You are on page 1of 7

EEK 471 LAB 11

Universiti Sains Malaysia Electrical Engineering Department Advanced Power Electronic Laboratory EEK471

The MOSFET Single Phase Inverter Part I
OBJECTIVE  To learn the operation of a PWM single-phase inverter.

INTRODUCTION Using a four-quadrant chopper as an inverter Inverters are devices which convert dc power into ac power. This allows single phase, two-phase and three-phase ac power networks with variable frequency and voltage to be obtained. Such ac power networks are widely used to build various ac motor drives. A single-phase inverter can be obtained using a four-quadrant chopper, in which the duty cycles of the switching control signals are made to vary so that the voltage at the chopper output alternates at a given rate between positive and negative values. Figure 1 shows a four-quadrant chopper connected to a current-type load, the signal applied at the duty-cycle control input of the four quadrant chopper and the waveforms of the voltage and current at the four quadrant chopper output. A sine-wave signal modulates the duty cycles of the switching control signals. As a result, the waveform of the voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output is a train of bipolar pulses whose width varies in accordance with the instantaneous voltage of the sine-wave signal. The dashed line in Figure 1 corresponds to the mean voltage over each cycle of the bipolar pulse train at the four-quadrant chopper output. It shows that this voltage is an ac voltage having the same form (sinusoidal) as the signal applied to the duty-cycle control input of the four quadrant chopper. The range over which the width of the bipolar pulses at the four-quadrant chopper output varies depends on the sine-wave signal amplitude. Increasing the sine-wave signal amplitude increases the range of variation of the pulse width and therefore the amplitude of the ac voltage at the fourquadrant chopper output. The rate at which the pulse width varies at the four-quadrant chopper output depends on the frequency of the sine-wave signal. Increasing the sine-wave signal frequency increases the rate at which the pulse width varies and therefore the frequency of the ac voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output.

1

EEK 471 LAB 11

Figure 1: Using a four-quadrant chopper as an inverter.

Except for a small ripple, the current at the four-quadrant chopper output has the same sinusoidal shape as the signal applied to the duty-cycle control input of the four-quadrant chopper. Notice that the current waveform is shifted towards right in Figure 1 since current lags behind the voltage in a resistive-inductive circuit.

2

EEK 471 LAB 11

EQUIPMENTS             EMS 8821 Enclosure Power Supply EMS 8840-0A PE Power Supply EMS 8837-0A Power Mosfets Module EMS 9029-00 Chopper/Inverter Control Unit EMS 8412-05 Lab-Volt DC Voltmeter/Ammeter EMS 8311 Variable Resistance EMS 8325 Smoothing Inductor EMS 9056-15 and EMS 9056-05 Voltage/Current Isolator 24V AC Power Switch Textronic Oscilloscope Connection Leads Function Generator & BNC-connector cable

WARNINGS The voltages and currents that are used during this lab are larger and rated at 240VDC Line-toNeutral with current as high as 20 amps (or higher if circuits are improperly connected). Please take the proper precautions and use your head before touching any circuitry. NEVER change any circuit connections while the power supply is turned on. Ask the demonstrator to check your connections before turning on the switches. And follow the rating of voltmeters and ammeters given to prevent equipments from damaged. Experiment: Part I Single phase Inverter with DC level as a control input signal 1. In this part, you will set up the circuits shown in Figures 1a and 1c to observe how dc power can be converted into ac power using a four-quadrant chopper. In the circuit of Figure 1a, a variable dc voltage is used to vary the duty cycles of the switching control signals and a dc voltmeter is used to measure the voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output. Set up the circuit of Figure 1a. Set S1 of power Mosfets to 1 (ON) to form the fourquadrant chopper circuit, thus reduces additional cables. Refer a circuit on the left of S 1 to get an idea the way it is built.

Figure 1a: Circuit used to demonstrate dc-to-ac power conversion.

3

EEK 471 LAB 11

Figure 1b: L1 = 6.4H Table 1a: Parameters setting L1(H) 6.4 R1 (Ω) 4800

E1(V) 300

2. Using a BNC-connector cable, connect the SYNC. OUTPUT of the Power MOSFETS module to the external triggering input of the oscilloscope. 3. Make the following settings on the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit DC SOURCE 1  Mid position DC SOURCE 2  Mid position MODE  CHOP. PWM 4. Make sure that the main power switch of the Power Supply is set to the 0 (OFF) position. Set the voltage control knob to 0. 5. Set the 24V ac power switch to the 1 (ON) position. The POWER ON LED on the Power MOSFETS module should light up to indicate that the module is correctly powered. 6. Set the main power switch to 1 (ON) and slowly set the voltage control knob to 30% position. This supplies dc power to the MOSFET four-quadrant chopper. On the oscilloscope, make the appropriate settings to position the traces of channels 1 and 2 in the upper and lower halves of the screen, respectively. The trace represents the switching control signal applied to MOSFET Q1 and Q4 respectively. 7. On the Chopper/Inverter Control Units, set the DC SOURCE 2 control knob so that the period of the switching control signal to approximately 1 ms. Consequently, the operating frequency of the MOSFET four-quadrant chopper is approximately 1000 Hz. No longer modify the setting of DC SOURCE 2 for the rest of the exercise procedure. 8. On the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, slowly set the DC SOURCE 1 control knob back and forth between MIN and MAX positions while observing the voltage indicated by the four-quadrant chopper output voltage on the DC Voltmeter/Ammeter and the waveforms of the switching control signals on the oscilloscope screen. Describe the variation of the voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output. Explain. From this observation, do you think it could be possible to convert dc power into ac power using a four-quadrant chopper? Briefly explain. 9. On the Power Supply, set the voltage control knob to the 0 position then set the main power switch and the 24 V ac power switch to the 0 position.

