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THESIS FORMAT POSTGRADUATE

i | Thesis format for Post Graduate

– AHSGS- April 2013

THESIS FORMAT GUIDE
This guide has been prepared to help graduate students to prepare their dissertation and theses for acceptance by Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia. The regulations contained within have been updated for the benefit of students, faculty advisors, departments and the Graduate School. Any questions about the contents of this guide should be directed to the Format Advisor, Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM, Sintok. The Format Advisor is concerned solely with the format of the manuscripts. It is the Advisor’s responsibility to make certain that any dissertation or thesis submitted in partial fulfilment or fulfilment of a graduate degree at Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia conforms to the regulations outlined in this guide. Responsibility for the content of any manuscript remains with the student and the faculty advisor(s).

ii | Thesis format for Post Graduate

– AHSGS- April 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Thesis Format Guide .............................................................................................................i TABLE OF CONTENTS .....................................................................................................ii 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 REGULATIONS FOR PREPARATION OF A THESIS .............................. 4 General Form and Style ................................................................................. 4 Length of Thesis ............................................................................................ 4 Paper Type and Quality ................................................................................. 4 Typing or Computer Printing ......................................................................... 5 Margins .......................................................................................................... 5 Paragraphs ...................................................................................................... 5 Numbering of Pages ....................................................................................... 5 Illustrative Materials ...................................................................................... 6 1.8.1 1.8.2 1.8.3 1.8.4 1.9 1.9.1 1.9.2 1.9.3 1.9.4 1.9.5 1.9.6 1.9.7 1.9.8 1.9.9 Diagrams and Tables ......................................................................... 6 Figures and/or Plates ......................................................................... 6 Photographs and Plates ...................................................................... 7 Oversized Pages................................................................................. 7 Title Page ........................................................................................... 8 Certification of Thesis/Dissertation ................................................... 8 Permission to Use .............................................................................. 9 Abstract.............................................................................................. 9 Permission to Reproduce ................................................................. 10 Acknowledgements ......................................................................... 10 Dedication........................................................................................ 10 Table of Contents ............................................................................ 10 List of Tables ................................................................................... 11

Arrangement of Contents ............................................................................... 8

1.9.10 List of Figures.................................................................................. 11 1.9.11 List of Abbreviations ....................................................................... 11 1.9.12 Body of the Thesis ........................................................................... 11 1.9.13 List of References ............................................................................ 11 1.9.14 Appendices ...................................................................................... 11 1.9.15 Vita .................................................................................................. 12 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 SPECIFIC ITEMS ....................................................................................... 12 Titling the Thesis ......................................................................................... 12 Copyright and Subsequent Use of the Thesis .............................................. 12 Equations...................................................................................................... 13

iii | Thesis format for Post Graduate 2.4 2.5 2.6

– AHSGS- April 2013

Notes ............................................................................................................ 14 Referencing .................................................................................................. 14 Layout of a Chapter ..................................................................................... 14 2.6.1 Numbered Format................................................................................ 14 2.6.2 Unnumbered Format............................................................................ 15

2.7 2.8 2.9

Layout of a Table ......................................................................................... 15 Layout of a Figure ........................................................................................ 15 Binding the Thesis ....................................................................................... 15

APPENDIX : EXAMPLE OF THESIS ............................................................................. 17

1. The main body of a thesis should contain:      Introduction. and that the language of the thesis reflects the finest standards of correct.3 50 to 150 pages. . 150 to 300 pages Paper Type and Quality With the exception of photographs. or is not of letter quality. is not free of mechanical errors. 1. If a thesis does not follow the accepted format. candidates are advised to consult their supervisor(s) and/ or officer of the Dean’s Office before proceeding with the preparation of the thesis. and Discussion of Results and Conclusion. The relative size of each one of these components will be determined by the nature of the problem under investigation and by the discipline involved. The standard paper size is 210 by 297 m. Methodology.April 2013 1.0 REGULATIONS FOR PREPARATION OF A THESIS Candidates should read carefully the following discussion of the Regulations of the Dean's Office and should familiarize themselves with the particular thesis requirement of their respective disciplines. it will not be accepted and the degree will not be conferred until an acceptable standard has been met.4 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS. If any point is still unclear. is not on the required quality of paper.1 General Form and Style The main point to keep in mind is consistency of style throughout the thesis. scholarly expression. The style selected must be maintained throughout the thesis. of A4 size and must be of good quality (80 gm) with a hard. one type and brand name of paper must be used throughout the thesis for reason of appearance and preservation. Literature Review. Accepted rules of grammar must be followed. and forms of spelling and punctuation must be used with consistency. It is the responsibility of the candidate and the supervisor(s) to ensure that before the thesis is presented for oral defence (viva) that typographical errors have been eliminated. bright and even surface. Results.2 Length of Thesis The recommended length of the main body of thesis is as followed: Master’s: PhD: 1.

7 Numbering of Pages Each page in a thesis. . Illustrative material is to be numbered as well as the text. and for the correctness of pagination. must be numbered consecutively.5 cm (1 inch) : 2.5 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS.5 cm from each edge. 1. beginning with the introduction (Chapter One).5 cm (1 inch) All information including text heading. After all materials have been assembled. If photographic paper is used. Note: It is imperative that the age set-up is formatted accordingly prior to the drafting of the dissertation. bibliography and appendices.4 Typing or Computer Printing The entire body text of the thesis.6 Paragraphs All paragraphs should be “justified” 1.5 Margins Margin specifications are meant to facilitate binding and trimming.0 cm (1.5 inches) : 2. tables.5 cm (1 inch) : 4. This includes pages containing illustrations. including heading and page numbers. for the order of the pages and sections. Font Style: Times New Roman Font Size: 12 character per inch.April 2013 1. The stipulated margins for the general text are as follows:     Top edge Right side Left side Bottom edge : 2. must be same font or typeface. 1. the thesis should be verified carefully for completeness. numbers must be placed neatly in black ink on the reverse side. including those in the appendices. must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. All pages of the main body of the thesis. All items in the prefatory section should be on separate pages. Roman numerals are used for the prefatory pages and the numerals are placed in the bottom centre of the page. Page numbers are to appear in the bottom centre 1. footnotes and illustrations should be within these margins.

