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# Lesson 3.

Protecting Against Wind Damage

Introduction Wind can tear the roofs from buildings, rip siding from exterior walls, and throw debris through windows. Falling trees can crush roofs and walls. Of course, hurricanes and tornadoes generate exceptionally destructive winds that can turn buildings into piles of rubble. But high winds can happen anywhere, and strike during many types of storms.
Self-Assessment Question:

How much warning do you have to protect against

wind damage Hurricane watches and warnings usually provide ! or " days# notice to protect your home or business and evacuate, if necessary. \$ornadoes, on the other hand, strike with little warning. %nsuring the safety of your family and employees becomes a top priority.

Figure 1. Map of the United States Showing Maximum Wind Velocities by Zone he map !ey shows the wind "elocity for Zone 1 at 1#\$ mph% Zone & shows the wind "elocity at 1'\$ mph% Zone # shows the wind "elocity at &\$\$ mph% and Zone ( shows the wind "elocity at &)\$ mph. *ther considerations shown include the special wind region and the hurricane susceptible region.

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or you may live in an area at risk for tornadoes. and brick chimneys. preferably in watertight containers.shows areas that are susceptible to hurricanes and high winds. Water driven by hurricane(force wind can enter through usually rain(tight openings. brickwork. . Self-Assessment Questions:  . or on power lines.dentify and repair loose or damaged building components such as siding. 4ake sure that items such as important documents and irreplaceable personal ob'ects such as photographs are stored in a safe location.Lesson 3. 00 *one .1  How high is the windspeed you might face 0000000 mph. and rain entering through a damaged roof can lay waste to the inside of a building. Protecting Against Wind Damage How Great Is our !is" of Wind Damage# &our home or place of business may be located near a coastal area that is sub'ect to hurricane(force winds. 00 *one .tates. \$he map on the preceding page titled )Wind *ones in the +nited . One( and two(story wood frame houses are especially vulnerable to wind damage. Buildings damaged by wind often suffer water damage as well. shingles and roofing. you can2   ...n which /one is your house or place of business located 00 *one . 5onsider putting extra cash and important papers in a safe deposit box at your bank. and severe rainstorms may accompany a tornado. soffit and fascia. 3 hurricane brings torrential rain. \$onstructural Protecti%e &easures \$o protect against wind damage without making any structural changes to a building.dentify and remove trees and branches that could fall on the building walls or roof.. 00 *one . as are manufactured homes. \$onstructural Protecti%e &easures (Continued) Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters 3-2 .

followed by walls and openings. Board up doors and windows. Figure ! on the left shows the position of roof sheathing in the structure of a gabled roof. Protecting Against Wind Damage Hurricane warnings are issued about !6 hours before the hurricane is predicted to hit your area. +oofs can be protected from wind damage by2    %nsuring that plywood roof sheathing is properly installed.f your area is under a hurricane warning2        4ove breakable items away from doors and windows. &ou can strengthen doors and windows by2    . %xamine the sheathing from the attic. . Structural Protecti%e &easures \$he roof. 7einforcing garage doors.nstalling hurricane straps. .ecure outbuildings. \$urn off propane tanks. roofs are most susceptible to damage.nstalling storm shutters over windows. Bring in outdoor furniture and other personal property kept outdoors. 7oof sheathing 9the boards or plywood nailed to the roof rafters or trusses: can fail during a hurricane if not properly installed. . and windows of your house or place of business are potentially vulnerable to wind damage. . . Bracing roof trusses.f many of the nails have missed the rafters. \$his lesson will explain how you can protect your home or business from winds. . When houses are exposed to hurricane forces.Lesson 3. doors.ecure or move boats. Protecting !oofs Roofing material S eat ing Truss* Gable end 8uring a hurricane. you may need 3-3 *Truss detail removed for clarity Figure & Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters .ecure manufactured home anchors.nstalling reinforcing bolt kits at the top and bottom of doors. down to the foundation. wind forces are carried from the roof down to the exterior walls. . Homes can be damaged when wind forces are not properly transferred to the ground.

