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VON KÁRMÁN INTEGRAL EQUATION

Control volume ABCD Flow in : AB and BC Flow out : CD Assumption : incompressible flow, a unit width surface, zero pressure gradient

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Continuity equation . & & & F = M − M − M ∑ x out in BC 1 ∂p ⎞ ∂p ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ pδ + ⎜ p + dx ⎟dδ − ⎜ p + dx ⎟(δ + dδ ) − τ o dx 2 ∂x ⎠ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ∂ δ 2 ⎛ δ 2 ⎞ ⎛ δ 2 ⎞ ⎡⎛ ∂ δ ⎞ ⎤ = ⎜ ∫ ρu dy + ∫ ρu dydx ⎟ − ⎜ ∫ ρu dy ⎟ − ⎢⎜ ∫ ρudydx ⎟U ⎥ ∂x 0 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎣⎝ ∂x 0 = ∂ δ 2 ⎛∂ δ ⎞ ρ ρ u dydx udydx − ⎜ ⎟U ∫ ∫ 0 0 ∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ 22 . & BC = m & out m ∂ δ & in = ∫ ρudy ⋅ dx −m ∂x 0 From 2nd law of Newton .

∂p ∂ δ ⎛∂ δ ⎞ dx − τ o dx = ∫ ρu 2 dydx − ⎜ ∫ ρudydx ⎟U ∂x ∂x 0 ⎝ ∂x 0 ⎠ ∂p ∂ δ ∂ δ = U ∫ ρu 2 dy − ∫ ρu 2 dy ∂x 0 ∂x ∂x 0 −δ Divide by (-dx) . (from Bernoulli equation) 2 P+ 1 2 ρU = C (Neglect the potential energy) dp dU + ρU =0 dx dx dp dU = − ρU dx dx 23 . τo +δ d δ 2 d δ 2 dp =U ρ − ρu dy u dy ∫ ∫ 0 0 dx dx dx (Von Kármán equation) Pressure gradient . τo + δ Simplify .Simplify .

Von Kármán equation becomes . and dU dx =0 Von Kármán equation becomes . τ o = ρU 2 dθ dx if η = y δ and dy = δdη τ o = ρU 2 dδ dx u⎛ u⎛ u⎞ 1 − ⎟dη ∫0 U ⎜ ⎝ U⎠ 1 1 − ⎟dη if α = ∫0 U ⎜ ⎝ U⎠ dδ dx 1 u⎞ τ o = ρU 2α 24 . τo d 2 dU = (U θ ) + δ *U ρ dx dx if (dp dx ) = 0 .

Use idea of Blasius . and assume that . U η= y δ ⎛ u⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟dη ⎝ U⎠ Integral of α =∫ u 0U 1 Will becomes constant. u = f (η ) . 25 . τ o = ρU 2α ⎛ du ⎞ dδ ⎟ = µ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎝ dy ⎠ y =0 which α =∫ u 0U 1 ⎛ u⎞ ⎜1 − ⎟dη ⎝ U⎠ Assumption . τ o = µ⎜ ⎜ dy ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ y =0 ⎛ du ⎞ from Karman equation . Shear stress .

⎛ 2 µβx ⎞ x ⎛ 2β ⎞ δ =⎜ = ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎜ ρUα ⎟ ⎝ α ⎠ (Re )2 ⎝ ⎠ x 1 2 1 2 Re x = ρUx µ is called local Reynolds number τ o = ρU 2α ⎛ αβ ⎞ dδ = ρU 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 Re ⎟ dx x ⎠ ⎝ 1 2 26 . µβ ∫ dx = ρUα ∫ δdδ µβx = ρUα δ2 2 + pemalar at δ = 0 and x = 0 .⎡ df (η ) ⎤ β =⎢ ⎥ ⎣ dη ⎦ y = 0 µ dδ Uβ = ρU 2α dx δ δ multiple with U and do integral.

CF = 2(2αβ ) 1 2 (Re L ) 1 2 27 . FD = 2αβµρ U L 3 ( ) 1 2 Average skin friction coefficient . Cf = ⎛ 2αβ ⎞ τo ⎜ = 2 ⎟ ⎜ Re ⎟ 1 U ρ ⎝ x⎠ 2 1 2 Drag force .Local skin friction coefficient .

y = δ shear stress τ = 0 at y = δ τ = µ⎜ ⎜ dy ⎟ ⎟ = K (δ − y ) ⎝ ⎠ Integral . µU = 2 f (η ) = 2η − η 2 28 . u=0 . ⎛ y2 ⎞ µu = K ⎜ ⎜ yδ − 2 ⎟ ⎟+c ⎝ ⎠ u=0 .conditions . y=0 . c=0 y = ηδ . and divided by µU u Kδ 2 ⎛ η2 ⎞ ⎜η − ⎟ = U 2c ⎟ µU ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ Kδ 2 u = U . η = 1 . y=0 ⎛ du ⎞ and u =U .

Boundary layer thickness .365ρU 2 τo = Re x 29 .730 x Re x shear stress .826 x Re x Momentum thickness . δx = 5. θ= 0. δ* = 1.From this . 0.48 x Re x Displacement thickness . α= 2 β =2 15 .

73 Re x Average skin friction coefficient .46 Re L Other assumptions . (1) y = 0 .Local skin friction coefficient . CF = 1. u = 0 d 2u (2) y = 0 . dy = 0 30 . u = a + by + cy 2 + dy 3 u = a sin(by ) boundary conditions . Cf = 0. dy 2 = 0 (3) y = δ . u = U du (4) y = δ .

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