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Electronics Fundamentals 8

th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Lesson 2: Transistors and Applications
electronics fundamentals
circuits, devices, and applications
THOMAS L. FLOYD
DAVID M. BUCHLA
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Introduction
A transistor is a semiconductor device that controls current between
two terminals based on the current or voltage at a third terminal.
It is used for amplification or switching of electrical signals.
The basic structure of the bipolar junction transistor, BJT, determines
its operating characteristics.
DC bias is important to the operation of transistors in terms of setting
up proper currents and voltages in a transistor circuit.
Two important parameters are α
DC
and β
DC
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
The BJT is a transistor with three regions and two pn
junctions. The regions are named the emitter, the base, and
the collector and each is connected to a lead.
There are two types of
BJTs – npn and pnp.
n
n
p
p
p
n
E (Emitter)
B (Base)
C (Collector)
E
B
C
Separating the regions
are two junctions.
Base-Collector
junction
Base-Emitter
junction
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
FIGURE 17–2 Transistor symbols.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
BJT biasing
For normal operation, the base-emitter junction is forward-
biased and the base collector junction is reverse-biased.
npn
BE forward-
biased
BC reverse-
biased
For the npn transistor, this
condition requires that the base
is more positive than the emitter
and the collector is more
positive than the base.
+
+
For the pnp transistor, this
condition requires that the base
is more negative than the
emitter and the collector is more
negative than the base.
pnp
+
+
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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BJT currents
FIGURE 17–4 Transistor currents.
E C B
I I I = +
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
BJT currents
A small base current (I
B
) is able to control a larger collector
current (I
C
). Some important current relationships for a BJT
are:
I
I
I
I
B
I
E
I
C
E C B
I I I = +
C DC E
α I I =
C DC B
β I I =
Where α
DC
(dc alpha) = I
C
/ I
E
Where β
DC
(dc beta) = I
C
/ I
B
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Voltage-divider bias
R
1
R
2
R
C
R
E
V
B
V
E
V
C
Because the base current is small, the approximation
2
B CC
1 2
R
V V
R R
| |
=
|
+
\ .
is useful for calculating the base voltage.
After calculating V
B
, you can find
V
E
by subtracting 0.7 V for V
BE
.
V
E
= V
B
- V
BE
Next, calculate I
E
by applying Ohm’s
law to R
E
:
C E
I I ~ Then apply the approximation
Finally, you can find the collector voltage
from
C CC C C
V V I R = ÷
E
E
E
V
I
R
=
E C CE
V V V ÷ =
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Voltage-divider bias
Calculate V
B
, V
E
, and V
C
for the circuit.
2
B CC
1 2
6.8 k
15 V =
27 k + 6.8 k
R
V V
R R
| |
O
| |
= =
| |
+ O O
\ .
\ .
R
1
R
2
R
C
R
E
V
E
= V
B
÷ 0.7 V =
C E
2.32 mA I I ~ =
( )( )
C CC C C
15 V 2.32 mA 2.2 k V V I R = ÷ = ÷ O =
E
E
E
2.32 V
2.32 mA
1.0 k
V
I
R
= = =
O
27 kO
6.8 kO 1.0 kO
2.2 kO
+15 V
2N3904
3.02 V
2.32 V
9.90 V
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Voltage-divider bias
Determine V
B
, V
E
, V
C
, V
CE
, I
B
, I
E
, and I
C
in the given
Figure, The 2N3904 is a general-purpose transistor with a
typical β
DC
= 200.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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Collector characteristic curves
The collector characteristic curves are a family of
curves that show how collector current varies with
the collector-emitter
voltage for a given I
B
.
I
C
V
CE
0
I
B6
I
B5
I
B4
I
B3
I
B2
I
B1
I
B
= 0
The saturation region
occurs when the base-
emitter and the base-
collector junctions are
both forward biased.
The curves are divided into
three regions:
The active region is after
the saturation region.
This is the region for
operation of class-A
operation.
