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PROFESSIONAL COURSE, BATAM, 10 - 14 JUNE 2013
Petroleum Geochemistry for Exploration and Production of Conventional and Unconventional Hydrocarbons
1. Abiogenic vs Biogenic Origin of Petroleum
Awang Harun Satyana (SKK Migas)
sedimentary source rocks (Wallace Dow. perhaps dating to the formation of the Earth. . organic-rich. 2002). • Biogenic: pooled oil and gas in porous reservoirs can only be explained by its origin in thermally mature. and that petroleum migrate upward from the mantle (Thomas Gold. 1999).Abiogenic and Biogenic Origin of Petroleum • Abiogenic: petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits.
While these notions have been proven unfounded. The abiogenic hypothesis is usually traced to the early part of the 19th century. the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev and the French chemist Marcellin Berthelot. "petroleum is the product of a distillation from great depth and issues from the primitive rocks beneath which the forces of all volcanic action lie. At the time. the chemical nature of petroleum was not known. the basic idea that petroleum is associated with magmatism persisted. Other prominent proponents of what would become the abiogenic hypothesis included Mendeleev and Berthelot. • • • . most notably by Prussian geographer Alexander von Humboldt." Abraham Gottlob Werner and the proponents of neptunism in the 18th century believed basaltic sills to be solidified oils or bitumen. Alexander von Humboldt was the first to propose an inorganic abiogenic hypothesis for petroleum formation after he observed petroleum springs in the Bay of Cumaux (Cumaná) on the northeast coast of Venezuela.Abiogenic Origin of Petroleum: History • The hypothesis was first proposed by Georg Agricola in the 16th century and various abiogenic hypotheses were proposed in the 19th century. In 1804 he is quoted as saying.
Beskrovny. . Chekaliuk. Kropotkin. Emmanuil B. Iona V. Kudryavtsev's work was continued by Petr N. humic coals have since been proposed for the source rocks. and that therefore the most plausible explanation is abiotic deep petroleum. Georgi E. Vladimir B. Porfir'ev. Jack Kenney of Gas Resources Corporation has come to prominence. Greenberg. On the basis of his analysis of the Athabasca Oil Sands in Alberta. • Astronomer Thomas Gold was the most prominent proponent of the abiogenic hypothesis in the West until his death in 2004. Linetsky. More recently. Canada. he concluded that no"source rocks" could form the enormous volume of hydrocarbons. and Victor F. Vladilen A. Nikolai S. Voitov. Boyko. Georgi I. Krayushkin. Dolenko. Grygori N. However.Abiogenic Origin of Petroleum: History • Russian geologist Nikolai Alexandrovitch Kudryavtsev proposed the modern abiotic hypothesis of petroleum in 1951.
Thomas Gold .
Abiogenic Origin of Petroleum • Supporters of the abiogenic hypothesis suggest that a great deal more petroleum exists on Earth than commonly thought. • www. Abiogenic hypotheses reject the supposition that certain molecules found within petroleum. 1999). They contend that these molecules mostly come from microbes feeding on petroleum in its upward migration through the crust. are indicative of the biological origin of petroleum. known as biomarkers. Saturn. which have presumably never contacted living material. Uranus and Neptune is cited as evidence of the formation of hydrocarbons without biology (Gold. that some of them are found in meteorites. The presence (oceans) of methane on Saturn's moon Titan and in the atmospheres of Jupiter. and that petroleum may originate from carbon-bearing fluids that migrate upward from the mantle.viewzone.com . and that some can be generated abiogenically by plausible reactions in petroleum.
intechopen.Abiogenic Deep Origin of Petroleum www.com .
(Gold) .Abiogenic Origin of Petroleum: Drivers The hypothesis is founded primarily upon: • • • • • • • The presence of methane on other planets. (Gold) The biogenic explanation does not explain some hydrocarbon deposit characteristics. (Szatmari) The association of hydrocarbons with helium. moons and comets. meteors. Gold) The existence of methane hydrate deposits. (Kudryatsev. a noble gas. (Gold) Petroleum and methane deposits are found in large patterns related to deepseated large-scale structural features of the crust rather than to the patchwork of sedimentary deposits. (Gold) The distribution of metals in crude oils fits better with upper serpentinized mantle. Gold) The presence of oil and methane within non-sedimentary rocks upon the Earth. primitive mantle and chondrite patterns than oceanic and continental crust. and show no correlation with sea water. (Kudryatsev.
The thermodynamic conditions within the mantle would allow many hydrocarbon molecules to be at equilibrium under high pressure and high temperature. such as carbonaceous chondrites. Creation within the mantle: Russian researchers concluded that hydrocarbon mixes would be created within the mantle. contain carbonaceous material. and feldspar at temperatures in the range of 25 °C (77 °F) to 270 °C (518 °F). These minerals are common in crustal rocks such as granite. calcium carbonate. Experiments under high temperatures and pressures produced many hydrocarbons—including n-alkanes through C10H22—fromiron oxide. Hydrogen generation : Hydrogen gas can be created by water reacting with silicates. Some meteorites. Meteorites are believed to represent the major composition of material from which the Earth was formed.Abiogenic Origin of Petroleum: Mechanisms • Primordial deposits: Thomas Gold's work was focused on hydrocarbon deposits of primordial origin. • • . Hydrogen may react with dissolved carbon compounds in water to form methane and higher carbon compounds. quartz. and water.
