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AN026004-0413 Page 1 of 18

Abstract
This application note describes a controller for a 200 W, 24 V Brushless DC (BLDC)
motor used to power an e-bike (i.e., electric bicycle). The design uses Zilog’s
Z8FMC16100 MCU and associated circuitry to implement motoring control, regenerative
braking, and fault protection.
The source code file associated with this application note, AN0260-SC01.zip, is available
for download on zilog.com. This source code has been tested with version 5.0.0 of ZDS II
for Z8 Encore! XP MCUs. Subsequent releases of ZDS II may require you to modify the
code supplied with this application note.
Features
The main features of this high-torque motor control application include:
• Hall sensor commutation
• Motor speed measurement
• Potentiometer-adjustable motor speed
• Open-loop or closed-loop speed control for precise speed regulation
• Protection logic for over-voltage, over-current, and thermal protection.
Discussion
The Z8FMC16100 MCU features a flexible Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) module with
three complementary pairs or six independent PWM outputs supporting dead-band opera-
tion and fault protection trip input. These features provide multiphase control capability
for a variety of motor types and ensure safe operation of the motor by providing pulse-by-
pulse or latched fast shutdown of the PWM pins during fault condition.
The Z8FMC16100 MCU features up to eight single-ended channels of 10-bit analog-to-
digital conversion (ADC), with a sample and hold circuit. It also features one operational
amplifier for current sampling and one comparator for over-current limiting or shutdown.
A high-speed ADC enables voltage and current sensing, while dual-edge interrupts and a
16-bit timer provide a Hall-effect sensor interface.
A full-duplex 9-bit UART provides serial, asynchronous communication and supports an
option for the Local Interconnect Network (LIN) serial communications protocol. The
Note:
Application Note
AN026004-0413
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor
Control Using the Z8FMC16100
MCU
AN026004-0413 Page 2 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
LIN bus is a cost-efficient single Master, multiple Slave organization that supports speed
up to 20 kbps.
The Z8FMC16100 MCU has a rich set of peripherals and other features such as: additional
16-bit timer with capture/compare/PWM capability, SPI, and I
2
C Master/ Slave for serial
communication, and an internal precision oscillator.
The single-pin debugger and programming interface simplifies code development and
allows easy in-circuit programming.
A block diagram of the Z8FMC16100 MCU is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Z8FMC16100 MCU Block Diagram
Braking and Regenerative Charging
In this e-bike application, the Z8FMC16100 MCU’s PWM registers are configured to
operate in a complementary PWM mode when applied to an inverter bridge that consists
of six MOSFETs. This complementary PWM mode allows for greater control of the e-
bike’s braking and regenerative charging process. The BLDC motor will effectively run in
either a motoring mode or a generative mode.
Generative Mode is achieved when the the applied operating voltage is less than the
BEMF voltage produced by the rotating motor. Motoring Mode is achieved when the
applied voltage is equal to or greater than the BEMF voltage produced by the rotating
motor. Varying the applied operating voltage can be accomplished by changing the duty
cycle for each phase in the inverter bridge.
For quicker braking, the lower MOSFET devices of the inverter bridge are turned on while
the upper MOSFETs are turned off, thereby quickly producing a negative current (i.e., a
negative torque) to stop the motor. To gain a regenerative charge, the upper MOSFETs are
12-Bit PWM
Module for
Motor Control
16-Bit Timer
Capture/
Compare/PWM
Operational
Amplifier
Up to 16 KB
Flash
20 MHz
eZ8 CPU
8-Channel
10-Bit ADC
512 B SRAM
VBO/POR
and Reset
Control
I
2
C, SPI, and
UART with LIN
Watchdog
Timer
Single-Pin
Debugger
Internal
Precision
Oscillator
Comparator Interrupt Controller
17 General Purpose I/O Pins
AN026004-0413 Page 3 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
turned on to allow current flow back to the battery, while the lower MOSFETs are turned
off.
Hardware Architecture
In a Brushed DC motor, commutation is controlled by brush position. In a BLDC motor,
however, commutation is controlled by the supporting circuitry. The rotor's position must
therefore be fed back to the supporting circuitry to enable proper commutation.
