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You are on page 1of 13

**20 – Marine Hydrodynamics, Fall 2011
**

Lecture 18

Copyright c 2011 MIT - Department of Mechanical Engineering, All rights reserved.

2.20 - Marine Hydrodynamics

Lecture 18

4.6 Laminar Boundary Layers

Uo

L

u, v viscous flow

δ

y

x

U potential flow

4.6.1 Assumptions

• 2D ﬂow: w,

∂

∂z

≡ 0 and u (x, y) , v (x, y) , p (x, y) , U (x, y).

• Steady ﬂow:

∂

∂t

≡ 0.

• For δ << L, use local (body) coordinates x, y, with x tangential to the body

and y normal to the body.

• u ≡ tangential and v ≡ normal to the body, viscous ﬂow velocities (used inside

the boundary layer).

• U, V ≡ potential ﬂow velocities (used outside the boundary layer).

1

4.6.2 Governing Equations

• Continuity

∂u

∂x

+

∂v

∂y

= 0 (1)

• Navier-Stokes:

u

∂u

∂x

+ v

∂u

∂y

= −

1

ρ

∂p

∂x

+ ν

_

∂

2

u

∂x

2

+

∂

2

u

∂y

2

_

(2)

u

∂v

∂x

+ v

∂v

∂y

= −

1

ρ

∂p

∂y

+ ν

_

∂

2

v

∂x

2

+

∂

2

v

∂y

2

_

(3)

4.6.3 Boundary Conditions

• KBC

Inside the boundary layer:

No-slip u(x, y = 0) = 0

No-ﬂux v(x, y = 0) = 0

Outside the boundary layer the velocity has to match the P-Flow solution.

Let y

⋆

≡ y/δ, y

∗

≡ y/L, and x

∗

≡ x/L. Outside the boundary layer y

⋆

→ ∞

but y

∗

→0. We can write for the tangential and normal velocities

u(x

∗

, y

⋆

→∞) = U(x

∗

, y

∗

→0) ⇒u(x

∗

, y

⋆

→∞) = U(x

∗

, 0),

and v(x

∗

, y

⋆

→∞) = V (x

∗

, y

∗

→0) ⇒v(x

∗

, y

⋆

→∞) = V (x

∗

, 0) =

No-ﬂux

P-Flow

0

In short:

u(x, y

⋆

→∞) = U(x, 0)

v(x, y

⋆

→∞) = 0

• DBC

As y

⋆

→∞, the pressure has to match the P-Flow solution. The x-momentum

equation at y

∗

= 0 gives

U

∂U

∂x

+

V

↓

0

∂U

∂y

= −

1

ρ

dp

dx

+ ν

↓

0

∂

2

U

∂y

2

⇒

dp

dx

= −ρU

∂U

∂x

2

4.6.4 Boundary Layer Approximation

Assume that R

e

L

>> 1, then (u, v) is conﬁned to a thin layer of thickness δ (x) << L.

For ﬂows within this boundary layer, the appropriate order-of-magnitude scaling /

normalization is:

Variable Scale Normalization

u U u = Uu

∗

x L x = Lx

∗

y δ y = δy

∗

v V =? v = Vv

∗

• Non-dimensionalize the continuity, Equation (1), to relate V to U

U

L

_

∂u

∂x

_

∗

+

V

δ

_

∂v

∂y

_

∗

= 0 =⇒V = O

_

δ

L

U

_

• Non-dimensionalize the x-momentum, Equation (2), to compare δ with L

U

2

L

_

u

∂u

∂x

_

∗

+

UV

δ

.¸¸.

