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Fuzzy Sets and Systems 8 (1982) 133-139

North-Holland Publishing Company

133

FUZZY

INVARIANT

SUBGROLr~3

AND

FUZZY

IDEALS

Wang-jin L I U
Deparmlent of Mathematics, Sichuan Teachers College, Sichuan, China
Received March 1981 Revised May 1981 The purpose of this paper is to introduce some basic concepts of fuzzy algebra, as fuzzy invariant subgroups, fuzzy ideals, and to prove some fundamental properties. In particular, it will give a characteristic of a field by a fuzzy ideal.

Keywords: Fuzzy algebra.

Let X be the underlying set for a group. Fuzzy subgroups of X were defined by A. Rosenfeld in 1971 [1]. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some basic concepts of fuzzy algebra, as fuzzy invariant subgroups, quotient groups of X for fuzzy invariant subgroups, fuzzy subrings, fuzzy ideals, and to prove some fundamental properties. In particular, Proposition 3.4 will give a characteri.,fic of a (usual) field by a fuzzy ideal.

1. Preliminaries
Let us recall some concepts occurring in the papers [1, 2, 3], which will be needed in the sequel. In this paper X always denotes a non-empty (usual) set. A fuzzy set in X is a map A:X--> [0, 1], and cg will denote the family of all fuzzy sets in X. Definition 1.1. Let '.' be a binary operation in X, and A, B ~ ~. Then the product A o B is defined as follows: sup min(A(y), ( A o B ) ( x ) =~[0 "z=~

f

B(z) for y, z e X , y . z = x ,
for any y, z e X, y • z ¢ x.

It is clear that A o B ~ c6'

Proposition 1.1.
singletons, i.e.

Let ,o' be as above, x~, y~, A, B ~ ~, where x~,, y~ are fuzzy

x~(z)={0

ifz=x,
if z e x,

y,,(z)={O

ifz=y, if z # y

0165-011418210000-00001502.75 © 1982 North-Holland

if AoAc_A. vat~ e B. A e qg.~a XAoy~. Let 'o' be as above. (ii) For any xx. y ~ X. y)>~min(A(x). then so is 'o' in c~. (i) is clear from Definition 1. i. ~ A . ~ A . a n o n .3. . Proposition 1. (fi) I f the operation '.~ e A.y~Ea Xx o y~)(w).~(v)) tl oD-----W = sup min(A(u).)(w)= sup sup min(x~(u). ( A o B ) ( w ) = sup m i n ( A ( u ) . A o e = A = e o A for any A ~ c¢. The proofs of Propositions 1... Thus (A o B)(w) = ([. Let A ~ ~. since UAt. i. xx o y~.¥. B (v) > 0 without loss of generality.Jx. v e X. It <~ 1.~A.¢A. so that u • v = w. ~ A .2. (ii) A oB = I. The following proposition holds from Definition 1. A(y)).e.' in X has.xxeA. 1.134 W. A ¢ ~. A ~ ~. Firstly.e.~eB min(xA(u). v~. then the f u z z y singleton e ~ qg is a unit of the operation 'o' in c¢.~k.(v)) XxE. y)m~. (ii) W e now take any point w ~ X and may assume there exist u.1.a unit e. = ( x .Jx~A. Proposition 1. Proof. A is called a f u z z y subgroupoid.1. commutative respectively. and A (u) > 0. then A ( x . ¥. (iii) For any x. y~.4 are omitted. Let X be a groupoid.-Z Liu for any z c X .2.e m p t y set closed under a binary operation '-'..). V ~ E B U ' V = w sup min(uA~u~(u). then x~ o y~. and 0 < A. y~(v)) xxEA. The following statements are equivalent: (i) A is a f u z z y subgroupoid.~B Secondly. B(v)) >i sup u-v = w.3. Then: (i) x~ o y.' in X is associative. where x~ c A ¢0 z~. Definition 1. B ( v ) ) M'I' =~lt = ( A o B)(w). (i) If the operation '.~..v. y.

