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Colonial and Postcolonial Discourse Colonial Encounters: Europe and the Native Caribbean, 1492-1797.

by Peter Hulme; Discursos Narrativos de la Conquista: Mitificacion y Emergencia. by Beatriz Pastor; Unfinished Conversations: Mayas and Foreigners between Two Wars. by Paul Sullivan; Contracting Colonialism: Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society Under Early Spanish Rule. by Vicente Rafael; Pasyon and Revolution: Popular Movements in the Phi ... Review by: Patricia Seed Latin American Research Review, Vol. 26, No. 3 (1991), pp. 181-200 Published by: The Latin American Studies Association Stable URL: . Accessed: 14/11/2013 11:28
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Patricia Seed
Rice University

COLONIAL ENCOUNTERS: EUROPE AND THE NATIVE CARIBBEAN, 14921797. By Peter Hulme. (New York and London: Routledge, Chapman,

and Hall, 1986. Pp. 350. $35.00.)

DISCURSOS NARRATIVOSDE LA CONQUISTA: MITIFICACION Y EMERGENCIA. By Beatriz Pastor. Second edition. (Hanover, N.H.: Ediciones del

Norte, 1988. Pp. 465. $25.00 paper.)

UNFINISHED CONVERSATIONS: MAYAS AND FOREIGNERS BETWEEN TWO WARS.By Paul Sullivan. (New York:Knopf, 1989. Pp. 269. $22.95 cloth.

and Los Angeles: University ofCalifornia Berkeley Press, 1991. Pp. 294. $12.95 paper.)


Rafael. (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1988. Pp. 248. $26.95.) sityPress, 1979. Pp. 344.)

In the late 1980s, historiansand anthropologists became increasingly aware of how the ethnographiesand historiesthey have written have been imbued with rhetorical and literary devices. Simultaneously, criticshave become interestedin using anthropologicaltheory literary and historical oftextstraditionally factsto createdifferent interpretations regardedas "high culture."The resultis an extraordinarily interdisciplin181

This content downloaded from on Thu, 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

The saga ofthe"weapons oftheweak" continuesin James and theA rts Scott. Cochrane (Ithaca. loosely intellectual movementwas emergingin association with thinkers Lyotard.RorangingfromJean-Francois grouped as poststructuralists."See their ( trendof increasing and Asianists is an emergent Africanists. fieldsas diverseas literary ofcolonialismarose from Dissatisfaction withtraditional criticisms many a growing awareness of the distressingsameness characterizing historicaland anthropologicalworks on colonial empires and theirpostcolonial successors. 1977). and FelixGuttarito Michel One compellingtheme advanced by these Foucault and Richard Rorty. Conn.' being practicedin thefieldsofanthropology Withinthis ongoing set of conversations.: University of Chicago Press). translated by Stephen Heath (New York:Hill and Wang.ThePost-Modern Condition. history. or Belgium.and inadequate versions of the encountersbetween the colonizers and the colonized.Literary tural anthropologistsare developing sophisticated opinions of literary like MikhailBakhtin. N.3 As narratives a major new of resistance and accommodation were losing credibility. And theorists even historianshave begun to move slowly toward what is being called a less-developed formof the culturalanalyses already "culturalhistory.121 on Thu. 2. p. JacquesDerrida. "How the Defeated Answer Back. OfRevelation andRevolution: Christianity andColonialism inSouth Africa 182 This content downloaded from 200. criticism. Music. Ill. undertakinga major reappraisal of the European colonial experiencein and anthropology.CulturalHistory." and literary criticism. 1984). Johnand JeanComaroff call these kinds of accounts "challenge and riposte.or (less frequently) Great Britain. 1988). Text. translated by GeoffBenningtonand BrianMassumi (Minneapolis: University ofMinnesota Press.Review American Research Latin Culcriticsare reading historyand anthropology. Roland Barthes.Image. 7.Roland Barthes. interest to Latin Americanists." New York Times 11 Jan.: Cornell University Press. See also ZygmuntBauman's review ofthis work.Domination ofResistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven. Literary Supplement. anthropologists' and historians' versions of what happened heroicresistancein whichnativesdramatically were usually tales ofeither defendedtheir homelands or accounts ofmanipulativeaccommodationin which colonial goals were maneuvered to serve theinterests ofthenative communityor some combinationof those two story lines. translatedby Lydia G. 1990). forthcoming work. See Roger Chartier. these tales ofresistanceand accommodationwere being perceived increasinglyas mechanical.and JacquesDerrida. critique of colonialism known as colonial discourse.89. 4. interdisciplinary of theintersection ofdissatisfaction from about thelimitations Originating existing critiques of colonial rule with the contemporaryintellectual studies of colonial discourse are movementknown as poststructuralism. Giles Deleuze. JeanFrancoisLyotard.69. France. ary moment.: Yale University Press. homogenizing.Portugal.1991.Y. land Barthes.Latin the colonizingpower was Asia and whether America. the Netherlands. Germany.2 In the late 1980s. Spain.4 1. 3. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .JacquesDerrida. Regardless of whetherthe subject was Africa.

Mass. In reflecting on thelinguistic in whichthepoliticsofcolonialrulehave been framework elaborated. and Hayden White. How words are interpretedand understood depends on a determinationof their context. and phrases can have more than one meaning and more than one interpretation simultaneously. 1979).N. and nationalist vocabularies. introducPress. recognitionof what theoristscall the polysemiccharacter language (the possibilityof a word having multipleand even contradictory meanings) has opened the door to a wider range of interpretive In thisarena. 1987).Y. Words. translated Press.imperialadministrators. 183 This content downloaded from 200. high and politicalpamphleteeringhave all constructedanticolonial literature. ofMinnesotaPress.: Cornell UniverCuller.On Deconstruction secondaryworks include Jonathan Arac and ChristopherNorris. Useful tion. referredto as postcolonial discourse. missionaries. Criticism ofDiscourse:Essaysin Cultural Press.need to be read. N.For itwas through ofspeech. 1978). Jonathan ofPhilosophy vard University Press. writershave observed the limitationsof European political discoursesas well as theway in whichthepolysemiccharacter oflanguage has enabled natives of colonized territories to appropriateand transform the colonizers' discourses. Of Grammatology. Writing a MinorLiterature. has been examining how popular discourses. sentences. language-the rhetoric. translated by Dana Polan (Minneapolis:University and the Philosophy TheOrderofThings(New York:Random House. For a historical Mirror ofNature(Princeton. But whetherthe focus has been on the colonial or postcolonialsituation.:PrincetonUniversity Arac's introduction to his edited collection to the issues in the United States. translatedby GayatriSpivak (Baltimore.the centralconcernofthese studies has been the linguisticscreen throughwhich all politicallanguage of colofrom nialism.MichelFoucault. sentences. travelers. literature. HerbertDreyfusand Paul Rabinow. (Chicago. JohnRaichman. 1986).Postmodernism (Ithaca. Ill. and RichardRorty. possibilitiesin history. edge oftheculturalpracticesofa societyhas come to play an increasingly focal role in establishing broader interpretive possibilities for words.includingreactionsto it and liberation it. 1985). Michel Foucault:The Freedom Press. Ill.: University Foucault:Beyond (Baltimore.69.and phrases in a given timeor culture.J. yetan understandingof thatcontextdepends on the interpretation or translationof the words or phrases in question. 1978). figures and discursive formations-thatEuropeans have understood and governed themselvesand the peoples theysubjected overseas. Derrida. 1986). Within this of framework. see Jonathan and Politics(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. A relatedcritiqueof thelanguage of independence movements and postcolonial nationalism. 1983). 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1982).: HarsityPress. knowland anthropology. 1976). Colonial discoursehas therefore undertakento redirect contemporary criticalreflectionson colonialism (and its aftermath)toward the and language used by theconquerors. Giles Deleuze and FelixGuttari.121 on Thu.REVIEW ESSAYS diversewriters is a critiqueofthetransparency oflanguages as vehiclesof communication. Kafka:Toward sityofChicago Press.: JohnsHopkins University Press. 2d ed.89. 1970).Michel (New York: Columbia University ofChicago Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Tropics Md.: JohnsHopkins University by Alan Bass (Chicago.: Univerand Difference. Derrida(Cambridge.Md.