9 0.018 A value <0. graphs.6 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS.8. The caption is not repeated 1.3. Table 4. the reference must be cited properly at the bottom left of the table. A value > 0.8 Illustrative Materials 1. For example. Table 4. maps.074 Recommended values P > 0.08 indicates fit of the model.1 Diagrams and Tables Each table caption must be centered at the top of the table (title case).2 Figures and/or Plates Each figure caption must be centered at the bottom of the figure (sentence case).1: Fit Measures Measures Chi-square (X2) P-Value RAMSEA 0. . and so on. Italic. If any table continues to the following or subsequent pages. charts and diagrams.2.8. Research value 348.05 If a table is taken from another source. Table Heading should be as shown below: Table 1: Format of headings (Centred. Table Presentation Table presentation must be without vertical lines and used consistently throughout the dissertation. tables found in Chapter 4 should be numbered Table 4. the top line of the page reads (for example): Table 4.2 continued.1. Figures may be illustrations. Sentence Case Heading) Table Numbering The relevant tables are grouped and numbered sequentially within the respective chapter.05 indicates an acceptable fit.April 2013 1. Example in Chapter 4 Table 4.

For example. BI. each should have the full range of contrast from true black to pure white. the reference must be cited properly at the bottom left of the figure. particularly those from computer printouts. Where this is not possible. If any figure continues to the following or subsequent pages.3. The presence of photographs may make page-trimming difficult. Excessively long tables. 1. the same guidelines as for tables should be followed.April 2013 Only the word Figure and the figure number are italicised. . The relevant figures are grouped and numbered sequentially within the respective chapter. charts. Social Influence Behavi oral intentio Actual Use Facilitating conditions Figure 3. the top line of the page reads (for example): Figure 4. should be placed in an appendix. Folding is to be avoided in the case of PhD theses. and actual use If a figure is taken from another source.2 Implementation environment factor. Figure 4. A figure normally should not extend beyond one page.8.4 Oversized Pages Wherever possible.2. since oversized page may be impossible to microfilm.7 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS. Dry mounting-tissue provides the neatest and most permanent method of affixing photographs. thus destroying the foldout. and tables which are larger than the standard page-size must be photo-reduced in such a way that the material remains clearly legible. maps. Make as few folds as possible. figures found in Chapter 4 should be numbered Figure 4. Schematic and line diagrams should be drawn with the aid of a computer or with mechanical aids using black ink on white paper. and so on. they must be carefully folded for binding into the manuscript.3 Photographs and Plates Wherever possible.8. photocopies should be used instead of photographs. 1.1. graphs. Do not use rubber cement or glue. When using photographs. Figure 4. The fold should be made at least 1.3 continued. The same rules apply for the use of Plates.5 cm from the edge of the page in case the edges are trimmed by the binder. If it does. The caption is not repeated.

5 The Dean’s Office is aware that the research environment and research paradigms are changing rapidly. the research officer of the Dean’s Office and the company which will ultimately bind the thesis.9 Arrangement of Contents Following is the order of all the elements of the thesis: Title Page Certification of Thesis/Dissertation Permission to Use Abstrak (in Malay) Abstract (in English) Acknowledgement Declaration Associated With the Thesis (Optional) Table of contents List of Tables List of Figures Glossary of Term (Optional) List of Abbreviations (Optional) Body of the Thesis References Appendices (if any) 1. 1. the month and year of submission (e. the degree for which the thesis is submitted. after it has been signed by the supervisor(s) and the Examining Panel members.2 Certification of Thesis/Dissertation A photocopy of the certification form must be included. When this occurs. July 1995) and the copyright notation. .g.April 2013 Other Material 1. candidates should consult. can be designed to contain such material. Candidates must be encouraged to take full advantage of the rapidly expanding technical and information resources. It is likely that a pocket. to be bound into the thesis.9. The supervisor’s name should not appear on the title page.8 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS. 1. the name of the College.8. the full name of the author. This may result in the thesis containing material other than paper copy.9. the name of the institution. with their supervisor(s).1 Title Page The title page should contain the following information: the title of the thesis. at an early stage.

including effect sizes and confidence intervals and/or statistical significance levels.9. in animal research.  main results (including the most important effect sizes) and any important moderators of these effect sizes. in one sentence if possible. policy. The abstract should identify clearly the purpose of the research. sex. The abstract must not exceed 300 words. the participants.  type(s) of participants included in primary studies.9 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS. An abstract for a methodological paper should describe   . the results obtained and the significance of the results or findings. in the front of their thesis. Abstract submitted must follow the guidelines suggested by APA as follows: “An abstract of a report of an empirical study should describe the problem under investigation.you have a limited number of words so restrict your description to essential and interesting features of the study methodology .4 Abstract An abstract in both Bahasa Malaysia and English must be included.  the essential features of study method . and  implications for theory.  study eligibility criteria.particularly those likely to be used in electronic searches. the methods used. specifying pertinent characteristics such as age.  conclusions (including limitations). and  the conclusions and the implications or applications. with the former version appearing before the latter. and ethnic and/or racial group.3 Candidates are expected to include. a statement in paragraph form granting permission to use the thesis under specifically stated conditions and indicating the address of the person to whom request for such permission should be sent. and/or practice. specifying genus and species. An abstract for a literature review or meta-analysis should describe  the problem or relation(s) under investigation.  the basic findings.9.April 2013 Permission to Use 1. An abstract for a theory-oriented paper should describe  how the theory or model works and/or the principles on which it is based and  what phenomena the theory or model accounts for and linkages to empirical results. 1.