Two different techniques can be used to determine rotor position:
Hall Sensor-Based Commutation. In the Hall sensor technique, three Hall sensors are
placed inside the motor, spaced 120 degrees apart. Each Hall sensor provides either a High
or Low output based on the polarity of magnetic pole close to it. Rotor position is deter-
mined by analyzing the outputs of all three Hall sensors. Based on the output from hall
sensors, the voltages to the motor's three phases are switched.
The advantage of Hall sensor-based commutation is that the control algorithm is simple
and easy to understand. Hall sensor-based commutation can also be used to run the motor
at very low speeds. The disadvantages are that its implementation requires both separate
Hall sensors inside the motor housing and additional hardware for sensor interface.
Sensorless Commutation. In the sensorless commutation technique, the back-EMF
induced in the idle phase is used to determine the moment of commutation. When the
induced idle-phase back-EMF equals one-half of the DC bus voltage, commutation is
complete.
The advantage of sensorless commutation is that it makes the hardware design simpler. No
sensors or associated interface circuitry are required. The disadvantages are that it requires
a relatively complex control algorithm and, when the magnitude of induced back-EMF is
low, it does not support low motor speeds.
When a BLDC motor application requires high torque, when the motor is running at low
speed, or when the motor is moving from a standstill, the Hall sensor commutation tech-
nique is an appropriate choice. A motor used in an electric bicycle application, for exam-
ple, requires high initial torque and is a perfect application for Hall sensor commutation.
Furthermore, two voltage application techniques can be applied, based on the configura-
tion of the supply-to-motor windings:
Sinusoidal. Sinusoidal voltage is continuously applied to the three phases. Sinusoidal
voltage provides a smooth motor rotation and fewer ripples.
Trapezoidal. DC voltage is applied to two phases at a time, and the third phase remains
idle. Trapezoidal voltage is less complex to implement. The idle phase is generating the
BEMF from the rotating magnet that passes the unenergized idle phase and provides the
BEMF zero-crossing data.
How Hall Sensor Commutation Works
To better understand how Hall sensor commutation works, let's look at how it's imple-
mented with a two-pole motor. Six different commutation states are required to turn the
rotor one revolution. The motor’s commutation states are shown in Figure 2.
AN026004-0413 Page 4 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Figure 2. Hall Sensor Commutation States for a 2-Pole Motor
AN026004-0413 Page 5 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Table 1 indicates the relationship between the Hall sensor output and phase switching opera-
tions shown in Figure 2.
Table 2 lists the rating of the motor used to develop this application.
Additionally, the application uses a 3-amp High Rupturing Capacity (HRC) fuse.
Table 1. Relationship Between Hall Sensor Output and Phase Switching
State Hall A Hall B Hall C Phase B Phase C Phase A
1 0 1 1 0 +V
DC
–V
DC
2 0 0 1 +V
DC
0 –V
DC
3 1 0 1 +V
DC
–V
DC
0
4 0 1 0 0 –V
DC
+V
DC
5 1 1 0 –V
DC
0 +V
DC
6 1 0 0 –V
DC
+V
DC
0
Table 2. Motor Rating for Electric Bike BLDC Motor Control Application
Type of Motor Linix BLDC
Power Rating 30 W
Speed 3200 RPM
Number of poles 6
Voltage 24 V
AN026004-0413 Page 6 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU in an Electric Bike BLDC Motor
Controller
Figure 3 offers a visual overview of the electric bike BLDC motor controller. For more
details about hardware connections, see Appendix A. Schematics on page 12.
Hardware Architecture
The design involves running the BLDC motor in a closed loop or an open loop, with speed
as set by a potentiometer. As shown in the architecture diagram, the design generates
PWM voltage via the Z8FMC16100 MCU’s PWM module to run the BLDC motor.