most notably Gayatri Spivak. all ofwhichgive it an entirelydifferent inflection.The corollary effect has been to open the door to examiningthe ways in which a colonized people's reception and appropriationof a texthas been shaped by a different social and politicalexperiencefrom thatoftheauthorsofa textor itsorthodox"highIf critics culture"interpreters. translated by A. or historianswere to continueto insiston the primacy of what high-cultureor imperial criticsthink the author fromcolonized cultureshave originally intended. legitimacy. especially pp.inquisitions.: Cornell University Press. 221-23.thenwhat interpreters made of it would stillbe lost or dismissed as merelynaive. no. 1979). See Barthes's"The Death oftheAuthor. especially337. three criticizethe traditional subject of humanism.6Poststructuralism's dislodging the author's"intention"or "originalmeaning" froma central critics and othersto considertheways in which the role. TheArchaeology ofKnowledge. attacking the demand by proponentsofcolonial discourseto allow thenativesto speak in their own voices has resonatedwithfeminist demands to allow women their own voices. Text.Music. Gayatri Spivak.colonial discourseis notsimplyappropriatedby textual communities butis addressed to someone (or a specific community).secretpolice." Both poststructuralism and colonial discourse share an affinity witha thirdset ofcritical All contemporary discourses. editedby Ranajit Guha (Delhi: OxfordUniversity Press. The first questioning humanism "by exposing its hero-the sovereignsubject as of traditional and power.7This text is appropriated and used by different The first has been to underdevelopment has had two relevanteffects. unimportant. Furthermore.Y. and "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur?" Bulletin de la de Philosophie SocieteFranpaise 63. mine the tendencyto pass normative judgmentsbased on an interpretation'scloseness to whatthecritics thinktheoriginalauthorsofthecolonial ofthiscriticism documentintended. with feminist critics it as a gendered form-patriarchaldiscourse. 1985).121 on Thu. published in English as "What Is an Author?" in TextualStrategies. 8." Subaltern Studies IV. between exposingthehero ofWesternEuropean humanismand exposing the hero of imperialismhas been noted by some commentatorsas a second major attraction lies in its common thread. or a "misreading. itcan be only as a gestureofresistance. 6. edited by Josue V. As a result. chap.69. ToBhabha's proposition. 142-48.330-63. MichelFoucault. 38. and jails."in Image. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Sheridan Smith (New York:Harper and Row.As Homi Bhabha has pointedout.Review Latin American Research ofpoststructuralist The centralattractions critiquesoflanguage for is poststructuralism's critics of colonialismare two.I would add thatthisdiscourseis maintained by theexerciseofforcethrougharmies.thoseoffeminism. 1962).The addressee does not have the freedomto ignore the discourse. "Deconstructing Historiography.allowingliterary textual communities. the fields of colonial and postcolonial discourse have attracteda number of prominentwomen."5 The affinity author. 3 (1969):75-95.and ifhe or she does so. The best recentdiscussion oftherelationship between feminism and poststructuralism 184 This content downloaded from 200. M. 7. A criticaldifference exists between the reception of literary textsby communitiesof readersand thatby thesubjectsofimperialpower. Harari (Ithaca.the subject of authority. 2.89.8 Beyond this common demand to "let the woman or 5. N.

For example. 1988). "Contentious Traditions: in theThirdWorld Feminism and Nationalism 7 (1987):119-56.11 tionby Homi Bhabha.foreword ofMinnesota Press. 1978). Nationand Narration Frederic Jameson (New York:RandomHouse.See Calibanand OtherEssays. (London: Methuen. 1989). Other: Writing and 5 (1989). In OtherWorlds edited by Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg ofCulture." Cultural 3-13. Chapman." in his edited collection. 143-51. Press.1990).Although 10. his book had a definite three from generalinterest on Middle Easternstudies. theoLiterary theirgreatestimpacton literary theoryand anthropology. and also the thematicissues of Inscriptions.viii. interest White Masks (1952). theend oftheeighteenth and romanticizing of remoteMiddle Eastern "others"and his eroticizing. 1986). 1952).As mightbe expected. a repetitive fiedwithpublicationof Edward Said's Orientalism and colonial officials had attackon theways thatWesternwriters effective theirknowledge of the Middle East and Orient since been constructing 10Said's denunciationoftheexoticizing. See also is Feminism/Postmodernism. 1987). "Feminismand Cross-CulturalInquiry: The Termsof the edited by ElizabethWeed Politics. Postcoloniality and Native. a leading theoretician Said's book and therevivalofFanon's ideas have had Untilrecently. Colonial Discourse.and the Margins of the Modern Nation. 12 (1984): "UnderWestern Eyes: FeministScholarshipand Colonial Discourses. 1989). Kumari Jayawardena." Boundary The Debate on Sati in Colonial India.Publication of Orientalism in FrantzFanon's powerful indictment ofcolonialismin BlackSkin. Bhabha. century. toTerms: Feminism." Oxford 185 This content downloaded from 200. See also Homi K. "Can the Subaltern Speak?" in Spivak. history. Frantz Fanon. (Urbana: University 2.but italso attracted and more academic disciplines-literarytheory. Peau noire. See also TrinhT.REVIEW ESSAYS and postcolonialdiscourseshave developed nativespeak. been concernedwithissues of rists(ofwhomSaid is one) have historically and theyconsequentlyfound Said's textually oritextualrepresentation.1990). Discourse in Islam.121 on Thu. Orientalism of Calibanand OtherEssays thatRoberto claims in his forewordto the English translation their Fernandez Retamar'swork was the Latin American equivalent of Said's Orientalism. Spivak. Feminism (Bloomington:Indiana University 9." in Comning (London: Routledge."9 thatrepresentthemselvesas coming"from The beginningsofthefieldofcolonial discourseare usually identibut (1978). Woman. Hall. Theory. traditional led further to a revival of recently. positions. 271-94. "DissemiNation: Time. which has since been reissued with a new introducofcolonial discourse.The view thatthe fieldof colonial discoursebegins withFanon rather Said has been argued most recentlyby Benita Parryin "Problems in CurrentTheories of Literary Review9 (1987):27-57." both feminist offeminist or nationalistvoices a critical perspectiveon naive celebration below. translated by Edward Baker(Minneapolis: University 11. Homi Bahbha's introduction than under same title. originally Masks(New York:Grove.White translated was published in 1986 in London in Pluto Press's edition 1967). Edward Said. Narrative.69. of peoples who critiqueof the narrowness of European representations ofthemselvesforcenturiesprovoked had been producingrepresentations impact a considerablestir. (London: Routledge. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . UnlikeSaid. Fernandez Retamardoes not similarities inhereonly in theircritical Jameson. Lata Mani. intoEnglishby Charles L. 1989). Marxismand theInterpretation of IllinoisPress. Minh-ha. by Frederic deal with discursivepractices. Critique nos. 3-4 (1987-88) (London: Zed Books. Spivak and Chandra Talpade Mohanty. Lelia Ahmed. Markhamas BlackSkin. edited by Linda Nicholson (London: Routledge. anthropology.89.masques blancs(Paris: Editions de Seuil.291-322.

