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TRÖÔØNG ÑAÏI HOÏC ÑAØ LAÏT

GIAÙO TRÌNH
TIEÁNG ANH B4
(Daønh cho Sinh vieân Khoa Hoaù Hoïc)



NGUYEÃN TAÁT THAÉNG




2002
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MUÏC LUÏC
MUÏC LUÏC.................................................................................................................................... 1
ÑEÀ CÖÔNG CHI TIEÁ T HOÏC PHAÀ N............................................................................................ 4
Unit One: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY.......................................................................... 8
I. Vocabulary in context: Put the words / phrases into the blanks ............................................ 9
II. Comprehension question: .................................................................................................... 9
III. Vocabulary in new context: Put the words / phrases into the blanks .................................. 9
IV. Grammar review: ............................................................................................................. 11
Unit Two: ATOMS..................................................................................................................... 16
I. Vocabulary in context: ........................................................................................................ 16
II. Vocabulary in new context: ............................................................................................... 17
III. Comprehension questions: Write T if the following statement is true, and F if false. ...... 17
IV. Grammar: PASSIVE VOICE STRUCTURE.................................................................... 18
Unit Three: STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM................................................................................. 26
I. Vocabulary in context ......................................................................................................... 27
II. Match words or phrases in column A and column B.......................................................... 27
III. Answer the questions........................................................................................................ 28
IV. Structure: Passive (continued).......................................................................................... 28
Unit Four: PROPERTIES OF ATOMS....................................................................................... 32
I. Vocabulary in context ......................................................................................................... 33
II. Comprehension questions.................................................................................................. 33
III. Grammar .......................................................................................................................... 34
VI- Writing: ............................................................................................................................ 36
Unit five: ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS OF ELEMENTS ....................................................... 39
I. Vocabulary in context ......................................................................................................... 40
II. Vocabulary in new context ................................................................................................ 40
III. Comprehension questions................................................................................................. 41
IV. Grammar: Relative Clauses (review)............................................................................... 41
Unit Six : MOLECULES............................................................................................................ 49
I. Vocabulary in Context ........................................................................................................ 49
II. Comprehension questions.................................................................................................. 50
III. Grammar .......................................................................................................................... 50
Unit Seven: THE VARIETY OF MOLECULES........................................................................ 55
I. Vocabulary in context ......................................................................................................... 56
II. Comprehension questions.................................................................................................. 56
III. Grammar .......................................................................................................................... 57
Unit Eight: GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS............................................................................ 63
I. Vocabulary in context ......................................................................................................... 64
II. Comprehension questions.................................................................................................. 65
III. Grammar: Verb + ing Structure........................................................................................ 66
Unit Nine: A COMPOUND'S IDENTITY.................................................................................. 72
I. Vocabulary in Context ........................................................................................................ 73
II. Comprehension questions.................................................................................................. 74
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III. Review on vocabulary:..................................................................................................... 75
IV. Grammar – Preposition .................................................................................................... 75
Unit Ten: IONIC AND COVALENT BONDS ........................................................................... 79
I. Vocabulary in Context ........................................................................................................ 80
II. Vocabulary in new context: ............................................................................................... 80
III. Comprehension Question ................................................................................................. 81
Unit Eleven: CHEMICAL REACTIONS ................................................................................... 94
I. Vocabulary in context ......................................................................................................... 95
II. Vocabulary in new context ................................................................................................ 95
III. Reading comprehension................................................................................................... 96
Unit Twelve: OXIDATION AND REDUCTION..................................................................... 101
I. Vocabulary in context ....................................................................................................... 101
II. Comprehension questions................................................................................................ 102
III. Grammar review ............................................................................................................ 102
Unit Thirteen COMPOUNDS................................................................................................... 106
I. Vocabulary........................................................................................................................ 107
II. Comprehension questions................................................................................................ 108
III. Review on Vocabulary: .................................................................................................. 109
IV. Review on Grammar: ..................................................................................................... 110
Unit Fourteen: MIXTURES ..................................................................................................... 112
I. Vocabulary........................................................................................................................ 113
II. Comprehension questions................................................................................................ 114
III. Grammar review ............................................................................................................ 114
GLOSSARY............................................................................................................................. 120
REFERENCES: ........................................................................................................................ 128
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ÑEÀ CÖÔNG CHI TIEÁT HOÏC PHAÀN
Moân Tieáng Anh B 4 – Tieáng Anh chuyeân nghaønh
daønh cho Sinh vieân Khoa Hoùa Hoïc

1. Teân hoïc phaàn: Tieáng Anh B4
2. Soá ñôn vò hoïc trình: 5 – Toång coä ng: 75 tieát/hoïc kyø.
3. Trình ñoä: Sinh vieân khoâng chuyeân Ngoaïi ngöõ (ngaønh Hoùa Hoïc) naêm thöù hai (hoïc kyø IV)
4. Phaân boá thôøi gian: 6 tieát/ tuaàn.
5. Ñieàu kieän tieân quyeát:
Sinh vieâ n phaûi thi ñaït caùc hoïc phaàn tröôùc goàm Tieá ng Anh B1, Tieáng Anh B2 vaø Tieáng
Anh B3 môùi ñöôïc hoïc tieáp moân Tieá ng Anh B4 cuûa hoïc kyø II naê m thöù 2.
6. Toùm taét noäi dung hoïc phaàn:
Tieáng Anh B4 daønh cho sinh vieân khoâng chuyeân ngöõ ngaønh Hoùa Hoïc laø hoïc phaàn
ñöôïc khoa Ngoaïi ngöõ aùp duïng ñaàu tieân vaøo naêm hoïc 2001-2002 vaø ñöôïc chænh lyù boå
sung vaø hoaøn thieän cho sinh vieân ngaønh Hoaù Hoïc. Sinh vieân ñaõ hoïc qua Tieáng Anh B1,
B2, B3 vaø ñaõ ñöôïc laøm quen vôùi caùc kieán thöùc cô baûn veà tieáng Anh. Tieáng Anh B4 chuû
yeáu reøn kyõ naêng ñoïc hieåu ñoái vôùi caùc baøi ñoïc mang tính chaát chuyeân ngaønh ñoái vôùi
ngaønh maø sinh vieân ñang theo hoïc. Tieáng Anh B4 cho sinh vieân ngaønh Hoùa bao goàm 14
baøi ñoïc ñöôïc choïn loïc töø caùc taøi lieäu chuyeân moân, giôùi thieäu caùc khaùi nieäm cô baûn veà vaät
lyù, keøm caùc caâu hoûi ñoïc hieåu vaø moät soá baøi taäp cuûng coá ngöõ phaùp.
7. Nhieäm vuï cuûa sinh vieân:
- Tham gia ñaày ñuû caùc buoåi hoïc, vaéng phaûi coù pheùp. Sinh vieân naøo vaéng khoâng pheùp quaù 4
buoåi seõ khoâng ñöôïc döï thi.
- Chuaån bò baøi tröôùc khi ñeán lôùp.
- Chuaån bò ñaày ñuû phaán, khaên lau baûng cho giaùo vieân vaø caùc thieát bò khaùc (neáu caàn)
- Tham gia thi giöõa kyø vaø thi hoïc kyø.
8. Taøi lieäu hoïc taäp:
- Giaùo trình chính: The World Book of SCIENCE POWER – Version No 1 – Chemistry,
Physics, and Life Sciences, vaø caùc taøi lieäu ñöôïc caäp nhaät treân maï ng Internet töø caù c trang
coù uy tín vaø ñöôïc doäc giaû tin caäy.

9. Tieâu chuaån ñaùnh giaù sinh vieân:
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Sinh vieân ñöôïc ñaùnh giaù döïa treân nhöõng tieâu chuaån sau.
- Dö lôùp vaø phaùt bieåu. - Thi giöõa kyø. - Thi hoïc kyø
10. Thang ñieåm: 100% quy thaønh 10
- Döï lôù p vaø phaùt bieå u: 10% - Thi giöõ a kyø : 30% - Thi cuoái kyø : 60%
11. Muïc tieâu cuûa hoïc phaàn:
Hoïc phaàn Tieáng Anh B4 laø hoïc phaà n tieáng Anh chuyeâ n ngaø nh daønh cho sinh vieân khoâng chuyeâ n
ngöõ naêm thöù hai hoïc kyø II sau khi ñaõ hoaøn thaønh caùc hoïc phaàn cô baûn cuøng vôùi caùc kyõ naêng thöïc
haønh tieáng cô baûn. Muïc tieâu cuûahoïïc phaàn Tieáng Anh B4 chuyeân ngaønh Vaät lyù laø nhaèm:
- Giôùi thieäu nhöõng khaùi nieäm cô baûn veà hoùa hoïc baèng tieáng Anh, nhö nguyeân töû, phaân töû,
hôïpp chaát, v.v.
- Cung caáp cho sinh vieân moät khoái löôïng töø vöïng chuyeân ngaønh: thuaät ngöõ, khaùi nieäm…
- Naâng cao kyõ naêng ñoïc hieåu qua caùc baøi ñoïc mang tính chuyeân moân hôn laø caùc baøi ñoïc
mang tính chaát kieán thöùc phoå thoâng nhö caùc hoïc phaàn tröôùc.
- Cuûng coá kieán thöùc ngöõ phaùp qua caùc baøi taäp coù lieân quan ñeán noäi duïng cuûa baøi hoïc.
12. Noäi dung chi tieát hoïc phaàn:
Moân Tieáng Anh B4 ñöôïc hoïc trong 12,5 tuaàn.
TUAÀN
THÖÙ
BAØI Noäi Dung Baøi Hoïc

1
Baøi 1

Introduction To Chemistry
Giôùi thieäu veà Hoaù hoï c: caù c thuaät ngöõ cuûa
caùc ngaønh chính trong nghaønh Hoùa
Ngöõ Phaùp: OÂn taäp caùc thì cô baûn trong
tieáng Anh

2
vaø
3
Baøi 2
Atoms
Baøi 3:
Structure Of An Atom
Baøi 4:
Properties Of Atoms
Caùc thuaät ngöõ veà nguyeâ n töû, caáu truù c
nguyeân töû vaø tính vhaát cuûa nguyeân töû
Ngöõ Phaùp: Theå thuï ñoäng, caùc loaïi caâu caên
baûn nhö caâu ñôn, caâu gheùp vaø caâu phöùc
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4
Bai( 5:
Elements And Symbols Of
Elements
Nguyeân toá vaø caùc kyù hieäu nguyeân toá
Ngöõ Phaùp: Caâu lieân heä

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5
Baøi 6:
Molecules
Baøi 7:
The Variety Of Molecules
Phaân töû, Söï ña daïng cuûa phaân töû
Ngöõ Phaùp:
+Caáu truùc song song (both…and, etc)
+ Caùc cuïm töø due to,because of, v.v.
6 OÂn taäp OÂn thi giöõa kyø
7 Baøi 8:
Gases, Liquids And Solids
Ga, Chaát loûng vaø chaát raén
Ngöõ phaùp: Gerund
8 Baøi 9
A Compound's Identity
Baøi 10
Ionic And Covalent Bonds
Ñaëc tính cuûa Hôïp chaát
Lieân keát ion vaø lieâ n keát hoùa trò
Ngöõ phaù p: Giôùi töø
9 Baøi 11
Chemical Reactions
Baøi 12:
Oxidation And Reduction

Phaûn öùng hoùa hoïc
OÂ xy hoùa khöû
OÂn taäp ngöõ phaùp
10 Baøi 13
Compounds
Hôïp chaát
OÂn taäp töø vöïng
11 Baøi 14:
Mixtures
Hoã n hôïp
OÂn taäp ngöõ phaùp vaø töø vöïng
12 vaø 13 OÂn taäp OÂn thi cuoái kyø

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UNIT ONE: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
Chemistry is the scientific study of the substances that make up the universe.
Chemists investigate the properties of substances and how different conditions
affect the way substances behave. All things – from rock to skin to air – consist of
different combinations of chemical elements. Elements are made up units called
atoms, which are so tiny that billions of them make up the smallest speck. When
atoms combine, they usually form units called molecules, which are the building
blocks of most chemical compounds. An understanding of elementary particles –
atoms and molecules – form the basic of chemistry.
Chemistry seeks the answers to two questions: (1) Of what is matter composed?
(2) How are its transformations from one form into another related to its
composition? The enormous material benefits to all of us, which men customarily
associate with the word chemistry, are largely by-products of the attempt to answer
these two questions about the nature of matter.
Even that branch of science called chemistry is too vast to be thoroughly
mastered by anyone. Therefore, as a matter of convenience, its content is further
subdivided. The branches of chemistry are: (1) Theoretical Chemistry, (2) Inorganic
Chemistry, (3) Analytical Chemistry, (4) Organic Chemistry, (5) Biological
Chemistry,
Theoretical Chemistry is primarily concerned with the ultimate goal of
chemistry: the structure of matter, and from this knowledge the explanations of its
transformations from one form into another. Since the examination of energy
changes is helpful in the pursuit of this goal, the term Physical Chemistry is
sometimes used. Theoretical or Physical Chemistry is the investigation of the laws
and theories of all chemistry.
Analytical Chemistry is the experimental foundation of chemistry. Without it
little could be accomplished in any branch of the science. It is concerned with the
separation, identification, and composition of various kinds of matter. For example,
Qualitative Analysis provides methods of finding out whether a given sample of
matter contains lead or gold. It separates and identifies. Quantitative Analysis
answers the question "How much gold or lead?"
Again, merely for convenience, chemistry is frequently divided into Inorganic
and Organic Chemistry. One reason for this division is that one element, carbon,
forms many more compounds than most of the other elements. The chemistry of
carbon compounds is called Organic Chemistry; the remaining is called Inorganic
Chemistry.
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I. Vocabulary in context: Put the words / phrases into the blanks
experimental foundation - overview - the structure of matter – transformations -
energy changes - scientific study - carbon compounds – composed -
atoms - five - molecules
1. Chemistry is the …………………..of the substances that wake up the
universe.
2. Elements are work up units called …………….
3. When atoms combine, they usually form units called ………………..
4. Chemistry hopes to know that matter is ………….of, and how its
…………………. from one form into another are relate to its composition.
5. There are ………..subcategories of chemistry.
6. Theoretical chemistry is primary concerned with ………………………….
7. Physical chemistry is concerned with the examination of ………………...
8. Analytical chemistry is the …………………………………. of chemistry.
9. The study of substances containing …………………. is called organic
chemistry.
10. This unit is an ……………….. of a science called chemistry.
II. Comprehension question:
1. What do scientist attempt to investigate in the field of chemistry? …………
………………………………………………………………………………….
2. What are Chemical compound made of, in general? …………………….….
…………………………………………………………………………………..
3. What can we benefit from the attempt of scientists trying to study the nature
of matter? ………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………….
4. What can scientist obtain if they understand the structure of matter? ………
…………………………………………………………………………………..
5. What is the main reason for the appearance of organic chemistry? …………
…………………………………………………………………………………..
III. Vocabulary in new context: Put the words / phrases into the blanks
inorganic chemistry – molecules - Analytical chemistry -
study of chemistry - organic chemistry - elements
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1. The ……………………………. is the study every substance, its structure,
its composition and reactions in which it takes part.
2. The over whelming variety of materials occurring in nature are made up
from ninety-two basic ingredients called ………………..
3. Atoms join together to form what we call …………………..
4. Nearly half a million compounds are known to contain the element carbon,
and they are given a branch of chemistry to themselves called ………………...
5. The study of elements other than carbon is called …………………….
6. …………………………. is concerned units the identification of the various
ingredients of a compound (qualitative analysis) and finding out the quantity of
each present (quantitative analysis).
WORD STUDY
We can sometimes add a prefix to the beginning of some words. In this
case the new word will have the opposite meaning to the original one
Some of the prefixes are: un-, im-, in-, did-, non-
Example:
Un- healthy => unhealthy
Smoking is not good for you. It’s unhealthy
Here are some other words with these negative meaning
Un- unimportant, unpopular
Im- impossible, impolite
In- incomplete, incredible
Dis- discontinue, disagree
Non- nonfat, nonsmoking
Circle the letter of the best word to complete each sentence
1. A person who is unfriendly is probably……………….., too.
a. unpopular b. unusually
2. The service at this restaurant is very slow. It’s …….to have a quick lunch.
a. impossible b. important
3. The airline will ……..service to that city. It is not a popular place to go.
a. discontinue b. disagree
4. ………………yogurt is better for you than ice-cream
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a. nonstop b. nonfat
5. Tom’s homework is ………because he felt sick last night
a. inexpensive b. incomplete
Can you find some other words with those above prefixes? List them in
here: ………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………….. ..
IV. Grammar review:
A. Present Simple tense:
In general, the Simple Present expresses events or situation that exist always,
usually, and habitually; they exist now, have existed, and probably will exist
in the future.
The most frequent tense in science is simple present.
Example :
A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
Or
Electrons spin around the nucleus.
Formation:
To form the simple present, use the simple form of the verb for most forms.
Add -s or -es only to the third-person singular.
Example:
Chemistry seeks the answer to two questions.
Chemists investigate the properties of substances and how different
conditions affect the way substances behave.
Put the verb in the parentheses into correct forms:
1. Electrons (move) …………….along many paths called orbitals.
2. The periodic table (organize) ……………elements in specific vertical
and horizontal rows.
3. Each vertical column of the periodic table (include)……………. element
that are chemically related.
4. Groups of elements in the periodic table (tend)………………. to show
similar properties.
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5. Hydrogen (form) ……………… many compounds and (have)
…………..many uses.
6. In a liquid, molecules (move about)………………. easily, but they still
(have) ………… some force that (attract) …………….them to one another
called surface tension .
7. Molecules (occur)……………. in an incredible number of shapes and
sizes.
8. Liquids (freeze)…………….. and gases (condense)……………… at
certain temperatures.
9. By studying the chemical properties of compound, chemists (be able to)
…………………… create new and useful substance and to understand the
chemical process that take place in nature everyday.
10. Chemistry (be)……………. the scientific study of the substances that
make up the universe.
B. Past Simple tense:
The Simple Past describes actions and events that were complete at a definite
time in the past . The situations and actions way be recent or a long time ago,
habitual, short or long.
* All regular Simple Past verbs end in -ed.
* Irregular verbs have different forms, so you have to learn by heart
Example :
Several philosophers of the Graeco -Roman civilization time proposed
various substances out of which they regarded the universe as having
been constructed.
The principle "elements" suggested were water, air, fire, and earth.

Put the verbs in parentheses into correct form:
1. During the 1600’s, an Irish scientist named Robert Boyle (conduct)
……………. a series of experiments that (disprove) …………… the theory
that air, earth, fire, and water (be) …………. the basic element of matter.
2. Boyle's work (change)…………. the course of chemistry because
scientists (begin)…………. to recognize that certain familiar substances
(can)…………… not be broken down into simpler substances - therefore,
they must be elements.
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3. During the first 300 years after the birth of Christ, scholars and craft
workers in Egypt (develop)……………….. a chemical practice that
(come)………….. to be called alchemy.
4. Chemists (continue)………………. to have difficulty categorizing the
elements until 1869.
5. Late 1700's Antoine Lavoisier (write)……………… the first modern text
book on chemistry.
C. The Present Perfect tense:
The Present Perfect is used to express past time that is related to the present
in someway. Sometimes the past action is very recent, or it is still continuing
at the present moment, or we don't know exactly when the past action
happened, we only know that it happened sometime in the past.
To form the present perfect, use the Simple Present form of have + the past
participle of the main verb.
Example:
Chemists have tried to develop a full understanding of all substances.
Chemistry has been a very important course in school.

