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• electronic integrated circuits in a single packaging chip that is capable of performing both arithmetic and logical operations as well as control operation • a monolithic electronic device controlled by a program • an integrated circuit that engineers imprint onto a small, silicon semiconductor chip

– As an integrated circuit, a microprocessor contains multiple, miniaturized transistors and other components, which function cooperatively as a single system.

• Rectangular • Jedec

40 pins plastic ceramic type packaging

64 pins JEDEC packaging

vacuum tubes transistors IC .DEFINITION • PROGRAM is sets of commands or instructions that tells the computer what to do or execute. • INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY is a technology wherein a large scale electronic circuit are stored in a single chip packaging.

flip-flops. decoder .000 transistors – registers.FOUR LEVELS OF INTEGRATION • SMALL SCALE INTEGRATION 10 to 100 transistors • MEDIUM SCALE INTEGRATION 100 to 1.000 to 10. counters.000 transistors – logic gates • LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION 1.

FOUR LEVELS OF INTEGRATION • VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION 10.000 to 1M+ transistors – Pentium 1 to 4 .

BENEFITS OF INTEGRATION • • • • • • • • less space requirements creates new time dimension less power consumption inexpensive less heat dissipation ease of troubleshooting ease of replacement greater productivity .

DEFINITION • SURFACE-MOUNT TECHNOLOGY solderless because the devices are already mounted in the PCB and moulded. • MODULARITY is replaced by module. .

MAJOR PARTS OF MICROPROCESSOR • ARITHMETIC/LOGIC UNIT performs arithmetic and logical operations. arithmetic – mathematical logical – pertains to the decision-making operation of the CPU • CONTROL UNIT supervise the flow of information between the various part of the microprocessor. .

– storage of data or instruction CPU = ALU + CU MPU .MAJOR PARTS OF MICROPROCESSOR – Three Tasks • Fetch data or instruction from the memory • Encode/Decode the instruction or data • Execute • MEMORY UNIT external component because it is located outside the microprocessor.

MEMORY UNIT • Primary/Main Memory – Volatile – power dependent • Static RAM • Dynamic RAM – Non-Volatile • ROM • Flash • Secondary/Auxilliary Memory – diskette .

eradicated .MEMORY UNIT – CD’s – Hard disks – Magnetic tapes – Microfilm – Punch paper tape – Punch card SAM (Sequentially Access Memory) .

TYPES OF RAM CONFIGURATION • CONVENTIONAL MEMORY/BASE MEMORY refers to the actual memory on-board (640KB) • EXTENDED MEMORY use in memory swapping which is virtual memory management that is located in hard disk .

SYSTEM BUS SYSTEM BUS is a collection of wires/conductors that serves as a pathway or passage way of information or signal to and from and in and out of the processor • ADDRESS BUS specify the address of the device the processor wishes to access • DATA BUS serve as the common bus where data can freely flow .

SYSTEM BUS • CONTROL BUS provides timing and coordination inside the chip – Major Sources Generation of Control Signals • memory device • I/O devices • Clock .

TYPES OF DIRECTIONAL FLOW OF A BUS • BIRECTIONAL FLOW is a communication of microprocessor – duplex two-way • UNIDIRECTIONAL FLOW is a communication of microprocessor – simplex one-way .

BENEFITS AND DISADVANTAGES OF SINGLE BUS • BENEFITS – cheaper – simplicity of design • DISADVANTAGES – slower in speed – bus conflict .

ADVANTAGES OF MULTI–BUS • • • • • fast prevents queuing prevents bus conflicts ease of troubleshooting easy to access .

. as the former understand a minimal number of instructions and can format those instructions uniformly using the same basic steps.CLASSIFICATIONS OF MICROPROCESSOR • REDUCED INSTRUCTION SETS COMPUTER RISC microprocessors can write programs more easily than CISC microprocessors.

as CISC microprocessors utilize a greater number of instructions. . INSTRUCTION SET is a list of all possible commands or instructions that a particular microprocessor can perform or execute.CLASSIFICATIONS OF MICROPROCESSOR • COMPLEX INSTRUCTION SETS COMPUTER CISC microprocessors can run programs faster than their RISC counterparts.

• CLOCK SPEED refers to the rate at which a microprocessor can create pulses of electrical current for carrying out operations. .DEFINITION • BANDWIDTH is the maximum number of bits that a microprocessor can process while carrying out a single instruction.

which functions like a separate. • MICROCONTROLLER is a more independent component. self-contained computer.MICROPROCESSOR VS MICROCONTROLLER • MICROPROCESSOR relies on various other computer chips to carry out tasks. .

ADVANTAGES OF MICROCONTROLLER • • • • • it is a microcomputer itself it has a microprocessor it has built-in memory it has built-in clock or timer it has built-in Analog-Digital Converter or Digital-Analog Converter .

a Japanese manufacturer of highperformance programmable calculator asked Intel to design a set of chips for its calculator production • i4004 – was the world’s first general-purpose microprocessor .HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1971 • Busicom.