The breakdown region
is after the active region
and is is characterized by
rapid increase in collector
current. Operation in this
region may destroy the
transistor.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Collector characteristic curves
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Draw the family of collector characteristics curves for the
circuit in the given figure for I
B
= 5 µA to 25 µA in 5 µA
increments. Assume β
DC
= 100
Collector characteristic curves
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Draw the family of collector characteristics curves for the
circuit in the given figure for I
B
= 5 µA to 25 µA in 5 µA
increments. Assume β
DC
= 100
Collector characteristic curves
I
B
I
C
5 µA 0.5 mA
10 µA 1.0 mA
15 µA 1.5 mA
20 µA 2.0 mA
25 µA 2.5 mA
mA A I
I I
C
B DC C
5 . 0 5 100 = × =
=
µ
|
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Load lines
A load line is an IV curve that represents the response of
a circuit that is external to a specified load.
For example, the load line for the
Thevenin circuit can be found by
calculating the two end points: the
current with a shorted load, and the
output voltage with no load.
+12 V
2.0 kO
0
0
4 8 12
2
4
6
I (mA)
V (V)
I
SL
= 6.0 mA
V
SL
= 0 V
I
NL
= 0 mA
V
NL
= 12 V
Load line
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Load lines
The IV response for any load will intersect the load line
and enables you to read the load current and load
voltage directly from the graph.
+12 V
2.0 kO
0
0
4 8 12
2
4
6
I (mA)
V (V)
Read the load current
and load voltage from the graph if
a 3.0 kO resistor is the load.
3.0 kO
R
L
=
IV curve for
3.0 kO resistor
V
L
= 7.2 V I
L
= 2.4 mA
Q-point
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Load lines
The load line concept can be extended to a transistor
circuit. For example, if the transistor is connected as a
load, the transistor characteristic
+12 V
2.0 kO
0
0
4 8 12
2
4
6
I (mA)
V (V)
curve and the base current
establish the Q-point.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Load lines
Load lines can illustrate the operating conditions for a
transistor circuit.
0
0
4 8 12
2
4
6
I (mA)
V (V)
If you add a transistor load to the last
circuit, the base current will establish
the Q-point. Assume the base current
is represented by the blue line.
+12 V
2.0 kO
For this base current,
the Q-point is:
Assume the IV curves are as shown:
The load voltage (V
CE
) and current
(I
C
) can be read from the graph.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Load lines
For the transistor, assume the base current is
established at 10 µA by the bias circuit. Show the Q-
point and read the value of V
CE
and I
C
.
0
0
4 8 12
2
4
6
I
C
(mA)
V
CE
(V)
+12 V
2.0 kO
Bias circuit
I
B
= 5.0 µA
I
B
= 10 µA
I
B
= 15 µA
I
B
= 20 µA
I
B
= 25 µA
The Q-point is the
intersection of the
load line with the
10 µA base current.
V
CE
= 7.0 V; I
C
= 2.4 mA
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Signal (ac) operation
When a signal is applied to a transistor circuit, the output can have a
larger amplitude because the small base current controls a larger collector
current.
This increase is called amplification
The ratio of the ac collector current (I
c
) to the ac base current (I
b
) is
designated by β
ac
(the ac beta) of h
fe
FIGURE 17–13 An amplifier with voltage-divider bias with capacitively
coupled input signal. V
in
and V
out
are with respect to ground.
b
c
ac
I
I
= |
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Signal (ac) operation
When a signal is applied to a transistor circuit, the
output can have a larger amplitude because the small
base current controls a larger collector current.
0
0
4 8 12
2
4
6
I
C
(mA)
V
CE
(V)
I
B
= 5.0 µA
I
B
= 10 µA
I
B
= 15 µA
I
B
= 20 µA
I
B
= 25 µA
For the load line and
characteristic curves from the last
example (Q-point shown) assume I
B
varies between 5.0 µA and 15 µA
due to the input signal. What is the
change in the collector current?
Reading the collector current, I
C
varies from 1.2 mAto 3.8 mA.
The operation along
the load line is shown in red.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
CE amplifier
In a common-emitter amplifier, the input signal is applied
to the base and the output is taken from the collector. The
signal is larger but inverted at the output.