FURTHER EXERCISES ON GRAMMAR:
Use either the SIMPLE PRESENT or PRESENT PROGRESSIVE of the
verbs in parentheses:
Tim (have)………….. a car.
Tim (have)…………. trouble with his car, so he has to take the bus to work
these days.
This box (weigh)…………… a lot. It’s too heavy for me to lift.
I just handed the box to the postal worker. Right now she (weigh) ……………..
……it to see how much postage it (need) …………….
I (do)……………… this practice at the moment. It consists of both non-
progressive and progressive verbs.
I (think)…………………. about the verbs in this grammar practice right now. I
(think)……………….. all of my answers are correct, but I’ll use the answer
key to check them when I finish to make sure.
Mrs. Edwards is at the market. Right now she (look)…………………. at the
apples. They (look)……………….fresh.
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Right now Martha is in the science building. The chemistry experiment she is
doing is dangerous, so she (be)…………………very careful. She (want, not)
…………………to spill any of the acid. She (be, always)
……………….careful when she does a chemistry experiment.
Dennis (drink, usually)……………coffee with his breakfast, but this morning he
(drink)……………….tea instead.
This morning, it (rain)………….. I can see Janet from my window. She
(stand)……………at the corner of 5
th
and pine. She (hold)……………. Her
umbrella over her head. She (wait)…………………for the bus.
Use either the SIMPLE PAST or PRESENT PERFECT of the verbs in
parentheses:
1. I (know) ……………….…Tim when I (be)………..…….. a child, but I have
not seen him for years.
2. The company and the union finally (agree)…………….……….on
everything, and the rest of the negotiation have gone smoothly.
3. Mark (take)………………a trip to Asia last October. He (take)…………….
to Asia since he started his own import-export business.
4. Ivan (play)…………………….the violin with the London Symphony since
1985. Last year he (play)…………………..a Beethoven violin concerto at
the concert..
5. When she was in college, Julia (write)…………………….home at least once
a week. Now she has a job and is living in Chicago. In the last six months,
she (write)…………….……only three letters to her parents.
6. Our university (send) …………..………..210 students to study in other
countries last year. In total, we (send) ………..………….846 students abroad
over the last ten years.
7. Maseru is a pilot for France Air Lines. He (fly) ……….…………nearly 8
million miles during the last years. Last years, he (fly)…………..………203
miles.
8. Mark missed his physics examination because he (oversleep)………….. He
(oversleep)………………..….a lot since the beginning of the semester. He’d
better buy a new alarm clock.
9. Alex is an artist. He (draw)………………………..many beautiful pictures in
his lifetimes. Last week, he (draw)…………..…………….a beautiful
mountain scene.
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10. Jack recently needs to get in touch with you. Since this morning, he
(call)………………… here four times trying to reach you. He (call)………..
at 9:00, 10:15, 12;15 and 1:45.
11. Janet (wear) …………………….………….her new blue dress only once
since she bought it. She (wear)…………….………………..it to her brother’s
wedding.
12. The night has ended and it’s daylight now. The sun (rise)…………………at
6:06



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UNIT TWO: ATOMS
All things are made up of basic units of matter called atoms. Atoms vary greatly
in weight, but they are all about the same size-more than a million times smaller
than the thickness of a human hair. Yet tiny as they are, atoms consist of even more
minute subatomic particles. The three basic types of these particles are called
protons, neutrons, and electrons. Proton and neutrons form the nucleus, or center, of
the atom. Nuclei is the term for more than one nucleus. Electrons whirl around the
nucleus.
Atoms are the building blocks of the chemical elements, the simplest substances.
Hydrogen and lead are examples of well-known elements. Each element has a
unique type of atom: Atoms of different elements vary according to their number of
protons. A hydrogen atom, for example, has 1 proton, while an atom of lead has S2.
Electricity binds the parts of an atom together. Protons in the nucleus carry a
positive electric charge, and electrons rotating around the nucleus carry a negative
charge. Neutrons have no charge, and so do not affect the electricity of the atom.
Ordinarily, atoms have the same number of protons and electrons. As a result, there
is a balance in each atom that makes it electrically neutral. But because opposite
charges attract, the atom could collapse in on itself. Additional energy in the
electrons keeps them spinning around, which prevents the atom from collapsing.
And a force called strong nuclear force keeps the protons and neutrons contained
within the nucleus.
I. Vocabulary in context:
opposite charges attraction - strong nuclear force - electricity - negative - number
of protons - neutrons - subatomic particles - electrons - atoms - protons - positive -
additional energy - no charge - protons and electrons -
1. All things are mode up basic units of matter called ……………...
2. Atoms consist of three basic ……………….
3. Three basic types of particles are …………, …………, and ………………...
4. Atoms of different element are different from one another depending on their
………………………..
5. Protons carry a ……………..electric charge, while electrons carry a ………..
charge
6. Neutrons have …………….., and so do not affect the ……………. of the
atom.
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7. Normally, the number of ……………………….is equal.
8. Due to …………………………………, the atom could collapse in itself.
9. Thanks to …………………….……….., electrons can spin around the
nucleus, which prevent the atom from collapsing.
10. The fact that protons and neutrons can stay within the nucleus is thanks to a
force called …………………………………...
II. Vocabulary in new context:
chemical reactions - protons - positive - molecules - atom – nucleus – atoms - a
group of atoms - Atoms - Electrons - protons - neutrons
1. All matter is made of ………….., the smallest bit of each element.
2. A particle of gas could be an ………..or ………………...
3. …………..have energy of motion that we feel as temperature.
4. The motion of atoms or …………….can be in the form of linear motion of
translation, the vibration of atoms molecules against one another or pulling
against a bond.
5. ……………………spin around the nucleus rapidly.
6. Every atom of a particular element has the same number of ……………….
7. Electrons are much smaller than ………………or ………………….
8. The concept of atoms and molecules enables us to understand more fully the
…………………………..
9. The nucleus contains small heavy particles called protons, which possess the
……………….charge and other small particles called neutrons which have the
same mass as the protons but have no charge at all.
10. At the center of every atom lies the core or …………………, which is very
small compared with the size of the atom as a whole.
III. Comprehension questions: Write T if the following statement is
true, and F if false.
1. Atoms are the most basic units of substance _____
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2. A force called strong nuclear fore helps the protons and neutrons stay
together within the nuclear _____
3. Neutrons have positive electric charge_____
4. Protons have positive electric charge_____
5. Electrons go around the nucleus _____
6. Electrons have no electric charge _____
7. An atom could collapse in on itself _____
8. Thanks to an additional energy, electrons can which around the nucleus ___
IV. Grammar: PASSIVE VOICE STRUCTURE
The passive is most frequently used when we do not know or it is not important to
know exactly who performs an action, or when we want to emphasize the role of the
now used as subject in passive voice.
In the passive, the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb.
Example:
Chemistry is frequently divided into Inorganic and organic chemistry we do
not know and it is not important to know who know divide chemistry into
branches.
Elements are made up units called atoms
Passive form is formed as: Noun / Noun Phrase + Be + V pp + (by …)
Turn the following sentences into passive voice:
Without knowledge of analytical chemistry, we could accomplish little in any
branch of the science.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
Scientist call the chemistry of carbon compounds Organic Chemistry.
…………………………………………………………………………………
Scientists often compare the structure of an atom with that of the solar system.
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…………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
We can beak protons and neutrons down into ever smaller particles called
quarks.
…………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
Electron in the outer shells control the chemical behavior of an atom.
…………………………………………………………………………………
The behavior of the atoms that make up a substance determines the behavior of
that substance.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
Since 1964, several groups of scientists claimed that they had created six new
elements.
…………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
Although molecules are made up of atoms, scientists still consider them
(molecules) one of the basis units of matter.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
People usually classify chemical elements as mental or non-mental.
…………………………………………………………………………………
Antoine Lavoisier wrote the first modern textbook on chemistry.
………………………………………………………………………………….
Put the verb in brackets into correct form
1. The three basis types of subatomic particles (call) ______ protons, neutrons,
and electrons.
2. Elements (make up of) ________________units called atoms
3. Theoretical chemistry (concern) ________primarily _________with the
ultimate goal of chemistry the structure of matter.
4. Analytical chemistry (concern) _________with the separation,
identification, and composition of various kinds of matter.
5. The chemistry of carbon compounds (call) _________Organic Chemistry.
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6. All the matter around you (make up) ____________atoms.
7. The electrons associated with atoms (find) ___________to have measurable
properties which exhibit quantization.
8. It (believe) _______________that air, earth, fire and water were the basic
elements of matter.
9. Symbols for the elements (may use) _____________merely as abbreviations
for the name of the element.
10. But they (use) ______________more commonly in formulas and equations
to represent a fixed relative quantity of the element.




FURTHER EXERCISES ON PASSIVE
Change the sentences into passive forms; make sure the meaning of the original
sentences is the same.
The waiter refilled my glass.
………………………………….…………………………..…………………..
Did Sue knock that vase at the door?
………………………………………………to the floor by Sue?
The pollution I the city was affecting Tim’s breathing.
…………………………………………………………………….……………..
Had a special messenger delivered the package before you got to the office?
……………………………………………………………….………………….
Mr. Snow hasn’t taught that course since 1985.
…………………………………………………………………….……………..
The city attorney has discovered new evidence.
……………….……………………………………………………………………
The voters are going to decide that issue.
……………………………………………………………………..……………..
Your emotional appeals will not influence the judge.
…………………………………………………………………………………….
The best chess player will win the match.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
Is a student pilot flying that airplane?
…………………………………………………………………………………….
Complete the sentences with the words in brackets. Some tenses are active and
some passive
You (notify) ……………………by my secretary next week.
Last night I (remember, not)……………………….to lock the front door.
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At the present time, the oldest house in town (restore) ………………..by the
History Society. When the restoration is finished, the house is sure to be a
popular tourist attraction.
A: What a beautiful old wooden chest!
B: It (build) ……………………….by my grandfather over 50 years ago.
At one time, the entire world (rule) …………………..by dinosaurs. Some
dinosaurs (walk) …………………..on their hind legs and (stand) …………..
as tall as palm trees.
Disney land is a world famous amusement park in Southern California. It
(visit)………………by more then ten million people every year.
Many of us take water for granted in our daily lives, but people who live in the
desert (use, not)…………….……..water carelessly. To them, each drop is
precious.
I (agree, not)………………….with people who say space exploration is a waste
of money. What do you think?
Do you really think we (invade) …………………by creatures from outer space
in a near future?
Most insects (live)………………..for less than a year. The common housefly
(live) ………………..from 19 to 30 days.
(You, accept, already)………………………by this university when you heard
about the other scholarship?
I got into a taxi quickly because I (follow)…………………by two strange men.
As soon as o got into the taxi, I (feel)……………a little safer.
The impact of the earthquake yesterday (feel)……………..by people who lived
hundreds of kilometers from the epicenter.
Mark (influence)………………….a lot by his friends, isn’t he? He should be
more independent and think for himself.
WORD STUDY: The prefix re- means ‘to do something again’.
For example: re + do => redo (to do again)
re + read => reread (to read again)
Add the prefix re- to each word. Then choose the correct word to complete each
sentence: arrange, do, order, tell, build, married, take, write
Jose made many mistakes in his first composition. Before he gives it to his
teacher tomorrow, he is going to …………it.
Dave and Susan got divorced 10 years ago. Last year Susan got ……… and
moved to Canada with her new husband.
I think I should ……………the furniture in my apartment. The way I have the
tables and chairs makes the room look crowded.
Children love to hear their grandparents tell stories! They often ask their
grandparents to …………their favorite stories many times.
The new waiter at the restaurant forgot our order for dinner, so we had to ….
everything.
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If you do not get good score on the TOEFL exam this weekend, you can ….. it
next month
FURTHER READINGS
The Nature of the Problem
The understanding and prediction of the properties of matter at the atomic level
represents one of the great achievements of twentieth-century science. The theory
developed to describe the behavior of electrons, atoms and molecules differs
radically from familiar Newtonian physics, the physics governing the motions of
macroscopic bodies and the physical events of our everyday experiences. The
discovery and formulation of the fundamental concepts of atomic physics in the
period 1901 to 1926 by such men as Planck, Einstein, de Broglie and Heisenberg
caused what can only be described as a revolution in the then-accepted basic
concepts of physics.
The new theory is called quantum theory or quantum mechanics. As far as we
now know this theory is able to account for all observable behavior of matter and,
with suitable extensions, for the interaction of matter with light. The proper
formulation of quantum mechanics and its application to a specific problem requires
a rather elaborate mathematical framework, as do proper statements and applications
of Newtonian physics. We may, however, in this introductory account acquaint
ourselves with the critical experiments which led to the formulation of quantum
mechanics and apply the basic concepts of this new mechanics to the study of
electrons.
Specifically the problem we set ourselves is to discover the physical laws
governing the behavior of electrons and then apply these laws to determine how the
electrons are arranged when bound to nuclei to form atoms and molecules. This
arrangement of electrons is termed the electronic structure of the atom or molecule.
Furthermore, we shall discuss the relationship between the electronic structure of an
atom and its physical properties, and how the electronic structure is changed during
a chemical reaction.
Rutherford's nuclear model for the atom set the stage for the understanding of the
structure of atoms and the forces holding them together.
From Rutherford's alpha-scattering experiments it was clear that the atom
consisted of a positively-charged nucleus with negatively-charged electrons
arranged in some fashion around it, the electrons occupying a volume of space many
times larger than that occupied by the nucleus. (The diameters of nuclei fall in the
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range of l × 10
-12
→ 1 × 10
-13
cm, while the diameter of an atom is typically of the
order of magnitude of 1 × 10
-8
cm.) The forces responsible for binding the atom,
and in fact all matter (aside from the nuclei themselves), are electrostatic in origin:
the positively-charged nucleus attracts the negatively-charged electrons. There are
attendant magnetic forces which arise from the motions of the charged particles.
These magnetic forces give rise to many important physical phenomena, but they
are smaller in magnitude than are the electrostatic forces and they are not
responsible for the binding found in matter.
During a chemical reaction only the number and arrangement of the electrons are
changed, the nucleus remaining unaltered. The unchanging charge of the atomic
nucleus is responsible for retaining the atom's chemical identity through any
chemical reaction. Thus for the purpose of understanding the chemical properties
and behavior of atoms, the nucleus may be regarded as simply a point charge of
constant magnitude for a given element, giving rise to a central field of force which
binds the electrons to the atom.
Rutherford proposed his nuclear model of the atom in 1911, some fifteen years
before the formulation of quantum mechanics. Consequently his model, when first
proposed, posed a dilemma for classical physics. The nuclear model, based as it was
on experimental observations, had to be essentially correct, yet all attempts to
account for the stability of such a system using Newtonian mechanics ended in
failure.
According to Newtonian mechanics we should be able to obtain a complete
solution to the problem of the electronic structure of atoms once the nature of the
force between the nucleus and the electron is known. The electrostatic force
operative in the atom is well understood and is described by Coulomb's law, which
states that the force between two particles with charges e1 and e2 separated by a
distance R is given by:


There is a theorem of electrostatics which states that no stationary arrangement of
charged particles can ever be in electrostatic equilibrium, i.e., be stable to any
further change in their position. This means that all the particles in a collection of
postively and negatively charged species will always have resultant forces of
attraction or repulsion acting on them no matter how they are arranged in space.
Thus no model of the atom which invokes some stationary arrangement of the
electrons around the nucleus is possible. The electrons must be in motion if
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electrostatic stability is to be preserved. However, an electron moving in the field of
a nucleus experiences a force and, according to Newton's second law of motion,
would be accelerated. The laws of electrodynamics state that an accelerated charged
particle should emit light and thus continuously lose energy. In this dynamical
model of the atom, all of the electrons would spiral into the nucleus with the
emission of light and all matter would collapse to a much smaller volume, the
volume occupied by the nuclei.
No one was able to devise a theoretical model based on Newtonian, or what is
now called classical mechanics, which would explain the electrostatic stability of
atoms. The inescapable conclusion was that the classical equations of motion did not
apply to the electron. Indeed, by the early 1900's a number of physical phenomena
dealing with light and with events on the atomic level were found to be inexplicable
in terms of classical mechanics. It became increasingly clear that Newtonian
mechanics, while predicting with precision the motions of masses ranging in size
from stars to microscopic particles, could not predict the behavior of particles of the
extremely small masses encountered in the atomic domain. The need for a new set
of laws was indicated
Questions
What do we – human being benefit from the understanding and prediction of the
properties of matter at the atomic level?


What does the quantum theory or quantum mechanics concern about?


What are the main differences between Newtonian mechanics and quantum
mechanics?


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What does the theorem
1
of electrostatics
2
concern?


How does the text end? What does it say about Newtonian mechanics?