After the motor is running, the states of the three Hall sensors change based on the rotor
position. Voltage to each of the three motor phases is switched based on the state of the
sensors (commutation). Hall sensor interrupts capture timer ticks every sixty degrees to
Figure 3. Electric Bike BLDC Motor Controller Block Diagram
Z8FMC1ë100
FWM0h
21v üC
FWM
3-Fhase
Mü8FEI
ßridge
Aß6
FI
Frotectioo
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Fort-ß
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FWM0L
FWM1h
FWM1L
FWM2h
Fh - A
Fh - ß
Fh - C
FWM2L
heat Sink Teup
üC ßus volt
üC ßus Current
Speed Couuand
hall Sensor - A
hall Sensor - ß
hall Sensor - C
÷ vref
AN026004-0413 Page 7 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
measure the rotor speed of the motor. Other peripheral functions can be used to protect the
system in case of overload, undervoltage, and overtemperature.
The hardware is described in the following sections.
Three-Phase Bridge MOSFET
The three-phase bridge MOSFET consists of six MOSFETs connected in bridge fashion
used to drive the three phases of the BLDC motor. The DC bus is maintained at 24 V,
which is same as voltage rating of BLDC motor. A separate Hi-Lo gate driver is used for
each high- and low-side MOSFET phase pair, making the hardware design simpler and
robust. The high-side MOSFET is driven by charging the bootstrap capacitor.
The DC bus voltage is monitored by reducing it to suitable value using a potential divider.
The DC bus current is monitored by putting a shunt in the DC return path. An NTC-type
temperature sensor is mounted on MOSFET heat sink, providing analog voltage output
proportional to temperature.
PWM Module
The Z8FMC16100 MCU contains a six-channel, 12-bit PWM module configured in this
application to run in Complementary Mode. The switching frequency is set to 20 KHz.
The output on the PWM outputs is controlled according to the inputs from the Hall sen-
sors.
The inputs from the Hall sensors determine the sequence in which the three-phase bridge
MOSFET is switched. The Duty cycle of the PWM is directly proportional to the acceler-
ator potentiometer input. The change in the duty cycle controls the current through the
motor winding, thereby controlling motor torque.
Commutation Logic
The Hall sensors are connected to ports PB0, PB1 and PB2 on the Z8FMC16100 MCU.
An interrupt is generated when the input state on any pin changes. An interrupt service
routine checks the state of all three pins and accordingly switches the voltage for the three
phases of the motor.
Trapezoidal commutation is used for this application to make implementation simple. In
this process of commutation, any two phases are connected across the DC bus by switch-
ing the top MOSFET of one phase and bottom MOSFET of another phase ON. The third
phase is left un-energized (both top and bottom MOSFET of that phase are switched
OFF).
Speed Measurement
The Hall sensor outputs are connected to to ports PB0, PB1 and PB2. One out of three Hall
sensors is used to capture the Timer0 ticks, which represent the actual Hall period for
closed loop calculations.
AN026004-0413 Page 8 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Closed Loop Speed Control
Closed-loop speed control is implemented using a PI loop, which works by reducing the
error between the speed set by the potentiometer and actual motor speed. The output of
this PI loop changes the duty cycle of the PWM module, thereby changing the average
voltage to the motor, and ultimately changing the power input. The PI loop adjusts the
speed at the same rate as the Hall frequency from one of three Hall sensors. In this applica-
tion, Open Loop operation is selected in the software by default because any rider of the e-
bike will control the speed of the bike.
Protection Logic
The ADC module periodically checks DC bus voltage, DC bus current, and heat sink tem-
perature. If these values go beyond the set limits, the motor is shut down. These checks are
timed by Timer0 interrupt.
Over-Current Hardware Protection
The Z8FMC16100 MCU has a built-in comparator that is used to shut down the PWM for
over-current protection. When the current exceeds the set threshold, a PWM Comparator
Fault is generated to turn OFF the PWM Module.