xx o y~. f ( x . if(x. (f(~)). Indeed. then ]'(A). (iii) I[ the operation :.~..~) = ]'(x). i.e. [3. o e ]'or an y xx ~ A.) = (/(x)k o (f(~)). u . . the preimage of B under f.)(y) ( sup min((f(x))~(u). ( x~ o y~ ) o z~ = x~ o(y.e. (ii) I f the operation '. then e o x~ = xa = x.(v) if u . if y ¢ f ( x . Y& ~ ( X ) .. u ' v = y . for all y ~ Y..]). is a fuzzy set in ~ ( X ) : ([-~(B))(x) = B ( f ( x ) ) . Let A ~ ~ be a f u z z y subgroupoid.v -Y:y if y ¢=f ( x ) . f(Y¢). We have: (1) For any xx. for x. i.1. ~)mi. and f .l ( B ) ." in X has a unit e. if f ( A ) is not a fuzzy subgroupoid. f(x. 1~) if y = f ( x . if any u. v ~ Y . ~ A.. Y) < min((f(A))(y). if f-~(y) = O. is a fuzzy set in ~(Y): f sup A ( x ) (f(A))(Y)=~O")=Y if ] : .' in X is associative.)(Y) = sup (x" f(z)=y X)min(X. Yc). (2) If A is a fuzzy subgroupoid oi X.l ( y ) ~ 0 . ~ ~ X. o Jz.' in X is commutative. then f(A) is a fuzzy subgroupoid of Y. 2). v ~ Y.. ~ ~ Y.. z. then so is 'o' in A.. ]': X --~ Y is a function onto. for all r c X o ~..Fuzzy invariant subgroups and fuzzy ideals 135 ihroposilion 1. ((f(x))x o (/(2))~. for x~.p. B~q~(Y). = y~ o xA.4. for all y ~ Y. (i) I[ the operation '. (of. f (z~). Indeed. i. then so is 'o' in A. y~ ~ A. y..e. oz~). Definition 1.. Now let X and Y be two groupoids. the image of A under [. (f(A))(9)). and for x.))(y)= f((x . we have y. ]" is a (usual) homomorphism of X onto Y. so that (f(A))(y.)(Z) = { O in(A. Let A ~ ~ ( X ) .

A will be called a fuzzy invariant subgroup of X. For example. (ii) A ( x . sup f(z)=. >i sup Z-t. Fmmy invariant subgmeps D ~ n 2. for all x ~ X. (ii) Firstly. (ii) If B is a fuzzy subgroup of X.1 [1].j -9 A ( z ) < m i n ( sup A ( x ) . 2. A is called a [uzzy subgroup of x .2.sup f(z)=y-~ A(z)<min(A(x). since A is a fuzzy subgroupoid of X.y-l= g Hence B o A is a fuzzy subgroup of X from Definition 2. Defudlion 2. ~ E X. Then A ( x .1. A ~ c~.2. such that [ ( x ) = y. then every fuzzy subgroup of X is a fuzzy invariant subgroup. Since f is onto.1. if (i) A is a fuzzy subgroupoid of X.A(Yc)).136 W. then A o B = B o A. Let A be a fuzzy subgroup of X. (i) is clear from Definition 2. lffolmsition 2. If X is a group. f ( ~ ) = ~ and sup f(z)=y-~ A(z)<min(A(x). £)<. sup min(B(y). Let A be a [uzzy invariant subgroup of X. A(z)) sup z-l-~]--I= g min(B((y-1)-l). we now take x. then so is f-~(B) (see [1]). lh~ot. (3) If B is a fuzzy subgroupoid.A(Yc)). (BoA)o(B oA)=B Secondly.1 ) ) = (A o B ) ( x ) = (B o A)(x). (i) For any B c qg. A((z-1)-I)) min(B(~'-l). which is impossible. . for any x. A ¢ O. A ( z . y ~ X. if A ( x • y) = A(y • x).-Z Liu i. if X is a commutative group.l ) ~ A ( x ) for all x ~ X.e. (B o A)(x -~) = = y.Z=X -! o ( A o B ) o A = B o(B o A ) o A =(BoB)o(A oA)c_B oA. sup Xf(x)=y f(~)=~ A(~)). then so is B o A.

If A is a fuzzy invariant subgroup of X.x ~ O.y . then j-J(j(B))= XA oB. i. then so is f(A) in Y. (j-t(j(B)))(x) = (j(B))(j(x))= and sup j(y)=i(x) B(y)= sup x-y B(y). and let f: x . If A ts a (usual) invariant subgroup of X. it suffices to show that (f(A))(y-') = sup f(z)=y ~ A(z)= sup f(z-b=y A((z-')-') i> sup f(z-~)=y A ( z . ( be a group homomorphism (onto). Indeed.x). then so is f-~'(B) in X (see Proposition 5.x is a invariant subgroup of X. Remark..8 of [1]). it is clear that A is a fuzzy invariant subgroup of X. B e q¢.l ) = A ( ( y . NOW let j:X--> X/XA be the natural projection. I~X^ (XAoB)(x)= sup min(XA(z). if B is a f u r y subgroup of Y. A ¢: O. Proposition 2. y • x • y .Fuzzy invariant subgroups and fuzzy ideals 137 Now let e e X be a unit of the operation '-' in X. we have: Proposition 2.' .. the symbol XA denotes the subset {x ~ X iA(x)= A(e)}. then the quotient group X/XA is called the fuzzy quotient group of X with respect to the fuzzy invariant subgroup A. and A e c~. we have A ( y . If x ~ XA. and XA = A. x))= A ( x ) = A(e). Let X and Y be two groups. Similarly.B(y))= z-y=x sup z =x-y-tEXA B(y). y . Proof.l e X A . y ~ X. then X. Definition 2. If A is a fuzzy invariant group of X.2.x .l ) = sup A(u)=~f(A))(y) f(u)=v for all y e Y. . For all x ~ X.( y .e. Let A be a fuzzy invariant subgroup of X.3. It is clear that X.3. Fa'oof. we have: If A is a fuzzy subgroup of X.' ) = A ( y .

