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Paragraph Paragraph is a unit of information in writing which is unified by e central idea (Oshima and Hogue, 2007: 3 !

Paragraph was a group of sentences and has fi"e basic elements consists of one main idea, a topic sentence and some supporting sentences that must be made during the e#periment period, unity and coherence! Definition or writing $riting is originating and creating a uni%ue "erbal construction that is graphically recorded (Harmer, 200&: 237 ! $riters will use their bac'ground 'nowledge to construct meaning into paper! $riter(s 'nowledge can be reflected from how they transfer ideas into paper! )t does not merely co"er cogniti"e component, but also linguistics components! *o, they ha"e time to re"ise and impro"e the %uality of their writing! $riting is "iewed as cogniti"e process and creati"e process (+io *alado ,ollege, 200-:. ! /s a cogniti"e process, writing is a mean to e#press ideas created by our mind! )t occurs in complicated ways in human(s brain that can not be obser"ed! 0he result of cogniti"e process is 'nown from the %uality of ideas, the de"elopment of the idea, and their organi1ations! Theory of Paragraph Oshima and Hogue (2007:3 states that paragraph is a group of sentences that de"elops one main idea2 in other words, a paragraph de"elops a topic! 3oreo"er, 4rumfit et all, (2003:2 define paragraph as a unit of information in writing which is unified by central idea! 4oth of those definitions indicate that writing consist of some sentences in which the topic sentences in the core of the writing! Paragraph consists of three ma5or parts, namely: topic sentence supporting sentences, and concluding sentence! 0opic sentence is the most essential part in a paragraph! )t is the 'ey sentence because it names and controls idea, the writer(s main idea, opinion of feeling about the topic! /ccording to (Oshima and Hogue, 2003: good paragraph has si# characteristics, namely: 6! 0opic sentence / well7organi1ed paragraph supports a single controlling idea, which is e#pressed in a sentence that can be discussed completely in the space of a single paragraph called the topic sentence or controlling idea accordance to 8ord%uist (200-:22 ! 4riefly it indicates what the topic is going to discuss! 0opic sentence has se"eral important functions, such as it unifies the content of paragraph and directs the order of sentence and it can be ad"ised to the reader of the sub5ect to be discussed and also hoe the paragraph will discuss it! 9enerally the reader read the first few sentences in a paragraph to determine and e#press the perspecti"e the paragraph! 0hat(s why often the topic idea put in the beginning of paragraph! 2! *upporting *entence *upporting sentences of detail sentences constitute to the body of paragraph! 8aturally, they support the main idea e#pressed in the introductory sentence! *upporting sentence also must contain details that help to elaborate the topic sentence! *upporting sentence are also called detail sentences and they constitute the body of the paragraph! 0hey, naturally, pro"ide support to the statement or idea e#pressed in the introductory sentence! 0hey must contain details which help to elaborate on the thought comprised in the topic sentence! 0hey can compare and contrast facts, introduce %uotations, and paraphrase secondary sources! 0hey should e#plore only limited amounts of material and lead toward the concluding or transition sentence!

,hristopher 4rumfit (2003:66- there will, usually, be no more than .7- supporting sentences in one paragraph! $riting supporting sentences, to a large e#tent, depends on the 'ind of paragraph in which they are comprised! 3! ,oncluding *entence 8unan (200-: 202 states writing concluding sentences is, probably, the least complicated tas' in writing a paragraph! ,oncluding sentences, so7called terminators, restate the idea of the topic sentence! )f possible, they should summari1e the paragraph in such a way so as to e#pose the rele"ance of supporting arguments in the conte#t of the topic sentence! $riting concluding sentences is, of course, "ery different from writing transition sentences! &! :nity )t is important for a paragraph to ha"e unity which means that all of sentences in paragraph discuss only one main idea! )n addition, all supporting sentence must directly e#plain or pro"e the main idea which is stated in topic sentence! Oshima and Hogue (200&: ;< e#plains if there are sentences in the paragraph that are not directly related to main idea, the paragraph is considered to ha"e no unity! *o, if there are any irrele"ant ideas in your paragraph, they ha"e to be omitted! .! ,oherence ="ery good paragraph must ha"e coherence! )t means that all parts of the paragraph are logically connected! ,oherence is the feeling that a te#t hangs together, that it ma'es sense, and is not 5ust a 5umble of sentences! >rom the pre"ious e#planation, it is concluded that all details in a paragraph must e#plain one idea! )f there is an idea that is not match with the other ideas, it means that the paragraph does not coherence! $e can do se"eral ways to achie"e coherence, (Harmer, 2003:63. ! >irstly, through the use of transitional signals connect the idea in one sentence with the other idea in other sentence! *econd, through the use of use of consistent choice of element such as person (), he, she, they, we, you, one , "oice (acti"e or passi"e and register (formal or informal ! ;! ,apitali1ation and Punctuation )n writing, writers must pay attention to capitali1ation and punctuation! ,apitali1ation refers to rules of using capital letters, while punctuation is the rule of using any mar' in writing! 0hese elements will ma'e the meaning of our sentences clear to the readers! ,a'ra"erty and 9uantum, (2000:663 states that a good writing has fi"e components, such as: (6 the %uality of its content, (2 the organi1ation of ideas, (3 the grammatical structure of sentences, (& diction and style, and (. mechanics! )n this study, the researcher will combine those characteristics of good paragraph since %uality of a paragraph does not merely depend on the organi1ation of idea, but also the linguistics 'nowledge which is integrated in writing!

*ari 4udiyani (2063:6 state writing is an acti"ity! $hich doing by someone to be a write! *omeone who pasting the lesson, write a poem and a song, write in the diary furthermore who write on the wall can called writing! 3aharami (2007:2 state that writing is the way to show the idea, thing, or feeling by using feet! )n the other hand, writing is an action which doing by someone to show their thin'ing by write!

*ari 4udiyani (2063: 2. state paragraph is some sentences which has relationship to each other and be one main idea! Paragraph can be long and short paragraph! 4asicly long or short(s a paragraph, isn(t 6! ?educti"e paragraph is a paragraph which has topic sentence in the front of paragraph! ?educti"e paragraph is started by general %uestion then following by supporting sentence to e#plain the general %uestion! 2! )nducti"e paragraph is a paragraph which has topic sentence in the last of paragraph! )nducti"e paragraph e#plain by supporting sentence and following by topic sentence or general %uestion! *ari 4udiyani (2063:&7 ?escripti"e paragraph is a paragraph in english that describe and e#plain the characteristic of thing, place, animal and human in detail! $hich ma'e the reader can imaginate that they see, feel, smell, touch or hear the thing place, animal and human! 0hat the write describe!

4ased on the abo"e description can be concluded that the te#t is a type of descripti"e te#t contains a description or e#planation of human, animal, place or thing specifically! 0e#t writing descripti"e purposes, namely to pro"ide a picture or description of something or someone! )n descripti"e, ob5ects or people can physical description (description of the physical characteristics of someone or something or nonphysical description (description of the nature, character, or the character ob5ect or person !