121 on Thu. "Nuevas perspectivasen los estudios literarios coloniales hispanoamericanos.'3 More recently. For recentwork on Brazil. 1986).'4The first was inventedin Spanish discoursesabout theNew Worldat theend ofthe fifteenth centuryand was highly problematicin terms of the societies actually encountered. Adorno. ThePredicament ofCulture (Cambridge. theme of cannibalism appears in Robinson Crusoe's anxious fantasies about being devoured whole and in Caliban's anagram in The Tempest. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .appearing first among literary lowing the same disciplinary and mostrecently among historians. Marcus. and Tzvetan Todorov. see Khamsin (1988). JamesClifford and George E.Mass." Revistade CriticaLiteraria Latinoamericana 14 (1988):11-28. Adorno.TheConquest ofAmerica. LITERATURE In the Latin American arena.Colonizing Egypt:Orientalism Reconsidered (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. concernedwithrepresenting ogy. and JamesClifford. 1986). published in Spanish as Ret6ricas de antropologia (Madrid: Ediciones Juicar.89. Virginia.12In history. "Discourses on Colonialism: Bernal Diaz.: HarvardUniversity Press." ModernLanguageNotes103 (1988):239-58. one thatprovided a rationaleforrule by the same Europeans whose religious The ritual of communion carefullyavoided use of the termcannibalism. 1991). the liveliest and most extensive in colonial discourse studies is occurringin literary studies. The emerginginterest history has become important colonial discourse writingsamong Latin Americanistsappears to be foltheotrends. One interest ofthefirst excellentstudiesoftheterrain is PeterHulme's Colonial Encountwo chaptersexamine the categoryof "cannibal. fruitful new angle on anthropological has been adopted mainlyby Middle Eastern and South Asian historians. Timothy Mitchell. Marcus and Michael Fischer.4-6 Apr. 13. 1991. George E. rists.: Critique of Chicago Press. 1984). his approach he explicitly addressed. CrystalCity. translated by RichardHoward (New York:Harper and Row.nextamong anthropologists. Writing Culture: University The Poeticsand PoliticsofEthnography (Berkeleyand Los Angeles: University of California Press.thedisciplinehistorically of understandings the subject matterwas well-known-the construction of cross-cultural others-but the textualapproach was soon accepted as a Said's approach issues.69. and the Twentieth-Century Reader. 1988). See also Rolena Adorno's excellentpioneering work on Spanish America. Many of the important articlesand reviews in this fieldhave been publishedin thejournalMiddleEastern Research and Information Project. 186 This content downloaded from 200. Anthropology as Cultural (Chicago." which ters. Guaman and Resistance Poma: Writing (Austin: University ofTexas Press.Research Review Latin American ented approach familiar despite the noveltyof his subject. In anthropolotherpeoples. Fora summaryofthe impactof Orientalism on Middle Easternstudies overthepast decade. "Hei de Convencer: Autoritarismono Discurso Colonial Brasileiro. Ill. "Cannibal" became an ideological markerof the boundary separatingnative "savages" from"civilized" Europeans. Las Casas. whose subjectmatter in in African as well. 1986). paradoxoftheearlyencounHulme's nextthreechaptersexplorea central tersbetween Englishmenand Indians: theEnglishmen'stechnicalsuperi12."paper read at the meetingsof the Latin American Studies Association. 14. 1988). see RobertoReis.

had no intention of restoring these lands to theirrightful Carib owners.89. operates only in the colonial setting. she characterizesthe position of the narrator. several versions of the expeditionof Lope de Aguirre.121 on Thu. 130).REVIEW ESSAYS orityin weapons but inabilityto feed themselvesand theirconsequent relianceon nativehospitality forfood.uses his magic (or Westerntechnical superiority)not to produce food but to change his relationshipto the nativesfromguest to master.English narratorsuniformly characterizedthis loss as "Indian treachery.Pastorattempts to locate critical discourseswithintales 187 This content downloaded from 200.failures.In the Tempest.suggests thatitrepresentedan "eventual loss ofpatiencewitha hostiledrainupon the economy" (p. When faced with withdrawalof the hospitalityon which theirlives depended in Virginia. JohnSmith'saccounts ofPocahontas. and his view of the natives. and Robinson Crusoe." Hulme.and Alonso de Ercilla'sepic poem La araucana. By contrasting and epic narratives of Cortes and Columbus with the trials.In Britishnarratives of theirwars with these raciallymixed Caribs. and theland was taken over by Britishsettlers. Vincent. Hernan Cortes's teenth-century Cartasde relacion.a rationaleforBritish intervention But theBritish against the defrauders. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Three different renderings of this paradox of technicalsuperiority and physical dependence appear in The Tempest. Alvar Nunfiez Cabeza de Vaca's Naufragios. 131-32). theseEuropeans also turn(or imagine theyturn)thenativesintolabor to produce theirfood supply (pp.In analyzing the once popular eighteenth-century English folknarrative of Inkle and Yarico. quista: texts: ChristopherColumbus's Diario. like that of European guns and compasses. St.and Alonso de Ercilla. His ColonialEncounters discoursethatcombinestextualanalysiswitha sophisticatedunderstandand history. given thatthe English demonstratedlittleinclinationeitherto reciprocatethe hospitality or to learn to feed themselves.Hulme demonstrates how use of the term cannibal as a rationaleforEuropean conquest changed fromgrounds of "barbarity"into a sentimentaleighteenth-century concept of (extinct) is a model work on colonial original owners. Afterbeing defeatedby an expeditionary force of seventeen thousand.69. Lope de Aguirre.Prospero. the "original"Caribs became thepacificvictimsofblack usurpation. his descriptionof nature and the heroic relationshipto it.Hulme shows how a sentimental view of the Caribs was neverthelessdeployed to justify Britishexile and extermination of the native Caribs of St. FrayMarcos de Nizza. ing ofcultural anthropology A less theoretically sophisticated critique of the political dimensions of conquest stories is Beatriz Pastor's Discursosnarrativos de la conPastor on focuses five well-known sixmitificacion y emergencia.and rebellionsofCabeza de Vaca. however. like Crusoe and the Virginia settlers.By turningthemselvesinto the lords of the land throughmagic. For each work (and several less-known texts). Prospero's magic. Vincent's black Caribs were removedto an island off forcibly the coast ofHonduras.