Proof. A ( y ) ) . if x # y. if A ( x . where 0 is a unit of X for "+'. A ~. (i) A ( x . Y be a ring homomorphism (onto).3. then so is f . y in X. y)>~ A(y) for all x. Su~ciency. a fuzzy subring A will be called a [uzzy le[t ideal of X. "-'. A ( y ) ) . Proposition 3. Then A is a [uzzy (left. x # O. Let X be a ring with respect to two binary operations ' + ' . A ~ ~¢. y)>~ A(x)).y ) > ~ m i n ( A ( x ) . if it is a fuzzy left and right ide:L Now let X and Y be two rings. then A ( x .t (B). It is clear that subrings of X are fuzzy subrings of X. It follows that A ( x ) = A(e)<~ A(O). iff for all x.3.y ) > ~ m i n ( A ( x ) . if A is a fuzzy subgroup for the binary operation ' + ' in qg induced b y ' + ' in X. and if x e X. Necessity.2. y)>~ A ( y ) or A ( x . Let X be a skew field (also division ring). (ii) A ( x . (i) A ( x . It will be called a fuzzy right ideal. A ( e ) = A ( x -1 • x)>~ A(x).2. Let X be a ring. y in X. A ( y ) ) ( A ( x . e)>~ A(e). Proposition 3. A ¢ ¢. y)~> A(x) for all x.' in X. A ~: ¢. and A is a fuzzy subgroupoid for the binaD operation 'o' in ~ induced by '. This proposition follows directly from Proposition 5. then A ( x ) = A ( x . (i) For all x. y in X.y) = A(e)>~min(A(x). ff A ( x . and if B is a f u r y subring (ideal) of Y. y)~>max(A(x).y ) > ~ m i n ( A ( x ) .-J. A ~: ¢. and let [: X---. A ~ ~. I[hroposilion 3. Proof. A will be called a fuzzy subring of X. Fuzzy ideals Definition 3. right) ideal of X. A ( y ) ) . and a [uzzy ideal.1. Liu 3. Then A is a [uzzy subring of X if[. (ii) A ( x . and A e ~. .1. x#O. u in X. right) ideal o [ X i f f A ( x ) = A(e)<~A(O) ]'or all x e X . Let X be a ring. The following proposition can be directly verified. A (e)) = A (e). [or all x. A(y)). y in X.138 W.6 in [1] and Proposition 1.¢. A E 9g. then so is f(A).e) >I min(A (e). If A is a fuzzy subring (ideal) of X. Let X be a ring. Definition 3. Then A is a fuzzy (le[t. e is a unit o[ X for '-'. Since A (0) = A (e .

~¢ A. then A ( x . Remark.{ 0 } . A ( x ) = A ( e ) < ~ A ( O ) . Rosenfeld. M~th. Anal. A(y)) is clear. 19741. p.-M. [2] P. then A ( x .y ) = A(O)>~min(A(x). and if x ¢: 0.7. The proposition shows that a fuzzy left (right) ideal is a fuzzy ideal in a skew field.4. Anal. x¢:0. San Francisco. There exists ~ c X. Theorem 2. Appl.-M. Let X be a commutative ring with a unit e. Anal. A(y)). Liu. (ii) For all x.-M. This proves that X is a field (see [4. Math. J. . [4] N. 35 (1971j 512-517. Neighborhood structure of a fuzzy point ~nd Moore-Smith convergence. Proposition 3. J. 76 (1980) 571-599. Math. The following proposition will give a characteristic of a (usual) field by a fuzzy ideal. Basic Algebra 1 (Freeman. y in X. References [1] A. [3] P. Product and quotient spaces. J. Fuzzy groups. Suppose for any fuzzy ideal A of X. y ) ~ m a x ( A ( x ) . 1. Proof. y)= A(e)=max(A(x). x e X . Fuzzy topology. 100]). Pu and Y. Appl. Let A be a (usual) ideal. Fuzz~ topology. y ¢: 0.2. It. This proves that A is a fuzzy ideal. and A ¢: X. if x = 0 or y = 0. and A ( x ) = 0 for all x e X . Appl. Jacobson. Pu and Y. 77 (1980) 20-3. then A(x . Liu. then A ( ~ ) = 0 .Fuzzy invariant subgroups and fuzzy ideals 139 and if x = y. Then X is a field.A(y)). x¢:O. CA.-M. therefore A .