R
1
R
2
R
C
R
E
Input coupling
capacitor
Output coupling
capacitor
Bypass
capacitor
C
3
C
2
C
1
V
C
C
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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Summary
CE amplifier
The bypass capacitor increases voltage gain. It shorts the signal around
the emitter resistor, R
E
, in order to increase the voltage gain. To
understand why let us consider the amplifier without the bypass
capacitor as explained the preceding equations.
R
1
R
2
R
C
R
E
Input coupling
capacitor
Output coupling
capacitor
Bypass
capacitor
C
3
C
2
C
1
V
C
C
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Formulas
A
v
(Voltage gain) = V
out
/ V
in
The signal voltage at the base is approximately equal to
V
b
≡ V
in
≡ I
e
(r
e
+ R
E
)
where r
e
is the internal emitter resistance of the transistor.
Lowercase italic subscript indicate signal (ac) voltages and signal
(alternating currents)
V
out
= I
c
R
C
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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Formulas without the bypass capacitor
A
v
now can be expressed as
A
v
= V
out
/ V
in
= I
c
R
C
/ I
e
(r
e
+ R
E
)
Since I
c
≡ I
e
, the currents cancel and the gain is the ratio of the resistance.
A
v
= R
C
/ (r
e
+ R
E
)
If R
E
is much greater than r
e
, then
A
v
≡ R
C
/ R
E
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Formulas with the bypass capacitor
A
v
= R
C
/ r
e
If the bypass capacitor is connected across R
E
, it effectively shorts the
signal to ground leaving only r
e
in the emitter. Thus the voltage gain of
the CE amplifier with the bypass capacitor shorting R
E
is:
The transistor parameter r
e
is important because it determines the
voltage gain of a CE amplifier in conjunction with R
C.
A formula for
estimating r
e
is given without derivation in the following equation:
r
e
≡ 25mV/ I
E
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Summary
Voltage gain of a CE amplifier
Calculate the voltage gain of the CE amplifier. The dc
conditions were calculated earlier; I
E
was found to be 2.32 mA.
C out
v
in e
V R
A
V r
= ~
R
1
R
2
R
C
R
E
C
3
C
2
C
1
V
CC
= +15 V
27 kO
6.8 kO
1.0 kO
2.2 kO
E
25 mV 25 mV
10.8
2.32 mA
e
r
I
= = = O
204
2.2 µF
1.0 µF
100 µF
2.2 k
10.8
O
= =
O
Sometimes the gain will be shown with a
negative sign to indicate phase inversion.
2N3904
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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Phase Inversion
R
in
= V
b
/ I
b
V
b
= I
e
r
e
I
e
≡ β
ac
I
b
AC Input Resistance
The output voltage at the collector is 180 degrees out of phase with
the input voltage at the base. Therefore, the CE amplifier is
characterized by a phase inversion between the input and output. The
inversion is sometimes indicated by a negative voltage gain.
R
in
≡ β
ac
I
b
r
e
/ I
b
The I
b
terms cancel, leaving
R
in
≡ β
ac
r
e
Total Input Resistance of a CE amplifier:
R
in(tot)
= R
1
║R
2
║R
in
R
in(tot)
= R
1
║R
2
║β
ac
r
e
R
C
has no effect because of the reverse-biased,
base-collector junction.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Current Gain:
A
i
= I
c
/ I
s
Where I
s
is the source current and is calculated by V
in
/
R
in(tot)
The signal current gain of a CE amplifier is
The power gain of a CE amplifier is the product of the voltage gain
and the current gain.
A
p
≡ A
v
A
i
Power Gain:
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Decibel (dB) Measurement
VOLTAGE RATIO: dB = 20 log (V
out
/ V
in
)
POWER RATIO: dB = 10 log (P
out
/ P
in
)
The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic measurement of the ratio of one
voltage to another or one power to another, which can be used to
express the input-to-output relationship .
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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R
1
R
2
R
C
R
E
C
3
C
2
C
1
V
CC
= +15 V
27 kO
6.8 kO
1.0 kO
2.2 kO
2.2 µF
1.0 µF
100 µF
Input resistance of a CE amplifier
The input resistance of a CE amplifier is an ac resistance
that includes the bias resistors and the resistance of the
emitter circuit as seen by the base.
