. several cases is developed to perform analysis of the system. If the system becomes unstable. it can be determine whether the system become unstable or not. As been discussed.programme will display minimum voltage in the system. 24 . and the minimum voltage at each bus. For this project. From the results. the new value of the load. UVLS scheme is perform by selecting the appropriate location for load shedding before it can shed the load. If yes. then the UVLS scheme can be perform. In IEEE 30 bus RTS. it means that the programme is success but if no the programme need to shed again the load in the system so that the system comeback to the stable state. then the Newton-Raphson will run again the power flow solution to determine whether the system become stable or not. The step to perform the UVLS scheme can be found in Figure 4. If the system still stable. When the load at the weakest bus has been shed. The fuzzy logic will use IF… THEN rules to control the input and output variable.

Figure 0-4: UVLS flowchart 25 .

Output: PSBLS (Percentage Selected Bus Load Shedding) Triangle membership function as shown in Figure 5. By using fuzzy logic. The same system is develop in fuzzy logic to determine the amount of the load that need to be shed where the fuzzy will decide how much of the amount in the particular bus that need to be shed to restore back the system into stable condition. 3. 4 and 5. The input variable and the output has been develop and the rules has been created.3. it provide a good solution that is not easily solve by other methods and are readily applicable to power system problems [24].1 Bus Selection for load shedding The fuzzy FIS Editor for selected bus load shedding is illustrated in Figure 3. in some cases the probability and uncertainties of the incidence represented.3 FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEM When there is disturbance or an unexpected event occurs in a large network of power system. The output is the percentage of selected bus to be shed also divides into 4 categories as shown in Figure 5. Inputs: Lf (Loading factor) Trapezoidal membership function as shown in Figure 3 VM (Voltage Magnitude) Triangle membership function as shown in Figure 4. The function of fuzzy logic in this project as been mention before is to determines the suitability of each bus for load shedding where the bus with the lowest value of the voltage is chosen as the most appropriate bus for load shedding.3. it is made clear that some of the uncertain functions are intrinsically fuzzy in nature and difficult to handle to handle effectively by probability. However. 26 . The input variable of the FIS Editor are voltage magnitude (Vm) which divides into four categories as shown in Figure 4 and loading factor in Figure 3.

an IF-THEN basic rule-based system is used.1 AND Voltage magnitude is high THEN percent selected bus is low 27 . fuzzy rule system is determined to form decision on the fuzzy input derived from the voltage magnitude and loading factor.1 AND Voltage magnitude is low THEN percent selected bus is high Rule 2: IF loading factor is 1. IF statement is refer as antecendent while THEN statement is as consequent.Figure 0-5: loading factor Figure 0-6: Voltage Magnitude (Vm) Figure 0-7: Percentage selected bus In fuzzy logic system. 4 rules were developed which are: Rule 1: IF loading factor is 1.1 AND Voltage magnitude is high-medium THEN percent selected bus is medium Rules 4: IF loading factor is 1.1 AND Voltage magnitude is medium THEN percent selected bus is high-medium Rule 3: IF loading factor is 1. For this fuzzy to find the selected bus for load shedding. In this section.

3. The input variable of the FIS Editor are voltage magnitude (Vm). 7. the rows of plots represent the rules while the columns represent the variables.2 Algorithm for Amount of Load to be Shed The fuzzy FIS Editor for selected bus load shedding is illustrated in Figure 6. while the fourth column of plots (blue) shows the membership functions of the output.As illustrated in Figure 10. 8 and 9. Output: PAL (Percentage amount of load to be shed) Triangle membership function as shown in Figure 9. active power (Pd) and reactive power (Qd) while the output is the percentage amount of load to be shed. 28 . The first two columns of plots (yellow) show the membership functions of the input variables. Inputs: Pd (Active Power) Triangle membership function as shown in Figure 6 Qd (Reactive Power) Triangle membership function as shown in Figure 7 VM (Voltage Magnitude) Trapezoidal membership functions as shown in Figure 8.3.

Figure 0-8: Active Power (Pd) Figure 0-9: Reactive Power (Qd) Figure 0-10: Voltage Magnitude (Vm) Figure 0-11: Percentage Amount Load to be shed The fuzzy analysis of this method was developed using the same technique as described in the previous method. For this case the following will be used: 29 . The fuzzy rules to find the amount load to be shed are as in Table 1. It is necessary to establish a meaningful system for representing the linguistic variables in the matrix.

Table 1: Fuzzy decision matrix Voltage Magnitude AND L Pd. Qd LM M HM H L M HM HM H H LM M M HM HM H M LM M M HM HM HM LM LM M M HM H L LM LM M M ―L‖: ―low‖ ―LM‖: ―low-medium‖ ―M‖: ―medium‖ ―HM‖: ―high-medium‖ ―H‖: ―high‖ 25 fuzzy rules are derived and here are some examples of the fuzzy rules listed in Table 1: Rule 1: IF Pd is low AND Qd is low AND Voltage magnitude is low THEN percent load to be shed is medium Rule 2: IF Pd is low-medium AND Qd is low-medium AND Voltage magnitude is low THEN percent load to be shed is high-medium When fuzzy rule has multiple antecedents or input variable. 30 . Fuzzy rules involve the operations between input fuzzy sets. the fuzzy operator AND for minimization operator is used to obtain a single number that represents the result of the antecedent evaluation. as illustrated graphically in Figure 10. It is based on fuzzy inference described previously.