should be properly acknowledged. Any extraordinary assistance received by the candidate. 26-27) 1.7 Dedication Inclusion of a dedication is permissible. data analysis. pp. the essential features of the proposed method. with the exception of the first letter of significant words.6 Acknowledgements The content of this single page is left to the discretion of the candidate.9.  the nature of or solution to a problem illustrated by the case example.     An abstract for a case study should describe  the subject and relevant characteristics of the individual.5 Permission to Reproduce When a candidate wishes to reproduce a substantial part of a work in the thesis. 1. Dots between titles and page numbers are optional. and in the case of statistical procedures. for example. Reference should also be made to any financial assistance received to carry out the project. The numbering and format of material in the table of contents must be identical to the way this material appears in the text of the thesis. and so on. that the page makes reference to the guidance received by the candidate from his or her supervisor(s) and other relevant parties. some of its essential features such as robustness or power efficiency. group. community.10 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS.8 Table of Contents The table of contents must list and provide page references for all elements of the thesis. It is suggested however. 1. data collection. Candidates must be aware that obtaining this permission may take some time and may require a fee. sections and important subdivisions of each section. 2010. Allowance must be made for this. in word processing. or organization presented. and  the questions raised for additional research or theory. The title of a subdivision of a chapter or section should be in small letters.April 2013 the general class of methods being discussed. the range of application of the proposed method. it is necessary to obtain permission from the rights-holder. The title of each chapter or section should be written in full capital with no terminal punctuation. For the text of the thesis it will indicate chapters. 1.9. .9.9. The acknowledgements should not exceed 250 words.” (APA Publication Manual Sixth Edition.

11 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS. ACM or the APA style.9. the title and the page number.14 Appendices The purpose of an appendix is to contain those research materials which are pertinent to the thesis. doing research in information technology or computer science may use the IEEE. 1.12 Body of the Thesis The method chosen to organize the body of the thesis should be discussed with the research supervisor(s). If follows the list of figures. or use of non-original material must be acknowledged and documented. but which are not essential to an .9.9.April 2013 List of Tables 1. A direct quotation of less than three lines can be incorporated into the text using quotation marks. mentioned or used in the text of the thesis. This list includes the number of each table. The number and the title of each chapter or section must be given in the same form as it appears in the table of contents.11 List of Abbreviations This list includes all non-standard abbreviations used in the text of the thesis.9. 1. The list includes the number of each figure. 1. Most programmes in UUMCAS require the candidates to use the APA 6th Edition style. Appropriately credited references to other works can form an integral part of this presentation and are likely to take several forms. They may be divided into two or more sections. in an orderly fashion.5 cm from the left margin and typed in single-space format without quotation marks. Any borrowed thoughts or expressions.13 List of References This list must contain every reference cited. However. The references in this list should be arranged alphabetically. It is in the body of the thesis that the candidate presents and develops. 1. If the quotation is more than three lines it should be arranged in the following format: indented 1.9. the title and the page number.10 List of Figures The list of figures follows the list of tables.9. all relevant aspects of the research project for which the degree is to be granted.9 The list of tables follows the table of contents. 1.

etc. initials.April 2013 understanding of the work which the candidate has completed. symbols. modern retrieval systems use the words in the title and sometimes a few other descriptive words. Greek letters. 2. Pages of the appendices are also numbered consecutively respecting the overall pagination of the thesis. and the thesis cover must be identical. The object of the short title is to facilitate easier recognition of the thesis leg on the library shelf. Appendices should be numbered consecutively using capital letters of the alphabet. This should follow the wording of the original title as closely as possible. If possible. candidates should bear in mind that most bookbinders charge extra for overly long titles. candidates should use word substitutes for formulas.9. As a condition for the award of the degree the . o a lengthy debate on a topic of secondary importance to the issues discussed. subscripts. To locate a thesis. o computer programmes. 1. each line in the title must not exceed twenty-six characters including spaces.0 SPECIFIC ITEMS 2. a short title not exceeding forty characters including spaces is needed for the spine of the bound thesis. The types of material which may be contained in an appendix are: o proof of equations. o questionnaires used. and o illustrative material. superscripts.15 Vita A brief bio-bibliography of the candidate is permitted.12 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS. When a thesis title is lengthy.2 Copyright and Subsequent Use of the Thesis The author of a thesis claims copyright on the title page by using the appropriate notation. the title page. figures. When planning the title of the thesis. On the front cover of the thesis. The title as it appears on the thesis certification page. o raw data for analyses. The author’s name. or tables.1 Titling the Thesis A thesis will be a valuable source for other scholars only if it can be located easily. It is essential that the title be meaningful and descriptive of the content of the work. Details of methods used on a specialized topic which are not of crucial importance to the discussion. 2. and year of convocation should also appear on the spine.