1
Ñònh lyù, quy taéc
2
Tónh ñieän hoïc
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UNIT THREE: STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM
Atoms behave as if they were solid. Electrons spin around the nucleus at such
amazing speed that they create the effect of a rigid exterior. But most of an atom is
actually made up of empty space. The nucleus fills only the tiniest portion of that
space, and the nucleus is proportionately very distant from the orbiting electrons.
For example, if a hydrogen atom were about 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) in diameter, its
nucleus would be no bigger than a tennis ball.
The structure of an atom is often compared with that of the solar system,
suggesting that electrons orbit the nucleus just as planets orbit the sun. But this is
not a completely accurate comparison, because atoms are not nearly as orderly as
the solar system. Electrons do not follow regular paths, and protons and neutrons
move about constantly within the nucleus. The subatomic particles do, however,
show certain patterns of behavior.
THE NUCLEUS, in spite of its small size, makes up nearly all the mass of an
atom. Protons and neutrons compose the nucleus of all atoms except the most
common form of hydrogen, which has only a proton at its center. Protons are just
slightly smaller than neutrons, and both particles are about 100,000 times smaller
than an entire atom.
Every atom of a particular element has the same number of protons. The number
of neutrons, however, may vary. Atoms that have the same number of protons but
different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. The number of neutrons does not
usually affect how an atom behaves in reactions.
Protons and neutrons can be broken down into even tinier particles called quarks.
Each proton and neutron consists of three quarks.
ELECTRONS are the vital components of every chemical reaction. Chemistry,
therefore, is particularly concerned with the behavior of electrons, particularly in
relation to electrons of other atoms.
Electrons are much smaller than protons or neutrons. They have very little mass
and do not seem to be made up of smaller parts. However, electrons occupy almost
the entire volume of an atom, traveling through the space around the nucleus, and
completing billions of trips each millionth of a second.
Electrons move along wavy paths, called orbitals, which may appear as any one
of a variety of rounded shapes. Each electron carries a certain amount of energy.
Those with greater energy are located farther from the nucleus. Electrons are
arranged according to their energy level in shells, which are at different average
distances from the nucleus.
Each electron shell is designated by a number-the shell closest to the nucleus is
called shell 1, and the others are called 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, in order of their
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increasing distance from the nucleus. Shells can only hold a limited number of
electrons. For example, shell 1 can hold no more than two electrons. The number of
shells that atoms have varies, depending on the kind of atom and the energy level of
the electrons.
Electrons in the outer shells control the chemical behavior of an atom. This is
because these electrons can react with other atoms.
I. Vocabulary in context
shells - chemical behavior - Isotope - empty space – number of electrons -
energy - mass - spin around - constantly - Neutrons
Electron …………………the nucleus at very high speed.
Most of an atom is made up of ………………….
Protons and neutrons move about …………….within the nucleus.
The nucleus makes up nearly all …………..of an atom.
“…………….” is a word used to refer to atoms that have the same number of
protons but different numbers of neutrons.
……………..have very little mass.
Each electron carries a certain amount of ………………..
Electrons are arranged depending on their energy level in ………………..
Shells can only hold a limited ………………………..
The ……………………..of an atom is determined by electrons in the outer shell
of an atom
II. Match words or phrases in column A and column B

A B
Electrons
Number of electrons
Number of protons
Protons
Paths that electrons move along
are called orbitals
does not usually affect atom’s behavior
move around the nucleus in atomic orbitals
are a bit smaller than neutrons
is equal in every atom of particular element
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III. Answer the questions
1. Do electrons go around the nucleus? …………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Do they follow the same paths?………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………….
3. What makes up the mass of an atom?…………………………………………
4. What is isotope?……………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………
5. What is orbital? ………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
6. Do electrons have energy? …………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………..
7. How are electrons arranged? …………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
8. Do all atoms have the same number of shells? ………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………….
9. What determines the chemical behavior of an atom? ……………………….
………………………………………………………………………………..
10. What is the main idea of this text? …………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………..
IV. Structure: Passive (continued)
PUT THE VERBS IN BRACKETS IN PASSIVE FORM
1. Interestingly, Helium first (discover)_____________, not on our world,
but on the sun
2. Ionic bond (form) _____________by the electrostatic attraction after the
complete transfer of an electron from a donor atom to an acceptor atom.
3. Electrons (can transfer) _____________carrying energy to another
molecule.
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4. Molecules (make up of) ______________atoms held together in certain
arrangements.
5. The chemical formula for water (write) __________________as H
2
O
FURTHER EXERCISERS: CHANGE THE SENTENCES
INTO PASSIVE. INCLUDE ‘BY PHRASE’ IF
NECESSARY
People grow rice in India …………………………………………………
My aunt made this rug …………………………………………………….
They are fixing my car to day ……………………………………………..
They speak French in Quebec. ……………………………………………
Mr. Edwards designed that bridge inn 1970’s ……………………………
Did Thomas Edison invent the telephone? ………………………………..
Someone invented the wheel thousands of years ago …………………….
They are going to build a new hospital just outside of town ……………...
How do people make candles? …………………………………………..
Have you broken that vase? ……………………………………………

WORD STUDY - SUFFIXES
The suffix –less means “without” or “not having something”
Here is an example:
The number of English words to learn is endless (without end)
Add the suffix –less to each word. Then choose the best word for each
sentence:
Care ……………………… Change …………………………..
Hope ……………………. Worth …………………………..
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Help ……………………. Thought ………………………….
End ……………………… Sleep …………………………….
Babies cannot take care of themselves. Someone most help them because
they are ……………………
Stephen found an old coin. He thought it was gold, but it wasn’t. in fact, it
had no value. It was ………………………
You must take your time and be careful when you wrote. If you try to hurry,
you will make ………………mistakes.
Alice was sick last night so she could not sleep. Today in class she was very
tired after such a ………….night.
Helen said nothing that hurt my feelings. I know she did not want to hurt my
feelings. She just was not thinking. She made a ……………mistake.
Most students are making a good progress but Jeremy seems a ……… case.
He does not have any improvement at all.
Wow, I have not seen you for ages, but you look the same as before. You are
……………..
Timmy had many accidents since the day he got his new car. He is a
…………………. Driver.
I will always love you, darling. My love for you is ……………….
I spent many ………………night thinking about you, wondering if you love
me truly.
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UNIT FOUR: PROPERTIES OF ATOMS
The behavior of substances is determined by the behavior of the atoms that make
up those substances. Scientists judge the behavior of atoms by identifying the
characteristics and properties of different atoms.
THE ATOMIC NUMBER refers to the number of protons an atom has. Since all
atoms of the same element have the same number of protons, they share the same
atomic number. Helium atoms, for example, have two protons, and so the atomic
number for helium is 2. Natural elements have atomic numbers that range
successively up to 92, which is the atomic number for uranium. Plutonium, which
also occurs in nature, has an atomic number of 94. Elements that have higher atomic
numbers must be created in a laboratory.
THE MASS NUMBER is the sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom.
Isotopes of the same element have different mass numbers, depending on the
number of neutrons each isotope contains. For example, the nucleus of protium, the
most common hydrogen isotope, consists of a single proton and so has the mass
number of 1. Deuterium, another hydrogen isotope, has a mass number of 2, because
its nucleus consists of a proton and a neutron.
ATOMIC MASS is the mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units (amu).
Atomic mass units are extremely small-one amu equals 1/12 the mass of an atom of
the element carbon 13. The mass of most atoms in amu is almost identical to the
mass number. Electrons do not affect an atom's atomic mass because they have
virtually no mass.
ELECTRIC CHARGE. Atoms are normally electrically neutral. But they can
lose or gain electrons through chemical reactions or in a collision with an electron or
another atom. This gain or loss of electrons produces an electrically charged atom
called an ion. An atom that loses electrons becomes a positive ion; one that gains
electrons is called a negative ion. The gain or loss of electrons is called ionization.
VALENCE is the capacity of an atom to combine with another atom, forming a
molecule. Atoms combine through the exchange of electrons -they either lose, gain,
or share electrons with another atom. Valence refers to the number of electrons
involved when atoms combine. If an atom tends to lose electrons to other atoms, it
has a positive valence. If an atom tends to gain electrons, its valence is negative.
Chlorine, for example, tends to gain one electron from another atom and so has a
valence of –1.
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I. Vocabulary in context
electrically neutral - atomic mass - create - mass number - electrons - atomic
valence - negative ion - number - behavior - atomic mass unit - positive ion
1. The behavior of the atoms that make up a substance determine the
…………..of that substance.
2. The number of protons in an atom is called the …………………..
3. Scientist can ………………..elements.
4. The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom is called the ………………...
5. Amu is the abbreviation of …………………………
6. The unit of ………………….is expressed in amu.
7. The atomic mass of an atom is not affected by ………………….which have
virtually no mass.
8. Although atoms are normally …………………………., they may lose or gain
electrons.
9. An atom becomes a …………………..when it loses electrons, and
……………. when it gains electrons.
10. The capacity of an atom to combine with another atom to from a molecule is
called …………….
II. Comprehension questions
1. How can scientists judge the behavior of atom?………………………………...
…………………………………………………………………………………..
2. What is the atomic numbers? …………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………..
3. Can we create new elements? How? ……………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………..
4. Do all isotopes of the same element have the same mass number? Why? ……..
…………………………………………………………………………………..
5. What is the unit of the atomic mass? …………………………………………...
…………………………………………………………………………………..
6. Do electrons affect the atomic mass of an atom? Why? ………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………..
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7. What happens when an atom loses electrons? When an atom gains electrons?
…………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………….
8. What does valence refer to? ……………………………………………………
9. When does an atom have a positive valence? ………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
10. When does an atom have a negative valence? …………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………….
III. Grammar
Types of sentences
Single sentence or independent clause: A simple sentence has single subject
– verb combination. It usually has one subjects, but sometimes there may
be more than one subject.
Example:
All matter is made up atoms
There are two types of property of water: physical properties and chemical
properties.
All simple end by a stop (.) or a semicolon (;).
Compound sentences
A compound sentence is made up two (or sometimes more) simple
sentences that are joined by a conjunction (such as “for”, “and”, “nor”,
“but”, “or”, “yet”, “so”).
For example:
Some of the symbols have one letter, and some have two.
Symbols for the elements may be used merely as abbreviations
for the name of the element, but they are used more commonly
in formulas and equations to represent a fixed relative quantity
of the element
Complex sentences:
Complex sentences are made up one or more independent clauses and one
or more dependent clauses.
For example:
Because opposite changes attract, the atom could collapse in
on itself
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Because … changes attract: dependent clauses
the atom … collapse in on itself: independent clauses.
Although molecules are made up atoms, they are still
considered one of the basic units of matter (unit 6)
Although …atom: dependent clauses
They are …matter: independent clauses
The atom could collapse in on itself because opposite charges
in the atom attract each other
The atom …itself: independent clauses
because …each other: dependent clauses
Dependent clauses usually start with words like when, while, where,
because, although, if, etc.
Write independent if the following sentences are Independent, Compound, or
Complex:
1. Chemistry seeks the answer to two question (unit 1) ……………………….
2. The chemistry of carbon compound is called organic chemistry (unit 1) …..
3. Atoms vary greatly in weight, but they are all about the same size-more
than a million times smaller than the thickness of a human hair (unit 2) …..
4. if a hydrogen atom were about 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) in diameter, its
nucleus would be no bigger than a tennis ball (unit 3) ………………….
5. Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of
neutrons are called isotope (unit 3) ……………………………………
6. Electrons in the outer shells control the chemical behavior of an atom (unit
3) ……..
7. If you see the symbol of an element, you should know the name of that
element……………………..
8. When they join with other elements, non-metals can either share electrons
in a covalent bond or gain electrons to become a negative iron to make an
ionic bend. ………………………..
9. Although all matter consists of chemical element, very little of the matter
on Earth is made up of elements in their pure or uncombined form……….
10. A solution is said to be dilute if there is les of the solute…………………..
Combine the following sentences
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1. Atoms combine. They usually form units called molecules.
(when)………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………..
2. Atoms vary greatly in weight. They are all about the same size (but).
…………………………………………………………………………….
3. Neutrons have no charge. They do not affect the electricity of the atoms
(and). ……………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………
4. Electrons do not affect an atom’s atomic mass. They have virtually no mass
(because). ………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………..
5. An atom tends to be electron. It has a positive valence (if) ………………..
……………………………………………………………………………….
6. Since 1964, several groups of scientists claim to have created six new
elements. None of the claim has yet been accepted officially. (but)
………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
7. Neutrons have no charge. They do not affect the electricity of the atom (so)
……………………………………………………………………………….
8. We must understand oxidation states. We go any further into redox
(before). …………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………….
9. Atoms of one element bond atoms of another element. A compound is
formed (when) ………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………….
10. The melting of ice only a physical charge. The structure of the water
molecules remains the same (because)………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
VI- Writing:
A- Reorder the words to make meaningful sentences :
1. Consist of /all things /chemical elements / different combinations /of.
…………………………………………………………………………………
2. Frequently divided /chemistry /into/organic chemistry /inorganic/and /is
…………………………………………………………………………………
3. Together /binds/ the parts/ electricity/ of an atom.
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…………………………………………………………………………………
4. Empty space / most of/ made up of / an atom /is
…………………………………………………………………………………
5. Much smaller / protons or neutrons / than / electrons / are
…………………………………………………………………………………
B -Make sentences using suggested words
1. Mass number / sum / protons / neutrons / in an atom
…………………………………………………………………………………
2. Valence / capacity / atom / to combine / anther atom
…………………………………………………………………………………
3. Electrons / outer shells / control / chemical behavior / atom.
…………………………………………………………………………………
4. Analytical chemistry /experimental foundation/ chemistry.
…………………………………………………………………………………
5. Every atom / particular element / have / same number / protons
…………………………………………………………………………………
6. All chemical substances / either elements / compounds
…………………………………………………………………………………
7. The names / elements /come from / different sources.
…………………………………………………………………………………
8. Nuclei / term for / than / one nucleus.
…………………………………………………………………………………
9. Chemists / use / symbols for elements / write formulas / compounds
…………………………………………………………………………………
10. Nitrogen and phosphorus / be / very definitely non-metals.
…………………………………………………………………………………
11. molecular mass / carbon dioxide / about 44
…………………………………………………………………………………
12. Two molecules / the same kind /may also combine / form / larger molecule
…………………………………………………………………………………
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13. Molecules / occur in / incredible number / shapes and sizes.
…………………………………………………………………………………
14. A compound / a substance / that / made up of at least two different elements
…………………………………………………………………………………
15. Blood / many other fluids in living things / colloids.
…………………………………………………………………………………
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UNIT FIVE: ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS OF ELEMENTS
Chemical elements, the most basic of substances, can be defined in either of two
ways. An element is (1) a substance that cannot be broken down chemically into a
simpler substance, or (2) a substance that contains only one kind of atom.
All chemical substances are either elements or compounds, which are
combinations of elements. For example, hydrogen and oxygen are elements, and
water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen. A few elements occur naturally in
their pure form. They include carbon, sulfur, and certain metals, such as gold and
silver. But nearly all other elements - apart from the gases in the atmosphere - occur
in combination as compounds.
There are currently 103 officially named and recognized elements. Some
elements do not occur naturally and must be created in a laboratory. Since 1964,
several groups of scientists have claimed to have created six new elements, but none
of the claim has yet been accepted officially.
The names of elements come from different sources. Some of these names come
from Greek or Latin words. Bromine, for example, gets its name from the Greek
word for stench. Many artificially created elements are named in honor of a place or
individual. Einsteinium, an element created in a laboratory, was named in honor of
the physicist Albert Einstein.
Each element has a symbol that consists of one or two letters. Chemists use these
symbols as abbreviations for elements. The symbols are universally recognized, and
so provide an international language for chemists.
In some cases, the first letter of an element's name is used as its symbol. For
example, C is the symbol for carbon. If the names of two or more elements begin
with the same letter, two letters of a name are used for all but one of the elements.
The second letter is written in lower case. The symbol for calcium is Ca, and the
symbol for helium is lie. Some symbols come from an old word for the element.
Sodium, for example, has the symbol Na, which comes from the Latin word for
sodium, natrium.
Chemists use the symbols for elements to write formulas for compounds. The
formulas tell which elements and how many atoms of each are in a compound.
Chemical reactions can be illustrated by placing the formulas in a particular series.
There are only a few more than one hundred elements. Of those, only eighty-
three are not naturally radioactive, and of those, only fifty or so are common enough
to our experience to be useful for general knowledge.
It would serve you well to know the elements. If you were to attempt to read
anything without knowing your letters, you would be in trouble. Let’s say you still
have a hard time telling the difference between a ‘b’ and a ‘d’. Your fluency in
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reading would be ruined by having to look up the difference every time you
encountered one of those letters. Similarly, you should know your elements well
enough so that if you read or hear about one of them, you instantly know what they
are. Learn how to spell the names of the elements. Learn the symbols. Some of the
symbols have one letter, some have two, but each element symbol has one and only
one upper case letter in it.
I. Vocabulary in context
formulas - pure forms – elements - honor - element - Greek or Latin – substance
- common - letters - compounds - create - elements - atoms
1. An ………….is a …………………that cannot be broken down chemically
into a simpler substance
2. All chemical substances exist in two states: ………….or …………………..
3. There are only a few elements that exist naturally in their …………………...
4. Scientists can ……………some elements in a laboratory.
5. Scientists name elements by using words from …………………….
6. Some elements are named in ……………….of a place or individual
7. The symbol for an element contains one or two ………………...
8. Symbols are used to write ………………..for compounds.
9. By looking at the formulas, we can recognize which ……………and how
many ………….. of each are in a compound.
10. Only a few more than fifty elements are ………….to our experience to be
useful for our general knowledge.
II. Vocabulary in new context
Chemical symbols - Symbols - formulas -Chemical elements -
hundred - formulas
1. ……………………are substances that cannot be decomposed or broken into
more simpler/simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
2. More than 1 …………….chemical elements are known to exist in the
universe.
3. …………….for the elements may be used merely as abbreviations for the
name of the element, but
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4. they are used more commonly in ……………and equations too represent a
fixed relative quantity of the element.
5. …………………….and ……………..are used to describe chemical
reactions.
III. Comprehension questions
1. According to the text, what is a definition of element? ……………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Under what forms do all chemical substances exist? ……………………….
………………………………………………………………………………….
3. How many elements are worldwide recognized? ……………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………..
4. How do scientists represent a name of an element so as all people can
recognize the element represented? ……………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………….
5. Apart from being recognized universally, what are the symbols for the
elements are used for? …………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………..
IV. Grammar: Relative Clauses (review)
• That / Which
Example:
An element is a substance. The substance cannot be broken down
chemically into a simpler substance.
=> An element is a substance that/which cannot be broken down
chemically into a simpler substance.
1. The formulas tell us something. They tell which elements and how many
atoms of each are in a compound.
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………….
2. You find in each box of the Periodic Chart an integer. The integer is the
atomic number
……………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
3. Each vertical column of the periodic table includes elements. These elements
are chemically related.
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……………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………..
4. Elements in Group I of the periodic table are very soft metals. They are not
found free in nature because they react with water.
……………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………..
5. Natural elements have atomic numbers. The atomic numbers range
successively up to 92.
……………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………..
• If / When / While
1. You see the symbol of an element. You should know the name of that
element.
If…………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
2. The hydrogen electron energy levels are found to depend only upon the
principal quantum number. The energy levels in other atoms are found to
have strong dependence upon the orbital quantum number.
While………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………
3. An atom has 6 protons. It is carbon
If …………………………………………………………………………………
4. Two atoms have the same number but different atomic weights. They are said
to be isotopes.
When………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
5. Electrons in the outer shells control the chemical behavior of an atom.. these
electrons can react with other atoms.
Because……………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
• Further exercises on combining sentences
1. Scientists have discovered something. They discovered that the rare gases
are found as gases at ordinary temperatures and pressures.
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…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
2. Helium is best known as gas in balloons and airships. Helium is used to
prevent chemical from reacting with other elements during storage and
transportation.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
3. There is a force. It is called van de Waals. It holds molecules together.
…………………………………………………………………………………
..………………………………………………………………………………
4. Van de Waals is a force. It holds molecules together. It is usually weaker than
the forces that hold the atoms of a molecules together.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
5. The theory of spontaneous suggests one idea. The idea is that life suddenly
arose from nonliving matter.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
6. WORD STUDY
7. The prefix over- means “too,” “too much,” or “too many.”
8. Look at the example:
9. The cities in developing countries are already overcrowded. (too
crowded)
10. Add the prefix over- to each word. Then choose the best word for each
sentence:
11. Eat …………………….
12. Populated ……………………
13. Wight ……………………
14. Heated ……………………
15. Slept ……………………
16. Cooked ……………………
17. 1. There are too man people on the island of Java in Indonesia. Java is ……..
18. 2. We were driving in the mountains on a very hot day, and our car ………..
We had to stop and let it cool down.
19. 3. Mary left the rice in the cooker too long. Now the rice is ………………..
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20. 4. Martin has a class at 8;00 in the morning. He usually wakes up at 7:00 to
get ready. Today he was late for class because he didn’t wake up until 8:15.
he ……………………
21. 5. If you ………………………..everyday, you will soon be ………………
Eating too much can make you fat, and it’s not good for your health.
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Further readings
THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
During the 1700's and 1800's, scientists concentrated on gathering information
about the characteristics of the elements known at that lime. They soon found that
there were similarities between some elements, both in their properties and in the
way that they form compounds. This information enabled scientists to predict
chemical behavior more accurately. Eventually, scientists developed the periodic
table of elements, which arranges elements according to their properties and
provides a quick reference for essential chemical information.
The periodic table organizes elements in specific vertical and horizontal rows.
Elements run horizontally across the table in order of increasing atomic number.
Each element has one more proton in its nucleus than the element on its left, but one
less than the element on its right. These horizontal rows are called periods.
Each vertical column of the periodic table includes elements that are chemically
related. These groups of elements tend to show similar properties, particularly in
forming compounds. In most cases, the elements in a group have atoms with the
same number of electrons in their outer shells. However, atoms of elements in the
same group vary greatly in total number of electrons. A complete periodic table
provides the following basic information about each element:
• name
• chemical symbol
• atomic number
• atomic mass or mass number
• number of electrons in each shell of its atom
• chemical group to which it belongs
Group I (1) elements, lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and
francium, are also called the alkali metal elements. They are all very soft metals that
are not found free in nature because they react with water. In the element form they
must be stored under kerosene to keep them from reacting with the humidity in the
air. They all have a valence of plus one because they have one and only one electron
in the outside shell. All of the alkali metals show a distinctive color when their
compounds are put into a flame. Spectroscopy (dividing up the spectrum so you can
see the individual frequencies) of the colored light from the flame test shows strong
emission lines from the elements. The lightest of them are the least reactive.
Activity increases as the element is further down the Periodic Chart. Lithium reacts
leisurely with water. Cesium reacts very violently. Very few of the salts of Group 1
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elements are not soluble in water. The lightest of the alkali metals are very common
in the earth’s crust. Francium is both rare and radioactive.
Group II (2) elements, beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and
radium, all have two electrons in the outside ring, and so have a valence of two.
Also called the alkaline earth metals, Group 2 elements in the free form are slightly
soft metals. Magnesium and calcium are common in the earth’s crust.
Group 3 elements, boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium, are a mixed
group. Boron has mostly non- metal properties. Boron will bond covalently by
preference. The rest of the group are metals. Aluminum is the only one common in
the earth’s crust. Group 3 elements have three electrons in the outer shell, but the
larger three elements have valences of both one and three.