31 . the rows of plots represent the rules while the columns represent the variables. while the fourth column of plots (blue) shows the membership functions of the output.Figure 0-12: Fuzzy rules analysis As illustrated in Figure 10. The first three columns of plots (yellow) show the membership functions of the input variables.

This study is conduct to show how reliable of computational intelligence system to perform the load shedding in a system. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bus No. loading factor = 1.CHAPTER 4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.0230 0.4 is selected as the test case conditions.9859 0.1.4 Minimum Percentage Voltage (Vm) 1.9800 0.4 Determination of selected bus for load shedding using the proposed fuzzy system is shown in Figure 11.9806 0.1 INTRODUCTION Based on the developed methodology.Several cases has been selected to represent the output of the program. Loading factor = 1. The cases includes of loading factor from base case until loading factor = 2. 16 17 18 19 20 21 32 .4 39. This fuzzy system performed by referring the data from the load flow results as shown in Table 2.3 41.1 33. all the results and discussion of the Under-voltage Load Shedding scheme are presented in this chapter.9899 selected bus (%) 33.9983 0.0098 1.4 34.9864 0.3 39.8 Bus No. The results include output of fuzzy logic system to determine the bus Selection for load shedding and the amount that need to be shed to stabilize the system.9850 selected bus (%) 27.1.2 32.9848 0. 4. Table 2: Fuzzy output for selected bus of load shedding at loading factor 1.2 39.0600 1.1 37.2 39.6 Minimum Percentage Voltage (Vm) 1.0010 0.7 41.

8 32. it is shown that the minimum voltage of the system has dropped below the stable condition which at 0.0291 1.4 loading factor As illustrated in Table 2.9706 0.2 37.5 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 0.2 33.8 40.9818 0.0256 1.9348 p.9996 44.9900 1. Fuzzy logic system operates by using the data from newton-raphson load flow results to determine the suitable bus for load shedding.9710 0.9444 0. Figure 12 shows the fuzzy based load shedding system to determine the amount load to be shed at bus 30. 33 .9820 0.9348 37.9520 0.0820 1.u.7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0.2 33.0082 1.5 54. it shows that bus 30 is the weakest in the system.0610 1.3 51..9907 0.9730 0.9 27 33.5 40. Therefore bus 30 is selected as the appropriate bus to perform the load shedding.5 40.9829 0.6 44. Figure 11: FIS for Selected Bus for Load Shedding at Bus (30) with 1.4 43.1 Based on the newton-raphson load flow results.7 31.0068 0.2 20.7 49.

As the result.7317MVAR.6608MW and 1.4 loading factor. Figure 13: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (30) with loading factor = 1.5 Determination of selected bus for load shedding using the proposed fuzzy system is shown in Figure 12. 4. loading factor = 1.7317MVAR.6608MW and 1. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 65.u.2. Loading factor = 1. At loading factor = 1.66MVAR respectively. the value of active power and reactive power are 14.1.9631 p. to 0.4 Based on the Figure 12. the amount of load to be shed is 9.1%. at bus 26. 34 . It is shown that the system is improved to a stable condition. the program need to perform 1 stage of load shedding to get back the system to a stable condition. the total amount load to be shed in loading factor = 1.84MW and 2.u.4. As the results.At bus 30 with 1. This fuzzy system is performed by referring to the data from the load flow results as shown in Table 3. The minimum voltage at the system increases from 0.9348 p.4 is 9.5 is selected as the test case conditions.

9930 0.8 28. 35 . Fuzzy logic system operated by using the data from newton-raphson load flow results to determine the selected bus for load shedding.9 54.7 45.9853 Percentage selected bus (%) 27.3 43.9721 0.9155 p.1 48.5 Bus No.9 41.8 56.9546 0. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Minimum Voltage (Vm) 0.5 39.9765 0.Table 3: Fuzzy output for selected bus of load shedding at loading factor 1.4 37.8 35.0173 0.9655 0.6 45.9 36.1 42 41.060 1.9719 0.9697 0.9916 0.8 38.2 48.9768 0. it is shown that the minimum voltage of the system has dropped below the stable condition which is 0.4 32.9961 1.5 Bus No.2 20.u.9880 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Minimum Voltage (Vm) 1.4 45.9674 0.9671 0.5 44.0230 0.9155 Percentage selected bus (%) 34.9649 0.9969 0.9 42.9344 0.0510 0.2 32.9761 0.1 Based on the newton-raphson load flow results.6 42.7 32.9569 0.9800 0.4 42.2 60.5 45.8 43.9260 0.9800 1.0820 1.0171 1.9782 0.