4

EEK 471 LAB 11

Experiment: Part II Single phase Inverter with sinusoidal waveform as a control input signal 1. Modify the connection so that the modules are connected as shown in Figure 2a. In this figure, DC SOURCE 1 is replaced with the Function Generator, the Current Isolator and the Voltage Isolator are added to the circuit and the connections on the oscilloscope are modified. In this circuit, a sine-wave signal is used to control the duty cycles of the switching control signals. You will vary the frequency and amplitude of the sine-wave signal to observe the effects these have on the waveform of the voltage at the fourquadrant chopper output.

Figure 2a: Converting dc power into ac power using a four-quadrant chopper Table 2a: Parameters setting E1(V) L1(H) 300 6.4 R1 (Ω) 4800

e1(V) 600

i1(A) 0.5

2. Make the following settings on the Function generator FUNCTION  Sine Wave Range  1 Hz Frequency  Mid position Amplitude  Mid position 3. A varying voltage should appear on the oscilloscope screen (channel 1). This voltage is applied to the duty-cycle control input (control INPUT 1) of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit. On the Function Generator, set the Frequency control so that the voltage varies at a slow rate on the oscilloscope screen. Set the Amplitude control so the voltage varies between maximum and minimum at approximately +8 and -8 V peak to peak.

5

EEK 471 LAB 11

4. Set the 24V ac power switch to the 1 (ON) position. The POWER ON LED on the Power MOSFETS module should light up to indicate that the module is correctly powered. Set the main power switch to 1 (ON) on the Power Supply, and then slowly set the voltage control knob to 30% positions. Another waveform should appear on the oscilloscope screen. It is the waveform of the voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output. Observe the four-quadrant chopper output voltage on the DC Voltmeter/Ammeter and the waveforms on the oscilloscope. Describe what happens. Does the four-quadrant chopper perform dc-to-ac power conversion? 5. Remove the cable which connects the SYNC. OUTPUT of the Power MOSFETS module to the external triggering input of the oscilloscope. Use this cable to connect the SYNC. OUTPUT of the Function Generator to the external triggering input of the oscilloscope. 6. Make the following settings on the Function generator FUNCTION  Sine Wave Range  100 Hz Frequency  Mid position Amplitude  Mid position 7. On the Function Generator, set the Frequency and Amplitude control so that the period and amplitude of the sine wave signal displayed on the oscilloscope screen are equal to approximately 20ms and +8 V peak respectively. Consequently, the operating frequency of the MOSFET four-quadrant chopper is approximately 50 Hz. Note that the waveform of the voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output probably shifts towards left or right on the oscilloscope screen. Slightly readjust the Frequency control of the Function Generator so that this waveform nearly ceases to shift. Sketch the waveforms displayed on the oscilloscope screen in Figure 2b.

Figure 2b: Signal at the duty-cycle control input of the Chopper/ Inverter Control Unit and waveform of the voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output.

6

EEK 471 LAB 11

8. On the Function Generator, slowly turn the Frequency control knob fully clockwise while observing the waveforms on the oscilloscope screen, then set the period of the sine-wave signal back to approximately 20 ms. On the Function Generator, slowly turn the amplitude control knob fully counter clockwise while observing the waveforms on the oscilloscope screen, then set the amplitude of the sine-wave signal back to approximately 8 V peak. What are the effects of the frequency and amplitude of the sine-wave signal on the waveform of the voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output? Note that there is a delay between the sine-wave signal modulating the duty cycles of the switching control signals and the waveform of the voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output. Do not take this delay into account. 9. On the Function Generator, disconnect the lead connected to the OUTPUT, then connect it to the OUTPUT of the Current Isolator. The oscilloscope now displays the waveforms of the current and voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output. Note that the waveforms of the current and voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output probably shifts towards left or right on the oscilloscope screen. Slightly readjust the Frequency control of the Function Generator so that these waveforms nearly cease to shift. Sketch these waveforms in Figure 2c. Briefly explain why the waveform of the current at the four-quadrant chopper output is a sine wave.

Figure 2c: Waveforms of the current and voltage at the four-quadrant chopper output.

10. On the Power Supply, set the voltage control knob to the 0 position then set the main power switch and the 24 V ac power switch to the 0 position.

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What is the main function of inverters? 2. Briefly explain how dc power can be converted into ac power using a four quadrant chopper?

7