Software Implementation
During implementation of the software, the following actions are performed:
Initialization. Hardware modules are initialized for the following functions:
• Switch from internal to external oscillator for system operation
• Enable alternate function on respective pins for ADC, Comparator, UART, PA6 as
GPIO configured to drive LED
• Configure Timer0 to run in Continuous Mode to capture the Hall period timing
• Configure the comparator to shut down the PWM module when an overcurrent results
• Enable the Op Amp to measure the DC bus current flowing to the motor
• Configure the ADC to read analog values such as DC bus voltage, current, temperature,
and acceleration potentiometer (only one channel at a time)
• Configure the PWM module for the individual mode of operation with a 20 kHz switch-
ing frequency, control output depending on the values in the PWMOUT Register, and
drive the PWMOUT as defaulted to a low off state at Power-On Reset and at any Reset
• Configure the Reset/Fault0 pin functions as a Fault0 function
• Write-protect Flash memory
• Enable Open Loop operation (shown in the main.h file)
• Hardware control of the application, with the UART disabled
AN026004-0413 Page 9 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Interrupt. The Port B interrupt controls commutation. The Hall sensor output is read on
pins PB0:2, the software performs its filtering operation, and the switching sequence of
the MOSFET is determined. The PWM timer interrupt is used to time periodically occur-
ring tasks and for the background loop to read analog values from different channels and
average these values, update the LED indicator status, and update the read parameters on
the UART.
For a visual representation of the application, see Appendix B. Flowcharts on page 17.
Testing/Demonstrating the Application
This section presents a list of the equipment used and procedures observed to test this e-
bike application.
Equipment Used
Testing for this application was conducted using the following equipment:
• Z8FMC16100 Series Motor Control Development Kit
• Tektronix digital oscilloscope
• Fluke multimeter
• 30 W BLDC motor
• 24 V 7 Ah battery
• Tektronix power supply
System Configuration
The system requirements on your PC are as follows:
• Windows 7 OS
• ZDS II version 5.0.0 installed
• Optically isolated USB smart cable for program download and debugging
Procedure
Observe the following steps to test the BLDC motor:
1. On the Zilog MC MDS Board, configure the following jumpers:
a. Shunt the 1–2 positions on J 4, J 5, and J 6
b. Shunt J 2 and J 3
2. Set the R7 potentiometer on MC MDS Board (99C0987; contained in the
Z8FMC16100 Series Motor Control Development Kit) to the middle position to start
the motor.
3. Connect the following wires from the motor to the 3-Phase Motor Control Application
Board (contained in the Z8FMC16100 Series Motor Control Development Kit but not
shown in the schematic).
AN026004-0413 Page 10 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
a. Connect the heavy-gauge blue wire to Motor Phase A (P1)
b. Connect the heavy-gauge green wire to Motor Phase B (P2)
c. Connect the heavy-gauge white wire to Motor Phase C (P3)
4. Connect the following wires from the motor to the MC MDS Board (contained in the
Z8FMC16100 Series Motor Control Development Kit but not shown in the sche-
matic).
a. Connect the Hall Sensor-C light gauge blue wire to PB2 at J 1 pin 6 with additional
added 680 pF ceramic capacitor to GND.
b. Connect the Hall Sensor-B light gauge green wire to PB1 at J 1 pin 4 with addi-
tional added 680 pF ceramic capacitor to GND.
c. Connect the Hall Sensor-A light gauge white wire to PB0 at J 1 pin 2 with addi-
tional added 680 pF ceramic capacitor to GND.
d. Connect the light gauge black wire (Sensor Power Ground) to GND at TP1.
e. Connect the light gauge red wire (Sensor Power V
CC
) to V
CC
(3.3V) at TP2.
5. Connect the oscilloscope across the motor terminals.
6. Connect the motor control board to the 24 V power supply.
7. Build the code on ZDS II v5.0.0 and download the code through USB smart cable.
8. Measure the performance of motor at different loads, for each speed setting of the
potentiometer.
9. Record the readings and carry out the process for each step in the test sequence.
Test Results
Laboratory performance test of BLDC motor is as follows:
1. Minimum motor speed: 800 RPM
2. Maximum motor speed: 3200 RPM
3. Power consumption: 6 W at 3200 RPM (no load)
4. Regenerative Current at 200 RPM: 350 mA
Future Implementation
The application discussed in this document covers the motoring and regenerative braking
features for a BLDC hub motor used in an electric bike. Further improvements can be
made to the design by adding the following features:
• Controlled charging of SLA batteries by plugging to the AC Mains adaptor
• Implementing ‘Torque-boost’ functionality (through a push-switch), which will give a
boost to motor performance
AN026004-0413 Page 11 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
• Utilizing LIN/UART communication to create a dashboard display of measured
parameters (speed, Battery voltage, Current, and Fault conditions)
References
The following supporting documents are available free for download from the Zilog web-
site.