able bracing often consists of !!x 6!s placed in an )<. use a licensed contractor to install bracing. so you may need a contractor for this pro'ect. . -lacement of . \$hese straps are often difficult to install.pattern at both ends of the attic2 from the top center of the end gable to the bottom of the brace of the fourth truss. -lacement of .f your end gables do not appear to be braced. make sure the sheathing complies with current recommended practices. \$istance bet%een "t truss and gable Gable 2 2!# "!s .f you are replacing your roof. Figure " on the left shows gable bracing. &ttic floor Figure # Protecting !oofs (Continued) 'all to( (lates Rafter )urricane stra( 'all Stud Hurricane straps 9made out of galvani/ed metal: help keep the roof fastened to the walls in high winds. the side walls of the roof 9end gables: may take a real beating and collapse.urricane Straps on russes Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters 3-" .urricane Straps on +afters /ottom. . . 3sk your local building department whether a building permit is re=uired for this work.n a hurricane. 3sk your building department whether hurricane straps are re=uired or advisable in your area. and from the bottom center of the end gable to the peak of the roof. Truss )urricane stra( 'all stud 'all to( (lates Figure ( op. Protecting Against Wind Damage to renail the sheathing.Lesson 3.

f the garage door fails. 4ost bolts that come with double doors. .nactive door +olts at to( and bottom of inactive door need to be strong enoug to resist urricane %inds Figure ). walls. at least one of the doors should be secured at both the top of the door frame and the floor with sturdy sliding bolts. and windows are the protective shell of your home. tracks Center su((ort )inges Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters Figure '.Lesson 3. +einforcement of 0ouble 0oors Within a . &our local hardware store can help you select the proper bolts. however.ome door manufacturers provide reinforcing bolt kits made specifically for their doors. &ctive door . Protecting Against Wind Damage Protecting Doors \$he exterior walls. . and the roof. windows. high winds can enter the home and put pressure on the roof and walls. 8oublewide 9two(car: garage doors can pose a problem during hurricanes because they are so large that they wobble as the high winds blow and can pull out of their 2!#"! )ori-ontal +racingor collapse from wind pressure. Double-Entry Doors For each double door.f the shell is broken during a hurricane or tornado. +einforcement of 0ouble 1arage 0oors 3-* . doors.ome Protecting Doors: Garage Doors . causing serious damage. are not strong enough to withstand high winds. winds can enter your home and blow out doors.

Protecting Against Wind Damage Trac0 . >urchase or make storm shutters for all exposed windows.Lesson 3. Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters 3-. \$his hori/ontal bracing may be available in a kit from the garage door manufacturer. 3sk your building department for guidance on what to do. and skylights. or aluminum. \$here are many types of manufactured shutters made out of wood. Garage \$oor 5heck the track on your garage door. sliding glass doors.f so. French doors. 1arage 0oor +einforcement Protecting Windows . .ome garage doors can be strengthened with retrofit kits. 4ake sure that it is anchored to the !!x 6!s inside the wall with heavy wood bolts or properly attached to masonry with expansion bolts. grab a section of each track and see if it is loose or if it can be twisted. &ou can also make storm shutters with ?@A(inch thick exterior(grade plywood.nstalling storm shutters is one of the best ways to protect your home or place of business from hurricane damage. a stronger track should be installed. glass surfaces. &ou may also need heavier hinges and stronger center supports and end supports for your door. 4any garage doors can be reinforced at their weakest points. steel. . With both hands. Glider ' eel 'ood +olt Trac0 Figure 2. /nd su((ort 7etrofitting your garage doors involves installing hori/ontal bracing onto each panel.