Because I
B
<< I
E
, the emitter
resistance appears to be
much larger when viewed
from the base circuit. The
factor is (|
ac
+1), which is
approximately equal to |
ac
.
Using this approximation,
R
in(tot)
= R
1
||R
2
|||
ac
r
e
.
2N3904
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
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Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
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Input resistance of a CE amplifier
FIGURE 17–20 Total input resistance.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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R
1
R
2
R
C
R
E
C
3
C
2
C
1
V
CC
= +15 V
27 kO
6.8 kO
1.0 kO
2.2 kO
2.2 µF
1.0 µF
100 µF
Input resistance of a CE amplifier
R
in(tot)
= R
1
||R
2
|||
ac
r
e
Calculate the input resistance of the CE amplifier. The
transistor is a 2N3904 with an average |
ac
of 200. The value of r
e
was found previously to be 10.8 O. Thus, |
ac
r
e
= 2.16 kO.
2N3904
= 27 kO||6.8 kO||2.16 kO
= 1.55 kO
Notice that the input resistance of
this configuration is dependent on
the value of |
ac
, which can vary.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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CE amplifier
Determine the voltage gain, current gain, and power
gain for the CE amplifier given. |
DC
= |
ac
= 100. Also, express the
voltage and power gains in decibels.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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CC amplifier (emitter-follower)
In a common-collector amplifier, the input signal is
applied to the base and the output is taken from the
emitter. There is no voltage gain, but there is power gain.
R
1
R
2
R
E
C
1
V
C
C
The output voltage is nearly
the same as the input; there is
no phase reversal as in the
CE amplifier.
The input resistance is larger
than in the equivalent CE
amplifier because the emitter
resistor is not bypassed.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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The voltage gain of a CC amplifier is approximately 1, but
the current gain is always greater than 1.
Voltage Gain
A
v
(Voltage Gain)
A
v
= V
out
/ V
in
V
out
= I
e
R
E
V
in
= I
e
(r
e
+ R
E
)
A
v
= I
e
R
E
/ I
e
(r
e
+ R
E
)
The gain expression simplifies to:
A
v
= R
E
/ (r
e
+ R
E
)
It is important to notice here that the
gain is always less than 1. Because r
e
is
normally much less than the R
E
, then a
good approximation is A
v
= 1
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
R
in
= V
b
/ I
b
V
b
= I
e
(r
e
+ R
E
)
I
e
≡ β
ac
I
b
R
in
≡ β
ac
I
b
(r
e
+ R
E
) / I
b
AC Input Resistance
The emitter-follower is characterized by a high input resistance, which
makes it a very useful circuit. Because of the very high input
resistance , the emitter follower can be used as a buffer to minimize
loading effects when one circuit is driving another.
The I
b
terms cancel, leaving
R
in
≡ β
ac
(r
e
+ R
E
)
If R
E
is at least ten times larger than r
e
, then the
input resistance at the base is:
R
in
≡ β
ac
R
E
Total Input Resistance of a CC amplifier:
R
in(tot)
= R
1
║R
2
║R
in
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
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Current Gain:
A
i
= I
e
/ I
s
Where I
s
is the signal current and is calculated by V
in
/ R
in(tot)
Since I
e
= V
out
/ R
E
and I
s
= V
in
/ R
in(tot)
then A
i
can also be expressed as
assuming V
out
/ V
in
= 1:
A
i
= (V
out
/ R
E
)/ (V
in
/ R
in(tot)
) = R
in(tot)
/ R
E
The signal current gain for the emitter-follower is
The power gain of is the product of the voltage gain and the current gain. For
the emitter-follower, the power gain is approximately equal to the current gain
because the voltage gain is approximately equal to 1.
A
p
≡ A
i
Power Gain:
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
CC amplifier
R
1
R
2
R
E
C
1
V
CC
= +15 V
22 kO
27 kO
1.0 kO
10 µF
2N3904
Calculate r
e
and R
in(tot)
for the CC amplifier. Use | = 200.
2
B CC
1 2
27 k
15 V = 8.26 V
22 k + 27 k
R
V V
R R
| |
O
| |
= =
| |
+ O O
\ .
\ .
