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# ELECTROSTATIC FORCE

STRUCTURE OF MATTER

Coulomb’s law

Coulomb’s law

STRUCTURE OF MATTER
• Smallest particle
ATOM

Anion (Negative ion)

IONIZATION ENERGY

Cation (Positive ion)

CATION + IONIC VALENCE FORCE

ANION -

CATION +

ANION -

MOLECULE
• MONATOMIC: ONE ATOM • DIATOMIC: 2 ATOMS • MOLECULE CONSISTING OF A GROUP OF ATOMS

ELECTRIC CURRENT – ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE – POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE – CONDUCTOR & INSULATOR – OHM’S LAW

CONDUCTOR & INSULATOR

POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE

ELECTRIC CURRENT

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE
• difference in electric potential, or voltage, between the terminals of a source of electricity • Source of electromotive force: generator or battery

RESISTANCE

OPPOSITION TO ELECTRIC CURRENT

THE RESISTANCE BETWEEN OPPOSITE FACES OF THIS SAMPLE CUBE

ELECTRICAL ENERGY ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

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MAIN POINTS
ENERGY ELECTRICAL ENERGY ELECTRIC CIRCUIT

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ENERGY
• Energy: the capacity to do work (or produce heat). • Kinetic energy: the energy of motion. • Potential energy: the energy of position; stored energy.
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Kinetic energy
– Thermal energy: submicroscopic particles in motion. – Mechanical energy: macroscopic objects in motion. – Electrical energy: movement of electrons through a conductor. – Sound energy: compression/expansion of spaces between molecules.
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Potential energy
– Chemical potential energy: position of electrons relative to atomic nuclei in bound atoms. – Gravitational energy: position of an object in a gravitational field. – Electrostatic energy: relative position of charged particles.

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ELECTRICAL ENERGY
• Electrical Energy - The energy associated with electric charges and their movements • Electric Power - The amount of energy produced per second. The power produced by an electric current.

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KINDS OF CIRCUITS
• SERIES

Req = R1 + R2 + R3

• PARALLEL

1 / Req = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 + ...
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Ohm's law
• the potential difference or voltage drop (V) between the ends of a conductor and the current (I) flowing through the conductor are proportional at a given temperature: – V=IR

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Kirchhoff's current law

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i1 + i4 = i2 + i3

Kirchhoff's voltage law

v1 + v2 + v3 + v4 = 0
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REFERENCE
• • • • GLENBROOK.K12.IL.US EDHELPER.COM HYPERPHYSIC.PHY-ARTR.GSU.EDU ACTEWAGL.COM.AU

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ELECTROCHEMISTRY

MAIN POINTS
1. 1. Electrochemistry Electrochemistry 2. 2. Electrolysis Electrolysis and and electroplating electroplating 3. 3. Primary Primary cells cells 4. 4. Secondary Secondary cell cell

ELECTROCHEMISTRY
CHEMICAL ENERGY

ELECTRICAL ENERGY

• Electrical Chemical: Effects of electric current on aqueous solutions (Electrolysis; Electroplating) • Chemical Electrical: Cells

NaCl

electrolyte

Electrolysis

• The mass of the product of electrolysis is directly proportional to the amount of electricity that passes through the electrolyte. • The mass of the substances liberated or deposited is proportional to electrochemical equivalent

ELECTROPLATING

VOLTAIC CELLS

PRIMARY CELL

SECONDARY CELLS

ELECTROSTATICS – ELECTRIC FIELDS CAPACITOR

Electrostatics

Electric field

Electric field strength

Polarization charges

Capacitor

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Magnetism

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Magnet

The first magnets were known as magnetite or loadstone.

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Magnetic field lines of a bar magnet

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Magnet

Iron filings "map" of the field of a bar magnet
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Cutting a magnet
An interesting characteristic of magnets is that when you cut a magnet into parts, each part will have both N and S poles.

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Making Magnets Stroking a piece of unmagnetised iron or steel with a known magnet can make it into a magnet.

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Making Magnets

Placing a magnet alongside a nonmagnetised steel knitting needle for some time will magnetise it.
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The Earth – A huge magnet

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Electric current and magnetism

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Classification of materials
Ferromagnetic materials
strongly attracted by a magnetic force: iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and gadolinium (Gd)

Paramagnetic materials
weakly attracted to magnets: Aluminum

Diamagnetic materials
when they are exposed to a strong magnetic field, they induce a weak magnetic field in the opposite direction.
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Ferromagnetic material

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Spinning electrons

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Domains

Magnetic material with domains misaligned

Aligned domains makes material highly magnetic
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Non magnetic material

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Permanent magnet

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Demagnetize

Heating a piece of magnetized iron or steel strongly in a flame will demagnetize it.

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Solenoid

H = NI/ L
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MAGNETIC FLUX – PERMEABILITY – MAGNETIC CIRCUIT INDUCED ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE – SELF AND MUTUAL INDUCTANCES

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Magnetic Field sources

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Magnetic Field sources

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Magnetic field of a bar magnet and a solenoid

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Solenoid

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Solenoid

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Magnetic flux A measure of quantity of magnetism, taking account of the strength and the extent of a magnetic field Flux per unit area = flux density B=Ф/A B=Hxµ µ = permeability
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Magnetization

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Magnetization curve
Flux density B

Residual flux density

Field strength H

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Magnetic circuit

Magnetic field of a toroid Ф = F/ S
Ф = Flux F = Magnetic force S = magnetic reluctance

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Force created by a magnetic field on a current carrying conductor

F = B*I*L
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Electromagnetic inductance

Electromotive force E = - ∆Ф/∆t

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Mutual inductance

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Mutual inductance

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Self inductance

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Self inductance

Where: VL = the induced voltage in volts N = the number of turns in the coil dø/dt = the rate of change in magnetic flux in webers per second

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Variations in Hysteresis Curves

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MOTOR & GENERATOR

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Main points Motor, Engine & Generator Motor Principle of operation Structure Generator Principle of operation Structure

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MOTOR vs GENERATOR

MOTOR converts electricity into mechanical energy GENERATOR converts mechanical energy into electricity

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MOTOR – PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

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MOTOR – MAIN PARTS

Enclosure Rotor Stator Bearing Commutator/ Slip ring

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GENERATOR

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GENERATOR – Principle of operation

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GENERATOR – Main components

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TRANSFORMER
By: Pham Thanh Duong

TRANSFORMER

ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS
By: Luong Trung Kien

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Parts of Electric power systems
Generation Transmission Distribution

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Hydropower plant

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Turbines

Francis

Pelton Kaplan

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Coal-fired power plant

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Nuclear power plant

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TRANSFORMER

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THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!

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