DC .outh. )\$ornado 7isk 3reas in the 5ontinental +nited . wo Methods for 3nstalling -lywood Shutters )oles in center of (ly%ood for (ressure e4uali-ations 'ornado !is"s 3 tornado is a violent windstorm characteri/ed by a twisting. check with your local building official to find out if a building permit is re=uired.. or Small Business From Disasters High Highest ornado +is! 3-1 ITS Mapping and Analysis Center Washington. \$he below map. though they form most typically in a broad area of the 3merican 4idwest and . *23! (ly%ood )oles at 12! intervals 2!# "! +racing Figure 4. >lywood shutters can be installed on all types of buildings. if installed properly.Lesson 3. can offer a high level of protection from flying debris during a hurricane. \$ornadoes have been recorded in all ?B states.shows the relative risk of ornado +is! 5reas in the 6ontinental United States Cote2 Co data were provided for 3laska and Protecting Your Home Hawaii. funnel(shaped cloud.ncrements >lywood shutters that you make yourself. Protecting Against Wind Damage !D 12! .tates. 3t is important that you ha"e your shutters ready now% and that you mar! and store them so they can be easily installed during a hurricane watch. Before installing shutters.

&ou may want to consider a safe room to protect you and your family from the high winds. Protecting Against Wind Damage tornadoes.igh% and . Map of the United States Showing 5reas at 8ow% . . Source: United States Geological Survey Figure 7. individuals and families community(wide need advance warning and protection from the dangerous forces of extreme winds. -ortions of *9% 5+% 35% 3:% MS% 58% 15% -5% :. Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters 3-3 .Lesson 3.igh +is! States.ighest +is! States.ighest +is! of ornadoes .% 3:% 38% M*% 35% W3% M3% -5% F8 Self-Assessment Question: .s your house or place of business located in an area of2 □ Highest 7isk 'ornado !is"s: Safe !ooms □ High 7isk □ Eow 7isk When severe weather threatens. -ortions of :<% 9S% *9% =% 5+% MS% 58% :% 15% S6% :6% 9.

ceiling. 'ornado !is"s: Safe !ooms (Continued) +eferences . and door of the shelter must withstand wind pressure and resist penetration by windborne ob'ects and falling debris. 3n interior room on the first floor. . -ossible Safe +oom 8ocations \$he purpose of a safe room or a wind shelter is to provide a space to seek refuge that provides a high level of protection. but a safe room built in a first(floor interior room also can provide the necessary protection. a safe room must be built to withstand high winds and flying debris. 3top a concrete slab(on(grade foundation or garage floor.ections of either interior or exterior building walls that are used as walls of the safe room must be separated from the structure of the building so that damage to the building will not cause damage to the safe room. \$he connections between all parts of the safe room must be strong enough to resist the wind. Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters 3-5 . &ou can build a safe room in one of several places in your home or place of business2    \$he basement.Lesson 3. Protecting Against Wind Damage Figure 1\$. . \$o protect its occupants. even if the rest of the building is severely damaged or destroyed.pecific guidance is available from F%43 on the construction of both residential safe rooms and community shelters.afe rooms built below ground level provide the greatest protection. 5onsider the following when building a safe room2   \$he safe room must be ade=uately anchored to resist overturning and uplift. Below(ground safe rooms must be designed to avoid accumulating water during the heavy rains that often accompany severe windstorms. \$he walls.

E(!"".Lesson 3. F%43("!B. and other high #inds%  Web link2 http2@@www.nside &our House.torm2 Building a .helter From the . hurricane.torm2 Building a .afe 7oom . Manual #ith detailed in!or"ation a out ho# to uild a #ind\$sa!e roo" to #ithstand tornado.helter From the . and other high #inds% \$aking .nside &our House.gov@mit@saferoom@ Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters 3-16 . Protecting Against Wind Damage  \$aking . Brochure providing details a out o taining in!or"ation on ho# to uild a #ind\$sa!e roo" to #ithstand tornado. hurricane.fema.afe 7oom .