E B
0.7 V = 7.76 V V V = ÷
E
25 mV 25 mV
7.76 mA
e
r
I
= = =
E
E
E
7.76 V
7.76 mA
1.0 k
V
I
R
= = =
O
R
in(tot)
= R
1
||R
2
|||
ac
(r
e
+ R
E
)
= 22 kO||27 kO|| 200 (1.0 kO) = 9.15 kO
Because r
e
is small compared to R
E
, it
has almost no affect on R
in(tot)
.
3.2 O
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
CC amplifier
Determine the input resistance of the emitter-follower in the given
figure. Also find the voltage gain, current gain and power gain.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
The BJT as a switch
BJTs are used in switching applications when it is
necessary to provide current drive to a load.
In cutoff, the input voltage is too
small to forward-bias the
transistor. The output (collector)
voltage will be equal to V
CC
.
In switching applications, the transistor
is either in cutoff or in saturation.
R
C
V
CC
V
CC
R
C
V
OUT
I
IN
= 0
= V
CC
I
IN
> I
C(sat)
/|
DC
= 0 V
When I
IN
is sufficient to saturate
the transistor, the transistor acts
like a closed switch. The output is
near 0 V.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
The BJT as a switch
FIGURE 17–30 Ideal switching action of a transistor.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
The BJT as a switch
Conditions in Cutoff A transistor is in cutoff when the base-emitter junction is not forward biased.
Conditions in Saturation When the base-emitter junction is forward-biased and there is enough base
current to produce a maximum collector current, the transistor is saturated.
The minimum value of base current to produce saturation is:
FIGURE 17–30 Ideal switching action of a
transistor.
CC cutoff CE
V V ~
) (
C
CC
sat C
R
V
I ~
) (
DC
sat C
B
I
I
|
) (
(min)
=
V V
BE
7 . 0
)
=
V V V
IN R
B
7 . 0 ÷ =
(min)
(max)
B
R
B
I
V
R
B
=
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
(a) For the transistor switching circuit in the given figure, what is
V
CE
when V
IN
= 0 V?
(b) What minimum value of I
B
will saturate this transistor if the
β
DC
is 200?
(c) Calculate the maximum value of R
B
when V
IN
= 5 V.
The BJT as a switch
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
The FET
The field-effect transistor (FET) is a voltage controlled
device where gate voltage controls drain current. There
are two types of FETs – the JFET and the MOSFET.
JFETs have a conductive channel
with a source and drain connection
on the ends. Channel current is
controlled by the gate voltage.
p
n
S (Source)
G (Gate)
D (Drain)
S
G
D
n
n
p p
The gate is always operated with
reverse bias on the pn junction formed
between the gate and the channel. As
the reverse bias is increased, the
channel current decreases.
n-channel JFET p-channel JFET
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
The FET
FIGURE 17–33 Effects of V
GG
on channel width and drain current
(V
GG
= V
GS
).
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
The FET
FIGURE 17–34 JFET schematic symbols.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
The FET: MOSFET
The MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET)
differs from the JFET in that it has an insulated gate
instead of a pn junction between the gate and channel.
Like JFETs, MOSFETs have a conductive channel with the
source and drain connections on it.
p
S (Source)
G (Gate)
D (Drain)
S
G
D
n
n
p
p-channel
MOSFET
n-channel
MOSFET
Channel
Substrate
Channel current is
controlled by the gate
voltage. The required gate
voltage depends on the type
of MOSFET.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
The FET: MOSFET
FIGURE 17–35 Representation of the basic structure of D-MOSFETs.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
In addition to the channel designation, MOSFETs are subdivided
into two types – depletion mode (D-mode) or enhancement mode
(E-mode).
The D-MOSFET has a
physical channel which
can be enhanced or
depleted with bias. For this
reason, the D-MOSFET
can be operated with either
negative bias (D-mode) or
positive bias (E-mode).
