You are on page 1of 144

Two-Story office Building

A. Design of Beams
Beam RB-1 - Roof Deck Framing Plan

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:

Model: Tributary Area (refer to analysis)

l=
Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
= 0.90
u = 0.003
Cover= 70.00
Assume Section :
b=
230
d=
490
h=
550
slab thcikness
70
Service Loads:
Dead loads:
Weight of beam (Wb)

1.90

Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

mm

mm
mm
mm

KN/m3

KN/m2

KN/m

25.00
Weight of Slab (Ws)
25.00
Parapet (Normal weight concrete,Wp
21.20 1)

-------

3.16
3.325

----

1.91

Parapet (Decorative Tile Finished,


----Wp2)

0.50

0.5

Kpa
2.4

KN/m
4.56

Live Loads:

Wb =
Ws =

Wp1 =( )

Wp2= 1

Ultimate Load:
Wu(beam)= 1.2DL=
Wu(slab)=1.2DL + 1.6LL =
Wu(Parapet)= 1.2DL=
Wu=

KN/m
3.80
11.29
2.89
17.97

Wu = + Ws + Wp

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 1

BEAM 1: ROOF DECK


Wu

Note: Choose maimum value of Shear & Moment.


Shear Diagram:

Moment Diagram

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 2

Design For Flexure:


Design Moment:
Mu=
97

KN-m

Choose the maximum


biggest MuMu for beam depth (d)
for beam dept(d)

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


b =

0.0421753

(desired) = 0.0253052
Cross Section of Beam:

= 0.851 (^ )/ (600/(600+))
desired=0.6

Nominal Moment:

Mn = Mu/

bd2=Mu/
2

bd =
b=
d=
h' =

Mn =

107.33

Kn-m

18646358 mm
250
mm
273.10
mm
273.11
mm
h (assume) > h', ok!

Fexural Resistance factor


= (10.59 /(^ ))

R=

5.75626

R = f (1-0.59 f f^

Final:
b=
230
mm
d=
490
mm
h=
550
mm
Area of Steel:
Mu = Mn= fybd^2 (1-0.59
a^2+b+c=0

Roots:

a = 94915071354
b = -13707453060
c = 96600000

As =
Bar Diam.()=
no. of bars (n)=

837.30
20
2.67

=((^24))/2

mm2
mm
bars

n=
As/(((2)/

1 =

0.13699

2 =

0.00743

new =

0.00743

choose the smaller

rho new > rho min, use rho new


Final:

=
n=
As=

20
3
942.480

mm
bars
mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio: 0.03163
max=0.75
max =
0.00836
= /
actual =
0.00508
0.00439

0.00508
min = rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max> rho actual, ok!
Check if Tension Steel Yields:
Depth of Rectangular Stress Block (a):
Strain of steel Yeilds:
a = (As fy)/(0.85f^ c
y = 0.001379
=/
a=
56.57855 mm
Strain in Steel:
s= 0.027566564 =()/
Location of Neutral Axis, c:
c=
48.09176 mm c =
Nominal Moment:
s y, Tension Steel Yields
Mn =
120.02
Kn-m Mn=Asfy(dMn =

108.014

(governs)

Kn-m Mu=
CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 3

Mu=

Mn > Mu, ok (safe)

Design Moment:
(+)Mu=
49
Cross Section of Beam:
b=
d=
h=
Area of Steel:

230
480
550

KN-m

Positive Moment

mm
mm
mm
Roots:
=(-b(b^2-

a^2+b+c=0
a = 94915071354

1 =

0.14073

b = -13707453060

2 =

0.00369

c=

new =

49290000

As =
560.41
mm2
Bar Diam.()=
20
mm
no. of bars (n)=
1.78
bars
Checking for ACI requirements:
Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163
actual =
0.00558
min =

Final:

0.00508
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max > rho actual, ok!

0.00369
choose the smaller
rho new < rho min, use rho min
=
20
mm
n=
2
bars
As=
628.320
mm2

0.00439

0.00508

(governs)

Check if Stirrups are needed:


Ultimate Shear (Vu)=
64.20
KN/m
Shear Strenght by Concrete (Vc) =
92.88
KN/m
Vc=
69.66
KN/m
Vu < 0.5Vc, Stirrups not anymore required!
Vu < Vc, Just provide minimum shear reinforcement!
Design for Shear Reinforcement:
=
8
mm
Av(min) =
Av min.=
100.5312 mm2
Maximum Spacing (smax):
a.) smax1=
245
mm
b.)smax2=
600
mm
c.)smax3=
355
mm
Use smax=
245
Actual Spacing (s):
s=
250
First Stirrup:
s1=