Group 4 elements, carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead, are not a coherent
group either. Carbon and silicon bond almost exclusively with four covalent bonds.
They both are common in the earth’s crust. Germanium is a rare semi-metal. Tin
and lead are definitely metals, even though they have four electrons in the outside
shell. Tin and lead have some differences in their properties from metal elements
that suggest the short distance from the line between metals and non-metals (semi-
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metal weirdness). They both have more than one valence and are both somewhat
common in the earth’s crust.
Group 5 is also split between metals and non-metals. Nitrogen and phosphorus
are very definitely non-metals. Both are common in the earth’s crust. In the rare
instances that nitrogen and phosphorus form ions, they form triple negative ions.
Nitride (N-3) and phosphide (P-3) ions are unstable in water, and so are not found in
nature. All of the Group 5 elements have five electrons in the outer shell. For the
smaller elements it is easier to complete the shell to become stable, so they are non-
metals.
Group VII (6 or 16) elements, oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium, have six
electrons in the outside shell. We are not concerned with polonium as a Group 6
element. It is too rare, too radioactive, and too dangerous for us to even consider in a
basic course. Tellurium is the only element in Group 6 that is a semi-metal. There
are positive and negative ions of Tellurium. Oxygen, sulfur, and selenium are true
non-metals. They have a valence of negative two as an ion, but they also bond
covalently. Oxygen gas makes covalent double-bonded diatomic molecules. Oxygen
and sulfur are common elements. Selenium has a property that may be from semi-
metal weirdness; it conducts electricity much better when light is shining on it.
Selenium is used in photocells for this property.
On some charts you will see hydrogen above fluorine in Group VII (7 or 17).
Hydrogen does not belong there any more than it belongs above Group 1. Fluorine,
chlorine, bromine, and iodine make up Group 7, the halogens. We can forget about
astatine. It is too rare and radioactive to warrant any consideration here. Halogens
have a valence of negative one when they make ions because they have seven
electrons in the outer shell. They are all diatomic gases as free elements near room
temperature. They are choking poisonous gases. Fluorine and chlorine are yellow-
green, bromine is reddish, and iodine is purple as a gas. All can be found attached to
organic molecules. Chlorine is common in the earth’s crust. Fluorine is the most
active of them, and the activity decreases as the size of the halogen increases.

Questions:
1. How was the periodic table formed?


2. How is the table organized?


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3. What information can we know when looking at the periodic table?
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UNIT SIX : MOLECULES
Although they are made up of atoms, molecules are still considered one of the
basic units of matter. That is because a molecule is the smallest particle into which a
substance can be divided and still have the chemical identity of the original
substance. If the substance were divided further, only atoms of chemical elements
would remain. For example, a drop of water contains billions of water molecules. If
one water molecule were separated from the rest, it would still behave like water.
But if that water molecule were divided, only atoms of the elements hydrogen and
oxygen would remain.
THE STRUCTURE OF MOLECULES
Molecules are made up of atoms held together in certain arrangements. The
forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together are called chemical bonds. Atoms
bond by sharing electrons - some atoms give up electrons, some take on electrons,
and in some bonds the electrons orbit the nucleus of two atoms.
Each atom in a molecule consists of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by
negatively charged electrons. When atoms bond, these charges balance each other,
forming an electrically neutral molecule. In some molecules, positive and negative
charges are spread evenly throughout it. In polar molecules, however, more positive
charge collects at one place in the molecule and more negative charge collects at
another place. Some polar molecules are magnetic because of the way the electrons
are unevenly distributed within the molecule.
Scientists show the composition of molecules by using the symbols for elements
in chemical formulas. For example, a water molecule consists of two hydrogen
atoms and one oxygen atom. Therefore, the chemical formula for water is written as
H
2
O.
Molecules are measured by their molecular mass, which equals all the atomic
masses of the atoms in a molecule. The molecular mass of carbon dioxide (CO
2
) can
be found by adding the atomic mass of one atom of carbon, which is 12, and the
masses of the 2 oxygen atoms, which are about 16 each. The molecular mass of
carbon dioxide, therefore, is about 44.
I. Vocabulary in Context
Chemical bonds - Molecular mass - electrons - polar molecules -
water molecule - nucleus - Molecules - atoms - symbols -
chemical identity - atoms - balance
1. ……………….are considered one of the basic unit of matter
2. A molecule is the smallest particle into which a substance can be divided and
still have the …………………….of the original substance.
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3. If we continue to divide molecules, only ……………….would remain.
4. A………………..has the same chemical identity as water we fins
everywhere.
5. Molecules are made up of …………held together in a certain arrangement.
6. …………………….are forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together.
7. We find in each atom of a molecule positively charged ……………
surrounded by negatively charged ……………….
8. Normally, the charges (positive and negative) in a molecule ………….each
other.
9. Electrons are unevenly distributed in ……………………..
10. Scientists use the …………..for elements to show the composition of
molecules in chemical formulas.
11. ………………..equals all the atomic masses of the atom in a molecule.
II. Comprehension questions
1. Why do we say that molecules are the basic unit of matter? ………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
2. Can a molecule of water behave chemically as water does? Why? ………..
………………………………………………………………………………..
3. What kinds of charge are there in an atom? …………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
4. What does ‘polar molecule’ mean? ………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………
5. How do we show the composition of molecules? …………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………
III. Grammar
A. Both … and:
Example: + Inorganic Chemistry is an important branch of chemistry
+ Organic Chemistry is an important branch of chemistry
=> Both Inorganic Chemistry and Organic Chemistry are
important branches of chemistry
+ Atoms can lose electrons.
+Atoms can gain electrons
=> Atoms can both lose and gain electrons
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1. Chemists investigate the properties of substances. They investigate how
different conditions affect the way substances behave.
……………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Hydrogen is a well-known element, and lead is a well-known element too.
……………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………..
3. Electrons have charge. Protons have charge, too.
……………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………..
4. Protons can be broken down into even tinier particles called quarks. Neutrons
can also be broken down into even tinier particles called quarks.
……………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………..
Further exercises
Answer the questions. Use paired conjunctions
Example: You have met his father. Have you met his mother?
Yes, I have met both his mother and his father
1. The driver was injured in the accident. Was the passenger injured in
the accident?
……………………………………………………………………………
2. Wheat is grown in Chicago. Is corn grown in Chicago?
……………………………………………………………………………
3. He buys used cars. Does he sell used cars?
……………………………………………………………………………
4. You had lunch with your friends. Did you have dinner with them?
……………………………………………………………………………
5. The city suffers from air pollution. Does it suffer from water
pollution?
……………………………………………………………………………
B. Not only … but also
Example: + Atoms can gain electrons.
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+ Atoms can lose electrons
=> Atoms can not only gain electrons but also lose electrons
1. You have to remember the name of the elements. You have to memorize
their symbols.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
2. The electrons are normally found in quantized energy states of the lowest
possible energy for the atom, called ground states. The electrons can also
exist in higher "excited states".
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
3. Symbols are used to represent for the name of the element. Symbols are used
in formulas and equations to represent a fixed relative quantity of the
element.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
4. Rates of reaction can be changed by catalysts. Moreover, they can be
changed by changes in temperature and by changes in concentrations.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
5. Gases have no fixed shapes. They have no given volume either. (Because A
certain amount of gas at a pressure of one atmosphere and a volume of ten
liters could become five liters if the pressure was increased or would become
more than ten liters if the pressure were decreased.)
…………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………….
Further Exercises
Answer the questions. Use paired conjunctions
Example: I know you are studying math. Are you studying chemistry too?
Yes, I am studying not only math but also chemistry.
1. I know his cousin is living with him. Is his mother-in-law living with him
now?
…………………………………………………………………………………
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2. I know you country has good university. Does the United have good
universities too?
…………………………………………………………………………………
3. I know you lost your wallet. Did you lose your keys too?
…………………………………………………………………………………
4. I know she goes to school. Does she have a full time job too?
…………………………………………………………………………………
5. I know he bought a coat. Did he buy a new pair of shoes too?
…………………………………………………………………………………

WORD STUDY
Suffix –ly: Sometimes we can add the suffix –ly to an adjective to make an
adverb.
Here is an example:
Slow + -ly = slowly
Please speak slowly so I can understand
Add the suffix –ly to each adjective. Then choose the best adverb for each
sentence:
Accidental ………accidentally………
Inexpensive …………………………..
Careful ………………………………
Silent ………………………………..
Thoughtless …………………………
Similar ………………………………
1. Brian …………………told his friend that he didn’t like the color of her new
car. Then he was sorry for what he said. He didn’t think about it before he said.
2. Always read the directions ………………….before you take a test so you
don’t make any careless mistakes.
3. Loud talking is not allowed in the library. You must work ………………so
other people can study too.
4. Julia ………………..knocked her glass off the table, and it broke. She didn’t
mean to do it.
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5. If you cook you meal at home and don’t go out too often, you can live ……..
You don’t have to spend too much money.

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UNIT SEVEN: THE VARIETY OF MOLECULES
Molecules occur in an incredible number of shapes and sizes. This variety plays
an important role in the chemical properties that different substances show. Liquids
freeze and gases condense at certain temperatures, partly because of the makeup of
their molecules.
A molecule's size depends on the size and number of its atoms. Molecules
consist of as few as one or as many as millions of atoms. Specific names are given
to molecules with particular numbers of atoms. A molecule consisting of two atoms
of the same element, like oxygen (O
2
), is a diatomic molecule. A molecule made up
of three atoms, like ozone (O
3
), is a triatomic molecule.
Forces within a molecule determine its shape. Molecules take the shape that
forms the strongest bonds and provides the least amount of strain among its atoms.
Some molecular shapes are simple. An ammonia molecule, for example, takes the
shape of a tetrahedron. It consists of three hydrogen atoms attached to a nitrogen
atom. Other shapes are more complicated. Many protein molecules form long
helixes. A benzene molecule has six carbon atoms arranged in a ring with six
hydrogen atoms attached.
MOLECULES IN COMBINATION
Molecules are held together by forces called van der Waals forces, which are
usually weaker than those that hold the atoms of a molecule together. The force
between molecules depends on the distance between them. Molecules attract each
other when they are widely separated; they repel when close together.

In a solid, the forces that attract and repel are balanced. The molecules in a solid
vibrate but do not move about to different parts of the solid. But if the solid's
temperature is raised, the molecules vibrate more rapidly. Eventually, the energy of
these vibrations becomes greater than the van der Waals forces that hold the
molecules in place. The solid then melts and becomes a liquid - a change of phase.
In a liquid, molecules move about easily, but they still have some force that
attracts them to one another called surface tension. Surface tension pulls the
molecules on the surface toward the molecules in the body of the liquid and
prevents the liquid from flying apart. The liquid acts as if it has a thin skin on it.
The molecules in a gas move about rapidly, and the attractive forces have little
effect on them. Gas molecules move freely through the available space. When they
collide, repelling forces send them apart again, so gases will always fill a container
completely.
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Sometimes, when two kinds of molecules come near enough to each other they
react to form one or more new molecules. Two molecules of the same kind may also
combine to form a larger molecule. The process by which many small molecules
combine to form large molecule is called polymrization. Certain conditions, such as
the presence of ultraviolet light or nuclear radiation, can cause large molecules to
break down into several smaller ones
I. Vocabulary in context
weaker - diatomic molecule - attract - balance - complicated -
simple - shapes - tri-atomic repel - molecule - sizes -
size - number - forces - Van de Waals force
1. Molecules exist in a huge number of ………………and ………………….
2. The size of a molecule depends on the ……….and …………..of its atoms
3. A ………………….is one that consists of two atoms of the same element.
4. A …………………..is one that is made up 3 atoms of the same element.
5. The shape of a molecule is determined by ……………….within the
molecule.
6. The shape of some molecules are …………., but the shape of other
molecules are more …………………..
7. A force called ………………………………….holds molecules together.
8. The forces that hold molecules together are ………………….than those that
hold the atoms of a molecule together.
9. When molecules are far from each other, they ………….each other, but
when they are close, they …………………...
10. In a solid, there is a …………………between forces that attract and repel.
II. Comprehension questions
1. In what conditions can molecules in a solid move? …………………………
……………………………………………………………………………….
2. When / In what conditions does a solid melt and become a liquid? …………
…………………………………………………………………………………
3. Is there any forces attracting molecules in a liquid? ………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………
4. What force is it? ………………….…………………………………………...
…………………………………………………………………………………
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5. Is there any forces attracting molecules in a gas? …………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………
6. What are the main differences between a gas and a solid and a liquid in terms
of molecules? ……………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………
7. Can molecules of the same kind combine? ………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………
8. If so, what do we call it? ……………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………
9. Can we break the combination of molecules? How? ………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………
10. What happen when 2 kinds of molecules combine? ………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………
III. Grammar
• Because of and due to are used to express the cause that leads to something.
We use a noun or phrase after ‘because of’ or ‘due to.’
Example: Analytical Chemistry is considered the foundation of
chemistry because of / due to its utility and necessity
• So that is a transitional / conjunctive adverb used to express a condition for
something to occur.
Example: If a reaction is to occur, they must be positioned so that
the reacting groups are together in a transition state
between reactions and products
Combine the sentences or change the sentences as suggested
1. The symbols for the elements must be internationally recognized. All people
can understand what it is. (so that)
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
2. Liquids freeze and gases condense at certain temperatures because the
makeup of their molecules is various. (because of)
…………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
3. Chemistry is divided into Inorganic Chemistry and organic Chemistry
because we may find convenience from doing that. (because of).
…………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
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4. If we want to understand chemistry we must possess an understanding of
elementary particles – atoms and molecules (Rewrite, using so that)
…………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
5. The atom could collapse in on itself because opposite charges in the atom
attract each other. (because of)
…………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
Further exercises
A. COMPLETE THE SENTENCES WITH EITHER BECAUSE,
DUE TO OR BECAUSE OF
1. We postponed our trip ………………….the bad driving conditions.
2. Sue’s eyes were red ……………………she had been swimming in a
chlorinated pool.
3. We cannot visit the museum tomorrow ……………….it’s not open.
4. Tom had to give up jogging ……………………..his sprained ankle.
5. …………………heavy fog at the airport, we had to stay in Dalat an
extra day.
6. ……………………..the elevator was broken, we had to walk up six
flights of stairs.
7. Please walk carefully …………………….the walkway is slippery
when wet.
8. Thousands of Irish people immigrated to the U.S. ……………..the
potato famine in Ireland in the middle of the nineteenth century.
9. The young couple decided not to buy the house ………………..of its
dilapidated
3
condition.
10. You cannot enter this secured area …………………you don’t have an
official permit.
B. Complete the sentences with your own words

3
Oïp eïp, hö hoûng
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Example: Sam took a lot of pictures on his vacation so (that) ……………
=> Sam took a lot of pictures on his vacation so (that) he could
show his family where he had been
1. I need a pen so (that) …………………………………………………
2. ……………………………………………………………………so
(that) he can improve his English.
3. I turned on the TV so (that) ………………………………………..
4. I am taking a bus instead of flying so (that) ………………………..
……………………………………………………………………….
5. I am trying to improve my English so (that) …………………………..
………………………………………………………………………….
6. I will go to HCM City after I graduate from university so (that) ……
…………………………………………………………………………
7. It is necessary for you to study hard so (that) …………………………
………………………………………………………………………….
8. She left early so (that) ………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………..
9. We should get up a bit early tomorrow so (that) ……………………..
…………………………………………………………………………
10. ………………………………………………………………..so that
read updated information in my major from the Internet.
C. Choose all correct answer for each sentence
1. A small fish needs camouflage
4
to hide …………….its enemies cannot find it.
a. so that b. so c. therefore d. due to
2. John couldn’t open the door ……………….the lock was broken

4
Nguïy trang
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a. because b. therefore c. due to the fact that d. so
3. The workers have gone on strike. __________, all production has ceased.
a. Because b. Therefore c. consequently d. Inasmuch as
4.………………….my company’s bid for building the library was the lowest,
we were awarded the contract.
a. Because b. Since c. For d. Inasmuch as
5. I needed to finish the marathon race ………………I could prove that I had the
strength and stamina
5
to do it. I didn’t care whether I won or not.
a. because of b. so that c. for d. therefore
6. Let’s ask our teacher how to solve this problem…………………we cannot
agree on the answer.
a. since b. because of c. consequently d. as long as
7. Our apartment building has had two robberies in the last month, …………I’m
going to put an extra lock on the door and install a telephone in my bedroom.
a. now that b. so that c. so d. since
8. ……………………the bad grease stain on the carpet, we had to rearrange the
furniture before the company arrived.
a. Because of b. Now that c. Due to d. Since
9. The price of airline tickets has gone down recently. ……………the tickets
cost less, more people are flying than ever.
a. Consequently b. Because of c. Because d. For
10. The mountain road was closed to all traffic………………the heavy rainfall
had caused a hug mudslide that blocked the way.
a. therefore b. because c. due to d. so
11. Janet called the security guard……………..someone had taken her brief
while she was making a call at the public phone.
a. so that b. so c. because d. because of
12. Dolphins are sometimes caught and killed in commercial fishing nets
………..they often swim in school with other fish, such as tuna.
a. since b. as c. so d. because

WORD STUDY

5
Söùc chòu ñöïng, söï deûo dai
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Suffixes: You can change some words into verbs by adding the suffix –ize. The
suffix –ize means ‘to make into (something)” or “to cause to be (something).”
Here is an example: Radio helps to popularize country music
Popular + ize = to make something (country music) popular
When a word ending in –y, drop the y before adding –ize
Add the suffix –ize to each word. Then choose the best word for each sentence.
Be sure to use the correct tense
Memory ……………………… Special ………………………….
Winter ……………………….. Modern …………………………
Colon ………………………… Industrial ………………………
Colony ………………………

