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EEK 471 LAB 12

Universiti Sains Malaysia Electrical Engineering Department Advanced Power Electronic Laboratory EEK471

The MOSFET Single Phase Inverter Part II
OBJECTIVE  To learn the operation of a 180° modulation single-phase inverter.

INTRODUCTION The PWM and 180° modulation single-phase inverters Inverters are devices which convert dc power into ac power. This allows single phase, two-phase and three-phase ac power networks with variable frequency and voltage to be obtained. Such ac power networks are widely used to build various ac motor drives. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of a single-phase inverter. It consists of two semiconductor switches (MOSFET Q1 and Q4), two free-wheeling diodes (diodes D1 and D4), and a SWITCHING CONTROL SIGNAL GENERATOR. In this configuration, the single-phase inverter requires a dual-polarity dc power supply (dc power supply E1, and capacitors C1 and C2). In the single-phase inverter, the duty cycles of the switching control signals are complementary to ensure that when one MOSFET is on, the other MOSFET is off, and vice versa. A positive voltage is applied to the load when MOSFET Q1 is on, whereas a negative voltage is applied to the load when MOSFET Q4 is on.

Figure 1: A single-phase inverter built with two MOSFETS and two free-wheeling diodes.

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EEK 471 LAB 12

The duty cycles of the switching control signals can be modulated using a sine-wave signal, as in the four-quadrant chopper to obtain ac voltage and current at the output. In this case, the inverter is referred to as a pulse-width modulation (PWM) single-phase inverter. Therefore, the waveforms of the voltage and current at the output are identical to those obtained with the four-quadrant chopper (see Figure 1 Lab 11). The amplitude and frequency of the ac voltage and current can be varied by respectively varying the amplitude and frequency of the sine-wave signal modulating the duty cycles of the switching control signals. Two complementary square-wave signals can be used as the switching control signals in the single-phase inverter shown in Figure 1. In this case, the inverter is referred to as a 180° modulation single-phase inverter. Figure 2 shows the switching control signals and the waveforms of the voltage and current at the output of such a 180° modulation single-phase inverter.

Figure 2: Waveforms related to a 180° modulation single-phase inverter. The waveform of the voltage at the output of the 180° modulation single-phase inverter is a bipolar square wave having the same frequency as the switching control signals. The frequency of the ac voltage at the output of the 180° modulation single-phase inverter can be varied by varying the frequency of the switching control signals. However, since the duty cycle of the switching control signal is fixed, the ac voltage at the output of the 180° modulation single-phase Inverter is also fixed, unless the positive and negative dc voltages at the input are varied. The waveform of the current at the output of the 180° modulation single phase inverter is a more or less smoothed bipolar square wave having the same frequency as the switching control signals.

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EQUIPMENTS             EMS 8821 Enclosure Power Supply EMS 8840-0A PE Power Supply EMS 8837-0A Power Mosfets Module EMS 9029-00 Chopper/Inverter Control Unit EMS 8412-05 Lab-Volt DC Voltmeter/Ammeter EMS 8311 Variable Resistance EMS 8325 Smoothing Inductor EMS 9056-15 and EMS 9056-05 Voltage/Current Isolator 24V AC Power Switch Textronic Oscilloscope Connection Leads Function Generator & BNC-connector cable

WARNINGS The voltages and currents that are used during this lab are larger and rated at 240VDC Line-toNeutral with current as high as 20 amps (or higher if circuits are improperly connected). Please take the proper precautions and use your head before touching any circuitry. NEVER change any circuit connections while the power supply is turned on. Ask the demonstrator to check your connections before turning on the switches. And follow the rating of voltmeters and ammeters given to prevent equipments from damaged. Experiment: Part I Operation of a PWM single-phase inverter built with two MOSFETs 1. In this part, you will set up the circuits shown in Figures 1a to observe the operation of a PWM single-phase inverter. You will vary the frequency and amplitude of the sine-wave signal to observe the effects these have on the switching control signals as well as the waveforms of the voltage and current at the output of the PWM single-phase inverter. You will compare the waveforms of the voltage and current at the output of the PWM single-phase inverter to those obtained with the four-quadrant chopper. Set S1 of power Mosfets to 0 (OFF) position. Connect the module as shown Figure 1a.

Figure 1a: A PWM single-phase inverter built with two MOSFETS.

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Figure 1b: L1 = 6.4H Table 1a: Parameters setting e1(V) i1(A) E1(V) 600 0.5 300 R1 (Ω) 4800