and racial characteristics of the 188 This content downloaded from 200. The problem with all of the formsof critiqueidentified by Pastoris thattheyclearlyreside withinthe The Spanish politicalorthodoxy. is the most critical of the conquerors into the greedy heroic values and the transformation heroic values is envisioned as encomenderos.As in all Orientalistdiscourse. and water. limitsestablished by sixteenth-century critique of the grasping encomendero plays on a traditionalHispanic critique of motives of "interest" typical of a lament for an imagined less materialistic his own rebellionin world.Review American Research Latin offailure. 307) because in thenarratives disassociates himself replaces epic order (p. in which native warriorsare endowed with the qualities of Spanish knightsand native women are viewed as chivalric of all because it condemns theloss of narrative ladies. 309) and the rebel explicitly representedby the king and his represenfromthe formsof authority tatives (p. Two of the texts that Hulme she categorizesthatof of Lope de Aguirre. Pastor argues that the narrativesof failure begin to criticizeideological and models followingthe explorers' inabilityto find the marvelous literary objectivestheysought. 298). clothing. Only a returnto traditional bringingvictoryover the natives (p. Narrativesof rebellion.Pastor and Hulme further demonstrate a commitment to developingliterary critiquesofthecolonialcontext in which thesetextswere created. Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and William Shakespeare's The Tempest.69.themain enemyis not offailureand rebellion. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . rivalries. But in characterizing remainswhollyEuropean: theyfailor rebelagainst bellion.89.In thenarratives and thesearchforgold is replaced by the thenativesbut theenvironment.theperspective European ambitions. values and institutions.begin withfailureand end by denouncing"thereality violence. medieval Hispanic even reactionarydesire for the returnof traditional values. 294.121 on Thu. search for more quotidian goals of food. Spanish political termsofthedecadence ofvassalage and othertraditional These critiquesare thusimbued witha nostalgic. 312). Both period in which the literary differ froman earlier generationof "New Critics"who denied the existence of politicalor historicalcontext. Hulme's and Pastor's works share a concern for the historical textsof the conquest were produced. Pastorviews this model as radicallyopposed to the of rebellion.injustice and corruption"in the expeditions of conquest (pp. the natives in these remain a blank slate on which are inscribedthefrustrations as narratives well as thelongings of theEuropeans fortheimaginarylost Eden oftheir own past.chaoticterror heroicmodel (p. Pastor argues that Ercilla's account of the expedition against the Araucanians. Attackson theliterary canon usually base themselves on the gender. 413). have since come to be viewed as part of theliterary canon. ethnic. Even Aguirrejustifies earlier. which are creditedwith the successful early expeditionsof conthese narrativesas those of failureand request.

see Marcus and Fischer's 18. modelor strategy forcross-cultural translation or representing culturally different others was already beingpursuedwhenSaid's book was published.rested by theWest.69. Ibid. For multipleexamples of these experimental ethnographies.class. 16. 1988).and gender) author's butfrom biography (thecurrent litany and historical thepolitical positionof thestatein whichthetexts were in thecanonmaybe said to Thustheliterary tastes enshrined composed. Anthropology as Cultural Critique.121 on Thu.thediscipline and ethics ofreprefrom other the challenge of providing a senting perspectives cultures. Mass.A partoftheseefforts appearedas a seriesofexperimental ethsomewritten nographies. anthropolmostconcerned withthepolitics ogy. Michael Taussig's pathbreaking Shamanism. reminds ineachwork inthecanon.89. including andthe Wild Man. Colonialism. suggesting a close link between relations ofcultural and political authority. This studyattacks the"objectivist fiction" ofhistorical required writing whileproducing an accountof theterror thataccompanied therubber boomin thePutamayo ofColombia." actually composed by MiddleEasterners or Asians. as dialoguesand others produced under collaborative authorship. buta fair number do.'6 In other toexplain howdifferent words.hefailed perspectives or worldviews functioned betweencultures.'7 Different ofrepresenting strategies another culture are thecruxof of recentworksin LatinAmerican a number anthropology. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .as manycritics ofworksoftheWest.The Predicament of Culture(Cambridge.continental and solelyon his reading philosophy.'8 variant whichhas in15." Critical 15 (1989):205-25.which subtext a political emanates notfrom the ofrace. 189 This content downloaded from 200.Hulme. Nor did he takethenecessary additional how or whysuchtexts differed from in thoseproduced stepofshowing theWest.15 thevoiceofthe literary DespiteSaid's demandfor he failedto analyzeor even citeanytext "Other." Cultural Anthropology 6 (1991):63-91. withAndeanbreaks region Taussig ism (thelocal anthropological of Orientalism). ANTHROPOLOGY Said's critique oftheprocessby whichAsia and theMiddleEast wererepresented have pointedout. JamesClifford. theEuropean canon.Not all of thecanonical ofEnglish from theseventeenth works literature andeighteenth centuries reflect thoseimperial concerns. Said's defenseagainst his critics in anthropology can be foundin "Representing theColonized. "Missing the Revolution:Anthropologists and the Warin Peru. Inquiry 17. and hencehe provided no basisfor thedynamics ofcross-cultural Within understanding. Orin Starn. reflect a desirefora certain imageof empire.255-76.following readers of authors Said.REVIEW ESSAYS ofbooksinthecanon.: Harvard University Press.

an awareness paralleling canon based on the politicalconditions about the designationof a literary prevailingin the metropolis. MarginsofEurope (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Similartendencieshave operated in recovering archaeologicalsites in the Mayan peninsula. Colonial Situations. 152-53). vol. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 7 of the History of Anthropologyseries (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Review American Research Latin sisted on the stabilityand coherence of societies (and theirforms of in theAndean regionby describinga fragmented culture representation) and healing (shamanism) are mutuallyconin which colonialism(terror) locales.George Stocking'smost recentvolume on compiles some of the the history of anthropology. This trend in anthropologyhas also intersectedwith a greatly politicalcontext heightenedconsciousness of the local and international concern is customarily in whichfieldwork done.was censured by the American Anthropological Association (pp. Taussig goes beyond requiringthe voice of the Other by thevoices of theWest (colonialism)nor thevoices of showingthatneither the natives can be represented as monolithic. In tradictory.Colonial Situations. undertookwartimereconnaissance for U. He archaeologicaldigs and ethnographic one ofthefirst describeshow Sylvanus Morley.19 a criticalreevaluationof the politicalcontextof Unfinished Conversations. Michael Herzfeld. in theMargins Herzfeld Critical arguedthatthe ofEurope.89.121 on Thu. 1991).69.Morley and his institutionalbacker. The directorof the archaeological plan to uncover Chichen Itza describedit in the1930s as an aestheticprojectto restorethe beauty of the original buildings but to leave them partiallyin ruins to 19. archaeologiststo workon the Maya ruins of Chichen Itza. Westernersinterested in creatinga mythicpast have ignored or slighted the present. 1973). forpolitical When Franz Boas condemned Morley'suse of anthropology purposes. Sullivan outlines for the Maya the argument already developed theLooking more fullyby Michael Herzfeldin Anthropology Glass: through Westernvision of Greece has been shaped by a kind of Orientalismin which the focus on ancient ruins like the Parthenonhas obscured the contemporary political plight of modern-dayGreeks.S. 131-36). not Morley. Anthropology through theLooking Glass:Critical Ethnography inthe 190 This content downloaded from 200. the Carnegie Institution.Anthropology (New York:Humanities Press. George Stocking. withdrewfrom Chichen Itza (pp.20 Ethnography 20. An early statementis Talal Assad's collecand theColonialEncounter tion. or stable systemsofmeaning. work on the Maya in the 1930s. fractured discoursesthatare spread among multiple this fashion. 1987). importantrecent reappraisals of the imperial political contextof earlyOne such account is Paul Sullivan's twentieth-century ethnographies.regionallylocalized. Boas. Naval Intelligencewhile continuingto work as an anthropologist. With the advent of World War II and and Mayan leaders over land growingtension between Mexican officials reform.

