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2.

20 – Marine Hydrodynamics, Fall 2011
Lecture 18
Copyright c 2011 MIT - Department of Mechanical Engineering, All rights reserved.
2.20 - Marine Hydrodynamics
Lecture 18
4.6 Laminar Boundary Layers

Uo

L
u, v viscous flow
δ
y
x
U potential flow
4.6.1 Assumptions
• 2D flow: w,

∂z
≡ 0 and u (x, y) , v (x, y) , p (x, y) , U (x, y).
• Steady flow:

∂t
≡ 0.
• For δ << L, use local (body) coordinates x, y, with x tangential to the body
and y normal to the body.
• u ≡ tangential and v ≡ normal to the body, viscous flow velocities (used inside
the boundary layer).
• U, V ≡ potential flow velocities (used outside the boundary layer).
1
4.6.2 Governing Equations
• Continuity
∂u
∂x
+
∂v
∂y
= 0 (1)
• Navier-Stokes:
u
∂u
∂x
+ v
∂u
∂y
= −
1
ρ
∂p
∂x
+ ν
_

2
u
∂x
2
+

2
u
∂y
2
_
(2)
u
∂v
∂x
+ v
∂v
∂y
= −
1
ρ
∂p
∂y
+ ν
_

2
v
∂x
2
+

2
v
∂y
2
_
(3)
4.6.3 Boundary Conditions
• KBC
Inside the boundary layer:
No-slip u(x, y = 0) = 0
No-flux v(x, y = 0) = 0
Outside the boundary layer the velocity has to match the P-Flow solution.
Let y

≡ y/δ, y

≡ y/L, and x

≡ x/L. Outside the boundary layer y

→ ∞
but y

→0. We can write for the tangential and normal velocities
u(x

, y

→∞) = U(x

, y

→0) ⇒u(x

, y

→∞) = U(x

, 0),
and v(x

, y

→∞) = V (x

, y

→0) ⇒v(x

, y

→∞) = V (x

, 0) =
No-flux
P-Flow
0
In short:
u(x, y

→∞) = U(x, 0)
v(x, y

→∞) = 0
• DBC
As y

→∞, the pressure has to match the P-Flow solution. The x-momentum
equation at y

= 0 gives
U
∂U
∂x
+
V

0
∂U
∂y
= −
1
ρ
dp
dx
+ ν

0

2
U
∂y
2

dp
dx
= −ρU
∂U
∂x
2
4.6.4 Boundary Layer Approximation
Assume that R
e
L
>> 1, then (u, v) is confined to a thin layer of thickness δ (x) << L.
For flows within this boundary layer, the appropriate order-of-magnitude scaling /
normalization is:
Variable Scale Normalization
u U u = Uu

x L x = Lx

y δ y = δy

v V =? v = Vv

• Non-dimensionalize the continuity, Equation (1), to relate V to U
U
L
_
∂u
∂x
_

+
V
δ
_
∂v
∂y
_

= 0 =⇒V = O
_
δ
L
U
_
• Non-dimensionalize the x-momentum, Equation (2), to compare δ with L
U
2
L
_
u
∂u
∂x
_

+
UV
δ
.¸¸.
O(U
2
/L)
_
v
∂u
∂y
_

= −
1
ρ
∂p
∂x
+
νU
δ
2
_
¸
¸
¸
_
δ
2
L
2
_

2
u
∂x
2
_

. ¸¸ .
ignore
+
_

2
u
∂y
2
_

_
¸
¸
¸
_
The inertial effects are of comparable magnitude to the viscous effects when:
U
2
L

νU
δ
2
=⇒
δ
L

_
ν
UL
=
1
_
R
e
L
<< 1
The pressure gradient
∂p
∂x
must be of comparable magnitude to the inertial effects
∂p
∂x
= O
_
ρ
U
2
L
_
3
• Non-dimensionalize the y-momentum, Equation (3), to compare
∂p
∂y
to
∂p
∂x
UV
L
.¸¸.
O(
U
2
L
δ
L
)
_
u
∂v
∂x
_