C1(uF) 13.9

C2(uF) 13.9

L1(H) 6.4

2. Using a BNC-connector cable, connect the SYNC. OUTPUT of the Function generator to the external triggering input of the oscilloscope. 3. Make the following settings on the Function generator FUNCTION  Sine Wave Range  1 Hz Frequency  Mid position Amplitude  Mid position 4. Make sure that the main power switch of the Power Supply is set to the 0 (OFF) position. Set the voltage control knob to 0. 5. Set the 24V ac power switch to the 1 (ON) position. The POWER ON LED on the Power MOSFETS module should light up to indicate that the module is correctly powered. 6. Set the main power switch to 1 (ON) and slowly set the voltage control knob to 30% position. Measure and note the voltage across capacitor C 1 (VC1) on the DC Voltmeter/Ammeter. VC1 = ____________ V dc 7. Set the main power switch back to the O (OFF) position. 8. Disconnect only the lead going to the +ve terminal of the DC voltmeter from capacitor C1. Do not change the -ve terminal of the DC voltmeter. Then connect it so that the DC voltmeter is connected across capacitor C2. Set the main power switch to the 1 (ON) position. Measure and note the voltage across capacitor C2, (VC2) on the DC Voltmeter/Ammeter. VC2 = ____________ V dc Is the PWM single-phase inverter powered by a dual-polarity dc power supply? Explain. 9. The oscilloscope displays the waveforms of the current and voltage at the PWM singlephase inverter output. Note that the waveform of the current and voltage at PWM singlephase inverter output probably shifts towards left or right on the oscilloscope screen. Slightly readjust the Frequency control of the Function Generator so that these waveforms nearly cease to shift. Sketch the waveforms displayed on the oscilloscope screen in Figure 1c. Compare these waveforms to those obtained using the four-quadrant Chopper (See Figure 2c Lab 11).

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Figure 1c: Waveforms of the current and voltage at the PWM single-phase inverter output. 10. On the Function Generator, slowly vary the settings, first of the Frequency control and second the Amplitude control while observing the waveforms of the current and voltage on the oscilloscope screen. Describe what happens to the current and voltage at the output of the PWM single-phase inverter when these settings are varied. Briefly explain. 11. On the Power Supply, set the voltage control knob to the 0 position then set the main power switch and the 24 V ac power switch to the 0 position. Experiment: Part II Operation of a 180° PWM single-phase inverter built with two MOSFETs 1. In this exercise, you will set up the circuit shown in Figure 2a to observe the operation of a 180° modulation single-phase inverter. You will vary the frequency of the switching control signals to observe the effect this has on the waveforms of the voltage and current at the output of the 180° modulation single phase inverter. You will compare the waveforms of the voltage and current at the output of the 180° modulation single-phase inverter to those obtained with the PWM single-phase inverter. 2. Modify the connection so that the modules are connected as shown in Figure 2a. In this figure, the Function Generator is replaced by DC SOURCE1, DC SOURCE 2 is removed and the connections on the oscilloscope are modified.

Figure 2a: A 180° modulation PWM single-phase inverter built with two MOSFETS.

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C1(uF) 13.9

C2(uF) 13.9

Table 2a: Parameters setting e1(V) i1(A) E1(V) 600 0.5 300

L1(H) 6.4

R1 (Ω) 4800

3. Make the following settings on the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit DC SOURCE 1  Maximum MODE  3 ~ 180° 4. Set the 24V ac power switch to the 1 (ON) position. The POWER ON LED on the Power MOSFETS module should light up to indicate that the module is correctly powered. 5. On the Power Supply, set the main power switch to the 1 (ON) position, then slowly set the voltage control knob of the Power Supply to the 30%. 6. The oscilloscope now displays the waveforms of the switching control signals applied to MOSFETs Q1 and Q4 of the 180° modulation single phase inverter. Sketch the waveforms of these signals in Figure 2b.

Figure 2b: Waveforms of the switching control signals in the 180 ° modulation single-phase inverter. Using the waveform sketched in Figure 2b, describe the switching sequence of the MOSFETs. 7. On the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, slowly turn the DC SOURCE 1 control knob back and forth between the MAX position and the middle position while observing the signals on the oscilloscope screen, then set the control knob back to the MAX position. Describe what happens to the switching control signals applied to the MOSFETs when the setting of the DC SOURCE 1 control knob is varied. 8. On the Power MOSFETs module, disconnect the leads connected to SWITCHING CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 4, then connect them to the OUTPUTS of the Current Isolator and Voltage Isolator, respectively. The oscilloscope now displays the waveforms of the current and voltage at the output of the 180° modulation single-phase inverter. Sketch these signals in Figure 2c

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Figure 2c: Waveforms of the current and voltage in the 180 ° modulation single-phase inverter.

Compare these waveforms to those obtained using the PWM single phase inverter (See Figure 1c). 9. On the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, slowly turn the DC SOURCE 1 control knob back and forth between the MAX position and the middle position while observing the waveforms of the current and voltage on the oscilloscope screen, then set the control knob back to the MAX position. Describe what happens to the waveforms of the current and voltage at the output of the 180° modulation single-phase inverter when the setting of the DC SOURCE 1 control knob is varied. Briefly explain. 10. On the Power Supply, set the voltage control knob to the 0 position then set the main power switch and the 24 V ac power switch to the 0 position. Set the rocker switch on the Enclosure/ Power Supply to the 0 position. Remove all leads, cables and probes.

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Describe the operation of a PWM single-phase inverter. 2. Describe the operation of a 180° modulation single-phase inverter 3. Explain a simple means to convert a single-polarity dc power supply into a dual-polarity dc power supply.

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