The FET: MOSFET
FIGURE 17–36 Operation of n-channel D-MOSFET.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
The FET: MOSFET
FIGURE 17–37 D-MOSFET schematic symbols.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
The E-mode MOSFET has no physical channel. It can only be operated
with positive bias (E-mode). Positive bias induces a channel and enables
conduction as shown here with a p-channel device.
p
S
G
D
n n
p
E-MOSFET with bias E-MOSFET
n
D
G
S
induced channel
n
The FET: MOSFET
FIGURE 17–38 E-MOSFET construction and
operation.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
The FET: MOSFET
FIGURE 17–39 E-MOSFET schematic symbols.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
JFET biasing
JFETs are depletion mode devices – they must be
operated such that the gate-source junction is reverse
biased.
The simplest way to bias a JFET is
to use a small resistor is in series
with the source and a high value
resistor from the gate to ground.
The voltage drop across the source
resistor essentially reverse biases
the gate-source junction.
n-channel p-channel
R
G
+V
DD
÷V
DD
R
G
R
S
R
S
R
D
R
D
V
G
= 0 V V
G
= 0 V
+V
S
÷V
S
Because of the reverse-biased
junction, there is almost no
current in R
G
. Thus, V
G
= 0 V.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
JFET biasing
FIGURE 17–40 Self-biased JFETs (I
S
= I
D
in
all FETs).
For the n-channel JFET, the gate-to-
source voltage is
For the p-channel JFET, the gate-to-
source voltage is
The drain voltage with respect to ground
is
Since V
S
=I
D
R
S
, the drain-to-source
voltage is
S D S G GS
R I V V V V ÷ = ÷ = 0
S D GS
R I V ÷ =
S D GS
R I V + =
D D DD D
R I V V ÷ =
( )
S D D DD DS
R R I V V + ÷ =
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Find V
DS
and V
GS
in the JFET circuit below, given that I
D
=
5mA
JFET biasing
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
D-MOSFET biasing
D-MOSFETs can be operated in either depletion mode
or in enhancement-mode. For this reason, they can be
biased with various bias circuits.
The simplest bias method for a D-
MOSFET is called zero bias. In this
method, the source is connected directly
to ground and the gate is connected to
ground through a high value resistor.
n-channel D-MOSFET
with zero bias
R
G
+V
DD
R
D
V
G
= 0 V
Only n-channel D-MOSFETs
are available, so this is the
only type shown.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
D-MOSFET biasing
FIGURE 17–42 A zero-biased D-MOSFET.
Recall that depletion/enhancement
MOSFETs can be operated with either
positive or negative values of V
GS
.
A simple bias method, called zero bias, is
to set V
GS
= 0 V so that an ac signal at the
gate varies the gate-to-source voltage
above and below this bias point.
Since V
GS
= 0 V, I
D
= I
DSS
as indicated.
I
DSS
is defined as the drain current when
V
GS
= 0 V.
The drain-to-source voltage is expressed
as
D DSS DD DS
R I V V ÷ =
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Determine the drain-to-source voltage in the circuit of the
given figure. The MOSFET data sheet give V
GS(off)
= -8 V and
I
DSS
= 12 mA
D-MOSFET biasing
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
E-MOSFET biasing
E-MOSFETs can use bias circuits similar to BJTs but
larger value resistors are normally selected because of
the very high input resistance.
The bias voltage is normally
set to make the gate more
positive than the source by an
amount exceeding V
GS(th)
.
Drain-feedback bias Voltage-divider bias
R
G
+V
DD
R
D
R
D
+V
DD
R
1
R
2
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
E-MOSFET biasing
FIGURE 17–44 E-MOSFET biasing arrangements.
Recall that enhancement-only MOSFETs
must have a V
GS
greater than the
threshold value V
GS(th) .
In either bias arrangement, the purpose is
to make the gate voltage more positive
than the source by an amount exceeding
V
GS(th)
.
In the drain-feedback circuit, there is
negligible gate current and, therefore, no
voltage drop across R
G
. As a result,
V
GS
= V
DS
.
Equation for the voltage-divider bias is
given by
DD GS
V
R R
R
V
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2 1
2
D D DD DS
R I V V ÷ =
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Determine the amount of drain current in the given figure. The
MOSFET has a V
GS(th)
of 3 V.
E-MOSFET biasing
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Bipolar
junction
transistor
(BJT)
Class A
amplifier
Saturation
Selected Key Terms
An amplifier that conducts for the entire input
cycle and produces an output signal that is a
replica of the input signal in terms of its
waveshape.