it is necessary to obtain prior permission from the author. Consult the Dean’s Office if there are any questions regarding materials that can be patented or commercialised. candidates must insert the paragraph statement of “Permission to Use” immediately after the title page.13 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS. Careful attention must be paid to any previous agreements signed regarding ownership of research findings. It is understood that any copying or publication of the thesis in any manner. it is permissible to collect them in a table or in a special appendix. Remember at all times that plagiarism is a serious offence and could jeopardize an entire academic career. When a substantial part of a work is used. Plagiarism is the representation as one’s own of any idea or ideas. In order to do this. Every new symbol used in the thesis text for the first time must be explained. expressions of an idea.3 Equations Each equation in a chapter is to be numbered consecutively using a decimal system appearing flush with the right-hand margin. Candidates are reminded that they are required to respect the standards of academic honesty and intellectual property in the case of all materials used in the thesis. Definition of a “substantial part of a work” depends on several factors. Candidates hold copyright to their theses even when agreements have been reached with other parties regarding ownership of some parts of the research material. or the work of another author. for scholarly purposes only. copying even a short excerpt may be sufficient to constitute an infringement. principally the quantity and quality of the portion taken and the economic impact of the ability of the copyright owner to profit from the exploitation of the work. for financial gain requires the permission of the author. . For example: Y = mx + b (5. When a large number of special symbols are used.1) The numbers in parentheses are the chapter number and the equation number respectively. it is usually sufficient to use notes and bibliographical references. 2. in whole or in part.April 2013 author should note that the University Library may make the thesis available for inspection and permit copying of the thesis in any manner. In some instances. To remind readers that the thesis is protected by copyright. in whole or in part.

such as a change in the rigour. 2. reliable and correct.April 2013 2. using a single-spaced format. Any cross referencing of the material contained either in the main body or in the appendices should also be indicated with the help of a note.3 Teleconferencing The numbering system used for different sections denotes the following: the first number refers to the chapter number. Endnotes should appear at the end of each chapter. 2.2. a change in terms of empirical content. endnotes at the end of each chapter and direct reference to the bibliography.2. with all sources duly acknowledged.5 Referencing The fundamental rule of good scholarship is that the basic research be complete. Any change in the level of the argument. 2.1 Branch Campus 2.2 Correspondence 2. The following format is to be used: 2. They should be single spaced with double space left between each note.2. candidates may use any appropriate combination of footnotes at the bottom of the pages in the text. The format used for references must be consistent throughout the thesis.4 Notes Following the advice of their supervisor(s). the second . The first line should be indented and the text of the footnote should be one half space below and one space to the right.14 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS. Endnote numbering must be done consecutively and separately for each chapter.1 2.1 Numbered Format Each subsection in a chapter must be numbered and arranged in such a manner to maximize clarity for the reader. Candidates are required to use the APA 6th Edition style in their choice of format for notes and references.2 Introduction to Distance Education Types of Distance Education 2.6.6 Layout of a Chapter UUMCAS allows for two layout formats: (1) Numbered Format and (2) Unnumbered Format. or definitions of key words or concepts should be put in the form of a note. Students should consult their School to determine the required format.

The title of the table should be as short as possible but should indicate the major focus of the table.April 2013 refers to the secondary section number. and secondary section 1. The first number refers to the chapter number and the second refers to the table number in that chapter. left aligned. each relationship should be properly labelled with the appropriate axis. The number and title of the figure appear at the bottom of the figure in the figure legend. Both axes of the figure must be properly labelled. The table must conform to the margin requirements of the thesis format. Contents of the table must be preceded and followed by a single solid line. underlined (Text Sub-subsubheading) 2. It is strongly recommended that oversized tables be reduced by photocopying in such a way that they remain clearly legible.9 Binding the Thesis Candidates for Master’s and Doctoral degrees who have successfully completed their thesis oral examinations (viva) and made all the revisions and corrections required by the Examining Panel must submit THREE bound copies. All chapters should begin on a new page and should have a top margin of 5cm.1 denotes chapter 2. Title Case. Similarly. Title Case (Text Sub-subheading) Level 5 12 point.2 Unnumbered Format Each subsection in a chapter is identified by levels of headings using different font sizes and styles (Refer to Appendix 28).7 Layout of a Table Each table has a table number and a title. bold. left aligned. left aligned. bold. bold. 2.2. UPPER CASE (Chapter Heading) Level 2 12 point. The table should not be folded. left aligned. italics. centred. Title Case (Text Subheading) Level 4 12 point. The same numbering system for tables is used for figures. Title Case (Text Heading) Level 3 12 point. If a figure shows more than one relationship. Thus. 2. The following format is to be used: Level 1 14 point. the number 2.6.8 Layout of a Figure Each figure must contain a figure number and a title. solid lines must appear at other appropriate places horizontally inside the table. primary section 2. Ordinary rules of referencing and footnoting apply. ONE (1) loose copy and ONE (1) soft . 2. The numbering of footnotes in the table is independent of that followed in the text. italics.15 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS.

16 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS. in smaller letters. The author’s name will also be in upper case on the cover. Lettering on the spine should be legible when the volume is laid face down on a shelf on its front cover. Other decorations must not be used under any circumstances. etc.April 2013 copy in a CD to the Office of the Dean (Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences).g. superscript. Candidates should enquire at the bindery whether special characters (e. Universiti Utara Malaysia by the date indicated in the Graduate Calendar preceding the Convocation in which they plan to receive their degrees. College of Arts & Sciences. A list of binderies familiar with the University regulations can be obtained from the Dean’s office. subscript. The University requires that all PhD theses be bound in MAROON cover with gold lettering and Master’s theses be bound in GREEN cover with gold lettering. Candidates are required to bring one copy of the fully-assembled thesis to the Dean’s office for approval before having the final version photocopied and bound. . Greek letters.) or alternate-sized lettering are available. The title which appears on the cover will be in upper case only. There are strict regulations regarding which information appears on the cover and the spine and the form used for presenting this information.

April 2013 APPENDIX : EXAMPLE OF THESIS .17 | Thesis format for Post Graduate – AHSGS.

SD-SVBR: A NEW SHAPED VARIABLE BIT RATE ALGORITHM FOR VIDEO TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ALI BIN ABU DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA 2012 .