In these rocks. This mechanism is supported by several lines of evidence which are accepted by modern scientific literature. the Ukrainian scientist Emmanuil B.Abiogenic Origin of Petroleum: Mechanisms • Serpentinite mechanism: In 1967. Spinel polymerization mechanism: Magnetite. Carbonate decomposition: Calcium carbonate may decompose at around 500 °C (932 °F) through the following reaction: – Hydrogen + Calcium carbonate → Methane + Calcium oxide + Water • • . hydrogen and/or methane. chromite and ilmenite provide a reduced matrix which may allow abiotic cracking of methane to higher hydrocarbons during hydrothermal events. A proposed mechanism for the formation of inorganic hydrocarbons is via natural analogs of the Fischer-Tropsch process known as the serpentinite mechanism or the serpentinite process. This involves synthesis of oil within the crust via catalysis by chemically reductive rocks. chromite and ilmenite are Fespinel group minerals found in many rocks but rarely as a major component in non-ultramafic rocks. Chekaliuk proposed that petroleum could be formed at high temperatures and pressures from inorganic carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. high concentrations of magmatic magnetite.
Experiments in diamond anvil high pressure cells have resulted in partial conversion of methane and inorganic carbonates into light hydrocarbons.F.000 bars (3. which is recognized as the prevalent reaction at high temperatures.000 bars (4. Kenney using scaled particle theory (a statistical mechanical model) for a simplified perturbed hard-chain predict that methane compressed to 30. However. • .0 GPa) or 40.830 °F) (conditions in the mantle) is relatively unstable in relation to higher hydrocarbons.Abiogenic Origin of Petroleum: Evidence • Theoretical calculations by J. these calculations do not include methane pyrolysis yielding amorphous carbon and hydrogen.0 GPa) kbar at 1.000 °C (1.
2006). primarily methane. 2006). 1993) There is no direct evidence to date of abiogenic petroleum (liquid crude oil and long-chain hydrocarbon compounds).. 2002).Abiogenic Origin of Petroleum: Objections • Although the abiogenic hypothesis was accepted by many geologists in the former Soviet Union. Geologists now consider the abiogenic formation of petroleum scientifically unsupported. It has been recently discovered that thermophilic bacteria. in extracted hydrocarbon gases. in the sea bottom and in cooling magma. and they agree that petroleum is formed from organic materials (Glasby.e. is insignificant (Dow. are certainly present in some parts of the solar system. 2006). Abiogenic hydrocarbons. the median abiogenic hydrocarbon content is 0. if any. but studies indicate they are not produced in commercially significant quantities (i. it fell out of favor at the end of the 20th century because it never made any useful prediction for the discovery of oil deposits (Glasby. The input of abiogenic hydrocarbons to the oil and gas found in sedimentary basins. • • • • . including planet Earth.. and coal that powers the world’s economy (Dow.02%. gas. produce methane and hydrocarbon gases (Sherwood et al. but they have nothing whatever to do with the oil. or 1 part in 5. 2002.000) (Jenden et al. 2002).
Eventually it was either trapped in an oil reservoir or oil escaped to the surface and was biodegraded by soil bacteria. This gives the prediction that only unassociated gas and not oil will be found below a certain depth. between 80 and 180 °C. even natural gas would be pyrolyzed. • • . overburden pressure raised temperatures into the oil window.Biogenic Origin of Petroleum • • The weight of evidence currently shows that petroleum is derived from ancient biomass (Kvenvolden. Once crude oil formed. Most of the organic compounds degraded into the straight-chain hydrocarbons that comprise most of petroleum. oils and waxes) into a waxy substance called kerogen. As the source rock was buried deeper. Oil buried deeper entered the "gas window" of more than 160 °C and was converted into natural gas by thermal cracking. organic compounds remained in a reduced state where anaerobic bacteria converted the lipids (fats. 2007). This process is called oil expulsion and migration. Under the resulting anaerobic conditions. Petroleum geologists agree that oil originates from vast quantities of dead marine plankton or plant material that sank into the mud of shallow seas. This process is called the generation kitchen. it became very fluid and migrated upward through the rock strata. At greater depths.
co.oilandgasuk.Biogenic Origin of Petroleum www.uk .
The presence of these chemicals in crude oil is a result of the inclusion of organic material in the oil formation. living chlorophyll biomarker of oil Kvenvolden (2007) Structure of a biomarker extracted from petroleum and simplified structure of chlorophyll.Biogenic Origin of Petroleum • Certain chemicals found in naturally occurring petroleum contain chemical and structural similarities to compounds found within many living organisms. .
petroleum engineering. and geochemistry into the conceptual framework within which most oil and gas exploration is carried out. • No other scientific theory has taken the observations and experiments pertaining to the origin of oil and gas from the descriptive to the predictive stage and herein lays its value.Biogenic Origin of Petroleum: Significance • “biogenic theory” of oil and gas origin subsequently led to the “generative basin” concept and eventually to the “petroleum system” paradigm that is widely used with great success by the petroleum industry today. mathematical modeling. geophysics. • This paradigm integrates the data and ideas of geology. Wallace Dow (2002) .
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