+
V
2
δ
.¸¸.
O(
U
2
L
δ
L
)
_
v
∂v
∂y
_

= −
1
ρ
∂p
∂y
+
νV
L
2
.¸¸.
O(
U
2
L
δ
3
L
3
)
_

2
v
∂x
2
_

+
νV
δ
2
.¸¸.
O(
U
2
L
δ
L
)
_

2
v
∂y
2
_

The pressure gradient
∂p
∂y
must be of comparable magnitude to the inertial effects
∂p
∂y
= O
_
ρ
U
2
L
δ
L
_
Comparing the magnitude of
∂p
∂x
to
∂p
∂y
we observe
∂p
∂y
= O
_
ρ
U
2
L
δ
L
_
while
∂p
∂x
= O
_
ρ
U
2
L
_
=⇒
∂p
∂y
<<
∂p
∂x
=⇒
∂p
∂y
≈ 0 =⇒
p = p(x)
• Note:
- From continuity it was shown that V/U ∼ O(δ/L) ⇒ v << u, inside the
boundary layer.
- It was shown that
∂p
∂y
= 0, p = p(x) inside the boundary layer. This means that
the pressure across the boundary layer is constant and equal to the pressure
outside the boundary layer imposed by the external P-Flow.
4
4.6.5 Summary of Dimensional BVP
Governing equations for 2D, steady, laminar boundary layer
Continuity :
∂u
∂x
+
∂v
∂y
= 0
x-momentum : u
∂u
∂x
+ v
∂u
∂y
= −
1
ρ
dp
dx
. ¸¸ .
UdU/dx, y=0


2
u
∂y
2
y - momentum :
∂p
∂y
= 0
Boundary Conditions
KBC
At y=0 : u(x, 0) = 0
v(x, 0) = 0
At y/δ →∞ : u(x, y/δ →∞) = U(x, 0)
v(x, y/δ →∞) = 0
DBC
dp
dx
= −ρU
∂U
∂x
or
IN the b.l.
p(x) = C −
1
2
ρU
2
(x, 0)
. ¸¸ .
Bernoulli for the P-Flow at y =0
4.6.6 Definitions
Displacement thickness δ



_
0
_
1 −
u
U
_
dy
Momentum thickness θ ≡

_
0
u
U
_
1 −
u
U
_
dy
5
Physical Meaning of δ

and θ
Assume a 2D steady flow over a flat plate.
Recall for steady flow over flat plate
dp
dx
= 0 and pressure p = const.
Choose a control volume ([0, x] × [0, y/δ →∞]) as shown in the figure below.
∞ → δ / y
Q
o
U
o
U
u(y)
o
U
0 x
CV
Flow - P
Layer Boundary
1
2
3
4
CV for steady flow over a flat plate.
Control Volume ‘book-keeping’
Surface ˆ n v v · ˆ n v(v · ˆ n) −pˆ n
1 −
ˆ
i U
o
ˆ
i −U
o
−U
2
o
ˆ
i p
ˆ
i
2 −
ˆ
j 0 0 0 p
ˆ
j
3
ˆ
i u(x, y)
ˆ
i + v(x, y)
ˆ
j u(x, y) u
2
(x, y)
ˆ
i + u(x, y)v(x, y)
ˆ
j −p
ˆ
i
4
ˆ
j U
o
ˆ
i + v(x, y)
ˆ
j v(x, y) v(x, y)U
o
ˆ
i + v
2
(x, y)
ˆ
j −p
ˆ
j
6
Conservation of mass, for steady CV
_
1234
v · ˆ ndS = 0 ⇒−
_

0
U
o
dy

+
_

0
u(x, y

)dy

+
_
x
0
v(x

, y)dx

. ¸¸ .
Q
= 0 ⇒
Q =
_

0
U
o
dy


_

0
udy

=
_

0
(U
o
−u)dy

= U
o
_

0
_
1 −
u
U
o
_
dy

. ¸¸ .
δ

⇒ Q = U
0
δ

where ()

are the dummy variables.
Conservation of momentum in x, for steady CV
ρ
_
1234
u(v · ˆ n)dS =

F
x
ρ
__

0
−U
2
o
dy

+
_

0
u
2
(x, y

)dy

+
_
x
0
v(x

, y)U
o
dx

_
=
_

0
pdy


_

0
pdy

+

F
x,friction
ρ
_

0
−U
2
o
dy

+ ρ
_

0
u
2
(x, y

)dy

+ ρU
o
_
x
0
v(x

, y)dx

. ¸¸ .
Q
=

F
x,friction

ρ
_

0
−U
2
o
dy

+ ρ
_

0
u
2
(x, y

)dy

+ ρU
o
_

0
(U
o
−u)dy

=

F
x,friction

ρ
_

0
_
−U
2
o
+ u
2
+ U
2
o
−U
o
u
_
dy

=

F
x,friction

ρU
2
o
_

0
_
u
2
U
2
o

u
U
o
_
dy

=

F
x,friction

F
x,friction
= −ρU
2
o
_

0
u
U
o
_
1 −
u
U
o
_
dy

. ¸¸ .
θ

F
x,friction
= −ρU
2
o
θ
7
4.7 Steady Flow over a Flat Plate: Blasius’ Laminar Boundary
Layer