< INSERT PERAKUAN KERJA TESIS / DISERTASI (CERTIFICATION OF THESIS / DISSERTATION)> .

in whole or in part. in whole or in part. I agree that the Universiti Library may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for the copying of this thesis in any manner. by the Dean of Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.Permission to Use Font: Times New Roman Size: 14 pt Style: Bold In presenting this thesis in fulfilment of the requirements for a postgraduate degree from Universiti Utara Malaysia. Requests for permission to copy or to make other use of materials in this thesis. It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to Universiti Utara Malaysia for any scholarly use which may be made of any material from my thesis. It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this thesis or parts thereof for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. in their absence. for scholarly purpose may be granted by my supervisor(s) or. should be addressed to: Dean of Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences UUMCollege of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010 UUM Sintok ii .

Operasian storan data. model CoDMODS yang dibina dengan pendekatan penyelidikan sains reka bentuk ini dapat memenuhi sembilan ukuran dimensi kualiti model iaitu mudah difahami. meliputi langkah yang jelas. pembangunan aplikasi BI masa kini menumpukan kepada pembangunan maklumat strategik berbanding maklumat operasi dan taktikal. Selain itu. Oleh itu. tujuan utama kajian ini ialah untuk mengusulkan model reka bentuk konseptual ODS (CoDMODS) bagi pembangunan aplikasi BI. Only the first word is capital letter (eg: Motivasi. Model reka bentuk konseptual.Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Spacing: 1. Maklumat operasi dan maklumat taktikal. skalabiliti. ketepatan. relevan. Melalui kaedah pengesahan pakar. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kekurangan model. Autonomi guru) The word “Keywords” is BOLD iii . prototaip yang dibangunkan dalam dua kajian kes dapat membantu pengurusan organisasi menggunakan maklumat yang berkualiti dalam operasi perniagaan. 3 -5 keywords only. menyumbang kepada kaedah analisis dan reka bentuk pembangunan maklumat operasi dan taktikal aplikasi BI.0 Abstrak Font: Times New Roman Size: 14 pt Style: Bold Pembangunan aplikasi kepintaran perniagaan (BI) yang merangkumi sumber data. kesempurnaan. Kata Kunci: Kepintaran perniagaan. Tambahan pula. dua prototaip yang dibina berdasarkan model CoDMODS untuk kajian kes perkhidmatan bekalan air (iUBIS) dan penyelenggaraan telekomunikasi (iPMS) mencatatkan nilai purata min kepenggunaan yang tinggi iaitu 5. konsisten dan menyokong jangka masa pengemaskinian. garis panduan dan teknik yang mantap untuk membangunkan aplikasi BI jika dibandingkan dengan pembangunan sistem dalam displin kejuruteraan perisian. i. Dapatan kajian ini terutamanya model yang diusulkan. Selain itu. iii. ii.912 melalui instrumen Computer System Usability Questionnaire (CSUQ). Model ini boleh dijadikan garis panduan oleh pembangun aplikasi BI. Penggudangan Data (DW). mempunyai ciri-ciri fleksibiliti. Data Mart (DM) dan Operasian Storan Data (ODS) memberi cabaran yang besar kepada pembangun aplikasi BI.

Additionally. Through expert validation. This is mainly due to the lack of established models. easy to understand. scalability. the two prototypes that were developed based on CoDMODS for water supply service (iUBIS) and telecommunication maintenance (iPMS) recorded a high usability average min value of 5. Furthermore. demonstrates flexibility. Therefore. the present BI applications emphasize on the development of strategic information in contrast to operational and tactical. contribute to the analysis and design method for the development of the operational and tactical information in BI applications. Teacher autonomy) The word “Keywords” is BOLD iv . the main aim of this study is to propose a conceptual design model for BI applications using ODS (CoDMODS). completeness and consistency. The outcomes of this study. iii. The model can be referred as guidelines by BI developers. covers clear steps. Conceptual design model. the proposed conceptual design model that was developed by means of design science research approach.Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Spacing: 1. Only the first word is capital letter (eg: Motivation. particularly the proposed model. Data Mart (DM) and Operational Data Store (ODS). guidelines and techniques in the development process as compared to system development in the discipline of software engineering. was found to satisfy nine quality model dimensions. which are. Operational data store. Data Warehouse (DW). Keywords: Business intelligence. ii. Operational information and tactical information. Furthermore. i.0 Abstract Font: Times New Roman Size: 14 pt Style: Bold The development of business intelligence (BI) applications. involving of data sources. is relevant and timeless. 3 -5 keywords only.912 using Computer System Usability Questionnaire (CSUQ) instrument. the prototypes that were developed in the case studies can assist the organizations in using quality information for business operations. accuracy. imposes a major challenge to BI developers.

I would like also to thank my parents. I would like to express my thanks to my co-supervisor Dr. Finally. It is not enough to thank you very much to her for her guidance to help me to achieve my goal. my fiancée and all of my relatives for their love and support.5 Acknowledgement Font: Times New Roman Size: 14 pt Style: Bold I would like to express my appreciation and gratitude to everyone who has contributed in completing this thesis. I dedicate this work to my parents and my fiancée Roba Soub. Not only.Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Spacing: 1. They were very kind during the viva and during the period of the correction. Without her valuable support. I would like to thank all of my friends for their encouragement during my study. I am very grateful to Dr Haslina and Dr Shariza. I had a very enjoyable study at Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM). Shafiz Affendi Mohd Yusof for his comments which help to improve my work. Additionally their comments have helped to improve this work. my thesis would not have been possible. It was my pleasure to study under Dr. does it has a beautiful natural environment but the university also has helpful staff. Huda Hj Ibrahim’s supervision. v . My goal would not have been achieved without them.