+se anchors in precast concrete buildings to prevent the uplift of hollow core planks and other precast elements during high winds.    Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters 3-11 . the business can suffer loss of inventory. parapets. Welds are often unable to carry uplift loads.n addition.tructural measures recommended to protect your place of business from wind damage are2      +se threaded fasteners to attach metal roof decking.. . and decorative finishes:. the business owner faces the cost to repair or replace the building9s:. .Lesson 3. use enhanced wind design for roof coverings on essential buildings. manufacturing. and loss of wages for employees. 8iaphragm action to resist wind(generated shear forces must be maintained and reinforcement must be properly placed in concrete and masonry walls to reduce the possibility of collapse during high wind storms.e. Protecting Against Wind Damage Protecting our Place of (usiness When a place of business is damaged. and installing architectural features.n tornado(prone areas. %ngineer and construct masonry walls to support the specific architecture of the building 9i. 4inimi/e the creation of windborne debris by appropriately designing. . 4ake ties between concrete and other materials with drilled(in fasteners or cast(in(place fasteners. business interruption. +se ade=uate ties to foundations and roofs when reinforcing concrete and partially reinforced masonry. exterior wall panels. 3void the use of powder(driven anchors to attach bottom plates of walls to concrete unless the anchors are very closely spaced to resist pull(out.

taley and his family are no strangers to storms and tornadoes. . When the warning sirens sounded on 4ay A. the . and streets were filled with debris and downed power lines. he found his house in shambles with the roof ripped off. an FA(inch thick ceiling.tHs worth a million bucks to me. and the many safe rooms and shelters that have been built.taley#s new home was ready. D.tories. with winds up to FF6 mph. D. !BB".Lesson 3. D. \$hey rode out both storms inside the house. \$he absence of fatalities is being attributed to community preparedness. Other houses on the street were also heavily damaged or destroyed.arbor% Florida Hurricane 5harley came to 5harlotte Harbor one Friday.D Success Stories 6harlotte . could hear the roar.D .taley sums it all up. D\$he safe room saved my life. a FB(inch foundation. improved early warning systems.tory . . was watching it on \$1 in there. While the storm was swirling through Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters 3-12 . go to Cew .t was such a frightening sound. there were no deaths in the !BB" tornado. they had an above(ground safe room constructed on the back patio. it came through with flying colors. . leaving the community stunned. \$he .uccess .taley#s home was among the more than "BB homes destroyed in the city that day.taleys used their safe room following the tornado to store and protect belongings they had salvaged. \$he concrete room has A(inch thick walls. Whereas a severe tornado that hit the city in 4ay of FGGG claimed 66 lives.hortly after moving in.D When he emerged from the shelter.D he said. could see it was coming my way and . \$heir first home was hit by a tornado in October FGGA and suffered minor damage but was destroyed by another tornado on 4ay ". could hear it coming. DWe decided we werenHt going to ride out another one inside the house.ite. Moore% *!lahoma 8on .n 8ecember !BBB. Protecting Against Wind Damage Success Stories \$o read more about .D he recalled. \$he . . and a sliding entry door made of F!(gauge steel with three(=uarter inch plywood on each side.uccess . \$hatHs a sound you never forget. FGGG. Buildings were destroyed. 8on took shelter in the safe room along with his dog and two cats to ride out the storm feeling very protected and safe. \$he safe room is e=uipped with battery(powered lights and a battery( powered television.

Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters 3-13 . However.Lesson 3.\$he entire 5harlotte Harbor area was without power.. "B newspaper employees braved the storm at their office unable to get home. along with the speed of the wind above the roof surface. our building. ). wind(driven rain could enter and cause the loss of valuable computers containing information on news stories.t#s not even an option not to publish. but even that did not stop the Sun from publishing. our presses. . ).\$he Sun came out on the 4onday following 5harley#s hit on Friday. subscribers. When installed.nstead of shutting down. >ressure inside the building. because the building integrity had been maintained. and other files. subscriber credits. computer replacement.f flying debris breached large office windows. don#t knowJ it#s frightening.pressure on the roof system.n the mid(FGGBs. We could have been looking at I" million to get us back to where we could put out the paper here. )\$he shutters helped keep the roof on and kept us operational. research. . His experience with Hurricane 3ndrew taught him that an investment would be worth it. We have to be able to protect our people. lobbied the stockholders for storm shutters to protect the Sun newspaper building in 5harlotte Harbor. )We didn#t miss a beat. FK?BL1 generator. .said Hackney. We met our goal. and maintain our capacity to publish. they hooked up a rented.ntense winds coming in through these windows would cause )uplift. Protecting Against Wind Damage town. Eost revenue.said 8unn(7ankin. press e=uipment repairs or replacement. 7ichard Hackney. \$he paper was without power for F6 days. \$hey were dry and secure because the structure was built to resist strong winds and the windows were fitted with storm shutters. and production outsourcing all add up. storm shutters maintain building integrity by protecting the windows from direct wind pressure and windborne debris.f we had lost the roofJ.BBB.. and anyone working inside. they were otherwise operational. \$he shareholders agreed. 1ice >resident of Operations. . it#s about publishing. . 3ccording to 8avid 8unn(7ankin. could lift the roof causing catastrophic damage to the building. >resident of the Sun. and published the newspaper. its contents. and the shutters were purchased for IF?.t#s not 'ust about the dollars.

ecure2  4anufactured home anchors.  5onsider building a safe room to protect against tornadoes. Protecting Against Wind Damage Summar): *e) Ste+s 'o Protect Against Wind Damage \$his lesson reviewed the following steps you can take to protect your home or business against wind damage.Lesson 3. Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters 3-1" .  4aking doors and garage doors more wind(resistant.  4ake structural changes. and anchors. \$he protective measures you consider depend on where your house or business is located. 5onsider whether retrofitting and@or building a safe room would be advisable. 5ertain areas have a high risk of damage from hurricanes. reinforcements.  \$urn off propane tanks. Board up doors and windows.  7epair loose or damaged building components such as siding and roof shingles.  .  Outbuildings.  Lnow your risk of wind damage. including2  Bracing and strapping the roof.  .  Boats. . or at high risk of tornadoes .nstalling storm shutters on windows.   \$ake appropriate nonstructural protective measures.  7emove overhanging and dead tree limbs that could fall on buildings or power lines. ties.  >lace important possessions and valuables in safe locations. tornadoes.  Bring in outdoor furniture and other personal property kept outdoors.s your location vulnerable to hurricanes.  4ove breakable items away from doors and windows.f so. decide which protective measures make the most sense in your situation.  3s you construct or modify your place of business. design for wind resistance by incorporating recommended fasteners. or high winds.

arage door 00 Window a. . Hurricanes can be predicted. !.teel(frame commercial buildings Write below three protective. 00000 \$rue 00000 False Protecting Your Home or Small Business From Disasters 3-1* .ecure with sliding bolts . nonstructural measures you can take in the !6 hours before a hurricane is predicted to hit your area. but 00000000000000000000000000 strike with little warning. Brick houses One( and two(story wood(frame houses 4anufactured homes .Lesson 3. b.nstall hurricane straps Buy or make storm shutters ?. 00 7oof 00 8ouble(entry doors 00 . 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 6. and write the appropriate letter on each blank space. . d.elect the protective measure on the right that would be used to protect the structure on the left. 4ark any of the following structures that are especially susceptible to wind damage. F. so you have ! to " days to prepare. . 3fter completing the =uestions.nstall hori/ontal bracing . you can check your answers on the answer sheet located after the course glossary.afe rooms built below ground level provide the greatest protection. Protecting Against Wind Damage 'est ourself \$he =uestions below review key points in protecting against wind damage. c.     ".