y
x
L
U
o
Steady flow over a flat plate: BLBL
4.7.1 Derivation of BLBL
• Assumptions Steady, 2D flow. Flow over flat plate →U = U
0
, V = 0,
dp
dx
= 0
• LBL governing equations
∂u
∂x
+
∂v
∂y
= 0
u
∂u
∂x
+ v
∂u
∂y
= ν

2
u
∂y
2
• Boundary conditions
u = v = 0 on y = 0
v →V = 0, u →U
o
outside the BL, i.e.,
_
y
δ
>> 1
_
• Solution Mathematical solution in terms of similarity parameters.
u
U
and η ≡ y
_
U
o
νx

y
x
=
η

R
x
⇔y = η
_
νx
U
o
Similarity solution must have the form
u (x, y)
U
o
= F (η)
. ¸¸ .
self similar solution
8
We can obtain a PDE for F by substituting into the governing equations. The
PDE has no-known analytical solution. However, Blasius provided a numerical
solution. Once again, once the velocity profile is evaluated we know everything
about the flow.
4.7.2 Summary of BLBL Properties: δ, δ
0.99
, δ

, θ, τ
o
, D, C
f
u (x, y)
U
o
= F
.¸¸.
evaluated
numerically
(η) ; η = y
_
U
o
νx
; y ≡ η
_
νx
U
o
;
y
x
=
η
_
R
x
.¸¸.
local R#
δ ≡
_
νx
U
o
δ
.99

= 4.9
_
νx
U
o
, i.e., η
.99
= 4.9
δ


= 1.72
_
νx
U
o
, i.e., η

= 1.72
θ

= 0.664
_
νx
U
o
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
δ ∝

x, δ ∝ 1
_
_
U
o
δ
x

_
ν
U
o
x
=
1

R
x
τ
o
≡ τ
w

= 0.332ρU
2
o
_
U
o
x
ν
_
−1/2
= 0.332
_
ρU
2
o
_
R
−1/2
x
. ¸¸ .
local R#
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
τ
o

1

x
τ
o
∝ U
3/2
o
9
Total drag on plate L x B
D = B
.¸¸.
width
L
_
0
τ
o
dx

= 0.664
_
ρU
2
o
_
(BL)
_
U
o
L
ν
_
−1/2
. ¸¸ .
R
−1/2
e
L
⇒ D ∝

L, D ∝ U
3/2
Friction (drag) coefficient:
C
f
=
D
1
2
(ρU
2
o
) (BL)

=
1.328
_
R
e
L
⇒ C
f

1

L
, C
f

1

U
Layer Boundary Laminar Blasius
L
f
C
Re
328 . 1

Layer Boundary Turbulent
L
Re
f
C
008 . 0
3
10
5
10 3×




 ×
600 ~ Re
10 3 ~ Re
at Transition
2.3) (JNN plate flat for
Layer Boundary Turbulent
5
x
δ
f
C
Skin friction coefficient as a function of R
e
.
A look ahead: Turbulent Boundary Layers
Observe form the previous figure that the function C
f, laminar
(R
e
) for a laminar
boundary layer is different from the function C
f, turbulent
(R
e
) for a turbulent boundary
layer for flow over a flat plate.
Turbulent boundary layers will be discussed in proceeding Lecture.
10
4.8 Laminar Boundary Layers for Flow Over a Body of General
Geometry
The velocity profile given in BLBL is the exact velocity profile for a steady, laminar flow
over a flat plate. What is the velocity profile for a flow over any arbitrary body? In general
it is dp/dx = 0 and the boundary layer governing equations cannot be easily solved as was
the case for the BLBL. In this paragraph we will describe a typical approximative procedure
used to solve the problem of flow over a body of general geometry.
1. Solve P-Flow outside B ≡ B
0
2. Solve boundary layer equations
(with ∇P term) → get δ

(x)
3. From B
0


→B
4. Repeat steps (1) to (3) until no
change
U
y
x
L
. const U
0 P

≠ ∇
B
0
• von Karman’s zeroth moment integral equation
τ
0
ρ
=
d
dx
_
U
2
(x)θ(x)
_
+ δ