83).these communities were engaged in a continuingmilitary battleforindependence fromthe in Mexico City.The local transa latorwho read thefirst letter from theMaya rebelcommandercontrolling key site translatedthe rebel request for guns as a request for written communication. isolatesofa morepleasant human past thatRedfieldimagined. signify The half-finished effectwould remind viewers that they were to symthan with the contemporary descenpathize with the remotepast rather dants. . Sullivan describes how Morley arrived in the Yucatan during a Mayan rebellion against dominationby the national government. presenting of the relanostalgic accounts about the time before commodification tionship between anthropologistsand native informants(pp. . . rather laborersin the thedisinherited offspring ofcolonialempiresand part-time capitalistworld economy" (p. Two otheranthropologists who worked in the region. A second consequence of this Orientalizing tendency was the to contemporary poconscious or unconscious eliminationof references accounts. 158). 172-78.A second letter asking for arms was translatedas a request forthemuch vaguer categoryof "contraband. wanted theMaya to write theMaya wanted guns.REVIEW ESSAYS the temporaldistance between the present and the past (p. and theanthropologists autobiographies(p. 110).121 on Thu. explorersin As recently between theMaya and anthropologists. himself restricting could have been possito a mechanicalexplanationofhow mistranslation ble in citing"reciprocalignorance"(p. thusmakingit an exoticOrientalistmonument. Unfortunately. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 75). also excised any mentionofthe Maya demands forarms in theirethnographiesand omitteddescriptions of the politicalconflict occurringall around theirfieldwork. Morley (who apparentlydid not learn Maya) required a translator. 111). were asked to provide arms in exchange search of "ancient" manuscripts forthe opportunityto view old books (p. homogeneous. Sullivan himselfromanticizesthe past. 197-99). and the latter translatedMorley's "wants" and "wishes" into a YucatecMaya word meaning"desire. 194).Sullivanechoes liticalconflicts in archaeologicalor ethnographic familiar community-based studies like those ofRobert critiquesof strictly Redfield in his comment that these Maya communities"were not the social small.69. central government Anthropologistsand archaeologistswho worked in the region in the 1930s omittedany account of the demand for arms made by local Mayan leaders in exchange foraccess to sacred archaeologicalsites. meaning-filled. More precisely.RobertRedfieldand his fieldassistantAlfonsoVilla."whichhas sexualovertones(p.Put simply. Sullivan failsto explorethepoliticaldynamicsofmistranslation. the ethWhile belaboring Redfieldand Morley forromanticizing nographic present."The subsequently clarified demand forguns became an ongoing themeof communications as 1971. 191 This content downloaded from 200.89.

197-99). 1989). forIndia themechanismsby whichBritish rhetorical analyses thatspecify ofIndia's past. Sullivan describes the modern monetarynexus between fieldworkand informants (prepaymentforinterviews. A Rule ofProperty forBengal(Delhi: OrientLongman. See also JacquesLacan's similarconcepts in Ecrits:A Selection.hawkingtheir bidder(pp.23 and fieldhas been thecritiquecreatedby subalternstudies oftherhetoric practicesof independence and contemporarynationalistmovements.22 The culturewas actuallytranslated has produced a variety of group conductingsubalternstudies. Said had affirmed than demonstratedany mechanism by which knowledge about another intotheexerciseofpower overthem. 1986)."translated by FrankJellinek (Lincoln: University ofNebraska Press." forthcoming Historian. 192 This content downloaded from 200. PierreRivere.Research Review American Latin AlthoughMorley was probably unaware of the sexual overtones of the to sway anthropolofhis words.1977) and even MichelFoucault's"I. in Selected. editedby Guha and Gayatri Spivak (New York:OxfordUniversity Press." Studies. Mayan leaders trying Mayan translation ogists employed a rhetoricof courtship and love (p. colonial and postcolonialdiscoursehas been forSubaltern Studies.121 on Thu. Guha's forthcomingbiographyof Mahatma Ghandi. 1988).21 As problems thenew approach expanded intoyetanotherdiscipline. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Subaltern 24. Literary critics Homi Bhabha and GayatriSpivak also in therepresentation sharean interest (and understanding) ofthevoiceoftheOtherinhistorical aboutIndia duringtheperiodofBritish writing ruleas well as a commongoal ofreinterpreting in lightofcontemporary thathistory poststructuralism. See Ranajit Guha. includingtherewriting Even moresignificant forthis colonial Indian legal and contrast. inspiredby a group ofEast Indian historianswriting a publicationfounded and edited forseven years by Ranajit Guha. The confusionbetween literary and social practices ofpower is commonto manypoststructuralists. "The Prose of Counter-Insurgency.24 Aspects ofPeasant Insurgency Beginningwith Guha's pioneeringElementary StudiesI.and Freud (includingthediscourseofpsychoanalysis). Subaltern Press. 23. "Dominance withoutHegemony" in SubalternStudies VI (New York:OxfordUniversity Press.further rather withSaid's angle on colonial discourseemerged. See Ranajit Guha. 118). among them Derrida in his chapter of "violence of the letter"in Of Grammatology.wages per storyor per hour) and how the and Maya are now aware of theirown presence in foreignethnographies have abandoned courtlyrhetoric forthe salesman's pitch. edited by RanajitGuha (Delhi: OxfordUniversity 21. and ParthaChatterjee. own storiesto thehighestforeign HISTORY In thefieldofhistory. Derrida. 1982). 22. 1982). "Poststructuralism in TheMaryland tory.The last volume under Guha's editorshipwas Subaltern StudiesVI (1989). 1981) and his recent influentialarticle. translated by Alan Sheridan(New York:Norton. Bhabha is partialto Lacan.Spivak mainlyfavors Derridean deconstruction.89. were implemented in the practices. Foucault.Nationalist Thought and the ColonialWorld (London: Zed. See also my review of in PostcolonialHispoststructuralism's impacton Third World history.

. 4 (1989):745-65. and reevaluatingthecolonial and postcolonialconcepts oforder. 4 (1989):686-703." Culture and History 6 (1989):85-106.' paper read at the meetingof the SouthwesternHistoricalAssociation. Legitimation in South Africa. Preben Kaarsholm. "Portrayal and History "Mexico as Ori6 (1989):37-62.S."American Ethnologist 16. Other postcolonialbooks include Nationand edited by Homi K. ThePost-Colonial Critic. CrystalCity. Frederick Cooper.presentations. 1983). namely the reof the historyof the Philippines developed by a group of graduthinking Ateneo University in Manila.University ofTexasat Austin.26 developed two interests: theconceptual and rhetorical biases (including reexamining theOrientalism)ofEuropean and Americantravel on LatinAmerwriting ica. and Betrayal: The Colonial Gaze in SeventeenthSee. 27 Much of this work can be found in articles. "The Quest forPublic Order. "Forgingthe Public: Bourbon Social Engineeringin Late Colonial Mexico. 4-6 April 1991. edited by Narration. confessionals.Virginia. forexample.REVIEW ESSAYS (1983). Sarah Harasym(London: Routledge. "FromFree Labor to FamilyAllowances: Labor and AfricanSociety in Colonial Discourse." M. among themReynaldoIleto ates oftheJesuit and VicenteRafael. 193 This content downloaded from 200."'The HealthyReserve' and the'Dressed Native': Discourses on Black Health and theLanguage of Lonsdale." Culture and History 6 (1989):107-23. no.and Pamela Voekel.colonial and postcolonial discourse have generated a host of recent articles and professional presentationsbut few book-length studies as yet.89." American Ethnologist 16. 26." CanadianJournal ofAfrican Studies/Revue in Rhodesia EtudesAfricaines 23 (1989):126-46.Rafael examines Rafael's Contracting Colonialism: Translation andChristian Conversion in Tagalog under Rule examineseighteencolonial Society EarlySpanish 25. See also WilliamTaylor." and RicardoSalvatore. tion.and unpublished theses. 1800-1870. membersofthesubalternstudies movementhave been theleaders ofthepostcolonialdiscourse movement.25 Among historiansof Africaand Latin America. Tagalog grammars. Randall Packard. His purpose is to contrast the manner in which the Spaniards imposed religionwith the ways it was appropriatedby Tagalog society. "The Past as Battlefield Colonizationto and Zimbabwe: The StruggleofCompetingNationalismsoverHistoryfrom "The Othernessof Independence.Also Alexandra David. CenturyBrazil.27 Latin Americanistswill be interested in yet another significant historicalarena forcolonial and postcolonial discourses. Kramer. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Beginning with the observationthattranslation meant conversion.1990). PeterMason. and FritzW."Culture ent: Introductionto a History of American and BritishRepresentationssince 1821."YankeeMerchants'Narratives:Visions of Social Orderin Latin America " papers read at themeetingsoftheLatinAmericanStudies Associaand theU.121 on Thu.69. Theirbooks under review here demonstrate different approaches to independence and Spanish colonialism.John Canadienne des "African Pasts in Africa'sFuture. FortWorth. Bhabha and GayatriSpivak. no. and catechisms written mostly by Spanish missionaries in the seventeenthand eighteenthcenturies.A. thesis. The startof thiscollectionwas inspiredby Guha's Elementary AspectsofPeasantInsurgency(Delhi: Oxford University Press. 28-31 Mar. 1989. Africanhistorians have reevaluated the language of health and labor in colonial documentationand have generatedan intriguing discussion ofthepolitical struggleover constructionof the past and the writingof historyin Latin Americanhistorianshave recently postcolonialstates. theEuropean.