125

mm
mm

mm

Stirrups:
1
Rest

@
@

0.125
0.250

m
m

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 4

Bar cut-off and Development Length:


Moment Diagram:

Theoritical Bar Cut-off Graph: Wight & macGregor "Reinforced Concrete",6th edition, pp.1102

Bar Cut-off (1/3 and 2/3 of bars that satisfy the ACI code)
As=
628.32
mm2 positive moment
As=
942.48
mm2 negative moment
ln=
3.40
m
Moment
x
(1/3)As
(2/3)As
Positive
1
209.44
------------Negative
2
209.44
* Refer to Theoritical Bar Cut-Off Graph

%As (cut-off)
66.67
---116.67

Factor
0.260
---0.102

Cut-off
0.88
---0.35

As%= (As -As1)/As x


100

Bar Spacing (s): clear spacing between parallel bars


s =(b-2(cover+stirrup)s=

7
mm
s < 2db, use other cases equation for ld

Factors (ACI CODE 2010):


t=
1
e=

s=
1
=
1
Developement Length:
ld=
0.55
mld=12fyte/(25
12db=
0.24
m
d=
0.49
m
use:
0.55
m Choose whichever is greater
Actual Bar Cut-Off from support:
X1actual=
m, X1 - development length
0.40
CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 5

X2actual=

0.90

m, X2 + development length

Estimate for Beam:


Total Volume of Concrete:
Vol.conc.=
0.430
m2
Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)
No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
3.8709
bags No. bags =Volume x
say:
4
Volume of Sand:
m3 Vol=Vsand x
Vsand=
0.21505
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
m3 Vol=Vgravel x
Vgravel=
0.4301
say:
1
Reinforcing Bars:
Top bars:
3
Bot. bars:
2
Stirrups:
4
Summary:

4
Item

Concrete
Works

Cement
Sand
Gravel
16 mm x 6m DSB

Rebar 8 mm x 6m DSB
Works #16 Tie Wire (Kls)

bars (16mm)
bars (16mm)
bars (8mm)

Direct Counting Method

ROOF BEAM 1
Quantity
Unit Cost
16
4
4
Total
20
16
4
Total

Class A Mixture: Factor


Cement (40kg)
9.00
sand
0.50
Gravel
1.00

250
600
600
380
80
60

Total
4,000.00
2,400.00
2,400.00
8,800.00
7,600.00
1,280.00
240.00
9,120.00

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 6

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Beams
Beam RB-2 - Roof Deck Framing Plan

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:

Model: Tributary Area (refer to analysis)

l1=
l2=

Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
= 0.90
u = 0.003
Cover= 70.00
Assume Section :
b=
230
d=
490
h=
550
slab thcikness
70
Service Loads:
Dead loads:
Weight of beam (Wb)
Weight of Slab (Ws)
Live Loads:

1.90
1.90

m
m

Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

mm

mm
mm
mm
KN/m3

KN/m2

KN/m

25.00
25.00

-------

3.16
6.65

Kpa
2.4

KN/m
9.12

Wb =
Ws = (1+2)

Ultimate Load:

Wu(beam)= 1.2DL=
Wu(slab)=1.2DL + 1.6LL =
Wu=

KN/m
3.80
22.57
26.37

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

Wu=Wb + Ws

PAGE 7

BEAM 2: ROOF BEAM


Line of symmetry

Note: Choose maximum value of Shear & Moment.


Shear Diagram:

Moment Diagram:

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 8

Design Moment:
Mu=
126

KN-m

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


b =

0.0421753
Choose the maximum
biggest Mu
for beam
Mu
for beam
dept(d)
depth (d)

(desired) = 0.0253052
Cross Section of Beam:

Nominal Moment:
= 0.85 (^

(600/(600+))

3
1
)/ Mn =
bd2 = 24282731.22 mm
139.78
Kn-m
b=
250
mm
Fexural Resistance factor

=0.6
d=
311.66
mm
desired

h' =
311.66
mm
h
(assume)
>
h',
ok!
R=
5.75626
bd2=/
Mn = /
Final:

b=
230
mm
d=
480
mm
h=
550
mm
= (10.59 /(^ ))
Area of Steel:

Roots:
a = 91080518284
b = -13153674240
c = 125800000
Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(^ ))

a^2+b+=0
As =
1136.92
()=
20
(n)=
3.62

1 =

0.13412

2 =

0.01030

new =

0.01030

mm
mm
bars

choose the smaller

rho new > rho min, use rho new


Final:

=((^24))/2

=
n=
As=

20
4
1256.640

mm
bars
mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163
actual =
0.01138
0.00439