85MVAR respectively. Figure 14 shows the fuzzy based load shedding system to determine the amount load to be shed at bus 30.5 From the result above. Therefore bus 30 is selected as the appropriate bus to perform the load shedding. the value of active power and reactive power are 15.9MW and 2.5 36 . it shows that bus 30 is the weakest in the system. At bus 30 loading factor = 1.5.Figure 14: FIS for Selected Bus for Load Shedding at Bus (30) with loading factor = 1. Figure 15: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (30) with loading factor = 1.

to 0. the value of active power and reactive power are 5. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 59.5.9469 p.u. It is shown that the system is improved to a stable condition.0773MVAR.0349MVAR.5 Based on the Figure 14. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0.4%.5. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 71.108MW and 2.9155 p. the amount of load to be shed is 11.Based on the Figure 14.u.u.25MW and 3. the program need to perform 2 stages of load shedding to get back the system to a stable condition.3526MW and 2.45MVAR respectively.u. As the result.5 is 14. the total amount load to be shed in loading factor = 1. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0. At bus 26 with loading factor= 1. which occur at bus 26. As the results. the amount of load to be shed is 3. which occur at bus 19.2%. Figure 16: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (26) with loading factor = 1. As the results.4606MW and 4. to 0. At loading factor = 1. 37 .9700p. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 26 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition.9469 p. It shows that the system is still in unstable condition.0424MVAR.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Minimum Voltage (Vm) 1.97 0. Table 4: Fuzzy output for selected bus of load shedding at loading factor 1.899 p.9097 0.5 41.6 Bus No.3 52. 38 .7 44.4 33.2 49.9758 0.98 1.951 0. Fuzzy logic system operated by using the data from newton-raphson load flow results to determine the selected bus for load shedding.01 0. loading factor = 1.7 20.4 41.3.9715 Percentage selected bus (%) 27. Loading factor = 1.6 is selected as the test case conditions.9581 0.9704 0.899 Percentage selected bus (%) 39.7 47. it is shown that the minimum voltage of the system has dropped below the stable condition which is 0.9633 0.7 48.0052 1.1 52.3 30. This fuzzy system is performed by referring to the data from the load flow results as shown in Table 3.9552 0.6 44 Bus No.4 44.5 62.9662 0.964 0.7 33.9794 0.9845 0. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Minimum Voltage (Vm) 0.9527 0.2 33 39.7 Based on the newton-raphson load flow results.6 49.u.8 46.9704 0.9848 0.6 58.8 42.041 0.1 39.9408 0.06 1.4 46.4.4 48.9552 0.9561 0.6 45.6 Determination of selected bus for load shedding using the proposed fuzzy system is shown in Figure 15.013 0.9196 0.1.5 44.082 1.9421 0.8 66.4 48.985 1.

6 39 .04MVAR respectively. Figure 18: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (30) with loading factor = 1. At bus 30 loading factor = 1. Figure 16 shows the fuzzy based load shedding system to determine the amount load to be shed at bus 30.96MW and 3.6 From the result above.Figure 175: FIS for Selected Bus for Load Shedding at Bus (30) with loading factor = 1.6. Therefore bus 30 is selected as the appropriate bus to perform the load shedding. the value of active power and reactive power are 16. it shows that bus 30 is the weakest in the system.

which occur at bus 26.Based on the Figure 16.9381 to 0. the amount of load to be shed is 12.276MW and 4. At bus 26 with loading factor= 1.u.28MVAR. The minimum voltage increased in the system increase from 0. It is shown that the system is improved to a stable condition. At loading factor = 1.u.556MW and 2..u.5 Based on the Figure 17. the amount of load to be shed is 3. 40 .6168MVAR. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 75%.68MVAR respectively.6 is 16. which occur at bus 24.6. It shows that the system is still in unstable condition. As the result. the program need to perform 2 stages of load shedding to get back the system to a stable condition.899 p. the total amount load to be shed in loading factor = 1.6. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 63. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 26 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition. As the results. As the results.5%. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0.72MW and 2.9644p. to 0.9183 p. the value of active power and reactive power are 5. Figure 19: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (26) with loading factor = 1.6MW and 3.3368MVAR.

9 52.9235 0.2 53.9 20.9708 0.u.9721 1.9926 1.4.8 52.0011 0.3 43.6 Based on the newton-raphson load flow results.5 67.082 0.1 46.9623 0.013 0.1 52 50. Table 5: Fuzzy output for selected bus of load shedding at loading factor 1.1. This fuzzy system is performed by referring to the data from the load flow results as shown in Table 5.9426 0.962 0.9492 0.3 Bus No.9392 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Minimum Voltage (Vm) 1.8778 p.4 66.8897 0.9348 0.4.7 36.7 44. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Minimum Voltage (Vm) 0.7 46 48.9003 0.9617 0.97 1.7 31.9361 0.9648 0.1 57.2 33 42.5 46.956 0.9 54.9 48.9248 0.9484 0. Fuzzy logic system operated by using the data from newton-raphson load flow results to determine the selected bus for load shedding. loading factor = 1.4 50. Loading factor = 1.031 0.9391 0.9498 0.97 0.5 66.9563 Percentage selected bus (%) 27.7 is selected as the test case conditions.3 46.06 1.9778 0. it is shown that the minimum voltage of the system has dropped below the stable condition which is 0.8778 Percentage selected bus (%) 44.8 57.7 Determination of selected bus for load shedding using the proposed fuzzy system is shown in Figure 18. 41 .7 Bus No.8 50.5 33.1 44.