115). Forexample.Rafael suggests. thatSpaniardsconstructed for witha based grammars learning Tagalog book by a Tagalogforteaching instructional Casseventeenth-century tilian.Rather verbs. 132-22). 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .The Tagalogauthorbypasses Castiliangrammatical categories a infavor ofcounting as thefirst (nouns. 87). Spanish missionaries used Tagalogwordsthatcarried withthema rangeof other formeanings thanthoseintended other connotations. Spanishmissionaries complained that confessions tendedto becomelabyrinthine discourses on a Tagalog ofunrelated thanthedirect issues rather variety responseto questions themissionaries that desired. however. pronouns. The vocabulary chosenforconfession createdan even ofinterpretive wider range possibilities. theHost(viatico) of giveninthesacrament extreme unction becamein Tagalogthefood thatone takeson a long that a concept fit theideainwith ofthespirit journey. Rafael thefrustration arguesthat voicedby overtheir tocontrol Spanishmissionaries inability confessional dialogue resulted from their na loob"to authoritatively using the phrase "utang describeman's debt to God. Missionaries viewed the natives'lack of comprehension of the ofconfession as evidence requirements oftheir lackofintelligence. Whentranslating wordsneededtoexplain Christian rituals. childishness. Rafael. bargaining.89. discourse themissionaries that ofbutfailed complained tounderstand (pp. 118). 111-15). haggling.American Research Review Latin He contrasts theLatinoflinguistic andreligious thetranslation concepts."TheTagalog instructoa Tagalog intention speaker's of attimes an exact translation ofthemeaning treatise subordinates tional and rhyme ofanywordsto theTagalog Castilian poeticmeter required translated thing (p. Spanishverbforms tosay"we"or "she. as a form describes theTagalog ofSpanishdiscourse Rafael appropriation of"fishing." "Dios.69.121 on Thu. also relationship Spaniards'use ofuntranslated concepts retention ofwordsthat couldnotbe translated justified Tagalog speakers' intoCastilian exactly (pp. suggeststhatTagalogshad theirown way of appropriating 194 This content downloaded from 200. This phrase is employed to ask forforbutit also signifies giveness." and "Iglesia"notas sacredterms intotheir own discourse words latable irruptions (p." Native treated untranslated Tagalog speakers Spanishwords but as untranslike"Cristo.or an insufficient grasp of doctrinal subtlety (p. Becausethemissionaries used theTagalogwordforforgiveness within ofutang theconcept na loob. Borrowing from a popularnineteenth-century Philippine novel. and usingevasions.Theseforeign were"fished" outofSpanishdiscourse to produce a chainofassociation to theSpanishconstruction of theword's and interpretation unrelated to itsreferent. allowing by themissionaries. Tagalogs viewed confession as a meansofbargaining with thepriest aboutthenature ofthedebtowed tothehigher Thisviewled tothekindoflabyrinthine authority. verbs) stepinlearning he relates thanconjugating language. 62). Tagalog experiences world(p.

This approach led him to use Tagalog materials rather than the traditional Spanish. For example. a Tagalog poem by Bonifacio'sbrotheremployed the tone of a grown-up child's tearful crisis on leaving home in the pasyon's lengthydialogue between Christ and the VirginMary to talk about Philippine independence fromSpain (pp. Bonifacio was eventually captured and executed by the leaderof a rivalindependence faction.and English-language sources. 23). ideas ofnationalism Ileto points out further thatthe independence movementwas not begun by Westernized. 138-39). ofbrotherhood Ileto also shows how a Spanish religiousinstitution with its initiation ritesand emphasis on prayerbecame the (the cofradia) 195 This content downloaded from 200. His choice of a noncolonial vocabularyreflects to the sensitivity way language carrieswith it the semanticand interpretive historyof its from a way ofrelatingto theworld different speakers and also constructs thatprovidedby thecolonial languages. whether Spanish or English. The massivepopularity ofthe independencemovementamong the Tagalog peasants stemmedfromthe and independenceexpressedin theidiomofpasyon. The polysemiccharacterof language noted by the poststructuralists (the abilityofwords to have more than one meaning simultaneously)plays out in this instanceas having allowed Tagalog societyto appropriate Spanish religious discourse in ways other than those intendedby theconquerors."poor and lowlypeople without worthon earth"(p. 1840-1910. speaking peasants' experienceof the Holy Week drama called the Pasyon of Christ(a recitative performance committedto memoryand repeated theyear) shaped their ofthe anticolonial throughout understanding struggle. in thewords of tlhe play. 103-9). 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .educated elites but sprang up in a Tagalog secret lower-middle-class clerknamed Andres societyfoundedby a self-educated Bonifacio.unlettered humbleoriginswhose lieutenantsare. A similarilluminationof language's plasticity is provided by Rey- naldo Ileto'sPasyon andRevolution: Popular Movements in thePhilippines. but thelanguage ofindependencepasyon outlivedthose who had createdit (pp.121 on Thu.Ileto'sbasic concernis to understandwhatthenineteenthand twentieth-century Tagalogpeasants' own categoriesofmeaningwere and how theyshaped Tagalog perceptionsof independence and theirparticipation in the anticolonialstruggle. Althoughthe Spanish colonizersused the play to inculcateloyalty to Spain and the Catholic Church.89. 128-30).His widely circulatedmanifestoused language similarto that featuredin the familiarHoly Week pasyon play to describe the Spanish occupation of the Philippines (pp. In explaining the enormous popular appeal of nationalistmovementsin thenineteenth and twentieth Ileto shows how Tagalogcenturies.REVIEW ESSAYS Christiansigns.69. Tagalog Philippine societyfound in the its own popular versionof the passion play the language forarticulating values and ideals: forvoicingprotests and agents againstoppressivefriars ofthestateand fordemonstrating Christof leadershipby a poor.