A transistor with three doped semiconductor
regions separated by two pn junctions.
The state of a transistor in which the output
current is maximum and further increases of
the input variable have no effect on the output.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Cutoff
Q-point
Amplification
Common-
emitter (CE)
Class B
amplifier
The dc operating (bias) point of an amplifier.
Selected Key Terms
A BJT amplifier configuration in which the
emitter is the common terminal.
The non-conducting state of a transistor.
An amplifier that conducts for half the input
cycle.
The process of producing a larger voltage,
current or power using a smaller input signal
as a pattern.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Junction field-
effect transistor
(JFET)
MOSFET
Depletion mode
Enhancement
mode
Metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect
transistor.
A type of FET that operates with a reverse-
biased junction to control current in a channel.
Selected Key Terms
The condition in a FET when the channel is
depleted of majority carriers.
The condition in a FET when the channel has
an abundance of majority carriers.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
1. The Thevenin circuit shown has a load line that crosses
the y-axis at
a. +10 V.
b. +5 V.
c. 2 mA.
d. the origin.
+10 V
5.0 kO
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
1. The Thevenin circuit shown has a load line that crosses
the y-axis at
a. +10 V.
b. +5 V.
c. 2 mA.
d. the origin.
+10 V
5.0 kO
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
2. In a common-emitter amplifier, the output ac signal will
normally
a. have greater voltage than the input.
b. have greater power than the input.
c. be inverted.
d. all of the above.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
2. In a common-emitter amplifier, the output ac signal will
normally
a. have greater voltage than the input.
b. have greater power than the input.
c. be inverted.
d. all of the above.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
3. In a common-collector amplifier, the output ac signal
will normally
a. have greater voltage than the input.
b. have greater power than the input.
c. be inverted.
d. have all of the above.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
3. In a common-collector amplifier, the output ac signal
will normally
a. have greater voltage than the input.
b. have greater power than the input.
c. be inverted.
d. have all of the above.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
4. The type of amplifier shown is a
a. common-collector.
b. common-emitter.
c. common-drain.
d. none of the above.
R
1
R
2
R
E
C
1
V
C
C
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
4. The type of amplifier shown is a
a. common-collector.
b. common-emitter.
c. common-drain.
d. none of the above.
R
1
R
2
R
E
C
1
V
C
C
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
5. A major advantage of FET amplifiers over BJT amplifiers
is that generally they have
a. higher gain.
b. greater linearity.
c. higher input resistance.
d. all of the above.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
5. A major advantage of FET amplifiers over BJT amplifiers
is that generally they have
a. higher gain.
b. greater linearity.
c. higher input resistance.
d. all of the above.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
6. A type of field effect transistor that can operate in either
depletion or enhancement mode is an
a. D-MOSFET.
b. E-MOSFET.
c. JFET.
d. none of the above.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
6. A type of field effect transistor that can operate in either
depletion or enhancement mode is an
a. D-MOSFET.
b. E-MOSFET.
c. JFET.
d. none of the above.
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
8. A transistor circuit shown is a
a. D-MOSFET with voltage-divider bias.
b. E-MOSFET with voltage-divider bias.
c. D-MOSFETwith self-bias.
d. E-MOSFET with self bias.
R
D
+V
DD
R
1
R
2
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
8. A transistor circuit shown is a
a. D-MOSFET with voltage-divider bias.
b. E-MOSFET with voltage-divider bias.
c. D-MOSFETwith self-bias.
d. E-MOSFET with self bias.
R
D
+V
DD
R
1
R
2
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
10. If you were troubleshooting the circuit shown here,
you would expect the gate voltage to be
a. more positive than the drain voltage.
b. more positive than the source voltage.
c. equal to zero volts.
d. equal to +V
DD
R
D
+V
DD
R
1
R
2
Electronics Fundamentals 8
th
edition
Floyd/Buchla
Lesson 2
© 2010 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle
River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.
Quiz
10. If you were troubleshooting the circuit shown here,
you would expect the gate voltage to be
a. more positive than the drain voltage.
b. more positive than the source voltage.
c. equal to zero volts.
d. equal to +V
DD
R
D
+V
DD
R
1
R
2