Federico Faggin and Masatoshi Shima of Busicom – it consisted of only 2.HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR – designed by Ted Hoff. .300 transistors in a 4-bit wide architecture – it supports 45 instructions only – it runs under a clock speed of 740kHz * Intel Corporation was formerly named as Integrated Electronics Corporation which was founded by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore. Stan Mazor.

500 transistors – it was considered to be the world’s first 8-bit microprocessor – it can manage both alphanumeric data – it was first used in the construction of Micral (Mark-8) – Mark-8 was considered the world’s first personal computer .HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1972 • Intel debuted the i8008 – consisting of only 3.

000 transistors – it has 16-bit addressing.HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1974 • Intel introduced the i8080 – became the brain of the one of the first personal computer – – MITS Altair – it has 6. 8-bit data bus. and run at a clock speed of 2MHz – it contain 16-bit stack pointer to memory – it has 256 Input/Output ports .

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR – became the heart of the MITS Altair 8800 which was considered to be the world’s first microcomputer • Motorola debuted the world’s first 8-bit microprocessor. M6800 – uses low power consumption specifically 5V power supply • RCA 1802 was introduced – capable of running at a speed of 6.4MHz .

5MHz and contained 8.500 transistors – Z80A capable of a maximum clock speed of 4MHz – hosted the first standard microprocessor operating system .HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1975 • Federico Faggin and Masatoshi Shima developed Zilog Z80 – it was viewed as an advancement over 8080 – it was modeled after 8080 – it runs under a clock frequency of 2.

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1976 • MOS Technologies introduced the 6502 microprocessor – it has 8-bit data bus – it used 250 bytes of RAM – the first microprocessor to use the first multiplication instructions – it has 16-bit arithmetic and the first to use a fast interrupt technology .

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR – was the heart and brain of Steve Wosniak’s Apple II microcomputer – also used by Commodore’s Atari Game arcade Computer .

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1978 • Intel 8086 was constructed – contains 29.000 transistors – with 16-bit data bus – the processor contained a clock speed of 4MHz – the first microprocessor to use segmented memory addressing – the chip contained a 20-bit address bus providing it with 1MB of memory space .

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1979 • Intel introduced i8088 which was based on 8086 – it has 16-bit data bus – it ran under a clock frequency of 4MHz – it was the heart of IBM’s first personal computer the IBM PC XT – it was the first chip to support DOS and LOTUS 12-3 .

000 transistors – it contains 16-bit data bus and 24-bit address bus .HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR • Motorola introduced the 16-bit M68000 – it runs at 2MHz and included a 32-bit instruction set – the first microprocessor to be used as platform of some early UNIX systems – it was the heart of Apple for the Lisa and later the Macintosh – it contained 68.

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1982 • Intel debuted the 16-bit i80286 – the first X86 processor to support general protection and virtual memory – it was the heart of IBM PC AT – it contains 130.000 transistors – the chip can run at speeds of 8 to 12 MHz – it can support 16MB of physical memory – it contains a 16-bit data bus and a 24-bit address bus .

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1985 • Intel introduces i80386 – it runs at speed ranging from 16-25MHz i80386SX to 20-40 MHz i80386DX – it contains 32-bit design with 275.000 transistors – it was the first Intel processor to contain both a 32-bit data and address buses – contains 4GB address space and the first mainstream Intel chip to support linear addressing .

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR – the processor who supported MS-WINDOWS and IBM OS/2 – the processor to introduced MULTI-TASKING capability .

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1986 • Stanford MIPS produced the R2000 – was the first commercial RISC microprocessor – it contains 50.000 transistors .

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1987 • Sun Micro introduces microprocessor the first SPARC – it runs at 36MHz and was designed to run at a full 32-bit applications – Sun-4 was the first computer based on the SPARC .

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1989 • Intel 486 was introduced – contains 1.2 million transistors – includes a built-in floating point unit – it includes 8 to 16K internal RAM cache – operates under 16 to 100MHz – the processor to first contain a Level 1 cache .

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1993 • Intel Pentium I was unveiled – it contains 3.1M transistors – the chip was the first to incorporate a superscale architecture whose dual-pipeline design could execute two instructions as one – it contains 64-bit bus along with 16K of Level1 cache – it runs at a clock speed ranging from 50 to 120MHz .

166. or 200MHz – the chip contains a 36-bit address data bus .HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1995 • Intel introduced Pentium Pro – the processor is optimized for 32-bit applications running on 32-bit operating systems – it contains 5. 180.5M transistors – it operates on different clock frequencies of 150.

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1996 • Cyrix introduced its 6 x 86 family of processor – it operates on the clock speeds ranging from 100 to 150 MHz but it performs at the speeds of Intel’s chips – 120 to 200MHz – it contain a 64-bit external data bus along with a 32-bit address bus .

HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1997 • Intel introduced the Pentium processor with MMX technology – contains 57 new instructions for Multimedia expansion • Pentium II was released – originally named as Klamath – it runs at 233MHz – it comes with a 256 or 512 KB cache .

5 gigahertz .HISTORY OF MICROPROCESSOR 1999 • Intel debuted Pentium III – it runs at a speed of 1GHz 2000 • Intel introduced the Pentium IV – capable of operating at a speed of 2.