1. Spain and Portugal started many new cities in the New World, especially in
South Mexico. These countries ………………..most of Central and South
America.
2. The Greens bought a beautiful old house in the country. They
……………….the kitchen by adding a dishwasher, a micro wave, and a new
refrigerator. The rest of the house is not modern. It has simple furniture and old
wood floors, but it’s very nice.
3. Victor is studying engineering at the university. After two years of general
studies, he wants to …………………….in biomedical engineering.
4. Sometimes there are no rules for irregular verbs in English. If you want to
remember them, you have to ………………them and use them often.
5. Every fall I take my car to the auto mechanic. He changes the oil and adds
some chemicals to help it run well during the winter. He thinks all people should
……… their car to prevent problems during the very cold months.
6. Developing countries want to ……………..……..as fast as possible. They
want to change from a society of farm workers to a society of modern factory
workers. Having a strong industry will help these countries grow.
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UNIT EIGHT: GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS
Gases
Gas, or vapor, is the most energetic phase of matter commonly found here on
earth. The particles of gas, either atoms or molecules, have too much energy to settle
down attached to each other or to come close to other particles to be attracted by
them. Materials in the vapor phase have no shape of their own, that is, they take on
the shape of the container. Gases have no given volume. A certain amount of gas at
a pressure of one atmosphere and a volume of ten liters could become five liters if
the pressure was increased or would become more than ten liters if the pressure
were decreased. The gas expands to fill the container.
How can you picture the materials as a gas? A pool table is only in two
dimensions, but what if the balls kept moving and the pool table were in three
dimensions? Such a pool table would be like a gas. The rails of the 3-D pool table
would be the sides of the container. The billiard balls would bounce off each other
in completely elastic collisions and would bounce off the sides of the table to
produce a constant pressure. The real hallmark of the gas is that the motion of the
particles is so great that the forces of attraction between the particles are not able to
hold any of them together.
Liquids
Liquids are materials in which the atoms or molecules are as close to each other
as solids, but the materials can slip over each other to change places.
The property of liquids of incompressibility is useful to us in hydraulic
machines.
Solids
Solids are materials in which the atoms or molecules are set in place. In ionic
solids such as table salt crystals, the ions are connected to their neighbors by
electrical attraction. Covalently linked crystals such as diamonds produce the
hardest materials. In other solids, each unit may have its own spot in which it fits (as
in sugar crystals) or it may be just a jumble of molecules as in glass that have
decreased energy. Crystalline solids have characteristic angles and can be cleaved
along lines defined by the aligning of atoms or molecules of the crystal. Amorphous
(without crystal shape) solids can be like carbon black or linked as in plastics. The
common point about solids is that the atoms or molecules are in place. The
temperature that can be shown by solid materials is due to the movement in place of
the atoms or molecules. They have no independent linear motion of translation
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because they are attached to one another. Solids can have molecular energy due to
vibration and rotation. Picture a class of second graders glued to their seat. Each
student can jump up and down and sideways and turn the chair around, but they
can’t move out of place. Another useful mental picture is a junkyard for springs.
The springs have all been tied to each other in one enormous mass. Each spring can
twist and vibrate, but it can’t get loose from its neighbor.
It is now necessary to change from being able to see and understand each atom
or molecule to our larger world. Solids show a definite shape and a definite volume.
Unless forces are used that are not commonly found near the earth’s surface, solids
cannot be compressed.
I. Vocabulary in context
Gases
forces of attraction - motion - attract - energetic - volume
1. The particles of gases either atoms or molecules, are very ……………..
2. Particles of gases, atoms or molecules, do not ………….each other as those
of other substances like solid or liquid.
3. The ………………of gas is not stable; it can be increases or decreased
depending on different conditions.
4. The ………………of gas particles is high.
5. The ………………………….between gas particles are not strong enough to
hold them together.
Liquids
greater - slip over
1. Atoms or molecules of liquids are able to ……………..each other to change
places.
2. The forces that hold particles of liquid are …………..than the forces caused
by the motion of those particles.
Solids
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Vibration and rotation - solid - hard - Particles - covalent solids - Crystalline
solids - solids - electrical attractions - independent linear motion -
definite shape - definite volume - lighter
1. The particles of ………….., atoms or molecules, are set in a place, which
means they are not mobile.
2. In ionic solids, the ions are held together by ………………………….
3. ……………….of have strongest connection
4. ……………………..can be divided along lines determined by the aligning of
the particles of the crystal.
5. All atoms or molecules of any ……………..are set in place.
6. Unlike gas particles, solid particles have no …………………………because
these particles are attracted to one another.
7. ………………………………………can result in molecular energy in solids.
8. Solids have a …………………and a …………………..
9. Solid is ……………..to be compressed without special forces.
10. A given volume of gas is ………………than that of a solid.
II. Comprehension questions
1. Can particles of gases be attached to one another? Why?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Do gases have shape? Why?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Do gases have a given volume? Why?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Are there forces that attract gas particles to one another?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. What are liquids? ---------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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6. Do solids have shape? -----------------------------------------------------------
7. What is special about crystalline solids?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Can particles of solids move around? Why?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. Can we compress solid? How?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
III. Grammar: Verb + ing Structure
• Gerund: Gerunds functions as a noun standing alone, or operate as a verb in
a phrase
Example: + Smoking is a bad habit
+ I like swimming
+ He left the house, knowing that it was the last time he saw it
• Participle: Present participles function as an adjective, or as a verb in a
phrase
Example: + Electrons spin around the nucleus at such amazing speed
that they create the effect of a rigid exterior.
+ Each electron shell is designated by a number-the shell
closest to the nucleus is called shell 1, and the others are called
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, in order of their increasing distance from
the nucleus
1. Qualitative Analysis provides methods of (finding) ……………. out
whether a given sample of matter contains lead or gold.
2. The chemistry of carbon compounds is called Organic Chemistry; the
(remain) ………………… is called Inorganic Chemistry.
3. Electrons occupy almost me entire volume of an atom, (travel)…....
through the space around the nucleus, and (complete)………. billions
of trips each millionth of a second.
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4. During the 1700's and 1800's, scientists concentrated on (gather)……
information about the characteristics of the elements known at that
lime.
5. Scientists judge the behavior of atoms by (identify)…………… the
characteristics and properties of different atoms.
6. Elements run horizontally across the table in order of (increase)……..
atomic number.
7. In the element form they must be stored under kerosene to keep them
from (react)…………… with the humidity in the air.
8. When atoms bond, these charges balance each other, (form)……….
an electrically neutral molecule.
9. A molecule (consist)………….. of two atoms of the same element,
like oxygen (O
2
), is a diatomic molecule.
10. In a physical change, the substance (undergo)…………………
change has the same chemical formula as the resulting substance.
Further Exercises:
A. Complete the sentences with PREPOSITIONS followed by GERUND. Use the
verbs in the given list. Use each verb once only
ask have make see break kill
open talk finish lock practice wash
1. In stead ………….……..for help on each arithmetic problem, you should use
your book and try to figure out the answers yourself.
2. I look forward …………..…….you the next time I’m in town. I’ll be sure to let
you know ahead of the time so that we can plan to get together.
3. Alice told us that she was tired……………….the dishes every night.
4. The four-year-old was blamed ……………………..the glass candy dish.
5. Because of the bomb scare, no one was allowed in the building. People were
prevented ………………..the front door by a guard who was stationed there.
6. You should listen to other people in stead………………….about yourself all
the time.
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7. Frank is an environmental conservationist who believed animals should be
protected from hunters. He objects …………………wild animals for sport.
8. Please don’t argue …………………..your homework. Just do it.
9. Marie is responsible ………………………..all the doors and windows and
……………………..sure all the lights are turned off before she leaves work in
the evening.
10. Mario spent all month preparing for the tennis match, but in spite …………….. for
many hours each day, he lost the match to Ivan.

Further readings
LIQUID BASICS
By now you know what a solid is. If you wave your arms around you can find a
gas. But what about liquids? Not that we suggest it but you know you've got some
spit. That's a liquid. What about your blood? That's a liquid too. The main thing is to
figure out what makes those things liquids.
Liquids are an in-between phase of matter. They are right between solids and
gases. One characteristic of a liquid is that it fills the shape of any container. So you
pour some water in a cup. It fills up the bottom of the cup first and then fills the rest.
It also takes the shape of the inside of the cup. It starts filling at the bottom because
of gravity. When it is in that cup it also has a flat surface. That's because of gravity
too.
One other characteristic of liquids is that they are very hard to compress. When
you compress something you take a certain amount and force it in a smaller space.
Solids are tough to compress too but gases are easy. When you compress something
you squeeze it so the atoms in the substance are closer together. When pressure goes
up... Substances are compressed. Liquids already have their atoms close together so
it's hard to push them even closer.
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SO YOU WANT TO BE A LIQUID
If you want to be a liquid you could start out as two
different things. You could be a solid or you could be a gas.
Each of them has a different way of becoming a liquid.
Let's say you're a solid. That's you. A handsome cube of ice
sitting on a counter. All you do is dream of becoming liquid
water. What you need is some energy. Atoms in a liquid have
more energy than the atoms in a solid. The easiest energy
around is probably heat. There is a magic temperature for
every substance called the melting point. When a solid reaches
the temperature of its melting point... It can become a liquid.
For water the temperature has to be a little over zero degrees
Celsius. If you were salt, sugar or wood your melting point
would be higher than water.
So solids need more energy. The reverse is true if you are a
gas. You need to lose some energy from your very excited gas atoms. The easy
answer is to lower the surrounding temperature. When the temperature drops,
energy will be sucked out of your gas atoms. When you get to the condensation
point, that's the temperature when you become a liquid. If you were the steam of a
boiling pot of water and you hit the wall, the wall would be so cool that you would
quickly become a liquid.
Evaporation
Sometimes a liquid can be sitting there and its molecules
will become a gas. That's called EVAPORATION. You
might be wondering how that can happen when the
temperature is low. It turns out that all liquids can
evaporate at room temperature and pressure. Evaporation is
when there are atoms or molecules escaping from the liquid
and turning into a vapor. You see... Not all of the
molecules in a liquid actually have the same energy. The
energy you can measure is really an AVERAGE of all the
molecules. There are always a few molecules with a lot of
energy and some with barely any energy at all. It is those
with a lot of energy that build up enough power to become a
gas and leave the liquid. When it leaves it has evaporated.
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SOLID BASICS
Solids can be made up of many things. They can have elements or compounds
inside. They can also be made up of mixtures, or combinations of different
elements and compounds. Most of the solids you see are mixtures. Most rocks
are mixtures of many elements and compounds. Concrete is a good example of a
man-made solid mixture.
Characteristics Of Solids
First let's explain that characteristics
are the traits or features that something
might have. One characteristic of a solid
is that it might be hard. That idea is
pretty straight forward.
One of the main characteristics of
solids is that they hold their own shape. So if you put a solid in a container it
won't change its shape... No matter how much you move or slide it around. You
can even grind a solid up so that it fills up a container. If you look at the powder
under a microscope you will still see little tiny solids that you couldn't change.
You know that liquids are different because if you put a liquid into a container it
will fill it up as much of the container as it can.
In the same way that a solid holds its shape the atoms inside of a solid are not
allowed to move around much. This is a physical characteristic
of all solids. It happens no matter how small the pieces are. The
atoms in liquids and gases move around in all directions. The
solid atoms and molecules are trapped in their places. The
atoms still spin and the electrons still move but the entire atom
doesn't go anywhere. They just kind of jiggle in place.

So You Want To Be A Solid
Obviously not everything is a solid. If you look around you'll see solids,
liquids, and especially gases (remember the air around you). Sometimes liquids
feel a physical need to become a solid. Then look out! Phase changes are about to
happen.
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Scientists use something called a FREEZING POINT to measure when a
liquid turns into a solid. There are physical effects that can change the freezing
point. Pressure is one of those effects. When the pressure surrounding a
substance goes up the freezing point also goes up. That means it's easier to freeze
the substance at higher pressures. When it gets colder, most solids shrink in size.
There are a few which expand but most shrink.
Crystals
If a solid is made up of pure elements or compounds
something special happens. It can freeze into a very specific
structure. This structure is called a CRYSTAL LATTICE. A
crystal lattice is a very exact organization of atoms which
creates a specific place for every molecule or atom in the solid.
It is very neat and very compact. A great example of a crystal
lattice is a diamond.
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UNIT NINE: A COMPOUND'S IDENTITY
A compound is a substance that is made up of at least two different elements
and, therefore, two different kinds of atoms. Compounds are distinctive in that they
always have the same composition by weight. No matter what part or how much of
a compound you isolate, it will always have the same ratio between elements that
the original compound has. Water, for example, is a compound that consists of
molecules that have one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen. Therefore, in
any sample of water, there will always be twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen
atoms.
Every compound can be described by a particular chemical formula, which
shows the ratio between the elements that make up the compound. Chemists write
formulas using the symbols for chemical elements. Chemical formulas show the
makeup of one unit of a compound; these units generally occur as molecules or ions.
The composition of simple molecules can be shown in a formula by combining
the symbols for the elements that the compound contains. Hydrogen fluoride, for
instance, is made up of molecules that contain one atom of hydrogen and one atom
of fluorine. Its formula can be written as HF.
Many molecules have more than one atom of the same element. Formulas for
these molecules include numbers written just below the symbols as subscripts. The
subscripts indicate the number of atoms included in a molecule. For example.
carbon dioxide is a compound that contains one carbon (C) atom and two oxygen
(O) atoms. The formula for carbon dioxide is written CO
2
.
Formulas for compounds that consist of ions show the symbols of elements
whose atoms exist as ions in the compound. The compound sodium chloride, or
common table salt, has equal amounts of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Ct) atoms that
occur as ions. The formula for sodium chloride is written NaCl.
HOW COMPOUNDS ARE FORMED
A compound is formed when atoms of one element bond with atoms of another
element. Atoms tend to bond as a means of becoming more stable. A stable atom is
one that has the maximum amount of electrons in its outer shell. Therefore, atoms
bond through the exchange of electrons, which are either transferred from one atom
to another or shared by more than one atom.
The capacity of an atom to combine with another atom is referred to as its
valence. Atoms of an element are assigned a valence number, which generally
equals the number of electrons that an atom needs to fill or release from its
outermost shell. Atoms that tend to lose electrons have a positive valence, and those
that tend to gain electrons have a negative valence. However, an atom of a certain
element may combine in a number of different ways with different elements. Thus,
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an atom may be assigned more than one valance number, depending on the number
of different bonds it tends to form.
I. Vocabulary in Context
negative valance - makeup - ratio - Valance - compound - positive valance -
Elements - subscripts - symbols - Chemical formulas -electrons -
atoms - ratio - atom – stable - equals - more than one
1. In a compound, there are at least two different ………………., and therefore,
two different kinds of …………………….
2. No matter how much of a compound we separate, it always contain the same
…………………between the elements that the original compound has.
3. ……………………………are used to describe compounds.
4. A chemical formulas tells us the ………………between the elements that
make up the compound.
5. Chemical formulas are represented by …………………….
6. Each chemical formula shows the ……………….of one unit of a compound
which generally occurs as a molecules or an ion.
7. In many molecules, there is more than one ………………of the same
element.
8. To show formulas for molecules in which there are more than one atom of
the same element, scientists use numbers as ……………….which is written
just below the symbols.
9. When atoms of one element bond with atoms of another element, a
……………….is formed.
10. An atom that has the maximum amount of electrons is the outer shell is said
to be …………………..
11. When atoms bond, they transfer ……………..from one atom to another, or
share the electrons.
12. …………………is a word used to refer to the capacity of an atom to
combine with another atom.
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13. The valance number generally ………………the number of electrons that
an atom needs to fill or release from its outermost. Shell.
14. Atoms that tend to lose electrons have a ………………………., and atoms
that tend to gain electrons have a …………………….
15. One atom may be assigned ………………………valance.
II. Comprehension questions
1. What is a compound? ………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………….
2. What does the phrase “compound always have the same composition by
weight” mean? ………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………..
3. What can we know by looking at the chemical formula of a compound?
………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………..
4. How do we represent a compound / a molecule in which there are more
than one atom of the same element? ……………………………
…………………………………………………………………………
5. What happens when atoms of one element bond with atoms of another
element? ………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………..
6. Why do atoms have the tendency of bonding with others? …………..
…………………………………………………………………………..
7. What is a stable atom? ………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………..
8. In what ways can atoms bond? ………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………….
9. What does ‘valance’ mean? …………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………….
10. What kind of valance an atom has when it gains electrons? And when it
loses electrons? ……………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………
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III. Review on vocabulary:
decomposed - Atomic number - Isotopes - chemical element - Electrons -
Mass compound - number - Compounds – atoms - broken - scientific study
1. Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in
combinations called ……………………….
2. A ……………………….is a substance that cannot be broken down
into other substances by chemical reactions.
3. ………………………is number of protons in an atom of a particular
element
4. ……………………..is number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
5. …………………..is used to refer to atoms of an element that have the
same atomic number but different mass numbers.
6. …………………….are the only subatomic particles that participate in
chemical reactions.
7. All matter is made of ………………., the smallest bit of each element.
A particle of a gas could be an atom or a group of atoms.
8. Chemical elements are substances that cannot be ……………..or
…………………..into more simple substances by ordinary chemical
means.
9. Most substances are ……………………, in that they are composed of
combinations of atoms.
10. Chemistry is the …………………….of the substances that make up
the universe.
IV. Grammar – Preposition
Prepositions are words normally placed before nouns or pronouns.
Prepositions can also be followed by verbs but the verbs should be in Gerund
form.
Example: Analytical Chemistry is the experimental foundation of
chemistry.
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The particles in most colloids can only be seen through an
electron microscope
Additional energy in the electrons keeps them spinning around,
which prevents the atom from collapsing
Find an appropriate preposition to fill in the blanks
1. Theoretical Chemistry is primarily concerned with the ultimate goal
……… chemistry: the structure of matter, and from this knowledge the
explanations of its transformations from one form into another.
2. Analytical Chemistry is the experimental foundation of chemistry.
…………. it little could be accomplished in any branch of the science.
3. Chlorine, for example, tends to gain one electron ………another atom and
so has a valence of –1.
4. Atomic mass is the mass of an atom expressed ……….atomic mass units
(amu).
5. An element is (1) a substance that cannot be broken down chemically
………. a simpler substance, or (2) a substance that contains only one
kind of atom.
6. The negative charge of the electrons can be offset by the positive charge
of the protons, but the number ……… protons does not change …… a
chemical reaction.
7. A chemical equation is a way to describe what goes ………. in a chemical
reaction, the actual change in a material.
8. Ionic bonds are created by the transfer of electrons ………. one atom to
one or more other atoms.
9. Oxidation also takes place within the human body, as inhaled oxygen
reacts ………. molecules of food lo produce energy, water, and carbon
dioxide.
10. A chemical reaction is a process in which one substance is chemically
converted ………. a different substance.
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FURTHER EXERCISES
INSERT AN APPROPRIATE PREPOSITION INTO THE BLANK
1. Could I speak …………. John, please?
I’m afraid, john is ………..work.
2. How do I get …………..the air terminal?
Turn right ……………..the end of this street and you’ll see it ………
front of you.
3. He started going ………………school ……………..the age of five.
4. I’m going ……………Ha Long …………….Monday ………….Tom. would
you like to come ………….us?
5. The car stopped ……………..the traffic lights and wouldn’t start again, so
the driver got ………………..and pushed it ……………the side ………..the
road.
6. Children get gifts …………….Christmas and …………………their
birthday.
7. As she was getting ………….the car, one …………..her buttons fell………
Although we were …………..a hurry, she insisted ……………..stopping to
look for it.
8. The man ………….the pipe and red hair is the brother ………..the girl
……... blue.
9. I buy a newspaper ………………my way ………………the station and read
it ……………the train. By the time I get …………London I’ve read most
…… it.
10. He was in charge ………….driving.
11. I’ve lived ………………this street ………………….ten years.
12. …………….the age ……………18 he was sent to prison ………..theft.
13. There is a parcel …………..books …………..you ……….the table ……….
the hall.
14. While ……… their way from the coast ……………the mountains they were
attacked …………….a jaguar.
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15. He has a picture ………..Picasso (picture painted by Picasso) and he cannot
decide whether to hang it …………….the hall………….the right as you
come or ………………the sitting room …………..the fireplace.
16. He insisted …………..seeing the documents.
17. I am not interested ……………….anything that happened ………..the very
remote past.
18. They succeeded ……………..escaping ………….the burning house.
19. I’m waiting ……………….my friend. He’ll be here ……………a moment.
20. I was so afraid………………missing the train that I took a taxi
……………the station.
21. I object …………..being kept waiting. Why can’t you be …………………..
time?
22. Wine is good …………..you, but it is expensive …………….England
because there is a fairly high tax ………………it.
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UNIT TEN: IONIC AND COVALENT BONDS