Figure 208: FIS for Selected Bus for Load Shedding at Bus (30) with loading factor = 1.7 42 . Therefore bus 30 is selected as the appropriate bus to perform the load shedding.23MVAR respectively. Figure 21: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (30) with loading factor = 1.02MW and 3.7 From the result above.7. At bus 30 loading factor = 1. the value of active power and reactive power are 18. it shows that bus 30 is the weakest in the system. Figure 16 shows the fuzzy based load shedding system to determine the amount load to be shed at bus 30.

it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 75%.u.4257MVAR. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 75.7. the value of active power and reactive power are 16.78MVAR respectively. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0. 43 . the amount of load to be shed is 4.9325MVAR.1%.4625MW and 2.91MVAR respectively.15MW and 5.7 Based on the Figure 20. As the results. which occur at bus 19. the value of active power and reactive power are 5. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 26 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition.9497p.Based on the Figure 19.8778 p. the amount of load to be shed is 13.95MW and 3. As the results.u. It shows that the system is still in unstable condition. which occur at bus 26.7. It is shown that the system is still not improved to the stable condition.533MW and 2. Figure 22: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (26) with loading factor = 1. At bus 26 with loading factor= 1.9183 to 0. At bus 19 with loading factor= 1.u. The minimum voltage increased in the system increase from 0. to 0..9183 p. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 19 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition.

which occur at bus 24. This fuzzy system is performed by referring to the data from the load flow results as shown in Table 6. Loading factor = 1.8 is selected as the test case conditions.8 Bus No. At loading factor = 1.7 Based on the Figure 21.3024MW and 3. the amount of load to be shed is 9.5.3293MVAR. As the results.2979MW and 8. 4. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 57.1. Table 6: Fuzzy output for selected bus of load shedding at loading factor 1.7. It is shown that the system is improved to a stable condition. As the result. 44 .8 Determination of selected bus for load shedding using the proposed fuzzy system is shown in Figure 22. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0.9597p.Figure 23: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (19) with loading factor = 1.6875MVAR. Minimum Voltage Percentage Bus Minimum Voltage Percentage selected bus selected bus No. the total amount load to be shed in loading factor = 1.7 is 27. loading factor = 1.6%.9497 to 0..u. the program need to perform 3 stages of load shedding to get back the system to a stable condition.

942 0.3 48 52.5 58.9277 0.9571 0.9573 0.9 32.9361 0.1 44.8 53.9103 0.7 40.9293 0.943 (%) 27.6 49.925 0.9503 0. 45 .8612 p.9731 0.2 Based on the newton-raphson load flow results.2 33 43.96 0.91 0.97 0.9 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 (Vm) 0.021 0.9513 0.1 62.9946 0.(Vm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1.5 49.5 35.2 49.2 67.9217 0.8855 0.7 53.9 46.6 48.013 0.7 67.082 0.5 51.9 57 58.4 55. it is shown that the minimum voltage of the system has dropped below the stable condition which is 0. Fuzzy logic system operated by using the data from newton-raphson load flow results to determine the selected bus for load shedding.9 20.9369 0.9518 0.9616 1.9815 1.8735 0.06 1.1 69.9589 0.9 56.1 62.9207 0.8612 (%) 47.1 47.u.

The minimum voltage increased in the system increase from 0.3MW and 4.42MVAR respectively.08MW and 3.9055 p. At bus 30 loading factor = 1. the value of active power and reactive power are 19.8. which occur at bus 26. to 0.14MVAR respectively.8.4%.u. Therefore bus 30 is selected as the appropriate bus to perform the load shedding.8612 p.Figure 22: FIS for Selected Bus for Load Shedding at Bus (30) with loading factor = 1. the amount of load to be shed is 14. As the results. Figure 23 shows the fuzzy based load shedding system to determine the amount load to be shed at bus 30. It shows that the system is still in unstable condition.8 From the Table 3. the value of active power and reactive power are 6.8 Based on the Figure 23.6471MVAR. it shows that bus 30 is the weakest in the system.7679MW and 2.u. Figure 23: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (30) with loading factor = 1. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 77. At bus 26 with loading factor= 1. 46 . Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 26 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition.

725MW and 3.Figure 24: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (26) with loading factor = 1. the value of active power and reactive power are 17. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 19 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition. As the results.9055 to 0.1MW and 6. 47 . It is shown that the system is still not improved to the stable condition.9353p. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 75%. the amount of load to be shed is 4.105MVAR.u. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0. At bus 19 with loading factor= 1. which occur at bus 19.12MVAR respectively..8 Based on the Figure 24.8.

the amount of load to be shed is 10..9353 to 0. 48 .8 Based on the Figure 25. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 64%. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 24 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0.06MVAR respectively.944MW and 3.66MW and 12.u.Figure 25: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (19) with loading factor = 1. At bus 24 with loading factor= 1. the value of active power and reactive power are 15.9168MVAR. As the results. It is shown that the system is still not improved to a stable condition.8. which occur at bus 24.9485p.

441MVAR.8 Based on the Figure 26.9485 to 0.0991MW and 17. As the results.1. It is shown that the system is still not improved to a stable condition. 49 . At loading factor = 1.9659p.8 is 40. which occur at bus 7.u. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 61. As the result. the amount of load to be shed is 9.7%. Loading factor = 1.6622MW and 7.Figure 26: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (24) with loading factor = 1.1099MVAR. the program need to perform 4 stages of load shedding to get back the system to a stable condition.8. 4. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0..8 is selected as the test case conditions.6.9 Determination of selected bus for load shedding using the proposed fuzzy system is shown in Figure 27. the total amount load to be shed in loading factor = 1. loading factor = 1. This fuzzy system is performed by referring to the data from the load flow results as shown in Table 7.