O(U

2

/L)

_

v

∂u

∂y

_

∗

= −

1

ρ

∂p

∂x

+

νU

δ

2

_

¸

¸

¸

_

δ

2

L

2

_

∂

2

u

∂x

2

_

∗

. ¸¸ .

ignore

+

_

∂

2

u

∂y

2

_

∗

_

¸

¸

¸

_

The inertial eﬀects are of comparable magnitude to the viscous eﬀects when:

U

2

L

∼

νU

δ

2

=⇒

δ

L

∼

_

ν

UL

=

1

_

R

e

L

<< 1

The pressure gradient

∂p

∂x

must be of comparable magnitude to the inertial eﬀects

∂p

∂x

= O

_

ρ

U

2

L

_

3

• Non-dimensionalize the y-momentum, Equation (3), to compare

∂p

∂y

to

∂p

∂x

UV

L

.¸¸.

O(

U

2

L

δ

L

)

_

u

∂v

∂x

_

∗

+

V

2

δ

.¸¸.

O(

U

2

L

δ

L

)

_

v

∂v

∂y

_

∗

= −

1

ρ

∂p

∂y

+

νV

L

2

.¸¸.

O(

U

2

L

δ

3

L

3

)

_

∂

2

v

∂x

2

_

∗

+

νV

δ

2

.¸¸.

O(

U

2

L

δ

L

)

_

∂

2

v

∂y

2

_

∗

The pressure gradient

∂p

∂y

must be of comparable magnitude to the inertial eﬀects

∂p

∂y

= O

_

ρ

U

2

L

δ

L

_

Comparing the magnitude of

∂p

∂x

to

∂p

∂y

we observe

∂p

∂y

= O

_

ρ

U

2

L

δ

L

_

while

∂p

∂x

= O

_

ρ

U

2

L

_

=⇒

∂p

∂y

<<

∂p

∂x

=⇒

∂p

∂y

≈ 0 =⇒

p = p(x)

• Note:

- From continuity it was shown that V/U ∼ O(δ/L) ⇒ v << u, inside the

boundary layer.

- It was shown that

∂p

∂y

= 0, p = p(x) inside the boundary layer. This means that

the pressure across the boundary layer is constant and equal to the pressure

outside the boundary layer imposed by the external P-Flow.

4

4.6.5 Summary of Dimensional BVP

Governing equations for 2D, steady, laminar boundary layer

Continuity :

∂u

∂x

+

∂v

∂y

= 0

x-momentum : u

∂u

∂x

+ v

∂u

∂y

= −

1

ρ

dp

dx

. ¸¸ .

UdU/dx, y=0

+ν

∂

2

u

∂y

2

y - momentum :

∂p

∂y

= 0

Boundary Conditions

KBC

At y=0 : u(x, 0) = 0

v(x, 0) = 0

At y/δ →∞ : u(x, y/δ →∞) = U(x, 0)

v(x, y/δ →∞) = 0

DBC

dp

dx

= −ρU

∂U

∂x

or

IN the b.l.

p(x) = C −

1

2

ρU

2

(x, 0)

. ¸¸ .

Bernoulli for the P-Flow at y =0

4.6.6 Deﬁnitions

Displacement thickness δ

∗

≡

∞

_

0

_

1 −

u

U

_

dy

Momentum thickness θ ≡

∞

_

0

u

U

_

1 −

u

U

_

dy

5

Physical Meaning of δ

∗

and θ

Assume a 2D steady ﬂow over a ﬂat plate.

Recall for steady ﬂow over ﬂat plate

dp

dx

= 0 and pressure p = const.

Choose a control volume ([0, x] × [0, y/δ →∞]) as shown in the ﬁgure below.

∞ → δ / y

Q

o

U

o

U

u(y)

o

U

0 x

CV

Flow - P

Layer Boundary

1

2

3

4

CV for steady ﬂow over a ﬂat plate.