.1 Introduction ........................................................... ix CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION ....................... 9 CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS ............................................................................... 7 2.................2 Distance Learning Generations ...............................................2........................................................................................................ 1 1..........................4........................................................... 7 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............................................................. iii Abstract .......................................... 9 3.....................4 Distance Learning Techologies and Methods ........... 4 2........... v Table of Contents ...................... 2 1.......................................................................................2 Second Generation................................2 Data Analysis Strategy ........................................3 Distance Learning Definition ......................................................1 First Generation .......................................1 Background ....................................... 3 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW .................... 7 2..................................................................4.................. viii List of Appendices .1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 vi ........................ vi List of Tables ............................................................5 Table of Contents Font: Times New Roman Size: 14 pt Style: Bold Permission to Use ... 9 3................................................................. 1 1..............................................2 Research Model and Research Dimensions ... 6 2................................ 14 REFERENCES ...........1 Data Analysis Method ..............................................................................1 Material Design Technologies and Methods ...................................................Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Spacing: 1.............................................................................................4....................................... 4 2.....................2 Problem Statement .....4................... iii Acknowledgement ......................................................................... 5 2............. vii List of Figures ....................... 13 4................................................................................ ii Abstrak .............................................................................. 4 2....................4 Research Objectives ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 4........... 1 1.................................................................2.........................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Historical Review of Distance Learning . 7 2...............................................3 Research Questions ...........................................................................................

.............5 List of Tables Font: Times New Roman Size: 14 pt Style: Bold Table 4.Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Spacing: 1..................................................2 Fit Measures ........................... 6 vii .....................

............... 7 viii ....5 List of Figures Font: Times New Roman Size: 14 pt Style: Bold Figure 3...................Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Spacing: 1.....2 Implementation environment factor................1: System factor and BI ....... and actual use .......... BI........ 11 Figure 3..............................

........Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Spacing: 1..5 List of Appendices Font: Times New Roman Size: 14 pt Style: Bold Appendix A Sample Appendix ......... 17 ix ............................................................................

Yet. and the research questions. 1.1 Background CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Font: Times New Roman Size: 14 pt Style: Bold The development of Information Technology (IT) has urged employees in organizations all over the world to upgrade their knowledge and skills. 2003. the research contribution. Even though traditional training provides several benefits such as places a trainee in a stimulating and challenging group environment. Behling et al. and creating and facilitating business networking between one trainee and colleagues who come from different working background (Training Directory. the research significance. not every employee has an opportunity to attend it. This chapter is organized as follows: the first section is the background.2 Problem Statement Many educational institutions and private and public sector organizations over the world have adopted e-learning system to offer teaching and training materials to the remote students and trainees (Burgess & Russell. followed by the scope of the research. One way of doing this is by attending various kinds of training including traditional training or workshop. followed by the statements of the problem. The objectives of research will be described in the fourth section. and the research approach and methodology. 2007).. face-to-face training) as the training process that takes place when the trainees and the trainer are present at the same time in the same place. 2009). they must be accepted by the 1 . for technologies to be successful in the organizations. (2007) defined traditional training (i. Chatzoglou et al. Finally. the structure of the thesis will be highlighted.e.0 1.Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 pt Spacing: 2.

2007). Ministry of High Education. ministry of water and irrigation and Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). 1. according to an initial study results. the Ministries faced difficulties to conclude the computer skills training (ICDL) for its employees. for instance the Ministry of Education. To employees. What are the issues and challenges in implementing computer-based distance training system in public sector organizations in Jordan? 2 . have adopted this program for their employees since 2003 (Advance Learning. Public sector’s employees in Jordan are demanded to sit for one certified IT training. However. Ministry of Health. 2003). Most of the Jordanian ministries. due to the inappropriateness training time that is continuously unfit with the employees’ schedule. the following are the research questions to be solved: 1. The acceptance of technology is often described as one of the most important areas in the modern information system (Venkatesh et al. known as International Computer Driving License (ICDL). Therefore.3 Research Questions This study aims to examine the acceptance of computer-based distance training system by the public sector employees. Approximately 70000 employees of the Ministry of Education must participate in this program (ICDL foundation. this challenge has prevented them from attending the program training and sitting to the certificate exam. This training has been implemented in Jordan as standard for end user computer skills across the kingdom since 2001. 2008).employees.. which could affect their career.

4 Research Objectives The research objectives are formulated as below: 1. How can computer-based distance training system support the traditional training method in public sector organizations in Jordan? 3. 3 . 2. To identify the roles of computer-based distance training system in supporting the traditional training method in public sector organization in Jordan.2. What are the factors that determine the acceptance of public sector employees on computer-based distance training system? 1. To investigate the issues and challenges in implementing computer-based distance training system. To determine the factors that lead to the acceptance of public sector employees on computer-based distance training system. 3.