Ionic bonds are created by the transfer of electrons from one atom to one or more
other atoms. The atoms that looses electrons become positive ions. The atoms that
gain electrons become negative ions. The force that holds ionic compounds together
is called an ionic bond.
Some atoms, such as metals tend to lose electrons to make the outside ring or
rings of electrons more stable and other atoms tend to gain electrons to complete the
outside ring. An ion is a charged particle. Electrons are negative. The negative
charge of the electrons can be offset by the positive charge of the protons, but the
number of protons does not change in a chemical reaction. When an atom loses
electrons, it becomes a positive ion because the number of protons exceeds the
number of electrons. Non-metal ions and most of the polyatomic ions have a
negative charge. The non-metal ions tend to gain electrons to fill out the outer shell.
When the number of electrons exceeds the number of protons, the ion is negative.
The attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion is an ionic bond. Any
positive ion will bond with any negative ion. They are not fussy. An ionic
compound is a group of atoms attached by an ionic bond that is a major unifying
portion of the compound. A positive ion, whether it is a single atom or a group of
atoms all with the same charge, is called a cation. A negative ion is called an anion.
The name of an ionic compound is the name of the positive ion (cation) first and the
negative (anion) ion second.
Table salt, properly called sodium chloride (NaCl), is an ionic compound. Salt is
formed when a sodium atom gives up an electron to a chlorine atom. The sodium
atom which loses the negative electric charge that the electron carries, becomes a
positive ion. The chlorine atom gains the negative charge, and becomes a negative
ion. Opposite charges attract, and so the two atoms are joined in an ionic bond.
COVALENT BONDS are formed when two or more atoms share pairs of
electrons. A shared pair consists of one electron from each of two atoms. These
electrons revolve around the nucleus of both atoms. Covalent bonds form molecules,
which ordinarily have no electrical charge. Compounds that consist of molecules
can be called covalent compounds.
Water is an example of a common compound. It is an example of a covalent
compound. It is made up of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The outer shell of an
oxygen atom requires two additional atoms to become stable. Hydrogen atoms have
one electron, but need another to fill the outer shell. So when two hydrogen atoms
combine with one oxygen atom, all the vacancies are filled, forming a molecule of
water.
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Nearly all elements in their natural states are joined by covalent bonds.
Hydrogen, for example, normally consists of covalently bonded molecules. An
ordinary hydrogen molecule (H
2
) has two atoms that share electrons, so that two
electrons revolve around each nucleus. Covalent compounds are often joined by
bonds that are much more complicated. Some individual molecules are held together
by many different covalent bonds.
I. Vocabulary in Context
ionic compound - anion - revolve - positive ion - covalent bonds -
covalent bonds - ionic bonds - ionic bond - cation
1. When electrons are transferred from one atom to one or more other
atoms, …………..are created.
2. An ion will become a ……………….when it loses electrons.
3. An ion will become a ………………when it gains electrons.
4. An ……………….is one that holds ionic compounds together.
5. An …………..is a group of atoms attached by an ionic bond that is a
major unifying portion of the compound.
6. A positive ion is called a …………….
7. A negative ion is called an ……………..
8. When two or more atoms share pairs of electrons, they form …………
……….
9. Electrons in the shared pairs ……………around the nucleus of both
atoms.
10. Most element in their natural states are joined by ………………..
II. Vocabulary in new context:
ionic bond - Covalent bonds
1. An ……………is one formed by electrostatic attraction after the
complete transfer of an electron from a donor atom to an acceptor
atom.
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2. ……………..occur between atoms, and are formed by equal sharing
of electrons between atoms.
III. Comprehension Question
1. Why do some atoms tend to gain or lose electrons? ……………………....
……………………………………………………………………………..
2. Why does an atom become a positive ion when it loses electrons? ………..
…………………………………………………………………………….
3. Why do non-metal ions tend to gain electrons? …………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………
4. What is an ionic bond? ……………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………….
5. When are ionic bonds formed? …………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………….
6. What are covalent bonds? ………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………
7. What is a ‘share pair’? ……………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………
8. What kind of chemical bond is more common, ionic or covalent? …………
……………………………………………………………………………….
GRAMMAR: Preposition (Cont.)
Insert an appropriate preposition
1. GASEOUS SOLUTIONS result ………….. the mixture of gases.
2. Additional energy in the electrons keeps them spinning around, which
prevents the atom …………… collapsing.
3. Water, for example, is a compound that consists ………… molecules that
have one atom of oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen.
4. Gas, or vapor, is the most energetic phase …….. matter commonly found
here on earth.
5. Gases and solids that dissolve ………… liquid are described as soluble.
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6. Chemical compounds may be divided ………… one of two groups, organic
compounds and inorganic compounds.
7. Since the electrons released during oxidation must be captured ……………
another substance, oxidation is always accompanied by reduction.
8. A molecule's size depends …………. the size and number of its atoms.
9. Scientists often compare the structure of an atom ………….. that of the
solar system.
10. A given volume of solvent …………. a particular temperature can dissolve
only a certain amount of solute.
A Review of Grammar: Combining Sentences
1. Table salt is an ionic compound. Table salt is properly called sodium
chloride (NaCl). (which).
…………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Two or more atoms share pair of electrons. Covalent bonds are formed after
that. (when)
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
3. When an atom loses electrons, it becomes a positive ion. This is because
the number of protons exceeds the number of electrons. (because).
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
4. An atom has 92 protons. That atom is uranium. (if)
………………………………………………………………………………….
5. The hydrogen atom is the simplest of all atoms. It consists of a single
proton ‘orbited’ by an electron. (which).
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
6. Hydrogen is rare in its elemental form. It reacts explosively with oxygen.
(because)
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…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
7. Helium is the second most abundant element in the universe. It is rare on
the Earth. (Although).
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
8. A solution is a mixture of materials. One of those materials is a fluid.
(which).
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
9. Solids are materials. In these materials, the atoms or molecules are set in
place. (which).
…………………………………………………………………………………
10. Chemistry is the scientific study of the substance. These substances make
up the universe. (that).
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
Further exercises on combining sentences
Link the following sentences with the correct relative pronoun.
a. There’s the boy. He broke the window.
………………………………………………………………………………
b. That’s the place. The Sultan lives in it.
………………………………………………………………………………
c. There are the policemen. They caught the thief.
………………………………………………………………………………
d. He gave her a watch. It stopped after two days.
………………………………………………………………………………
e. The Red Lion is the pub. We met in it for a drink.
……………………………………………………………………………
f. Here are the letters. They arrived this morning.
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………………………………………………………………………………
g. That’s the house. I was born in it.
………………………………………………………………………………
h. Where is the lady? She ordered the fish.
………………………………………………………………………………
i. Do you know the children? They live in that house.
………………………………………………………………………………
j. The clothes come from Marks & Spencer. They are good quality.
………………………………………………………………………………
Further readings
STRUCTURE AND BONDING
1. Why do atoms bond together?
Some atoms are very reluctant to combine with other atoms and exist in
the air around us as single atoms. These are the Noble Gases and have very stable
electron arrangements eg 2, 2.8 and 2.8.8 and are shown in the diagrams below.
(atomic number) and electron
arrangement.
All other atoms therefore, bond to become electronically more stable, that is to
become like Noble Gases in electron arrangement. Atoms can do this in two ways:
COVALENT BONDING - sharing electrons to form molecules with covalent
bonds, the bond is usually formed between two non-metallic elements in a
molecule.
OR
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IONIC BONDING - By one atom transferring electrons to another atom. The
atom losing electrons forms a positive ion and is usually a metal. The atom
gaining electrons forms a negative ion and is usually a non-metallic element.
The types of bonding and the resulting properties of the elements or compounds are
described in detail below. In all the electronic diagrams ONLY the outer
electrons are shown.
2. Covalent Bonding
Covalent bonds are formed by atoms sharing electrons to form
molecules. This type of bond usually formed between two non-metallic
elements. The molecules might be that of an element ie one type of atom only OR
from different elements chemically combined to form a compound.
The covalent bonding is caused by the mutual electrical attraction between the two
positive nuclei of the two atoms of the bond, and the electrons between them.
One single covalent bond is a sharing of 1 pair of electrons, two pairs of shared
electrons between the same two atoms gives a double bond and it is possible for two
atoms to share 3 pairs of electrons and give a triple bond.
The bonding in Small Covalent Molecules
The simplest molecules are formed from two atoms and examples of their formation
are shown below. The electrons are shown as dots and crosses to indicate which
atom the electrons come from, though all electrons are the same. The diagrams may
only show the outer electron arrangements for atoms that use two or more electron
shells. Examples of simple covalent molecules are …
Example 1
2 hydrogen atoms (1) form the molecule of the element hydrogen H
2
and combine to form where both atoms have a pseudo
helium structure of 2 outer electrons around each atom.
Example 2
2 chlorine atoms (2.8.7) form the molecule of the element chlorine Cl
2
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and combine to form where both atoms have a
pseudo neon or argon structure of 8 outer electrons around each atom.
Example 3
1 atom of hydrogen (1) combines with 1 atom of chlorine (2.8.7) to form the
molecule of the compound hydrogen chloride HCl
and combine to form where hydrogen is
electronically like helium and chlorine like neon or argon.
Example 4
2 atoms of hydrogen (1) combine with 1 atom of oxygen (2.6) to form the molecule
of the compound we call water H
2
O
and and combine to form so that the hydrogen
atoms are electronically like helium and the oxygen atom becomes like neon or
argon. The molecule can be shown as with two hydrogen - oxygen single
covalent bonds.
Example 5
3 atoms of hydrogen (1) combine with 1 atom of nitrogen (2.5) to form the molecule
of the compound we call ammonia NH
3
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three of and one combine to form so that the
hydrogen atoms are electronically like helium and the nitrogen atom becomes like
neon or argon. The molecule can be shown as with three nitrogen -
hydrogen single covalent bonds.
Example 6
4 atoms of hydrogen (1) combine with 1 atom of carbon (2.4) to form the molecule
of the compound we call methane CH
4
four of and one of combine to form so that the
hydrogen atoms are electronically like helium and the nitrogen atom becomes like
neon or argon. The molecule can be shown as with four carbon -
hydrogen single covalent bonds.
All the bonds in the above examples are single covalent bonds. Below are three
examples 7-9, where there is a double bond in the molecule, in order that the atoms
have stable Noble Gas outer electron arrangements around each atom.
Example 7
Two atoms of oxygen (2.6) combine to form the molecules of the
element oxygen O
2
. The molecule has one double covalent bond .
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Example 8
One atom of carbon (2.4) combines with two atoms of
oxygen (2.6) to form carbon dioxide CO
2
. The molecule can be shown as
with two carbon = oxygen double covalent bonds.
Example 9
Two atoms of carbon (2.4) combine with four atoms of
hydrogen (1) to form ethene C
2
H
4
. The molecule can be shown as
with one carbon = carbon double bond and four carbon -
hydrogen single covalent bonds.


The Properties of small covalent molecules
The electrical forces of attraction between atoms
in a molecule are strong and most molecules do
not change on heating. However the forces
between molecules are weak and easily
weakened further on heating. Consequently small
covalent molecules have low melting and
boiling points. They are also poor conductors
of electricity because there are no free electrons
or ions in any state to carry electric charge. Most
small molecules will dissolve in a solvent to f
a solution.
orm
roperties Large Covalent Molecules and their P
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It is possible for many atoms to link up to form a giant covalent structure. This
produces a very strong 3-dimensional covalent bond network. This illustrated by
carbon in the form of diamond. Carbon can form four single bonds to four other
atoms etc. etc. This type of structure is thermally very stable and they have high
melting and boiling points. They are usually poor conductors of electricity
because the electrons are not usually free to move as they can in metallic structures.
Also because of the strength of the bonding in the structure they are often very hard
and will not dissolve in solvents like water.

3. Ionic Bonding
Ionic bonds are formed by one atom transferring electrons to another atom to
form ions. Ions are atoms, or groups of atoms, which have lost or gained electrons.
The atom losing electrons forms a positive ion (a cation) and is usually a metal.
The overall charge on the ion is positive due to excess positive nuclear charge
(protons do NOT change in chemical reactions).
The atom gaining electrons forms a negative ion (an anion) and is usually a non-
metallic element. The overall charge on the ion is negative because of the gain, and
therefore excess, of negative electrons.
The examples below combining a metal from Groups 1 (Alkali Metals), 2 or 3, with
a non-metal from Group 6 or Group 7 (The Halogens)


Example 1
A Group 1 metal + a Group 7 non-metal eg sodium + chlorine è sodium chloride
NaCl or ionic formula Na
+
Cl
-
In terms of electron arrangement, the sodium donates its outer electron to a chlorine
atom forming a single positive sodium ion and a single negative chloride ion. The
atoms have become stable ions, because electronically, sodium becomes like neon
and chlorine like argon.
Na (2.8.1) + Cl (2.8.7) è Na
+
(2.8) Cl
-
(2.8.8)
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ONE combines with ONE to form
Example 2
A Group 2 metal + a Group 7 non-metal eg magnesium + chlorine è magnesium
chloride MgCl
2
or ionic formula Mg
2+
(Cl
-
)
2
In terms of electron arrangement, the magnesium donates its two outer electrons to
two chlorine atoms forming a double positive magnesium ion and two single
negative chloride ions. The atoms have become stable ions, because electronically,
magnesium becomes like neon and chlorine like argon.
Mg (2.8.2) + 2Cl (2.8.7) è Mg
2+
(2.8) 2Cl
-
(2.8.8)
ONE combines with TWO to form
see *
(* NOTE you can draw two separate chloride ions, but in these examples a number
subscript has been used, as in ordinary chemical formula)
Example 3
A Group 3 metal + a Group 7 non-metal e.g. aluminium + fluorine è aluminium
fluoride AlF
3
or ionic formula Al
3+
(F
-
)
3
In terms of electron arrangement, the aluminium donates its three outer electrons to
three fluorine atoms forming a triple positive aluminium ion and three single
negative fluoride ions. The atoms have become stable ions, because electronically,
aluminium becomes like neon and also fluorine.
Al (2.8.3) + 3F (2.8.7) è Al
3+
(2.8) 3F
-
(2.8)
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ONE combines with THREE to form
Example 4
A Group 1 metal + a Group 6 non-metal eg potassium + oxygen è potassium oxide
K
2
O or ionic formula (K
+
)
2
O
2-
In terms of electron arrangement, the two potassium atoms donates their outer
electrons to one oxygen atom. This results in two single positive potassium ions to
one double negative oxide ion. All the ions have the stable electronic structures
2.8.8 (argon like) or 2.8 (neon like)
2K (2.8.8.1) + O (2.6) è 2K
+
(2.8.8) O
2-
(2.8)
TWO combine with ONE to form

Example 5
A Group 2 metal + a Group 6 non-metal eg calcium + oxygen è calcium oxide CaO
or ionic formula Ca
2+
O
2-
In terms of electron arrangement, one calcium atom donates its two outer electrons
to one oxygen atom. This results in a double positive calcium ion to one double
negative oxide ion. All the ions have the stable electronic structures 2.8.8 (argon
like) or 2.8 (neon like)
Ca (2.8.8.2) + O (2.6) è Ca
2+
(2.8.8) O
2-
(2.8)
ONE combines with ONE to form
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Example 6
A Group 3 metal + a Group 6 non-metal eg aluminium + oxygen è aluminium
oxide Al
2
O
3
or ionic formula (Al
3+
)
2
(O
2-
)
3
In terms of electron arrangement, two aluminium atoms donate their three outer
electrons to three oxygen atoms. This results in two triple positive aluminium ions
to three double negative oxide ions. All the ions have the stable electronic structure
of neon 2.8
2Al (2.8.3) + 3O (2.6) è 2Al
3+
(2.8) 3O
2-
(2.8)
TWO combines with THREE to form

The properties of Ionic Compounds
• The ions in an ionic solid are arranged in
an orderly way in a giant ionic lattice shown in
the diagram on the left. The ionic bond is the
strong electrical attraction between the
positive and negative ions next to each other in
the lattice. Salts and metal oxides are typical
ionic compounds.
• This strong bonding force makes the
structure hard (if brittle) and have high melting
and boiling points. Unlike covalent molecules,
ALL ionic compounds are crystalline solids at
room temperature.
• Many ionic compounds are soluble in
water, but not all.
• The solid crystals DO NOT conduct electricity because the ions are not
free to move to carry an electric current. However, if the ionic compound is melted
or dissolved in water, the liquid will now conduct electricity, as the ion particles
are now free.
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4. Bonding In Metals
The crystal lattice of metals consists of ions NOT atoms. The outer electrons (-)
from the original metal atoms are free to
move around between the positive metal
ions formed (+). These free or 'delocalised'
electrons are the 'electronic glue' holding
the particles together. There is a strong
electrical force of attraction between
these mobile electrons and the 'immobile'
positive metal ions - this is the metallic
bond.
• This strong bonding generally results in dense, strong materials with high
melting and boiling points.
• Metals are good conductors of electricity because these 'free' electrons carry
the charge of an electric current when a potential difference (voltage!) is applied
across a piece of metal.
• Metals are also good conductors of heat. This is also due to the free moving
electrons. Non-metallic solids conduct heat energy by hotter more strongly vibrating
atoms, knocking against cooler less strongly vibrating atoms to pass the particle
kinetic energy on. In metals, as well as this effect, the 'hot' high kinetic energy
electrons move around freely to transfer the particle kinetic energy more efficiently
to 'cooler' atoms.
• Typical metals also have a silvery surface but remember this may be easily
tarnished by corrosive oxidation in air and water.