• eZ8 CPU User Manual (UM0128)
• Z8FMC16100 Series Product Specification (PS0246)
• PID Motor Control with the Z8PE003 Application Note (AN0030)
• Z8 Encore!-Based SLA Battery Charger Application Note (AN0223)
• Sensorless Brushless DC Motor Control with Z8 Encore! MC Microcontrollers
(AN0226)
• Z8 Encore! XP-Based BLDC Fan Control Application Note (AN0228)
AN026004-0413 Page 12 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Appendix A. Schematics
Figures 4 through 8 show schematic representations of each of the application’s key blocks.
Figure 4. Electric Bike BLDC Motor Controller Application Schematic, #1 of 5
3 PHASE POWER STAGE
HEATSINK TEMP SENSOR
C B A
96C0960-001
B
3 PHASE MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATION BOARD
A
Title
v e R r e b m u N t n e m u c o D e z i S
V+
B _ E S A H P A _ E S A H P PHASE_B C _ E S A H P B _ E S A H P
GATE_AH
L B _ E T A G L A _ E T A G
GATE_BH
GATE_CH
GATE_CL
+BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUSS U B + C D V + +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS +BUS
GND
TH
CS+
CS-
TH
C2
0.1uF 50V
Q3
IRFZ48
Q6
IRFZ48
C3
0.1uF 50V
F1
5A FUSE
Q4
IRFZ48
+ C4
3300uF 50V
R5
10.00k
P3
R4
NTC 10k
R2 10.0k
P2
+ C5
3300uF 50V
P1
Q1
IRFZ48
Q2
IRFZ48
Q5
IRFZ48
P5
R6
150k
P4
C1
0.1uF 50V
R1
0.100 OHM
R3 10.0k
AN026004-0413 Page 13 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Figure 5. Electric Bike BLDC Motor Controller Application Schematic, #2 of 5
GATE DRIVE
BEMF DIVIDERS
12V SUPPLY
96C0960-001
B
3 PHASE MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATION BOARD
A
2 3 Wednesday June 08 2005
Title
v e R r e b m u N t n e m u c o D e z i S
t e e h S : e t a D of
GATE_AL
GATE_AH
PHASE_A AL
AH
PHASE_B BL
BH
GATE_BL
GATE_BH
PHASE_C
CH
GATE_CL
GATE_CH
PHASE_A PHASE_B PHASE_C
VA VA VB VB VB VB
CL
VCC_33V
VC
+12V
+12V
+12V
+12V
R10
150k
C6
10uF
R18 22.1
C19
10uF
C11
0.1uF
R12
150k
C13
10uF
R13 22.1
R20
86.6k
R7
10.00k
U2
IR2101
1
2
3
4 5
6
7
8
VCC
HIN
LIN
COM LO
VS
HO
VB
D3 BAV19
C12
0.1uF
L1
10uH
R15 22.1
R14 22.1
R9
10.00k
C14
10uF
C20
68pF
R11
10.00k
R16 22.1
U1
IR2101
1
2
3
4 5
6
7
8
VCC
HIN
LIN
COM LO
VS
HO
VB
C8
0.1uF
D4 BAV19
C17
10uF
D2 BAV19
C15
0.1uF
U3
IR2101
1
2
3
4 5
6
7
8
VCC
HIN
LIN
COM LO
VS
HO
VB
U4
TPS61041
1
2
3
4
5
SW
GND
FB
EN
VIN
R8
150k
D1 BAV19
C16
0.1uF
C18
10uF
C7
0.1uF
R17 22.1
C10
10uF
R19
10.0k
C9
10uF
AN026004-0413 Page 14 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Figure 6. Electric Bike BLDC Motor Controller Application Schematic, #3 of 5
E C A F R E T N I R E W O P D E S U N U
BH
BL
VCC_33V
AL
AH
VCC_33V
VCC_33V
VB
CS+
CL
TH
VA
V+
CH
CS-
VC
JP1
HEADER 30x2/SM
2
4
6
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JP2
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AN026004-0413 Page 15 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Figure 7. Electric Bike BLDC Motor Controller Application Schematic, #4 of 5
connector 2
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
RUN/ST OP
DIRECT ION
Connection between AG ND and GND
should be done as close as possible
to the pin 5, AGND.