Consequently. institutions and trainers.2 Historical Review of Distance Learning Works on distance learning began in Britain in the 18th century.1 Introduction There is much evidence in the literature that the development of information and communication technology plays a vigorous role in the evolution of e-learning. 2. the United States and many European countries started to apply distance learning. and the dimensions of distance training system acceptance (successful factors). It also explains the advantages and disadvantages of distance learning system for employees. get education degree or develop his/her career. This chapter describes the situation of distance learning in public and private organizations and educational institutions. it is evident that Great Britain was the first country to conduct distance learning in 1858. distance learning has become a popular practice all over the world (Ruhig. 2003). In the 19th century. Given that. Nowadays educational institutions offer their courses online and have distance learning as one of their strategic alternatives for reaching big number of students. Similarly. this chapter includes a review of literature on the acceptance of information system models. Additionally. and how distance learning has managed to solve problems of employee training.CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 4 . 2002). organizations. many organizations have taken practical steps to provide training materials to their employees through distance training programs (Burgess & Russell. It was meant to provide courses to everyone who wanted to extend his/her personal knowledge. which will be used to develop the acceptance model for this research.

business. Thus. Whatever differences the meaning they attach to distance learning. as mentioned later in this chapter. Today. due to its advantages. Elena. Different technologies are used to support the implementation of distance learning programs. 2. As a result. Later. 2004). organizations have begun to take the advantages of distance learning program to train their employees. to understand why employees accept or reject such system and to determine the challenges of applying distance learning system for employee training. researchers have defined distance learning according to their field (Burgess & Russell. grounded on two concepts: (1) 5 . about 56 percent of all public higher education institutions in the United States provide courses to their students using online mode (Arafeh. psychology.The Queensland University offered some courses that led to an external degree through distance learning program in 1890. For example. and information technology.3 Distance Learning Definition There is no specific definition of distance learning (Arafeh. 2004. Additionally. these definitions are made based on the philosophy of distance learning. Based on the above. TV is another technology that plays an important role in conveying the materials and programs of distance learning to remote students. information technology. 2006) because it is a mixture of many sciences such as education. the Open University in London is one of the largest international universities that offer courses through distance learning programs. 2003). the number of educational institutions that use distance learning system has rapidly increased all over the world. this research is going to investigate the acceptance of distance learning system by public sector employees.

In such a context. there is a need for designing special methods and electronic tools to connect students with teachers and each other and other managerial and administrative arrangements (Angel et al.flexibility. 2004). such as web-based technologies. computer-based technologies. 2003). 2004). 2. and audio technologies to conduct such training (Burgess & Russell.. distance learning can refer to the training method that is developed by companies to train or retrain employees to overcome the obstacle of a fast-paced work environment. and (2) openness. In the information technology and information system context. These technologies have been used by institutions over time to develop distance learning materials. Flexibility means that students or trainees can access any learning materials from any place at any time (Burgess.. 6 . 1991). 2003. distance learning is defined as a delivery system that is used to deliver instructions and provide resources to remote students (Gordon et al. multimedia technology. This is to provide flexibility of teaching and learning process to students and instructors. satellite and so on. and to create interaction among students and instructors. are essential for the development and implementation of distance learning. In educational context. video. and Gagne and Rojas. Internet. to deliver the distance learning materials to remote students. In the context of business and organizations. and Russell. This section sheds light on these distance learning technologies and methods. Many organizations have used computer. distance learning is the process in which education occurs when the students are physically separated from the instructors.4 Distance Learning Techologies and Methods Technologies.

text and documents some technologies are added. audio tapes.. audio cassette. At this stage. 2.2. and video tapes. videocassette. The instructor and adviser play essential role in the teaching process.4. The appearance of these technologies has enhanced the distance learning materials format. has improved the distance learning 7 . These technologies include speech and video tools like audio cassettes. This section presents these generations in detail. 1998).4. and telephone (Castro.4. for instance. audio and video documents started to be used.2 Second Generation The second generation began at the end of 1970. In this generation distance learning’s written materials (for instance written documents and books) are delivered to remote students (Castro. 2.2 Distance Learning Generations The development of information and communication technologies has played a great role in advancing distance learning. After 1970s. This format was used since the introduction of distance learning until the end of 1970 (Castro et al. The early format used to deliver learning or training materials was the written materials such as textbooks and documents. Jackson.4. 2001. The development of technologies in distance learning have take place in four generations. 2.2.1 Material Design Technologies and Methods Educational institutions deliver learning materials in many formats. 1998). 2002).1 First Generation The first generation of distance learning started in the eighteenth century. in addition to the books.2.

.delivery methods by the introduction of cassette tape to the distance learning delivery methods. 2007). 8 . and has improved the interaction between the instructors and students by the introduction of the telephone system (Campbell et al. However. and between students themselves is still weak. the interaction technique between students and instructors.

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. (2) system factor. sampling method. it discusses the research hypotheses formulated to answer the research questions. (1) individual factor. Nanayakkara. the researcher believes that UTAUT is more suitable to large organizations than other models of acceptance technology because the design of this model is based on 9 . namely. 1999. is influenced by three factors. Finally. the methodology of this research is presented. 2005. Furthermore. especially e-learning system. It distinguishes among exploratory. Additionally. descriptive and explanatory researches. 2002. Reflecting on the model. In this study Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use Technology (UTAUT) is adapted as a framework to investigate the acceptance of computer-based distance training system by employees in public sector organizations..1 Introduction This chapter explains how the extended UTAUT include the successful factors of elearning system acceptance and how these factors were chosen. 3. Dadayan & Ferro. in this chapter.2 Research Model and Research Dimensions Review of the literatures pertinent to information system shows that the acceptance of information system. Hu et al. 2005). and (3) implementation environment factor (Chau & Hu. validity and reliability of the instruments and data analysis method used in this research will be explained. data collection method. There are many advantages that can be obtained from UTAUT. The chapter also highlights the differences between quantitative and qualitative researches and describes the research strategy.