Control Volume ‘book-keeping’

Surface ˆ n v v · ˆ n v(v · ˆ n) −pˆ n

1 −

ˆ

i U

o

ˆ

i −U

o

−U

2

o

ˆ

i p

ˆ

i

2 −

ˆ

j 0 0 0 p

ˆ

j

3

ˆ

i u(x, y)

ˆ

i + v(x, y)

ˆ

j u(x, y) u

2

(x, y)

ˆ

i + u(x, y)v(x, y)

ˆ

j −p

ˆ

i

4

ˆ

j U

o

ˆ

i + v(x, y)

ˆ

j v(x, y) v(x, y)U

o

ˆ

i + v

2

(x, y)

ˆ

j −p

ˆ

j

6

Conservation of mass, for steady CV

_

1234

v · ˆ ndS = 0 ⇒−

_

∞

0

U

o

dy

′

+

_

∞

0

u(x, y

′

)dy

′

+

_

x

0

v(x

′

, y)dx

′

. ¸¸ .

Q

= 0 ⇒

Q =

_

∞

0

U

o

dy

′

−

_

∞

0

udy

′

=

_

∞

0

(U

o

−u)dy

′

= U

o

_

∞

0

_

1 −

u

U

o

_

dy

′

. ¸¸ .

δ

∗

⇒ Q = U

0

δ

∗

where ()

′

are the dummy variables.

Conservation of momentum in x, for steady CV

ρ

_

1234

u(v · ˆ n)dS =

F

x

ρ

__

∞

0

−U

2

o

dy

′

+

_

∞

0

u

2

(x, y

′

)dy

′

+

_

x

0

v(x

′

, y)U

o

dx

′

_

=

_

∞

0

pdy

′

−

_

∞

0

pdy

′

+

F

x,friction

ρ

_

∞

0

−U

2

o

dy

′

+ ρ

_

∞

0

u

2

(x, y

′

)dy

′

+ ρU

o

_

x

0

v(x

′

, y)dx

′

. ¸¸ .

Q

=

F

x,friction

⇒

ρ

_

∞

0

−U

2

o

dy

′

+ ρ

_

∞

0

u

2

(x, y

′

)dy

′

+ ρU

o

_

∞

0

(U

o

−u)dy

′

=

F

x,friction

⇒

ρ

_

∞

0

_

−U

2

o

+ u

2

+ U

2

o

−U

o

u

_

dy

′

=

F

x,friction

⇒

ρU

2

o

_

∞

0

_

u

2

U

2

o

−

u

U

o

_

dy

′

=

F

x,friction

⇒

F

x,friction

= −ρU

2

o

_

∞

0

u

U

o

_

1 −

u

U

o

_

dy

′

. ¸¸ .

θ

⇒

F

x,friction

= −ρU

2

o

θ

7

4.7 Steady Flow over a Flat Plate: Blasius’ Laminar Boundary

Layer

y

x

L

U

o

Steady ﬂow over a ﬂat plate: BLBL

4.7.1 Derivation of BLBL

• Assumptions Steady, 2D ﬂow. Flow over ﬂat plate →U = U

0

, V = 0,

dp

dx

= 0

• LBL governing equations

∂u

∂x

+

∂v

∂y

= 0

u

∂u

∂x

+ v

∂u

∂y

= ν

∂

2

u

∂y

2

• Boundary conditions

u = v = 0 on y = 0

v →V = 0, u →U

o

outside the BL, i.e.,

_

y

δ

>> 1

_

• Solution Mathematical solution in terms of similarity parameters.

u

U

and η ≡ y

_

U

o

νx

⇔

y

x

=

η

√

R

x

⇔y = η

_

νx

U

o

Similarity solution must have the form

u (x, y)

U

o

= F (η)

. ¸¸ .

self similar solution

8

We can obtain a PDE for F by substituting into the governing equations. The

PDE has no-known analytical solution. However, Blasius provided a numerical

solution. Once again, once the velocity proﬁle is evaluated we know everything

about the ﬂow.