Connection between AVCC and VCC_33V
should be done as close as possible
to the pin 4, AVCC.
SPEED
Z8FMC16 AND MDS CONNECTORS
LOCAL/ MDS
PC0_T0OUT
ANA4 ANA5
PA0_OPINN
ANA2_M
ANA0_M
PB3_ANA3_OPOUT
PA1_OP_CN
ANA1_M
PWM2L PWM2H
ANA6
PWM1H
PWM1L
PA2_CINP
GND
GND
PA4_RXD
PA6_CTS
VCC_33V
-RESET
PWM0L
ANA7
GND
VREF
PA5_TXD
GND
PWM0H
GND VCC_33V
VCC_33V
PA7_COUT
PA1_OP_CN
ANA0
ANA1
ANA2
VCC_33V
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
VCC_33V
VCC_33V
GND
PA3_TXDE
PA6_CTS
VREF
ANA2_M
ANA1
ANA0
ANA0_M
ANA1_M
ANA2
PA0_OPINN
P
A
2
_
C
I
N
P
P
A
4
_
R
X
D
P
W
M
2
L
P
A
5
_
T
X
D
PWM0H
P
W
M
2
H
A
N
A
5
XIN
GND
PA3_TXDE
-RESET
D
B
G
PC0_T0OUT
-
R
E
S
E
T
ANA6
P
W
M
1
L
GND GND
P
B
3
_
A
N
A
3
_
O
P
O
U
T
A
N
A
7
P
A
6
_
C
T
S
P
C
0
_
T
0
O
U
T
VCC_33V
PWM1H
AGND
AVCC
VCC_33V
GND
A
N
A
6
XOUT
PWM0L
P
A
7
_
C
O
U
T
A
N
A
4
DBG
PA5_TXD
PA4_RXD
PA6_CTS
-DIS_IRDA
-DIS_232
-RESET
VCC_33V
VCC_33V
VCC_33V
S1
SW SPDT
R9
49.9K
J6
HEADER 3
123
JP1
HEADER 30x2/SM
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47
49
51
53
55
57
59
C22
100pF
C4
22pF
R10
100
C17
0.01
C23
0.1uF
C20
0.01
R7 5K
1
3
2
R12 10K
R6
0
D1
RED
2 1
R14
10K
C5
22pF
R24 1K C18
0.01
C24
0.1uF
R13 10K
R15
10K
Y1
20MHz
1
2
3
1
2
3
J1
HEADER 5X2
24681
0
13579
S2
SW SPDT
C19
0.01
J4
HEADER 3
123
C25
0.1uF
D2
LED YEL
2 1
JP2
HEADER 30x2/SM
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55
57
59
U1
Z8FMC16110_32
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
2
8
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
2
5
2
6
2
7
2
9
3
0
3
1
3
2
1
0
PB2/ANA2/T0IN2
PB1/ANA1/T0IN1
PB0/ANA0/T0IN0
AVDD
AGND
VREF
PA0/OPINN
PA1/OPINP/CINN
P
A
2
/
C
I
N
P
P
B
7
/
A
N
A
7
R
E
S
E
T
/
F
A
U
L
T
0
D
B
G
P
C
0
/
T
0
O
U
T
P
W
M
2
L
P
W
M
2
H
P
W
M
1
L
PWM1H
PWM0L
PWM0H
GND
XOUT
XIN
VDD
PA3/TXDE/SCL
P
A
4
/
R
X
D
P
A
5
/
T
X
D
P
A
6
/
C
T
S
/
S
D
A
P
B
6
/
A
N
A
6
P
B
5
/
A
N
A
5
P
B
4
/
A
N
A
4
/
C
I
N
N
P
B
3
/
A
N
A
3
/
O
P
O
U
T
P
A
7
/
F
A
U
L
T
1
/
T
0
O
U
T
/
C
O
U
T
R1
100
C1
0.1uF
R23
10K
C6
12pF
R5 10K
J5
HEADER 3
123
R4
10K
C21
100pF
R2
7.5K
R8
100
C16
0.01
R3
12.4K
D3
LED GRN
2 1
C2
100pF
C3
1000pF
R11 10K
C26
10uF
AN026004-0413 Page 16 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Figure 8. Electric Bike BLDC Motor Controller Application Schematic, #5 of 5
CONSOLE
3.3 O K
DIS IRDA
DIS RS 232
DBG
INTERF ACE
USER
POWER AND COMMUN ICATIONS
change p inout
VCC_33V
CTS0