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UNIT ELEVEN: CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Chemical reactions are constantly carried out in our lives. The digestion of food,
the burning of fuel - even the development of photographic film - all involve
chemical reactions. Understanding and predicting chemical reactions is an important
way in which scientists apply the concepts of chemistry to everyday life.
A chemical reaction is a process in which one substance is chemically converted
into a different substance. In all chemical reactions, bonds between atoms are
broken and new ones are formed. Thus, the molecular or ionic structure of the
substance a chemical reaction creates is always different from the structure of the
original substance.
All the changes we witness, however, are not chemical reactions. There are also
physical changes and nuclear reactions. In a physical change, the substance
undergoing change has the same chemical formula as the resulting substance. The
melting of ice, for example, is a physical change, because the structure of the water
molecules remains the same. In a nuclear reaction, an atom is transformed into
another type of atom as a result of changes in the composition of its nucleus.
A chemical equation is a way to describe what goes on in a chemical reaction, the
actual change in a material.
CHEMICAL EQUATIONS demonstrate what occurs in chemical reactions.
These equations consist of chemical formulas and symbols that describe the
substances that are involved in the reaction. For example, the following is the
chemical equation for the rusting of iron:
4Fe(s) + 3O
2
(g) → 2Fe
2
O
3
(s)
This equation states that four atoms of solid iron (Fe[s]) react with three
molecules of oxygen gas (O
2
[g]) to form two units of solid rust (Fe
2
O
3
[s]).
Experiments that have been performed on this reaction have proven that iron and
oxygen always react in these proportions.
All chemical reactions have at least one product and at least one reactant. In the
rusting of iron, rust is the product, or result, of the reaction. Iron and oxygen are the
reactants, the substances that undergo chemical change.
The Total number of atoms and the kinds of atoms do not change in a chemical
reaction. The number of atoms in the reactants is the same as the number of atoms in
the products. In this way, chemical equations are similar to mathematical equations.
Both sides— of the arrow, in a chemical equation—must balance. Thus, in the
equation for the rusting of iron, the reactants contain a total of 10 atoms: 4 atoms of
iron and 6 atoms of oxygen. Likewise, the product contains 10 atoms. But the
formula of the product is very different from the formulas of the reactants.
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I. Vocabulary in context
reactants - symbols - physical change - kind of atoms - chemically -
chemical reactions - product - chemical reaction - reactant -
chemical equation - product
1. Most activities in our lives, from the digestion of food to the burning of
fuel, all involve ………………………
2. The process in which one substance is …………….converted into a
different substance is called ……………………….
3. In a ……………………., the material/substance does not have a different
chemical formula after the change.
4. We use …………………………to show what occurs in chemical
reactions.
5. Chemical formulas and …………………are used to describe the substance
that are involved in the reaction.
6. Every chemical reaction has at least one ………………and at least one
……………………...
7. In a chemical reaction, the quantity of atoms and the ………………do not
change.
8. In a chemical reaction, the number of atoms in the ………………and the
number of atoms in the ………………are equal.
II. Vocabulary in new context
symbols - products - reactants – reactants - chemical equation - arrow -
chemical reaction - chemical reaction - products
1. A ……………………..is material changing from a beginning mass to a
resulting substance.
2. The hallmark of a chemical reaction is that new material or materials are
made, called ………………….., along with the disappearance of the mass
that is changed to make the new, so-called ………………..
3. A …………………is used to describe what goes on in a chemical
reaction, the actual change in a material.
4. Chemical equations are written with the …………..of materials to include
elements, ionic or covalent compounds, aqueous solutions, ions, or
particles.
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5. There is an …………….pointing to the right that indicates the action of
the reaction.
6. The materials to the left of the arrow are the ………………, or the
materials that are going to react.
7. The materials to the right of the arrow are the ………………, or the
materials that have been produced by the reaction.
8. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that in a …………………..no
mass is lost or gained.
III. Reading comprehension
1. Write T if the following statement is true and F if false
a. Chemical reactions only happen in laboratory. ----------------
b. Understanding and predicting chemical reactions is necessary.---------
c. In a chemical reaction, new materials are produced. -------------------
d. New bonds between atoms are formed during chemical reactions. -----
e. The structure of molecules or ions of the products are the same as that
of the reactants. -----------------
2. Answer the questions
f. Give some examples in which chemical reactions occur. …………….
…………………………………………………………………………
g. Are all the changes of materials are chemical reactions? Why? Give
examples. ……………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………..
h. What can you say about chemical equations? ……………………….
………………………………………………………………………..
i. What can you say about chemical reactions in terms of products and
reactions? ……………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………..
j. Do the number of atoms and the kinds of atoms change in a chemical
reaction? Why? ………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………….
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Further reading
Chemical Reactions
Now that we know the how and why of chemical bonding, we can look at some
chemical reactions. Chemical reactions happen all around us: when we light a
match, start a car, eat dinner or walk the dog. A chemical reaction is the pathway by
which two substances bond together. In fact we have already discussed several
chemical reactions. One we have mentioned is the reaction of hydrogen with
oxygen to form water. To write the chemical reaction you would place the reactants
(the substances reacting) on the left with an arrow pointing to the the products (the
substances being formed). Given this information, one might guess that the reaction
to form water is written:
H + O H
2
O
However there are 2 problems with this chemical reaction. First, because atoms
like to have full valence shells, single H or O atoms are rare (and unhappy)
creatures. As we saw in the previous lesson, both hydrogen and oxygen react with
themselves to form the molecules H
2
and O
2
, respectively. These hydrogen and
oxygen molecules are much more common. Given this correction, one might guess
that the reaction looks like this:
H
2
+ O
2
H
2
O
But we still have one problem. As written, this equation tells us that 1 hydrogen
molecule (with 2 H atoms) reacts with 1 oxygen molecule (with 2 O atoms) to form
1 water molecule (with 2 H atoms and 1 O atom). In other words, we seem to have
lost 1 O atom along the way! To write a chemical reaction correctly, the number of
atoms on the left side of a chemical equation has to be precisely balanced with the
atoms on the right side of the equation. How does this happen in our example? In
actuality, the O atom that we 'lost' reacts with a 2nd molecule of hydrogen to form a
second molecule of water. The reaction is therefore written:
2H
2
+ O
2
2H
2
O
In the chemical reaction above, the number in front of the molecule (called a
coefficient) indicates how many molecules participate in the reaction. A simulation
of the reaction can be viewed by clicking below (the atoms are represented as
spheres in the animation: red = hydrogen, blue = oxygen):
In order to write a correct chemical reaction, we must balance all of the atoms
on the left side of the reaction with the atoms on the right side. Let's look at another
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example. Natural gas is primarily methane. Methane (CH
4
) is a molecule in which
4 hydrogen atoms are bonded to one carbon atom. If you have a gas stove, lighting
the stove causes the methane to react with oxygen in the atmosphere to release heat
and the atoms recombine to form carbon dioxide and water vapor. The unbalanced
chemical reaction would be: CH
4
+ O
2
CO
2
+ H
2
O
Look at the reaction atom by atom. On the left side we find 1 carbon atom, and
1 on the right. There are 4 hydrogen atoms on the left, but only 2 on the right.
Therefore, you know 2 water molecules must be formed. Adding this coeffiecient
we get:
CH
4
+ O
2
CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
Now we have to balance the oxygen atoms. On the left you find 2 atoms, on the
right 4 (2 in the CO
2
molecule and 1 in each of 2 H
2
O molecules). Therefore we
need to start with 4 oxygen atoms, or 2 molecules. The balanced equation would
then be:
CH
4
+ 2O
2
CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
The Mole and Molecular Weights
Up until this point we have been talking about atoms and molecules. The
problem with this approach is that atoms and molecules are very small things. In a
single drop of water for example, there are trillions and trillions of water molecules.
A reaction between a single molecule of hydrogen and a single molecule of oxygen,
as we discussed above, would be undetectable. Instead of talking about single
molecules in science, we talk about groups of molecules. You can think of it like
buying eggs. You don't go to the store and buy an egg - you buy a dozen.
Contained within that dozen are the individual eggs. Its the same thing when we
talk about molecules. We don't talk about single units, we talk about groups.
But even a dozen molecules is a tiny amount. What we need is a big number - a
huge number! That number is the mole. The mole is the scientific community's
baker's dozen. One mole equals 6.02 x 10
23
(also known as Avogadro's number). A
6 followed by 23 zeros. Now that's a pretty big number. But that's all it is, a
number. You can't just have a mole, you have to have a mole of something. A mole
of atoms. A mole of water molecules. A mole of pennies (which would make you
richer than you can imagine). Why the mole? As it turns out, the mole has some
interesting properties. One mole of hydrogen atoms (6.02 x 10
23
H atoms) weighs 1
g. From the periodic table we know that an He atoms weighs 4 times as much as an
H atom, so go figure, 1 mole of He atoms weighs 4 g. In fact, one mole of any
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element is equal to the atomic mass of that element (in grams).
Let's think about that for a second. If we know the molar mass of an element,
and we know how many elements make up a specific molecule, then you can
calculate the molar mass of a compound by adding up the atomic weights. Huh?
Take water for example. How much does a mole of water weigh? Well, one mole
of water contains one mole of oxygen atoms and two moles of hydrogen atoms. A
mole of hydrogen weighs 1 g and a mole of oxygen weighs 16 g (look at the atomic
mass in the periodic table). So to calculate the weight of one mole of water:
(2 moles H * 1 g per mole) + (1 mole O * 16 g per mole) = 18 g
One mole of water weighs 18 grams!
The mole is also useful in chemical reactions. Though you can't measure
out an atom of hydrogen, you can measure out a mole. Since the mole is just a
constant number, the coefficients in a balanced chemical reaction give you the molar
proportions of reactants and products. In other words:
2H
2
+ O
2
2H
2
O
tells us that:
2 H
2
molecules react with 1 O
2
molecule to form 2 H
2
O molecules.
It also tells us that:
2 moles of H2 molecules react with 1 mole of O2 molecules to form 2 moles of
H2O molecules.
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Conditions Of Chemical Reactions
Some chemical reactions occur spontaneously - that is, when two reactants are
simply placed together. The rusting of iron is a spontaneous reaction. Spontaneous
reactions occur only when the products are more chemically stable than are the
reactants. Rust, therefore, is more stable than iron or oxygen.
Many chemical reactions, however, do not occur spontaneously. They require
certain conditions. One of the most common conditions that contributes to chemical
reactions is the presence of heat. Heat, a form of energy, can cause substances to
become more reactive, or less stable. Solid rust, as demonstrated in the equation
shown previously, is fairly stable. But when rust is heated in combination with
certain other materials, it becomes metallic iron. This reaction also reveals an
important chemical principle - most reactions are reversible. In other words,
products can be changed back into reactants.
Chemical reactions proceed at different rates, according to different conditions.
Heal, for example, tends to increase the speed of many chemical reactions. Certain
substances, called catalysts, can also accelerate the speed of a chemical reaction.
The process in which a substance increases the speed of a reaction is called
catalysis.
Unlike reactants, catalysts remain unchanged by chemical reactions. In most
cases, there are several possible sequences of steps by which a reaction occurs.
Catalysts participate in some or all of these steps, creating a chemical pathway along
which the entire reaction can proceed more rapidly. In this way, catalysis can lower
the amount of energy needed to cause a chemical reaction.
An example of catalysis is the effect that nitric oxide (NO) has on the
decomposition of ozone (O
3
) in the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Ordinarily,
ozone decomposes slowly as oxygen atoms and ozone molecules combine and
produce oxygen molecules (O
2
). The presence of nitric oxide, however, causes the
oxygen molecules to be created rapidly.
Catalysts are used widely in industry to speed up chemical reactions that would
otherwise take place too slowly. Many useful substances, including gasoline and
ammonia, are created through processes that use catalysts, such as platinum and
palladium.
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UNIT TWELVE: OXIDATION AND REDUCTION
There is an extraordinary range of possible chemical reactions, some that take
place naturally every day, and others that must be created in a laboratory. Among
the most common - and important in our day-to-day lives - are two related reactions,
called oxidation and reduction. Many essential processes that take place in plants
and animals depend on a whole series of interdependent oxidation and reduction
reactions.
Originally, the term oxidation referred to any chemical process in which a
substance combines with oxygen. Scientists learned, however, that the type of
reaction they were describing could take place, in some cases, without oxygen.
Today, oxidation refers to any chemical reaction in which a substance loses
electrons. Reduction refers to any reaction in which a substance gains electrons.
Since the electrons released during oxidation must be captured by another
substance, oxidation is always accompanied by reduction. This combined transfer of
electrons is often called the redox process. The formation of water is an example of
the redox process. Water molecules are formed when oxygen and hydrogen gases
combine. During the reaction of these gases, hydrogen atoms lose an electron.
Therefore, they have been oxidized. The oxygen atoms, on the other hand, gain two
electrons – one from each of two hydrogen atoms. The oxygen atoms have
undergone reduction. Thus, the formation of water involves both oxidation and
reduction.
The rusting of iron is a common example of oxidation. Another example is the
combustion of fuels such as natural gas. Oxidation also takes place within the
human body, as inhaled oxygen reacts with molecules of food lo produce energy,
water, and carbon dioxide.
Many important processes rely on reduction. Metal plating, for example, occurs
when metal ions are reduced - gain electrons - to form neutral atoms. When a piece
of copper is placed in a solution containing positive silver ions, the silver ions pick
up electrons from copper atoms, and a coating of silver forms on the copper.
I. Vocabulary in context
oxidized - Oxidation - reductions - Redox process - oxidation
1. Any chemical reaction in which a substance loses electrons is called
………………………….
2. Any chemical reaction in which a substance gains electrons is called
………………….
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3. is a term used to refer to the process in which substances lose and gain
electrons.
4. When a substance loses electrons, it is said to be ……………...
5. …………………….also occurs within the human body.
II. Comprehension questions
1. What is the main idea of the passage? …………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………
2. Do all chemical reactions occur naturally? Give examples to illustrate.
…………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………
3. How did scientists originally define ‘oxidation’? ………………………
…………………………………………………………………………..
4. Give one example of the redox process. ………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………….
5. What does ‘reduction’ mean? ………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………….
III. Grammar review
A. Combine the sentences using relative clauses
1. Scientists have discovered something. They discovered that the rare gases
are found as gases at ordinary temperatures and pressures.
……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
2. Helium is best known as gas in balloons and airships. Helium is used to
prevent chemical from reacting with other elements during storage and
transportation.
……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
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……………………………………………………………………………
3. There is a force. It is called van de Waals. It holds molecules together.
……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
22. Van de Waals is a force. It holds molecules together. It is usually weaker
than the forces that hold the atoms of a molecules together.
……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
23. The theory of spontaneous suggests one idea. The idea is that life
suddenly arose from nonliving matter.
……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
24. The theory of spontaneous generation originated in ancient times. It
maintained that lower forms of life began in nonliving matter.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

25. During the mid-1960’s, an Italian scientist demonstrated that meat sealed
in a closed jar, and thus protected from flies, would not produce flies. The
scientist’s name was Francesco Redi.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
……………………………………………………………………………………
26. Luis Pasteur demonstrated something. He demonstrated that even the
tiniest bacteria always grow from other bacteria and do not spring into life
spontaneously.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
27. A chemical reaction is a process. In this process, one substance is
chemically converted into a different substance.
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………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
28. When activated by sunlight, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons undergo a
photochemical reaction. It is this reaction that produces gases called
oxidants.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
……………………………………………………………………………………
B. Put the words in brackets into correct forms
1. Instead of (try) …………….…….. to enter a university, he applied for
a job.
2. The fact that it is hard to find the answers to the question of ‘how did
life begin” (be) ……………..many scientists do not agree with each
other entirely.
3. Reproduction (help) ………….…………….living things be able to
avoid extinction.
4. Scientists (try) …………………….…to find a general definition for
the question of 'what life is.’
5. It (seem) …………………that biology and chemistry are related to a
certain extent.
C. Vocabulary review: Choose the words to fill in the blanks
miscible – isotope – chemical behavior – chemical identity – chemical
formulas – chemical bonds – chemical equations – compounds –
solubility – solution – surface tension –Van der Walls forces – ionic
bonds – covalent bonds- catalysis
1. Electron in the outer shells control the
---------------------
of an atom
2.
--------------------
is a word used to refer to atoms that have the same number of
protons but different numbers of neutrons.
3. Molecules are the smallest particles in which a substance can be divided and
still have the
……………………
of the original substance.
4. In a liquid, molecules move about easily, but they still have some force that
attracts them to one another called
----------------------

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5. The transfer of electrons from one atom to one or more other atoms is called
--------------------------

6. We use
----------------------
to demonstrate what occurs in chemical reactions.
7. The process in which a substance increase the speed of a reaction is called
-----
----------------

8. A substance’s ability to dissolve in another is called its
----------------------

9. Unlike
------------------------
, mixtures vary on composition from sample to sample.
10. Two liquids that have the ability to form a solution are described as
-----------------

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UNIT THIRTEEN COMPOUNDS
Chemical compounds may be divided into one of two groups, organic
compounds and inorganic compounds. These two groups can be split up into a few
smaller groups of compounds, each denned by its atomic structure. Acids and bases
are two important groups of compounds. Isomer is a term used to describe different
compounds that have the same molecular formula.
Organic compounds
All basic substances that make up living organisms are called organic
compounds. Carbon atoms make up the foundation of organic compounds. Most
other substances that contain carbon, particularly synthetic substances such as
plastics, are also considered organic compounds. The study of compounds that
contain carbon is called organic chemistry.
Carbon forms more compounds than any other element except hydrogen. The
basic reason for this is that carbon atoms have the ability to form an incredible
variety of chemical bonds with other carbon atoms and atoms of other elements.
Scientists have identified several million organic compounds.
Many important organic chemicals used in industry are obtained from plant and
animal sources. For example, coal, oil, and natural gas are produced from the
remains of organisms that lived millions of years ago. Other organic compounds
present in living matter include ammo acids, sugars, and nucleic acids.
Originally, scientists believed that carbon-containing compounds could only be
found from living sources. In the early 1800's, however, scientists learned that
organic compounds could be created artificially. Nearly all the plastics and synthetic
fibers we use every day are organic substances, as are such materials as artificial
sweeteners, pesticides, and many useful drugs.
In addition to their ability to form many types of bonds, carbon atoms can also
link together into very long chains. These long chains form gigantic molecules
called polymers. Polymers make up many important organic compounds. Some
polymers, such as starch and wool, occur naturally. Starch is formed by plants from
a simple sugar called glucose, and wool is a variety of protein. Other polymers are
synthetic. Nylon and polyethylene, a tough plastic material, are examples of
synthetic polymers. Rubber, another polymer, occurs naturally. But more than half
The rubber used today is made synthetically.
Inorganic compounds
Compounds that do not contain living matter are called inorganic compounds.
With a few exceptions, such as the gas carbon dioxide, inorganic compounds do not
have carbon atoms. Most inorganic compounds occur in rocks and minerals.
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Many inorganic compounds are ionic substances that occur as solids. They
include salts and many minerals. Nonmetal elements, such as boron, nitrogen,
oxygen, and silicon, make up a wide variety of inorganic compounds.
Although they do not contain living matter, inorganic compounds can be found
in living organisms. Blood, for example, contains coordination compounds, an
important class of inorganic compounds. Coordination compounds contain a central
metal atom surrounded by a nonmetal atom or molecule. Blood contains a
coordination compound made up of iron atoms that are each surrounded by nitrogen
and oxygen atoms.
Acids
Among the most common and important compounds are acids. Acids share
certain recognizable properties. For example, they turn litmus paper red, and they
tend to corrode metals. Acids also have a sour taste. We come into contact with
acids every day. Citric acid is found in citrus fruits such as oranges, and sulfuric
acid is commonly used as the fluid in automobile batteries.
Chemists use several definitions to describe the behavior of acids. They are often
defined as compounds that produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Acids
can also be defined more generally as compounds that can donate a proton when
they combine with any other substance.
Acids vary in strength. The strength of an acid is measured by the number of
hydrogen ions it produces wit dissolves in water. Stronger acids produce more
hydrogen ions. Hydrochloric acid, which helps digestion in the human stomach, is
an example of a strong acid. Acetic acid, which is found in vine a weak acid.
ORGANIC ACIDS contain carbon atoms. They are often obtained from living
matter. Organic acids are used in the manufacture of detergents, foods, and soaps.
Amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, are common organic acids.
Others include ascorbic acid, which is vitamin C; and acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin.
INORGANIC ACIDS do not, in general, contain carbon atoms. They tend to be
stronger than organic acids. They are used in plastics and synthetic fibers. Inorganic
acids are also used in the refining of petroleum. Nitric acid and hydrochloric acid
are common inorganic acids.
I. Vocabulary
properties - organic chemicals - compounds - organic acids - inorganic -
Carbon atoms – artificially - carbon atoms - Organic compounds -
non-mental elements - inorganic acids - compounds
1. ………………..are those that make up living things.
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2. …………………..ate the base of organic compounds.
3. Plants and animals provide us with a variety of …………………..to be used
in industry.
4. Carbon-containing compounds can be found naturally and ………………..
5. Compounds that do not contain living matter are called ……………….
6. Most of inorganic compounds do not have …………………….
7. Most of inorganic compounds are made up of …………………………..
8. One of the ……………….that acids have is that they turn litmus
6
paper red.
9. Two main types of acids are ……………………and ……………………..
10. Acids are one of the most common and important ………………………..
II. Comprehension questions
1. What is organic chemistry? ………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………..
2. What is the reason for the fact that carbons can form more compounds than
many other elements can? ……………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………..
3. Where can we obtain organic compounds? ………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………
4. Can we make organic compounds? Give examples. ………………………
……………………………………………………………………………..
5. What is polymer? …………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………….
6. Where can we obtain inorganic compounds? …………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………
7. What are some properties of acids? ……………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………….