0.00508

(governs)

min =

0.00508
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max> rho actual, ok!
Check if Tension Steel Yields:
Depth of Rectangular Stress Block (a):
Strain of steel Yeilds:
= (0.25(^ ))/
y = 0.001379
a=
75.43806 mm
Strain in Steel:
s= 0.019457068
Location of Neutral Axis, c:
c=
64.12235
Nominal Moment:
Mn =
153.29
Mn =

mm

s y, Tension Steel Yields

Kn-m

137.958
Kn-m
Mn > Mu, ok (safe)
CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 9

Design Moment:
(+)Mu=

64

KN-m

Cross Section of Beam:


b=
230
d=
480
h=
550

mm
mm
mm
Positive Moment `

Area of Steel:

Roots:

1 =

0.13935

a = 91080518284

2 =

0.00506

b = -13153674240
c = 64270000

new =

a^2+b+=0
As =
560.41
()=
20
(n)=
1.78

0.00506
choose the smaller
rho new < rho min, use rho min

=((^24))/2

Final:
2

mm
mm
bars

=
n=
As=

20
2
628.320

mm
bars
mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163
actual =
0.00569
min =

0.00508
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max > rho actual, ok!

0.00439

0.00508

(governs)

max=0.75
= /

Check if Stirrups are needed:


Ultimate Shear (Vu)=
123.10
KN/m
Shear Strenght by Concrete (Vc) =
90.98
KN/m
Vc=
68.24
KN/m
Vu > 0.5Vc, Stirrups are needed!
Vu > Vc, calculate Shear Strenght of steel!
Design For Shear:
At Right Support:
=
8
mm
=
0.75
ACI CODE
Factored Shear Force:
Vu=
123.10
KN
Shear Strength in Concrete:
Vc=
90.98
KN
Vc=
68.24
KN
0.5Vc=
34.12
KN
Spacing (s) Required:
Av=
100.5312
S=
181.93
say:
190

mm2
mm
mm

Shear Strenght in Steel:


Vs=
52.53

KN
CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 10

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 11

Point of Minimum Stirrups starts:


By ratio and proportion:
Xu=
X1 =

4.04
1.80

m
m

Point where Stirrups are not needed:


By ratio and proportion:
Xu=
/=/(1)
X2 =

4.04
2.92

m
m

Design For Shear Reinforcement:


Vs

/=(0.5)/(2)
52.53

353221.35 ok, proceed to smax


Maximum Spacing (smax):
a.) smax1=
240
mm
b.)smax2=
600
mm
c.)smax3=
355
mm
0.66(^
)bwd
Use smax=

240

mm

Check for maximun spacing:


Vs

Vs

52.53

176.61
smax will not be halved!
Smax =
240
mm
Actual Spacing (s):
s=
240
mm
First Stirrup:
s1=
120
mm
Stirrups:
1
@
0.12
8
@
0.240
Rest
@
0.240
Design For Shear:
At Left Support:
=
8
=
0.75
Factored Shear Force:
Vu=
108.20

, smax /4
24"

, smax /2 24"

m
m
m

mm
ACI CODE 2010
KN

Shear Strength in Concrete:


Vc=
90.98
KN
Vc=
68.24
KN
0.5Vc=
34.12
KN
Spacing (s) Required:
Av=
100.5312
S=
249.76
say:
250

mm2
mm
mm

Shear Strenght in Steel:


Vs=
39.93

KN

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 12

Point of Minimum Stirrups starts:


By ratio and proportion:
Xu=
X1 =

3.56
1.31

m
m

Point where Stirrups are not needed:


By ratio and proportion:
Xu=
/=/(1)
X2 =

3.56
2.44

m
m

Design For Shear Reinforcement:


39.93

353221.35

ok, proceed to smax

Maximum Spacing (smax):


a.) smax1=
240
mm
b.)smax2=
600
mm
c.)smax3=
355
mm
0.66(^
)bwd
Use smax=

240

mm

Check for maximun spacing:


Vs

Vs

39.93

176.61
smax will not be halved!
Smax =

240

mm

Actual Spacing (s):


s=
240

mm

Stirrups:

First Stirrup:
s1=
120
mm
Bar cut-off and Development Length:
Moment Diagram:

1
6
Rest

@
@
@

0.065
0.240
0.240

m
m
m

Theoritical Bar Cut-off Graph: Wight & macGregor "Reinforced Concrete",6th edition, pp.1102

Bar Cut-off (1/3 and 2/3 of bars that satisfy the ACI code)

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 13

As=
628.32
mm2 positive moment
As=
1256.64
mm2 negative moment
ln=
7.20
m
Moment
x
(1/3)As
(2/3)As
Positive
1
209.44
------------Negative
2
418.88
Bar Spacing (s): clear spacing between parallel bars