GND
VCC_33V
VCC_33V
RXD0
PA5_TXD
DBG
VCC_33V
-RESET
GND
IRDA_SD
PA4_RXD
TXD0
PA5_TXD
GND
VCC_5V
VCC_33V
VCC_33V
PA4_RXD
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
PA5_TXD
-RESET
PA4_RXD
PA6_CTS
DBG
VCC_33V
-DIS_IRDA
-DIS_232
R17
0
C8
0.1uF
R19
68
C10
0.1uF
U4E
74LVC04/SO
11 10
1
4
7
U4A
74LVC04/SO
1 2
1
4
7
C12
0.1uF
J2
1
2
U4D
74LVC04/SO
9 8
1
4
7
P3
Header 3x2
1 2
3 4
5 6
R18
10K
U4B
74LVC04/SO
3 4
1
4
7
U3
SPX2815AU-3.3
3
1
2
VI
G
N
D
VO
U4F
74LVC04/SO
13 12
1
4
7
C7
0.1uF
J3
1
2
C15
330nF
R16
680
R20
2R7
C11
0.1uF
U5
ZHX1810
2
4
3
1
5
6
0
TXD
SD
RXD
LEDA
VCC
GND T
P1
PWR JACK
2
3
1
+C13
100/10
C14
0.1uF
R21
10K
+ C9
100/10
P2
DB9 Female
5
9
4
8
3
7
2
6
1
U4C
74LVC04/SO
5 6
1
4
7
U2
SP3222EBCA
1
2
4
5
6
13
12
15
10
3
7
17
8
16
9
20
1
9
1
8
11
14
EN
C1+
C1-
C2+
C2-
T1IN
T2IN
R1OUT
R2OUT
V+
V-
T1OUT
T2OUT
R1IN
R2IN
SHDN
V
C
C
G
N
D
NC
NC
TP1
12345
D4
LED
2
1
R22
10K
TP2
12345
AN026004-0413 Page 17 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Appendix B. Flowcharts
Figure 9 presents a simple flow chart of the main, timer interrupt and Port B interrupt rou-
tines for the electric bike BLDC motor controller application.
Figure 9. Electric Bike BLDC Motor Controller Application Flowchart
Main()
Hall interrupt?
Capture 3 Hall
sensor binary
states
Switch into next
commutation state
Hall states = 3?
Timer0
rollover?
Hall period =
0xFFFF
Capture Timer0
period and reset
Timer0
Obtain ADC result
for set-speed used
for open/closed
loop
Initialize MCU
peripherals
Apply PI control
value to PWM
registers
Closed loop
selected?
Start
Yes No
Yes No
Yes
Yes
No
No
AN026004-0413 Page 18 of 18
Electric Bike BLDC Hub Motor Control Using the Z8FMC16100 MCU
Application Note
Customer Support
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edition exists, please visit the Zilog website at http://www.zilog.com.
DO NOT USE THIS PRODUCT IN LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS.
LIFE SUPPORT POLICY
ZILOG’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE
SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS PRIOR WRITTEN APPROVAL OF
THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF ZILOG CORPORATION.
As used herein
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critical component is any component in a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be
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