8374 p.9 Bus No.8 68.6 66.9067 0.Table 7: Fuzzy output for selected bus of load shedding at loading factor 1.082 0.9212 0.9346 0.9305 Percentage selected bus (%) 27.96 0.9105 0.9371 0. it is shown that the minimum voltage of the system has dropped below the stable condition which is 0.5 52.7 53.9145 0.2 58 63.3 39.3 46.06 1.3 50.9466 0.4 Based on the newton-raphson load flow results.9099 0.6 55.8374 Percentage selected bus (%) 50.4 Bus No.1 60.9726 1.5 62 64.9464 0. 50 .9474 0.021 0.8639 0.9404 0.9638 0.6 62.9 54.9396 0.003 0.3 20.852 0.922 0.8 66. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Minimum Voltage (Vm) 0.893 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Minimum Voltage (Vm) 1.6 50.9487 1.3 52. Fuzzy logic system operated by using the data from newton-raphson load flow results to determine the selected bus for load shedding.7 43.2 47.2 33.3 51 47.5 58.9055 0.7 32.8 70.9851 0.u.8915 0.9 73.96 0.

At bus 30 loading factor = 1.8 From the Table 7.Figure 27: FIS for Selected Bus for Load Shedding at Bus (30) with loading factor = 1. the value of active power and reactive power are 20.9.61MVAR respectively. Figure 28: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (30) with loading factor = 1.14MW and 3. Figure 28 shows the fuzzy based load shedding system to determine the amount load to be shed at bus 30. it shows that bus 30 is the weakest in the system.9 51 . Therefore bus 30 is selected as the appropriate bus to perform the load shedding.

46MVAR respectively. It is shown that the system is still not improved to the stable condition. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 80.8374 p. the amount of load to be shed is 4.05MW and 6.9. the value of active power and reactive power are 6. As the results. the value of active power and reactive power are 18. the amount of load to be shed is 16.4%.9 Based on the Figure 29. The minimum voltage increased in the system increase from 0.9024MVAR.8877 to 0. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 19 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition..8877 p. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 75%.65MW and 4. Figure 27: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (26) with loading factor = 1.1926MW and 2.9875MW and 3. It shows that the system is still in unstable condition.9. which occur at bus 26. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 26 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition. 52 .u.Based on the Figure 28. At bus 26 with loading factor = 1.2775MVAR.u. which occur at bus 19.9286p. to 0.37MVAR respectively. At bus 19 with loading factor= 1.u. As the results.

At bus 24 with loading factor= 1.9 Based on the Figure 30.73MVAR respectively.9186 to 0. the value of active power and reactive power are 16.9.Figure 30: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (19) with loading factor = 1. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 24 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition.9365p. As the results.5375MW and 4. 53 . It is shown that the system is still not improved to a stable condition.53MW and 12.u.845MVAR.. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 75%. the amount of load to be shed is 13. which occur at bus 24.

5613MW and 19.8437MW and 8.9 is 45.3509MVAR.7. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0.9 Based on the Figure 31.9641p.9. 54 .3758MVAR. As the result.6%.u. the total amount load to be shed in loading factor = 1.0 is selected as the test case conditions. As the results. This fuzzy system is performed by referring to the data from the load flow results as shown in Table 8.. Loading factor = 2. the program need to perform 4 stages of load shedding to get back the system to a stable condition. It is shown that the system is improved to a stable condition. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 65.1. loading factor = 2 Determination of selected bus for load shedding using the proposed fuzzy system is shown in Figure 32.Figure 31: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (24) with loading factor = 1. At loading factor = 1.9365 to 0. 4. the amount of load to be shed is 10.

3 51.3 47.9043 0.8 61.912 0.96 0.7 64.082 0.1 Based on the newton-raphson load flow results.7 53.8947 0.9283 0.8213 Percentage selected bus (%) 52.8994 0.7 45.8961 0.9405 1.881 0. Fuzzy logic system operated by using the data from newton-raphson load flow results to determine the selected bus for load shedding.9325 0.3 41.8 70.6 61.06 1.5 66.9002 0.003 0.7 55 47.8498 0.8 58 Bus No.8 56 66.4 73. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Minimum Voltage (Vm) 1.9424 0.5 66.4 32.9799 0.021 0.Table 8: Fuzzy output for selected bus of load shedding at loading factor 1.6 66.2 33.u.9218 Percentage selected bus (%) 27.3 67.4 52.8796 0.7 67.96 0. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Minimum Voltage (Vm) 0.96 0.9359 0.5 54.3 52 47.967 1. it is shown that the minimum voltage of the system has dropped below the stable condition which is 0.9397 0. 55 .9 Bus No.9317 0.6 20.8213 p.9436 0.9 78.8372 0.9112 0.

Figure 33 shows the fuzzy based load shedding system to determine the amount load to be shed at bus 30. Figure 33: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (30) with loading factor = 2.8MVAR respectively. the value of active power and reactive power are 21.0 From the Table 7.Figure 32: FIS for Selected Bus for Load Shedding at Bus (30) with loading factor = 2.0. At bus 30 loading factor = 2.2MW and 3. Therefore bus 30 is selected as the appropriate bus to perform the load shedding.0 56 . it shows that bus 30 is the weakest in the system.