6
Quyø, giaáy quyø
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8. What is one definition of acids? ………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………
9. What can we do with organic acids? ………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………...
10. What are the main ideas of the text? ……………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………
. …………………………………………………………………………….
III. Review on Vocabulary:
Fill in the blanks with given words. Use each word once only. Be careful
since there are more words than blanks.
solution – strong nuclear force – Van der Waals forces – symbols – formulas –
compound – reactants – polar molecules – behavior – molecules – lose – gain –
valance – ion – isotope – covalent bonds – ionic bonds – chemical reaction –
chemical identity – suspension – chemical bonds
11. A force called
---------------------------------------------
keeps the protons and neutrons
contained within the nucleus.
12. In
------------------------------------,
more positive charge collects at another place.
13.
--------------------------------------
is the capacity of an atom to combine with another
atom, forming a molecule.
14. The
------------------------------------
of substances is determined by the behavior of the
atom that make up those substances.
15. The forces that hold the atoms of a molecule together are called
------------------

16. Scientists show the composition of molecules by using the
----------------------
for
elements in chemical formulas
17. The
-----------------------------
in a solid vibrate but do not move about to different
part of the solid.
18. An
-------------------------------
is an atom or a group of atoms with a positive or
negative electric charge
19. A
-------------------------------
is formed when atoms of one element bond with atoms
of another element.
20. Atoms that tend to
------------------------------------
electrons have a positive valence.
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21.
-----------------------------------------
are formed when two or more atoms share pairs of
electrons.
22. A process in which one substance is chemically converted into a different
substance is called a
--------------------------------------------------------
.
23. The number of atoms in the
-----------------------------
is the same as the number of
atoms in the products.
24. A
-----------------------------------
is a mixture of two or more individual substances
that cannot be separated by a mechanical mean.
25. A
--------------------------------------
is a mixture whose substances can be separated by
filtration.
IV. Review on Grammar:
A. COMBINE THE SENTENCES
1. Substances make up universe. Chemistry is the scientific study of
these substances
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. There are currently 103 officially named and recognized elements.
Some of these elements do not occur naturally and must be created in
a laboratory.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Atoms of a molecule are held together by some forces. We call those
forces chemical bonds.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Molecules are measured by their molecular mass. The molecular mass
equals all the atomic masses of atoms in a molecule.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. A chemical reaction is a process. In this process, one substance is
chemically converted into a different substance
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----
B. Turn the following sentences into passive voice
1. Many different covalent binds hold individual molecules together.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. We use chemical formulas to describe compounds, showing the ratio
between the elements that make up the compounds
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. The number of electrons in the outer shell of an element’s atom determines
its chemical behavior.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. When atoms combine, they usually form molecules.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Early people thought that life was created by Gods.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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UNIT FOURTEEN: MIXTURES
Many substances consist of combinations of compounds. These substances are
called mixtures. Unlike compounds, mixtures vary in composition from sample to
sample. For example, spaghetti sauce is a mixture. Some samples of it may be
composed of more tomato, some may have more spices, and others may have more
water. However, they are all spaghetti sauce.
There are two basic types of chemical mixtures, solutions and suspensions. A
solution is a mixture of two or more individual substances that cannot be separated
by a mechanical means, such as filtration. A suspension is a mixture whose
substances can be separated by filtration. Also, it is possible to recognize a
suspension as a combination of two different substances. The different substances in
tomato sauce, for example, can be recognized as separate from each other. A
solution generally appears as one substance.
Solutions
Solutions occur in three forms. There are liquid solutions, solid solutions, and
gaseous solutions.
LIQUID SOLUTIONS are formed when a solid, gas, or liquid is dissolved in a
liquid. Examples include water mixed with alcohol, and sugar dissolved in tea. Two
liquids that have the ability to form a solution are described as miscible. This ability
depends on the chemical properties of the liquids and on physical conditions such as
tempera lure and atmospheric pressure. Some liquid mixtures are more miscible
than others. Water and alcohol are completely miscible because any amount of the
two substances produces a solution. Oil and water, on the other hand, are not
miscible because one will not dissolve in the other.
Gases and solids that dissolve in liquid are described as soluble. The substance
that is dissolved is called the solute, and the substance that dissolves it is the solvent.
Water is the most common solvent. Other common solvents include acetone and
alcohol. In most cases, a solvent and the substance it dissolves have similar
molecular structure. For instance, oil dissolves in gasoline.
A given volume of solvent at a particular temperature can dissolve only a certain
amount of solute. For example, a particular amount of water can dissolve only a
certain amount of salt. Any additional salt remains undissolved in the water. A
substance's ability to dissolve in another is called its solubility. The solubility of
most solids depends on the chemical properties of the substances and on the
temperature of the liquid solution. For gases, solubility also depends on pressure.
Solvents have many industrial and scientific applications. They are used in the
production of cleaning fluids and such coatings as inks and paints. Solvents are also
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important in the manufacture of nylon, polyethylene, and many other synthetic
fibers.
SOLID SOLUTIONS usually occur as solid forms of liquid solutions. A mixture
of melted copper and zinc, for example, is a liquid solution that cools to form brass,
a solid solution. When melted silver and copper are mixed and cooled, another solid
solution—sterling silver—is produced.
GASEOUS SOLUTIONS result from the mixture of gases. Air, for instance, is a
mixture of nitrogen and oxygen, plus smaller amounts of argon and carbon dioxide.
Gaseous solutions are completely miscible - any amount of one gas in a solution can
dissolve in any amount of the other. Physical conditions do not affect the ability of
gases to form a solution.
Suspensions
The chemical definition of a suspension is a mixture in which the particles of a
substance separate from a liquid or gas slowly. These particles consist of many
atoms or molecules, so that they can generally be visually recognized. The particles
can be thought of as "Heating" in the mixture.
There are several types of suspensions. They include: (1) a solid in a gas, such as
dust and smoke; (2) a liquid in a gas, such as fog and aerosols; (3) a solid in a liquid,
such as muddy or soapy water; (4) a gas in a liquid, such as foam; and (5) a liquid in
a liquid, such as latex or water-based paints.
Colloids are suspensions that contain extremely small particles. The particles in
most colloids can only be seen through an electron microscope. An example of a
common colloid is homogenized milk, which has tiny particles of suspended fat.
Colloids also include such familiar products as paint and ink. Blood and many other
fluids in living things are also colloids.
I. Vocabulary
soluble - solutions - Solute - Mixtures - Miscible -
suspension Solvent - Solubility
1. …………………..are combinations of compounds.
2. Two fundamental types of chemical mixtures are …………….and
……………...
3. ……………..is a word used to describe the state when two liquids have
the ability to form a solution.
4. Gases and solids that dissolve in liquid are describes as ……………...
5. ………………..is a word used to refer to the substance that is dissolved.
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6. ……………….is a word used to refer to the substance that dissolves the
solute.
7. is a word used to refer to a substance’s / solid’s ability to dissolve in
another substance.
II. Comprehension questions
1. What does the phrase “mixtures vary in composition from sample to
sample’’ mean? ………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………
2. What is a solution? …………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………….
What is a suspension? …………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………
3. What is the difference between a solution and a suspension? ……………
……………………………………………………………………………..
4. What determines the miscibility of a substance? ………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………..
5. What determines the solubility of a solid? ………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………..
6. What forms do solid solutions often occur? ………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………..
7. How are gaseous solution formed? ………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………
8. is the solubility of a gas high or low? ………………………...……………
……………………………………………………………………………..
9. What determines the ‘solubility’ of a gas? …………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
10. How many types of suspensions are there? Give examples? ………..
…………………………………………………………………………….
III. Grammar review
A. Reorder the words to make meaningful sentences
1. shape / Forces / within / determine / its / a molecule.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. two or more atoms / covalent bonds / formed / share pairs of electrons / when
/ are.
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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. that / the force / hold / together / ionic compounds / is called / an ionic bond.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. suspensions / contain / colloids / are / that / extremely small / particles.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. compounds / Living things / the animal kingdom / are / of / or plant kingdom.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. used / manufacturing / aluminum chlorine / in / detergents / is
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. in our lives / constantly / chemical reactions / carried out / are
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8. on the size / its atoms / and number of / a molecule’s size / depends
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. held together / molecules / in certain arrangements / atoms / are made up of
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10. depends partly on / the kind / the types / of volcano eruption / of ejected
material
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
B. Turn the following sentences into passive voice
2. Scientists obtain many important organic chemicals used in industry from
plant and animal sources.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. People have increasingly built houses on places where marshes once were.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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3. The number of electrons in the outer shell of an element’s atom determines its
chemical behavior.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Early people believed that gods created life.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Russian biochemist Alexander Oparin and British biologist J. Haldane
developed the theory of chemical evolution during the 1920’s.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Further readings
MIXTURE BASICS
Mixtures are usually how you find things in nature. Rocks, the ocean, just about
anything you find. They are substances
held together by PHYSICAL FORCES,
not chemical.
When you see distilled water, it's a
pure substance which means that there are
just water molecules in the liquid. A
mixture would be a glass of water with
other things dissolved inside, maybe salt.
Each of the substances in that glass of water keeps the original chemical properties.
So if you have some dissolved substances, you can boil off the water and still have
those dissolved substances left over. It will take a higher temperature to melt the
salt.

Mixtures Are Everywhere
There are an infinite amount of mixtures. Anything you can combine is a
mixture. Think of everything you eat. Just think about how many cakes there are.
Each of those cakes is made up of a different mixture.
Solutions are also mixtures. If you put sand into a glass of water it is considered
to be a mixture. You can always tell a mixture because each of the substances can be
separated from the group in different physical ways. You can always get the sand
out of the water by filtering the water away.
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Concrete And Salt Water
Two classic examples of mixtures are concrete and salt water. You can see them
both being made everyday. Concrete is a mixture of lime (CaO)/cement, water,
sand, and other ground-up rocks and solids. All of these are mixed together.
Workers then pour the concrete into a mold and the concrete turns into a solid
(because of the cement solidifying) with the separate pieces inside. While the
cement hardening might be a chemical reaction... The rocks and gravel are held in
place by physical forces and used for added strength. The rocks and gravel are not
chemically bonded to the cement. The gravel is also not evenly distributed, there are
still pieces here and there. The concentrations change from area to area. Salt water is
a little different. First, it's a liquid. Second, it's an ionic solution. the salt is broken
up into sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) ions in the water.

Now you might be wondering why concrete and salt water are not new
compounds when they are all mixed together. The special thing is that the basic
parts can still be removed by physical forces. You can take the solid concrete and
grind it up again. The individual components can then be separated and you can start
all over. Salt water is even easier. All you have to do is boil the water off and the
salt is left over, just like when you started.

The thing to remember about mixtures is that you start with some pieces,
combine them, and then you can do something to pull those pieces apart again. You
wind up with the same molecules (in the same amounts) that you started with.
SOLUTIONS
Before we dive into solutions let's separate solutions from mixtures. Solutions are
groups of molecules that are mixed up in a completely even distribution. Hmmm.
Not the easiest way to say it. Scientists say that solutions are HOMOGENEOUS
systems. A mixture can have a little higher concentration on one side of the liquid
than the other. Solutions have an even concentration throughout the system.
An example: Sugar in water vs. Sand in water. Sugar dissolves and is spread
throughout the glass of water. The sand sinks to the bottom. The sugar-water could
be considered a solution. The sand-water is a mixture.
Can anything be in a solution?
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Pretty much. Solutions can be solids dissolved in liquids. They could also be gases
dissolved in liquids (like carbonated water). They can be gases in other gases and
liquids in liquids. If you mix things up and they stay at an even distribution, it is a
solution. You won't find solid-solid solutions, they are usually considered to be
mixtures.
Solutes, Solvents And Concentration
A simple solution is basically two substances that are going to be combined. One of
them is called the SOLUTE. A solute is the substance to be dissolved (sugar). The
other is a SOLVENT. The solvent is the one doing the dissolving (water). As a rule
of thumb there is usually more solvent than solute.
So what happens? How do you make that solution? Mix the two and stir. It's that
simple. Science breaks it into three steps. When you read the steps, remember...
Solute=Sugar, Solvent=Water, System=Glass.
(1) The solute is placed in the solvent and the concentrated solute slowly breaks into
pieces.
(2) The molecules of the solvent begin to move out of the way and they make room
for the molecules of the solute. Example: The water has to make room for the sugar
molecules.
(3) The solute and solvent interact with each other until the concentration of the two
substances is equal throughout the system. The concentration of sugar in the water
would be the same from a sample at the top, bottom or middle of the glass.
Can anything change a solution?
Sure. All sorts of things can change the concentrations of substances in solution.
Scientists use the word SOLUBILITY. Solubility is the ability of the solvent
(water) to dissolve the solute (sugar). You may have already seen the effect of
TEMPERATURE. Usually when you heat up a solvent it can dissolve more solid
materials (sugar) and less gas (Carbon dioxide). Next on the list of factors is
PRESSURE. When you increase the surrounding pressure you can usually dissolve
more gases in the liquid. Think about your soda can. They are able to keep the fizz
inside because the contents of the can are under higher pressure. Last is the
STRUCTURE of the substances. Some things dissolve easier in one kind of
substance than another. Sugar dissolves easily in water, oil does not. So... Water has
a low solubility when it comes to oil.


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GLOSSARY
atoms (Unit 1) nguyeân töû
additional energy (2) naêng löôïng buø ñaép
anion (10) anion
artificially (13) nhaân taïo
atomic mass (4) khoái löôïng nguyeân töû
atomic mass unit (4) ñôn vò khoái löôïng nguyeân töû
attract (7) huùt
balance (6) caân baèng
behavior (4) phaûn öùng, tính chaát
carbon atoms (13) nguyeân töû carbon
carbon compounds (1) hôïp chaát carbon
cation (10) cation
chemical behavior (3) tính chaát hoùa hoïc
chemical bonds (6) lieân keát hoùa hoïc
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chemical equation (11) phöông trình hoùa hoïc
chemical formulas (9) coâng thöùc hoùa hoïc
chemical identity (6) ñaëc ñieåm hoùa hoïc
chemical reaction (11) phaûn öùng hoùa hoïc
compound (9) hôïp chaát
covalent bonds (10) lieân keát hoùa trò
crystalline solids (8) chaát raén daïng tinh theå
definite shape (8) daïng coá ñònh
definite volume (8) khoái löôïng / dung tích coá ñònh
diatomic molecule (7) nhò phaân töû
electrical attractions (8) löïc huùt / haápp daãn ñieän töø
electrically neutral (4) trung hoøa veà ñieän
electricity (2) ñieän
electron (2) electron
element (5) nguyeân toá
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empty space (3) khoâng gian troáng
energetic (8) maïnh, doái daøo naêng löôïng
energy (3) naêng löôïng
energy changes (1) thay ñoåi veà naêng löôïng
equal (9) caân baèng
experimental foundation (1) neàn taûng veà maët thöïc tieãn, lyù thuyeát
forces (7) löïc
forces of attraction (8) löïc haápp daãn
formulas (5) coâng thöùc
independent linear motion (8) chuyeån ñoäng tuyeán tính ñoäc laäp (theo
ñöôøng thaúng)

inorganic (13) voâ cô
inorganic acids (13) acid voâ cô
ionic bond (10) lieân keát i-on
ionic compound (10) hôïp chaát i-on
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isotope (3) ñoàng vò
mass (3) khoái löôïng, troïng löôïng
mass number (4) soá khoái
miscible (14) coù theå troän laãn,coù theå taïo hoãn hôïp vôùi
molecular mass (6) khoái löôïng phaân töû
molecule (7) phaân töû
motion (8) chuyeån ñoäng
negative (2) aâm (ñieän tích)
negative ion (4) i-on aâm
negative valance (9) hoaù trò aâm
neutron (2) nô tron
non-mental elements (13) nguyeân toá phi kim loaïi
nucleus (6) haït nhaân
opposite charges attraction (2) löïc huùt do traùi daáu ñieän tích
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organic acids (13) a-xit höõu cô
organic compounds (13) hôïp chaát höõu cô
oxidation (12) oâ – xi hoùa
particles (8) phaàn töû
physical change (11) thay ñoåi veà maët vaät lyù
polar molecules (6) phaân töû coù caùc electrons coù xu höôùng doàn
veà hai cöïc / hai ñaàu cuûa nguyeân töû
positive (2) döông (ñieän)
positive ion (4) i-on döông
positive valance (9) hoaù trò döông
product (11) chaát taïo ra sau phaûn öùng
property (13) tính chaát
protons (2) pro-ton
pure forms (5) hình thöùc nguyeân chaát, khoâng pha taïp
ratio (9) tæ leä
Oleoq coh 7o f7ooh ehc 3loh oleo 7hco 7co 7ce · 1zs ·


·qaqeo Oot Ohooq 7hco ·qcol ·qa
reactant (11) chaát tham gia phaûn öùng
redox process (12) quaù trình oâ-xi hoùa khöû
reductions (12) quaù trình khöû
revolve (10) quay voøng
shapes (7) hình daïng
shells (3) lôùp (ñieän töû)
solid (8) chaát raén
solubility (14) tính tan
soluble (14) coù theå hoøa tan
solute (14) chaát tan
solutions (14) dung dòch
solvent (14) dung moâi
spin around (3) quay troøn
stable (9) oån ñònh, vöõng beàn
Oleoq coh 7o f7ooh ehc 3loh oleo 7hco 7co 7ce · 1zo ·


·qaqeo Oot Ohooq 7hco ·qcol ·qa
strong nuclear force (2) löïc huùt nguyeân töû
substance (5) chaát
suspension (14) theå vaån, huyeàn phuø (chaát loûng coù
nhöõng haït raén nhoû li ti ôû trong)
symbols (6) kyù hieäu
transformations (1) söï chuyeån dòch (töø traïng thaùi naøy qua
traïng thaùi khaùc
tri-atomic repel (7) (löïc) ñaåy cuûa ba nguyeân töû khi ôû caïnh
nhau
valance (9) hoaù trò
van de Waals force (7) löïc van de Waals


Oleoq coh 7o f7ooh ehc 3loh oleo 7hco 7co 7ce · 1z? ·


·qaqeo Oot Ohooq 7hco ·qcol ·qa

Oleoq coh 7o f7ooh ehc 3loh oleo 7hco 7co 7ce · 1zS ·


·qaqeo Oot Ohooq 7hco ·qcol ·qa
REFERENCES:
Luder, Vernon, & Zuffanti. (1953). General Chemistry. W. B. Saunders
Company – Philadelphia and London.
World Book, Inc. (1994). The World Book of SCIENCE POWER – Version
No 1 – Chemistry, Physics, and Life Sciences. United States. ISBN 0-
7166-2294-7
Web sites: http://www.chemtutor.com/
http://www.tannerm.com/
http://www.chem4kids.com/