there is strong evidence that system enjoyment.. the prior scales used to measure the constructs can be combined to come up with new scales that can be applied to the distance learning context. 2003). Moreover. performance expectancy and effort expectancy have a significant influence on the behavioral intention to use an information technology. it could successfully predict the adoption of information technology in approximately 70 percent of the cases. 2003).. (i) system factor. 1989. 2009. Last but not least.e. Venkatesh et al. (2003). Additionally. system interactivity and system flexibility are important in the e-learning context because they have significant influence on employee intention to use e-learning system (Abbad et al. Additionally. The first factor included in the proposed research model is system factor that includes five sub-factors: (a) performance expectancy. and (e) system flexibility. (b) effort expectancy.. (c) system enjoyment. 2003). The proposed model of this study therefore includes employee intention to use computerbased distance training system as the dependant variable. Venkatesh et al. According to Venkatesh et al. 2003)..1. this study decided to add a new factor (that is individual factor) in UTAUT. 2007. and (ii) implementation environment factor. this model covers almost the main factors that influence user acceptance of technology such as technology factor and organization factor (Marchewka et al.2) and UTAUT does not consider it. The model also covers two factors i. but other user adoption models could do so in about 40 percent of the cases (Davis et al... 10 . the constructs of UTAUT have been adopted from eight other user acceptance models (Venkatesh et al.. (d) system interactivity. Furthermore.the data collected from employees’ environment (Venkatesh et al. Because individual factor is a critical successful factor in the e-learning and information technology contexts (see next section 4.

2009. and Actual Use.. In this study. Effort expectancy System enjoyment Behavioral Intention (BI) System flexibility System interactivity Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 Style: Italic Align text to the left Figure 3.2 presents the possible relationship between FC.. (iii) system flexibility of distance learning. (2003). 11 . there is a significant relationship between the social influence construct and behavioral intention (Venkatesh et al.1: System factor and BI The second factor included in the proposed model is the environment implementation factor. the facilitating conditions construct has a positive and direct influence on the actual use an information technology. SI (items of implementation environment factor). (ii) effort expectancy (EE). 2008. According to Venkatesh et al. and (v) system interactivity. Figure 3. Hsia & Tseng. Nanayakkara. BI. the environment implementation factor includes (a) facilitating conditions (FC) and (b) social influence (SI). Chesney. 2009.Chatzoglou et al. Therefore. Additionally. 2003). 2005). the system factor in this study will include (i) performance expectancy (PE).. 2006. Figure 3.1 presents the possible relationship between system factor. (iv) system enjoyment. behavioral intention and usage behavior. Conci et al.

Social Influence Behavioral intention Facilitating conditions Actual Use Figure 3. 12 . Venkatesh et al. (2003) have supported that self-efficacy and anxiety constructs have indirect influence on behavioral intention to use an information technology. In this respect. and actual use The third factor proposed in this study is individual factor that includes (a) computer anxiety and (b) computer self-efficacy. BI.2 Implementation environment factor.

13 . In achieving this objective.3). It starts with description of the analysis associated with respondents’ profile. Additionally. with the impact of the moderators. in contrast to other generation regression models (such as liner regression.0. outlier test and data normality test.0 and SPSS 16. ANOVA. can analyze only one causal relationship at a time (Gerbing & Anderson. 1988).CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS 4.1 Data Analysis Method This chapter presents the results of data analysis which was carried out by applying AMOS 16. The model generated from SEM is also known as a model of relationships because it figures all the relationships between the exogenous (dependant variables) and endogenous (independent variables) variables (Sharma. a proposed model should be substantively meaningful and statistically well fitting. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was considered a suitable data analysis method toward the end. According to Byrne (2006). followed by the results of data quality tests. In addition. Finally. 1996). and MANOVA) which. the chapter provides the results of the test of the proposed research model and how the research model fits with the data. One of the research objectives is to propose an acceptance model of computer-based distance training system that best describes public sector employee intention to use such technology (Section 1. SEM has potential to analyze multiple relationships between independent and dependent variables simultaneously. the chapter discusses the results of the hypotheses testing. including the resu lts of missing data test.

In this study.05) had been used to test the study’s hypotheses in stage five (Hair et al. the data analysis was carried out in five stages. measurements of model fit were applied in stage four to measure the fit of proposed model with the collected data. and examine models with multiple endogenous variables. Five common measures were used for models analysis including X2/ df.. and TLI (Holmes-smith. CFI. The second stage presented the data quality (data management) by conducting three tests including missing data test. path coefficient (not equal to zero). one of the most advantages of SEM is the use of confirmatory factor analysis that can examine measurement error by using multiple indicators per latent variable. 4.2 Data Analysis Strategy Data analysis strategy is a general plan of how the researcher will analyze the data that he/she has collected. 14 . handle difficult data such as incomplete data and non-normal data. Table 4. critical ratio (recommended value is > 1.96) and P-value (recommended value is < 0. examine the model overall as a one unit. 2010).2 reveals that this research model is a very fit model because all measures fit are within the ranges of the recommended values (all the test results were generated from Amos 16. Finally. model mediating variables. The first stage focused on the analysis of the demographic information. outliers test.Furthermore. and discriminant validity. 2006).0. Subsequently. and normality test. convergent validity. REMSEA. GFI. and mentioned in Appendix H Section 2). The third stage focused on the reliability and validity of measurement (goodness of data) by examining the composite reliability.

118 Font: Times New Roman Size: 12 Style: Italic Center text Recommended values P > 0.998 0.918 0. A value <0. A value > 0. Close to one indicates a very good fit Greater than one indicates over fit model NFI GFI AGFI RAMSEA 0. CFI TLI 0. A value > 0.018 0< value < 1 indicates fit model.9 indicates a very good fit.05 A value < 3 indicates a good fit A value < 1 indicates over fit model.074 1.937 0.978 0.997 A value >0.2 Fit Measures Measures Chi-square (X2) P-Value X2 / df Research value 348. A value > 0.9 0.08 indicates fit of the model.9 indicates a good fit.9 indicates a very good fit. 15 .05 indicates an acceptable fit.Table 4.

REFERENCES <In-text citations and corresponding references must be in APA 6th Edition format> 16 .

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