(x)U(x)
dU
dx
(4)
• Approximate solution method due to Polthausen for general geometry
(dp/dx = 0) using von Karman’s momentum integrals.
The basic idea is the following: we assume an approximate velocity profile (e.g. linear,
4
th
order polynomial, . . .) in terms of an unknown parameter δ(x). From the velocity
profile we can immediately calculate δ

, θ and τ
o
as functions of δ(x) and the P-Flow
velocity U(x).
Independently from the boundary layer approximation, we obtain the P-Flow solution
outside the boundary layer U(x),
dU
dx
.
Upon substitution of δ

, θ, τ
o
, U(x),
dU
dx
in von Karman’s moment integral equation(s)
we form an ODE for δ in terms of x.
11
• Example for a 4
th
order polynomial Polthausen velocity profile
Polthausen profiles - a family of profiles as a function of a single parameter Λ(x)
(shape function factor).
Assume an approximate velocity profile, say a 4
th
order polynomial:
u (x, y)
U (x, 0)
= a (x)
y
δ
+ b (x)
_
y
δ
_
2
+ c (x)
_
y
δ
_
3
+ d (x)
_
y
δ
_
4
(5)
There can be no constant term in (5) for the no-slip BC to be satisfied y = 0,
i.e, u(x, 0) = 0.
We use three BC’s at y = δ
u
U
= 1,
∂u
∂y
= 0,

2
u
∂y
2
= 0, at y = δ (6)
From (6) in (5), we re-write the coefficients a(x), b(x), c(x) and d(x) in terms
of Λ(x)
a = 2 + Λ/6, b = −Λ/2, c = −2 + Λ/2, d = 1 −Λ/6
To specify the approximate velocity profile
u(x,y)
U(x,0)
in terms of a single unknown
parameter δ we use the x-momentum equation at y = 0, where u = v = 0
u

0
∂u
∂x
+ v

0
∂u
∂y
= U
∂U
∂x
. ¸¸ .

1
ρ
dp
dx
+ ν

2
u
∂y
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
y=0
. ¸¸ .
ν
2bU
δ
2
⇒b = −
1
2
_
dU
dx
δ
2
ν
_
⇒ Λ(x) =
dU
dx
δ
2
(x)
ν
Observe: Λ ∝
dU
dx

_
Λ > 0 : favorable pressure gradient
Λ < 0 : adverse pressure gradient
Putting everything together:
u (x, y)
U (x, 0)
= 2
_
y
δ
_
−2
_
y
δ
_
3
+
_
y
δ
_
4
+
+
dU
dx
δ
2
ν
_
1
6
_
y
δ
_

1
2
_
y
δ
_
2
+
1
2
_
y
δ
_
3

1
6
_
y
δ
_
4
_
12
Once the approximate velocity profile
u(x,y)
U(x,0)
is given in terms of a single unknown
parameter δ(x), then δ

, θ and τ
o
are evaluated
δ

=

_
0
_
1 −
u
U
_
dy = δ
_
3
10

1
120
_
dU
dx
δ
2
ν
_
_
θ =
δ
_
0
u
U
_
1 −
u
U
_
dy = δ
_
37
315

1
945
_
dU
dx
δ
2
ν
_

1
9072
_
dU
dx
δ
2
ν
_
2
_
τ
o
= µ
∂u
∂y
¸
¸
¸
¸
y=0
=
µU
δ
_
2 +
1
6
_
dU
dx
δ
2
ν
_
_
Notes:
- Incipient flow (τ
o
= 0) for Λ = −12. However, recall that once the flow is
separated the boundary layer theory is no longer valid.
- For
dU
dx
= 0 →Λ = 0 Pohlhausen profile differs from Blasius LBL only by a
few percent.
After we solve the P-Flow and determine U(x),
dU
dx
we substitute everything into
von Karman’s momentum integral equation (4) to obtain

dx
=
1
U
dU
dx
g(δ) +
d
2
U/dx
2
dU/dx
h(δ)
where g, h are known rational polynomial functions of δ.
This is an ODE for δ = δ(x) where U,
dU
dx
,
d
2
U
dx
2
are specified from the P-Flow
solution.
General procedure:
1. Make a reasonable approximation in the form of (5),
2. Apply sufficient BC’s at y = δ, and the x-momentum at y = 0 to reduce (5)
as a function a single unknown δ,
3. Determine U(x) from P-Flow, and
4. Finally substitute into Von Karman’s equation to form an ODE for δ(x).
Solve either analytically or numerically to determine the boundary layer
growth as a function of x.
13