327MW and 3.7444MW and 3.6MVAR respectively.8213 p.0.8699 to 0. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 76. The minimum voltage increased in the system increase from 0. the value of active power and reactive power are 19MW and 6. At bus 26 with loading factor = 2. which occur at bus 26.0. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 26 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition. 57 .Based on the Figure 33.8MVAR respectively. As the results. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 19 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition. Figure 34: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (26) with loading factor = 2. It shows that the system is still in unstable condition. At bus 19 with loading factor= 2. the value of active power and reactive power are 7MW and 4. It is shown that the system is still not improved to the stable condition. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0.u.0 Based on the Figure 29. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 83.u.1806MVAR.1%.9092p. which occur at bus 19. As the results.5006MVAR. the amount of load to be shed is 17. the amount of load to be shed is 5..u. to 0.7%.8699 p.

the value of active power and reactive power are 17. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 75%.0. Therefore the program decides to shed load at bus 24 as the next stages to make the system in stable condition.845MVAR.0 Based on the Figure 35.4MVAR respectively.Figure 35: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (19) with loading factor = 2. which occur at bus 24. the amount of load to be shed is 13. At bus 24 with loading factor = 2. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0.9092 to 0.4MW and 13. 58 . As the results.5375MW and 4..u. It is shown that the system is still not improved to a stable condition.93247p.

59 . It is shown that the system is improved to a stable condition. the amount of load to be shed is 12.5274MVAR.9 is 49.0 Based on the Figure 36. At loading factor = 2. the program need to perform 4 stages of load shedding to get back the system to a stable condition.6928MW and 21.0. As the results.3086MVAR. As the result. the total amount load to be shed in loading factor = 1.. it is shown that fuzzy based load shedding system decided to shed the amount of load up to 71.1%.Figure 36: FIS for percentage amount to be shed at Bus (24) with loading factor = 2. The minimum voltage in the system increase from 0.9524 p.u.3714MW and 9.9247 to 0.

0 CONCLUSIONS In this paper. Moreover. Ann Colony and Bee Colony to improve a performance of the technique to solve unit commitment problem. particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique was use to solve the unit commitment problem with several constraint as stated before.CHAPTER 5. In addition. The wind generator was successfully shown the effectiveness in minimizing the operating cost. the purpose of unit commitment to meet a demand with minimum cost has been achieved. The result shows that the proposed method was capable of obtaining optimum operating cost for UC problem for 24 hour period interval of load demand. For recommendation. Thus. PSO can be combined with another algorithm such as Evolutional Programming (EP). 60 . the others green energy such as solar and nuclear can be implement to study their effect toward the UC problem. the wind turbine generator was attached to improve an operating cost..

CHAPTER 6.0

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORKS

There are several addition and development that can be done on DED problems in order to have high quality and accurate solutions. The improvement that can be done is such as taking into account other generator constraints such as spinning reserve requirement and emission constraint. All the constraints will give more accurate result to the solution of DED problems. In addition, accurate modeling of DED problem will be improved when the valve point loadings effects in the generating units are taken into account. Valve point effect are are usually modelled in two form which is i) consider the prohibited zones as the inequality constraint and ii) implement the effect as the non-smooth cost function for the fuel cost function[10]

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REFERENCE
[1] Atputharajah, Arulampalam, and Tapan K. Saha. "Power system blackoutsLiterature review." Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS), 2009 International Conference on. IEEE, 2009. [2] Taylor, Carson W. "Concepts of undervoltage load shedding for voltage stability." Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on 7.2 (1992): 480-488. [3] Calderaro, V., Galdi, V., Lattarulo, V., & Siano, P. (2010). A new algorithm for steady state load-shedding strategy. Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM), 2010 12th International Conference on, 48-53. [4] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, vol. IV. New York: McGraw Hill, 1994, pp. 959- 1024 [5] Kessel, P., and H. Glavitsch. "Estimating the voltage stability of a power system." Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on 1.3 (1986): 346-354. [6] Saffarian, Alireza, and Majid Sanaye-Pasand. "Enhancement of power system stability using adaptive combinational load shedding methods." Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on 26.3 (2011): 1010-1020. [7] Wang, Y., Pordanjani, I. R., Li, W., Xu, W., & Vaahedi, E. (2011). Strategy to minimise the load shedding amount for voltage collapse prevention. Generation, Transmission & Distribution, IET, 5(3), 307-313. [8] Kadam, D. P., et al. "Fuzzy Logic Algorithm for Unit Commitment Problem."Control, Automation, Communication and Energy Conservation, 2009. INCACEC 2009. 2009 International Conference on. IEEE, 2009. [9] Abdelaziz, A. Y., et al. "Fuzzy based load shedding approach against voltage instability." International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology 4.3 (2013): 15-44. [10] Terzija, Vladimir V. "Adaptive underfrequency load shedding based on the magnitude of the disturbance estimation." Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on 21.3 (2006): 1260-1266. [11] C. W. Taylor, Power System Voltage Stability, McGraw-Hill, 1994. [12] A. Wiszniewski, ―New criteria of voltage stability margin for the purpose of load
shedding,‖ IEEE trans.Power del., vol. 22, no. 3, July 2007, pp. 1367-1371. [13] A. Guzmán, D. Tziouvaras, E. O. Schweitzer and Ken E. Martin, ―Local and widearea network protectionsystems improve power system reliability,‖ Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories technical papers, 2004. [14] R. Balanathan, N. Pahalawaththa, and U. Annakkage, ―A strategy for undervoltage load shedding in power systems,‖ International Conference on Power System Technology, vol. 2, pp. 1494–1498, Aug. 1998. [15] C. Moors, D. Lefebvre, and T. V. Custem, ―Design of load shedding schemes against voltage instability,‖ ser. 23-27, vol. 2, Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2000. IEEE, Jan 2000, pp. 1495–1500. [16] Verayiah, R., Ramasamy, A., Abidin, H. Z., & Musirin, I. (2009, December). Under Voltage Load Shedding (UVLS) study for 746 test bus system. In Energy and Environment, 2009. ICEE 2009. 3rd International Conference on (pp. 98-103). IEEE. [17] M. Begovic, D. Fulton, M. R. Gonzalez, J. Goossens, E. A. Guro, R. W. Haas, C. F. Henville, G. Manchur, G. L. Michel, R. C. Pastore, J. Postforoosh, G. L. Schmitt, J. B.