of by ideas oftransformation. the ideals of the Katipunan(brotherhood) independence about disruptions of their labor supply.121 on Thu. ofworldly taxesandforced ofallforms including oppression.S.Hence being moreconcerned oflow social and led by individuals resistance to U. Kenyatta. arguing instead Hispanicized the image of elite groupmuffled peasant voices in orderto preserve national colonial rule. theseaffluent Filipinos as motivated portrayed thecompassion for and powerand lacking byloveofwealth. 25. control reveala worldoutlook dominated goal in thefaceofsuffering. 244). He was promptly tried and executed. Pasyon and Revolution illustrates in communities textsand institutions appropriated Spanish religious a modeofunderstanding and action that was wholly distinct fashioning from whathad been intended by thecolonialauthorities.227). Jawaharal andJomo howin opposition tocolonial Theyexamine Nehru. See notes 21. power Philippines. 196 This content downloaded from 200. scholarship postcolonial of These worksfocuscritically on the rhetorical and political practices well-known nationalist leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi.Their hardness ofheart in thefamiliar (loob) werehard.Postcolonial discourse studies suchas unity against thenative Ileto's havemoved Said'spointabout"letting speak"to beyond examination ofanticolonialism. country one ofthesemovements.Latin American Research Review forthe popularnationalist movements thathave modelfororganizing inthe Thehymns U.and commitment loob (hearts paradise that wouldbring theend was an earthly rather thanotherworldly allusionto Judas's or of1902as "banditry" play(p. MacarioSakay. occupation insouthern Luzon.The ingTagalog peasantresistance States whocollaborated withtheUnited Hispanicized Philippine leaders thatwere in theegalitarianism and mass mobilization had little interest movement. and 26. 23. contested first Spanishandthen and prayers ofthese later known as brotherhoods orKatipunan. The book defrom theusual understanding nationalism as the tachesitself ofFilipino this that handiwork ofupper-class natives.Sakay political was eventually inducedto surrender withthepromise that he wouldnot of be harmed. 215-16).S. cofradias. rulewas initiated statusand minimal education whobelievedin theKatipunan wayas the trueessenceofthemother leader of (pp.28 28.S. to theemotional others central hearts dynamics ofthepasyonplay.Critics whohavelabeledtherevolts thesegroupswitha different religious fanaticism have failedto credit visionofwhatindependence was all about(pp. a critical oftheinternal politics Ileto's critical is shared with on nationalist movements perspective discourse in African and SouthAsian studies. 222). inthese ledtocontinugoalofindependence Belief aimsas thetrue toU. Their or souls).89.69. 225. leaders "Nationalist" whocomprised werethen the1907assembly elected bythesame3 percent how peasant the nativeelite (p. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . knowledge.

" Revista bana: University no. 214-34 (Urand Myth: Indigenous on thePast. Preben Kaarsholm.89. of "speaking as a Nationalistleaders have thus claimed the authenticity below" to justify theirown politicalpositions. Both Taussig and Ramos analyze colonial dimensions of political discourse in a postcoloni.29 arybetween colonial and postcolonial discourses is not always clear-cut. Only recentlyhave a few such critiquesbeen published by scholars in the FirstWorld. and Africa. "Indian Voices: Contact Experienced and Expressed. Michael Taussig.121 on Thu. from political era. Culture and History 6 (1989):85-106. 100 (1990):133-50.Miami. for example. and theyhave tended to treat The earlytheoreticians of Westerndiscourses about postcolonial states. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . edited by Jonathan Perspectives History of IllinoisPress. anthropologists (native and foreign). "Indigenismo de Resultados." MexNancy Vogeley. Brazilian stratAlcida Ramos casts a criticaleye on the rhetorical anthropologist egies employed by participantsin the Braziliandebate over the status of Amazonian Indians."Colonial Discourse in a Postcolonial Context: Nineteenth-Century ico. 197 This content downloaded from 200. is of considerableinterestto exclude (both politicallyand intellectually) exile.historians. Hence they are reluctantto criticizepostindependence formsof nationalism." paper presentedat themeetingof theLatin AmericanStudies Association. She shows how indigenous leaders. and Ramos.69. 1989. 1988). and 30. Many anthropologists. however. See also note 27.were actuallyunacknowledged pastiches of colonial and indigenous elements revamped for political purposes." in Rethinking Hill. Tempo Brasileiro. Coming to grips with the colonial past of theirown countriesthrough colonial discoursehas proved morecongenial formanyscholarsborn and educated in theWest. native"or "speaking from What the nationalistleaders systematically which are oftenexclusionary. Alcida Ramos. and countriesand creatingnew public ritualsand ceremonies. critiques manyofwhommustdevelop their postcolonialcritiquesare Related to these South Asian and African and political anthropologists' critiquesoftherhetorical LatinAmericanist construction of indigenous communitiesin the postcolonialera. nationalistleaders have inventedsomethingcalled "traditional ety" by theirpracticesof renaming towns.and Brazilian politicianseach constructa rhetoric and semiology of "Indian" identityin a battle for political influence Thus the boundsometimesunrelated to the communitiesthemselves. 4-6 Dec. villages. deconstructsfamiliarWestern mythologyabout Indian shamanism and healing by showing it to be not an "authentic" Indian discourse but one realized in reaction to colonialism."The Past as Battlefield. Critiquesofpostcolonialnationalistdiscoursehave by scholarsbornin India. and literarycriticswritingof thosewho are lumped together as "ThirdWorldpeople" adopt a stance of advocacy for those they have been studyingand workingwith. the consequentlybeen developed mostsaliently Philippines.REVIEW ESSAYS socirule. These supposedly authentic national institutions.30 29.

Forotherimportant programmatic MateNew Essaysin Cultural Shakespeare: see Jonathan Dollimoreand Alan Sinfield."See also JonaA Review Essay. 1975).and Bhabha-are themselves locatedbetween theFirst and Third Worlds: bornand eduambivalently catedin places likePalestine made and Bengal.89. oftheWest's thoseoftheThird Theattraction poststructuralism for and Third worlds World and thoseon theboundaries betweentheFirst its has notbeen its statusin theWest." ELH: A Journal of than Goldberg. Once More (Princeton. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Goldberg.J.31 Colonialdiscourse political was first applied to themovementin the1950s and 1960s that 31."StrangeThings. Yetby virtue ofreputation and lengthy residence to shapingthe theyare no longeroftheEast. 1972). James 40-67. 1982).N. 14. 78. 1969). notofit.Gross Terms.69. Toward pline of literature. has comefrom ofits internationalization appropriation and manipulation ideas by textual communities outsidetheWest."Renaissance Literary EnglishLiterary 10 (1980):153-82. 1985). The more recentpopularityof thetermis usuN. Spivak. and Roy Harvey Pearce.communities thathave oftheplasfoundin itsattack on traditional humanism and recognition oflanguage resonances with ticity powerful critiques already beingdevelownpolitical and cultural contexts. oldest ofthesetrends from (dating 1980)is the"newliterary historicism.:Princeton See WesleyMorris. Jonathan 198 This content downloaded from 200. statements turethatproduced it. ofLiterature: Johnson. Stephen Orgen.6-63."EnglishLiterary in theEnglishRenaissance (Berkeleyand Los Angeles: The IllusionofPower:PoliticalTheater CuriofCaliforniaPress. oped intheir CONCLUSION Theinterdisciplinary movement associated with colonial andpostof other colonialdiscourse is havinga significant on a number impact Western withwhichit sharespoststructuralist criacademicdisciplines sharesa common either tiquesoflanguage. Renaissance and the Subject of History. Steven Mullaney.Engl.Theyspeakfrom theWest butare in theWest. The termnewhistoricism defineddisciand literary criticism withintheconventionally history soughtto uniteliterary a New Historicism (Princeton. Montrose. Rather. thenew literary historicism The and political theory. Louis A. Historicism Press. in eliteElizabethan and Marlowe." literan effort to embedthestudy oflanguagewithin canonical English ature(Shakespeare.Themovement concentration on political contexts ofliterary languageoron thepolitical languagewith twoofthesefields.theyhave nonetheless their academic reputations in theWest.: ManchesterUniversity troduction:Shakespeare.and the New Historicism. University 1 (1983): ous Customs: The Rehearsal of Cultures in the Late Renaissance. CulturalMaterialism.Political Press.121 on Thu." Representations I and thePolitics Donne.:PrincetonUniversity to the collectionPowerand thePowerof ally attributed to Stephen Greenblatt'sintroduction in theRenaissance of Oklahoma Press. especially Dollimore's"Inrialism(Manchester. Johnson) politics shareswiththenewliterary historculture. His essay criticizes Forms (Norman: University theearlierhistoricism forits failureto perceive the textin a complexrelationshipto theculon thenew historicism. Hence their contribution fieldhas arisenwithin thesame context oftheinternationalization that they areattempting to study.J. Shakespeare. "The Politicsof Renaissance Literature: Studies History 49 (1982):514-42.American Latin Research Review thecolonialdiscourse manymight imagine. University Press.