4.7.2 Summary of BLBL Properties: δ, δ

0.99

, δ

∗

, θ, τ

o

, D, C

f

u (x, y)

U

o

= F

.¸¸.

evaluated

numerically

(η) ; η = y

_

U

o

νx

; y ≡ η

_

νx

U

o

;

y

x

=

η

_

R

x

.¸¸.

local R#

δ ≡

_

νx

U

o

δ

.99

∼

= 4.9

_

νx

U

o

, i.e., η

.99

= 4.9

δ

∗

∼

= 1.72

_

νx

U

o

, i.e., η

∗

= 1.72

θ

∼

= 0.664

_

νx

U

o

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

δ ∝

√

x, δ ∝ 1

_

_

U

o

δ

x

∝

_

ν

U

o

x

=

1

√

R

x

τ

o

≡ τ

w

∼

= 0.332ρU

2

o

_

U

o

x

ν

_

−1/2

= 0.332

_

ρU

2

o

_

R

−1/2

x

. ¸¸ .

local R#

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

τ

o

∝

1

√

x

τ

o

∝ U

3/2

o

9

Total drag on plate L x B

D = B

.¸¸.

width

L

_

0

τ

o

dx

∼

= 0.664

_

ρU

2

o

_

(BL)

_

U

o

L

ν

_

−1/2

. ¸¸ .

R

−1/2

e

L

⇒ D ∝

√

L, D ∝ U

3/2

Friction (drag) coeﬃcient:

C

f

=

D

1

2

(ρU

2

o

) (BL)

∼

=

1.328

_

R

e

L

⇒ C

f

∝

1

√

L

, C

f

∝

1

√

U

Layer Boundary Laminar Blasius

L

f

C

Re

328 . 1

≅

Layer Boundary Turbulent

L

Re

f

C

008 . 0

3

10

5

10 3×

×

600 ~ Re

10 3 ~ Re

at Transition

2.3) (JNN plate flat for

Layer Boundary Turbulent

5

x

δ

f

C

Skin friction coeﬃcient as a function of R

e

.

A look ahead: Turbulent Boundary Layers

Observe form the previous ﬁgure that the function C

f, laminar

(R

e

) for a laminar

boundary layer is diﬀerent from the function C

f, turbulent

(R

e

) for a turbulent boundary

layer for ﬂow over a ﬂat plate.

Turbulent boundary layers will be discussed in proceeding Lecture.

10

4.8 Laminar Boundary Layers for Flow Over a Body of General

Geometry

The velocity proﬁle given in BLBL is the exact velocity proﬁle for a steady, laminar ﬂow

over a ﬂat plate. What is the velocity proﬁle for a ﬂow over any arbitrary body? In general

it is dp/dx = 0 and the boundary layer governing equations cannot be easily solved as was

the case for the BLBL. In this paragraph we will describe a typical approximative procedure

used to solve the problem of ﬂow over a body of general geometry.

1. Solve P-Flow outside B ≡ B

0

2. Solve boundary layer equations

(with ∇P term) → get δ

∗

(x)

3. From B

0

+δ

∗

→B

4. Repeat steps (1) to (3) until no

change

U

y

x

L

. const U

0 P

≠

≠ ∇

B

0

• von Karman’s zeroth moment integral equation

τ

0

ρ

=

d

dx

_

U

2

(x)θ(x)

_

+ δ

∗

(x)U(x)

dU

dx

(4)

• Approximate solution method due to Polthausen for general geometry

(dp/dx = 0) using von Karman’s momentum integrals.

The basic idea is the following: we assume an approximate velocity proﬁle (e.g. linear,

4

th

order polynomial, . . .) in terms of an unknown parameter δ(x). From the velocity

proﬁle we can immediately calculate δ

∗

, θ and τ

o

as functions of δ(x) and the P-Flow

velocity U(x).

Independently from the boundary layer approximation, we obtain the P-Flow solution

outside the boundary layer U(x),

dU

dx

.

Upon substitution of δ

∗

, θ, τ

o

, U(x),

dU

dx

in von Karman’s moment integral equation(s)

we form an ODE for δ in terms of x.

11

• Example for a 4

th

order polynomial Polthausen velocity proﬁle

Polthausen proﬁles - a family of proﬁles as a function of a single parameter Λ(x)

(shape function factor).