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Williams, K. Zimmerman, and A. A. Burzese, "Summary of "System Protection and Voltage Stability"," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 10, pp. 631-638, 1995. [18] Mozina, Charles. "Undervoltage load shedding." Power Systems Conference: Advanced Metering, Protection, Control, Communication, and Distributed Resources, 2007. PSC 2007. IEEE, 2007. [19] Zadeh LA (1965) Fuzzy sets. Info Control 8(3):338–353 [20] E. Cox. ― Fuzzy fundamentals‖ (IEEE Spectrum, October 1992, pp. 58-61). [21] Zadeh LA (1973) Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex systems and decision processes, IEEE Trans Syst Man Cyber SMC 3:28–44
[22] Grewal, G.S.; Konowalec, J.W.; Hakim, M. ―Optimization of a load shedding scheme‖ , Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE, vol 4, pp 25-30, July/August 1998 [23] Afiqah, R. N., Musirin, I., Johari, D., Othman, M. M., Rahman, T. K. A., & Othman, Z. (2009). Fuzzy logic application in DGA methods to classify fault type in power transformer. SELECTED TOPICS in POWER SYSTEMS and REMOTE SENSING , 83-88

[24] Momoh J. and Tomsovic K., 1995. Overview and literature survey of fuzzy set theory in power systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 16761690. [25] Naaz, Sameena, et al. "Effect of different defuzzification methods in a fuzzy based load balancing application." IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues 8.5: 261-267.

APPENDICES

MATLAB PROGRAMMING Main Program
Momoh J. and Tomsovic K., 1995. Overview and literature survey of fuzzy set theory in power systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 1676-1690.

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clear, close all clc pso.psoMethod = 'constriction'; pso.saveResults = 'true'; pso.maxIter = 10 pso.noParticles =30;

M. Begovic, D. Fulton, M. R. Gonzalez, J. Goossens, E. A. Guro, R. W. Haas, C. F. Henville, G. Manchur, G. L. Michel, R. C. Pastore, J. Postforoosh, G. L. Schmitt, J. B. Williams, K. Zimmerman, and A. A. Burzese, "Summary of "System Protection and Voltage Stability"," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 10, pp. 631-638, 1995.

Mozina, Charles. "Undervoltage load shedding." Power Systems Conference: Advanced Metering, Protection, Control, Communication, and Distributed Resources, 2007. PSC 2007. IEEE, 2007.
Grewal, G.S.; Konowalec, J.W.; Hakim, M. ―Optimization of a load shedding scheme‖ , Industry Applications Magazine, IEEE, vol 4, pp 25-30, July/August 1998 Afiqah, R. N., Musirin, I., Johari, D., Othman, M. M., Rahman, T. K. A., & Othman, Z. (2009). Fuzzy logic application in DGA methods to classify fault type in power transformer. SELECTED TOPICS in POWER SYSTEMS and REMOTE SENSING, 83-88.

pso.noVars = 6; pso.c1 = 2.05; pso.c2 = 2.05; pso.xMin = 0; pso.xMax = 1; pso.vMax = 1; pso.vMin = -1; pso.pMin = [100,50,80,50,50,50]; pso.pMax = [500,200,300,150,200,120]; pso.consFactor = getConstrictionFactor(pso.c1,pso.c2); saveStringInit = 'F:\Final Year Project\FYP azuwam\Matlab Programming\PSO editted azuwam.mat'; saveString = 'F:\Final Year Project\FYP azuwam\Matlab Programming\PSO editted azuwam.mat';

gBest = PSO(pso, seed, saveStringInit, saveString); FinalResult;

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xVal. if strcmp(pso.velocity(j) = rand. gBest.saveResults. for i = 2 : 1 : pso. seed.fitness = 0.xVal(j) = rand.xVal(j).saveResults.noParticles if (abs(gBest.pBest = particles(i).fitness) < diff) gBest. gBest. particles(i). gBest.fitness. saveString1.fitness .PSO Main Program function gBest =PSO(pso.fitness.fitness = fitnessFcn(outputPower(particles(i).xVal = particles(1).fitness.bestXVal(j) = particles(i). end gBest. diff = abs(gBest. gBest. 2 + pso.hist = zeros(pso.xVal = zeros(1. 65 . end % particles(i).'true') gBest.fitness = particles(1). particles(i). end if strcmp(pso. pso)). end end gBest.fitness. gBest.noParticles for j = 1 : 1 : pso.particles(i). diff = 1000.fitness .fitness = particles(i).xVal = particles(i). pso.particles(i).iter = 0.'true') gBest. saveString2) gBest.maxIter. particles(i).noVars).xVal.noVars particles(i).hist(1.:) = [0.xVal.fitness).xVal]. end for i = 1 : 1 : pso.noVars).