1980). Jonathan Aracand HarrietRitro(Philadelphia: University "InvisibleBullets:Renaissance Au32. 1981). and Greenblatt.'" Social Texts. edited by JamesDer Derian and Intertextual Postmodern Readings ofWorld Relations: Michael J.the "colonial" and "postcolonial" situations. Macropolitics ofNineteenth-Century ofPennsylvaniaPress."The ofliterary 199 This content downloaded from 200.Shapiro (Lexington. A good collectionof recentwritingon the subject is International! Politics.namely international relations.Political thority and Its Subversion.that of imperial authority and its afterthe math. Practices PhotogWriting ofRepresentation: 1990. religioustracts. 1989). Michael J. Exoticism.even ordinarycorrespondence. in theNuclearAge (Norman: University of 33. Most attention be viewed as thetwentieth-century successorto colonialdiscourse. Analysis(Madison: University Practices (New Haven. 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .see RichardRoth. See Mullaney. seek to understandthedynamics ofthecolonial situation. 17 (1987):3-27 For a critique oricofOthernessand the 'National Allegory.: Yale ThePolitics ofDiscursive guageand Political Understanding: University Press. Helios 7 (1980):51-74.34 While the Press.Fisher Solomon.89. ShakeIV and HenryV. in Biography.a discourseideallysuited forpoststructuralist analyses in thatithas no "reallyreal" referent. Ill. The new literary concerned with canonical whilecolonial discoursewriters literature. This cross-culturalaspect is also the most distinctive featureof colonial and postcolonial critiques of language.: LexingtonBooks. "Jameson's For a critiqueofliterary no.33 What distinguishescolonial and postcolonial discourse analyses fromthese emerging discussions in political science is the focus on a different historiccircumstance. centering on such topics as thelanguage used in discussing nuclearwar.REVIEW ESSAYS icism an interest in subsuming a greaternumberof discourses under the heading of politicallanguage-for example." in Dollimoreand Sinfield. theorists who have failedto incorporate such perspectives. Discourseand Reference from 1984to editorofthejournalPolitical Theory OklahomaPress. "The 34.Henry 18-47 speare. on a Shakespearean Anthropology. 1988).withtwo ofthemostinfluential earlyessays in this fieldbeing written on colonial issues. WilliamE.Further separating fieldofcolonial discoursefrom thetwo otherpoststructuralist critiquesof politicallanguage is the need to consider the perspectives of different languages and cultures. "King Lear and Harsnett's Devil's Fiction.: University of Chicago FromMore to Shakespeare RenaissanceSelf-Fashioning: approaches to colonial discourse is to broaden new historicist Press. politicaltreatises. ThePolitics and Policy ofWisconsinPress.121 on Thu. 1983). see Louis Montrose.Md.32but theydivergein theirultimate historicism is ultimately aim. Lanraphy. 1991).The two fieldsalso share an interest in colonial discourses. and Greenblatt. J. (Chicago." Purpose of Playing: Reflections Rhettheoryin anthropological style. A recenteffort Literature: edited by Nationalism. For the influenceof anthropologyon the new historicists.see Aijaz Ahman.: JohnsHopkins tJniversity and TheirContemporaries blatt. Conn."StrangeThings". and Shapiro.But the discussion of language use in contemporaryinternational relationsdiffers considerably. Thus issues of translationand cross-cultural (mis)understandings complicatethe generalproblemsof linguistictransparency.69. 1988). Connolly. Shapiro. Green(Baltimore. A related emergingphenomenon is the study of language use in here has been directedat a fieldthatcan politicalscience. Imperialism.Mass.renderingculturalanthropologymore centralto this interdisciplinary field." in The Formsof Power.

200 This content downloaded from 200. culturalanthropology-as more than decorativeknowledge. We do not repeat the past. in colonial targetof critiqueremains the same-the relationsof authority of culturaland politiand postcolonialstates-and it is thus an enterprise cal criticism being carriedout in a resolutely postcolonialera. anthropology. are Some disciplines. as knowledge criticalof the relationsof authority within a matterhow identical. (Baltimore. Both the colonial and postcolonial discourse movementssignify a revivalof politicsand its returnto the centerof intellectualdebate after decades of being relegatedto a secondaryposition in the predominantly and literary social and culturalrealms of history.121 on Thu.we only reinvent Colonial Experienceand Its PostmodernFate.: Johns Hopkins University Press.The aim of the critiquein each of these disciplines is relationsof authority. theory. 35.Md.89. literary criticism. Of the practitioners of these threedisciplines.the revivalof interestin the politicalthat in a different has permeatedthese threedisciplinesis occurring historical contextand consequentlyhas a different intellectual inflection.American Research Review Latin in various disciplines." a legacy of the social historyand interpretive anthropologyof the 1960s and 1970s. The idea that any repetition. no.69. See Jacques Derrida. such as anthropologyand literary criticism. conventional political relations of authority. Inc. remains. Limited.historians have been relatively reluctant to considerany formofreflexivity or reflexive self-critique oftheir practices.always entails a difference is recognizablypoststructuralist. prevailed in the 1950s.Literary with respect to anthropologistsconsider the position of fieldworkers native subjects.or those of representing historically turalothersare crucialand unprecedentedquestions withwhichthisnew work on politicsmust contend. culturalrelationsof authority different-economic But the basic (the canon). But the concern with language and rhetoric. Rather. The concern with "voices frombelow. claimed. But this more recentbody of work does not signify a returnto the same or culturalanthropologythat political issues in history. as Santayana 35 itcontinually. 85 (1989):248-65. 1977). 14 Nov 2013 11:28:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the ethics and strategiesof representing distantculanthropologicalothers. What all of these works do to varyingdegrees is to achieve one of the functionsof a critique: to posit an idea about the humanitiesdisciplines-history. this focus on the language that emphasis differs has been used in representingotherpeoples in the politicalcontextof colonialismand postcolonialismhas produced powerfulnew critiquesof the ways in which political power over cultural others has been constituted and maintained." Salmagundi. of the politicalagendas of their more willing to undertakeself-criticism critics attacktheidea and practice ofcanons while own discipline. literary theory.