Assume an approximate velocity proﬁle, say a 4

th

order polynomial:

u (x, y)

U (x, 0)

= a (x)

y

δ

+ b (x)

_

y

δ

_

2

+ c (x)

_

y

δ

_

3

+ d (x)

_

y

δ

_

4

(5)

There can be no constant term in (5) for the no-slip BC to be satisﬁed y = 0,

i.e, u(x, 0) = 0.

We use three BC’s at y = δ

u

U

= 1,

∂u

∂y

= 0,

∂

2

u

∂y

2

= 0, at y = δ (6)

From (6) in (5), we re-write the coeﬃcients a(x), b(x), c(x) and d(x) in terms

of Λ(x)

a = 2 + Λ/6, b = −Λ/2, c = −2 + Λ/2, d = 1 −Λ/6

To specify the approximate velocity proﬁle

u(x,y)

U(x,0)

in terms of a single unknown

parameter δ we use the x-momentum equation at y = 0, where u = v = 0

u

↓

0

∂u

∂x

+ v

↓

0

∂u

∂y

= U

∂U

∂x

. ¸¸ .

−

1

ρ

dp

dx

+ ν

∂

2

u

∂y

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

y=0

. ¸¸ .

ν

2bU

δ

2

⇒b = −

1

2

_

dU

dx

δ

2

ν

_

⇒ Λ(x) =

dU

dx

δ

2

(x)

ν

Observe: Λ ∝

dU

dx

⇒

_

Λ > 0 : favorable pressure gradient

Λ < 0 : adverse pressure gradient

Putting everything together:

u (x, y)

U (x, 0)

= 2

_

y

δ

_

−2

_

y

δ

_

3

+

_

y

δ

_

4

+

+

dU

dx

δ

2

ν

_

1

6

_

y

δ

_

−

1

2

_

y

δ

_

2

+

1

2

_

y

δ

_

3

−

1

6

_

y

δ

_

4

_

12

Once the approximate velocity proﬁle

u(x,y)

U(x,0)

is given in terms of a single unknown

parameter δ(x), then δ

∗

, θ and τ

o

are evaluated

δ

∗

=

∞

_

0

_

1 −

u

U

_

dy = δ

_

3

10

−

1

120

_

dU

dx

δ

2

ν

_

_

θ =

δ

_

0

u

U

_

1 −

u

U

_

dy = δ

_

37

315

−

1

945

_

dU

dx

δ

2

ν

_

−

1

9072

_

dU

dx

δ

2

ν

_

2

_

τ

o

= µ

∂u

∂y

¸

¸

¸

¸

y=0

=

µU

δ

_

2 +

1

6

_

dU

dx

δ

2

ν

_

_

Notes:

- Incipient ﬂow (τ

o

= 0) for Λ = −12. However, recall that once the ﬂow is

separated the boundary layer theory is no longer valid.

- For

dU

dx

= 0 →Λ = 0 Pohlhausen proﬁle diﬀers from Blasius LBL only by a

few percent.

After we solve the P-Flow and determine U(x),

dU

dx

we substitute everything into

von Karman’s momentum integral equation (4) to obtain

dδ

dx

=

1

U

dU

dx

g(δ) +

d

2

U/dx

2

dU/dx

h(δ)

where g, h are known rational polynomial functions of δ.

This is an ODE for δ = δ(x) where U,

dU

dx

,

d

2

U

dx

2

are speciﬁed from the P-Flow

solution.

General procedure:

1. Make a reasonable approximation in the form of (5),

2. Apply suﬃcient BC’s at y = δ, and the x-momentum at y = 0 to reduce (5)

as a function a single unknown δ,

3. Determine U(x) from P-Flow, and

4. Finally substitute into Von Karman’s equation to form an ODE for δ(x).

Solve either analytically or numerically to determine the boundary layer

growth as a function of x.

13

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