xVal(j).noVars particles(i).saveResults.psoMethod. vid = 0. if strcmp(pso. elseif vid < pso.velocity(j). t = cputime.fitness < pso.vMax.'true') save(saveString1).vMin.bestXVal(j). end iter = 1. if xid > pso.objective)) for i = 1 : 1 : pso.noParticles for j = vid pid xid pgd 1 = = = = : 1 : pso. vid = 0.consFactor * (vid + pso.xMax.xMin xid = pso. while ((iter ~= pso.vMax) vid = pso. end xid = xid + vid.c2 * rand * (pgd . end if (vid > pso.xMin.xVal(j) = xid.maxIter) && (gBest. end end 66 . particles(i). particles(i). end particles(i).if strcmp(pso.velocity(j) = vid. gBest.'constriction') vid = pso.xid)). elseif xid < pso.c1 * rand * (pid xid) + pso.xMax xid = pso. particles(i).vMin vid = pso.xVal(j).

xVal]. end Fitness Ramp Rate Program function [PD.:) = [iter. end gBest.150.50].xVal.200.xVal. end if (particles(i).optTime = cputime .50. end end end iter = iter + 1.saveResults.120]. Po = [440.50.90. pso)).110]. Prmin = [320.fitness.fitness = fitnessFcn(outputPower(particles(i).200.20].50.80.150.fitness > particles(i).100.bestXVal = particles(i).100.220. UR = [80.90. if (particles(i).pBest = particles(i).saveResults.100.65.265.90].hist(iter + 1. DR = [120.50.50. gBest.Fcost] = fitnessRamprate(Pi) pMin = [100.190.xVal = particles(i).fitness) gBest. particles(i).170.'true') save(saveString2).xVal.300. gBest. gBest. Prmax = [520.fitness.for i = 1:1:pso.240.fitness = particles(i).fitness > gBest.80.50].iter = iter if strcmp(pso.60.160].noParticles particles(i).pBest) particles(i).PL.t. if strcmp(pso. pMax = [500.200. for i = 1:1:6 67 .200.fitness.50.'true') gBest. gBest.90.

0005. return. return. -0.0017.0002.. PD = round(sum(P)).0009.. 0.0150].1297. 220.008.PL.. -0.. 0. end end B = [0. 200...5.0.0095.0006.0..0006. if PD < loaddemand fitness = 0. -0. end cost = [240.0001. -0. 220. -0. Po(i)= Pi(i). 0. -0.12. 68 . 200.0006. PL = Pi*(B/basemva)*Pi'+Bo*Pi'+Boo*basemva.6635].007.if Pi(i) < pMin(i) fitness = 0. -0. -0. end end for i = 1:1:6 if Pi(i) < Prmin(i) Pi(i)= Prmin.0002. 0. -0. Prmin(i)= Po(i)-DR(i). 190.0000.0006. 0.. loaddemand = 955. -0.0008. elseif Pi(i) > pMax(i) fitness = 0. 0.11. 0.0010. 0.0.0075]. return.2161.. 0. 0.0014. 0..0e-03)*[-0.0005. Po(i)= Pi(i)... Boo = 0.0. -0. 0..0001. 0.0.0002.. -0.009. 0.... -0.0002.0007.0129.0012.. elseif Pi(i) > Prmax(i) Pi(i)= Prmax. -0.0006. basemva = 100. -0.0591. 0..0010. -0. -0.. 0.0001...0012.7047. -0.0007.. -0..0001.0000.0001...0006.0.0031.0009. -0.7. Prmax(i)= Po(i)+UR(i).10.. -0.3908..0001.. Bo = (1. 0.10. -0.8.0024. P = sum(Pi) .0008.0056. 0.5.009..

mat'). disp(strcat('Optimization time:'.noVars powerOut(i) = (pso.PL.pso.1). psogBest = gBest.3).pMin(i).pMin(i)) * xVal(i) + pso. ccc = outputPower(psogBest.pso). pso) for i = 1:1:pso. Output Power Program function powerOut = outputPower(xVal.hist. psogBest = gBest.pMax(i) . if theta <= 4 error('Theta must be more than 4. for i = 1:1:6 F(i) = alpha(i) + beta(i)*Pi(i) + gamma(i) * (Pi(i)^2).2). gamma = cost(:. close all clc load('F:\Final Year Project\FYP azuwam\Matlab Programming\PSO editted azuwam.c2) theta = c1 + c2.alpha = cost(:. fitness = 1 / (Fcost + Ppbc).num2str(gBest. Ppbc = sum(Pi) . 69 . end Fcost = sum(F). end powerOut Final Result Program clear.xVal. beta = cost(:.') end consFactor = 2/abs(2-theta-sqrt(theta^2-4*theta)). Constriction Factor Program function consFactor = getConstrictionFactor(c1.loaddemand .optTime))).

Fcost] = fitnessRamprate(ccc).[PD. PL. PD PL Fcost 70 .