%As (cut-off)
66.67
---66.67

Factor
0.260
---0.102

Cut-off
1.87
---0.73

As%= (As -As1)/As x


s=
-6
100

mm
s < 2db, use other cases equation for ld
Factors (ACI CODE 2010):
t=
1
e=
1
s=
1
=
1
Developement Length:
ld=
0.82
m
12db=
0.24
m
d=
0.48
m
use:
0.82
m
Actual Bar Cut-Off from support:
X1actual=
m, X1 - development length
1.10
X2actual=

1.60

m, X2 + development length

Estimate for Beam:


Total Volume of Concrete:
Vol.conc.=
0.911
m2
Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)
No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
8.1972
bags
say:
9
Volume of Sand:
m3
Vsand=
0.4554
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
m3 No. bags =Volume x
Vgravel=
0.9108
say:
1
Reinforcing Bars:
Top bars:
4
Bot. bars:
2
Stirrups:
8
Summary:

2
Item

Concrete
Works

Cement
Sand
Gravel
20mm x 6m DSB

Rebar 8mm x 6m DSB


Works #16 Tie Wire (Kls)

Class A Mixture: Factor


Cement (40kg)
9.00
sand
0.50
Gravel
1.00

Vol=Vsand x

bars (20mm)
bars (20mm)
bars (8mm)
Vol=Vgravel x
RB-2
Quantity
18
2
2
Total
12
16
4

Unit Cost
250
600
600
650
80
60

Total
4,500.00
1,200.00
1,200.00
6,900.00
7,800.00
1,280.00
240.00

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 14

Total

9,320.00

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS- ROOF BEAMS

PAGE 15

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Beams
Beam 1 & 3 of Second Floor

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:

Model: Tributary Area (refer to analysis)

l 1=

0.00

l 2=

1.90

Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
= 0.90
u = 0.003
Cover= 70.00
Assume Section:
b=
230
d=
490
h=
550
Slab thickness
170

Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

mm

mm
mm

Service Loads:
Dead loads:
Weight of beam (Wb)
Weight of Slab (Ws1 + Ws2 )
Wall (Normal weight concrete, Ww1)
Wall (Foam/Plastered Finished, Ww2)

KN/m

25.00
25.00
21.20
----

Live Loads:
Office

KN/m

KN/m

---------0.50

3.16
8.08
7.42
0.025

Kpa
2.4

KN/m
4.56

Wb =
Ws = (1+2)
Ww1 =( )

Ww2= 1

Ultimate Load:
KN/m
Wu(beam)= 1.2DL=
3.80
Wu(slab)=1.2DL + 1.6LL = 16.99
Wu(wall)= 1.2DL=
8.93
Wu1=

29.72

Wu1 =Wb+ Ws + Ww

BEAM 1
Line of symmetry

L = 7.60 m

L = 7.60 m

Note: Choose biggest value of Shear & Moment.


Shear Diagram:

Moment Diagram

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 17

Design For Flexure:


Design Moment:
Mu=
126

Choose the biggest


Mu for beam
maximum
Mu for

KN-m

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


b =
0.0421753
= 0.851 (^ )/ (600/(600+))
0.0253052 desired=0.6

(desired) =

Cross Section of Beam:

Nominal Moment:

bd2=/
2
bd =
b=
d=
h' =

Mn =

24282731.22 mm
250
mm
311.66
mm
311.66
mm
h (assume) > h', ok!

139.78

Kn-m Mn = /

Fexural Resistance factor

= (10.59 /(^ ))
R=

5.75626

Final:
b=
d=
h=

230
480
550

mm
mm
mm

Area of Steel:

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(

Roots:

^ ))

=((^24))/2

a^2+b+=0
91080518284

1 =

0.13412

b = -13153674240

2 =

0.01030

a=
c=

new =

125800000

As =
Bar Diam.()=

1136.92
20

no. of bars (n)=

3.62

mm2
mm

Final:

bars n =

0.01030 choose the smaller


rho new > rho min, use rho new

= 20
n=
4

mm
bars

2
1256.640 mm

As=

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75
= /
actual =
0.01138
min =

0.00508

= (0.25(^ ))/

rho actual > rho min, ok!


rho max> rho actual, ok!

0.00439

Depth of Rectangular Stress Block (a):

c=

c = /
64.12235

0.00508

Check if Tension Steel Yields:

a = ( )/(0.85^ )
a=
75.43806
Location of Neutral Axis, c:

Strain of steel Yeilds:


=/
y = 0.001379
Strain in Steel:
s= 0.01945707=()/

mm

mm

s y, Tension Steel Yields


Nominal Moment:
Mn =
153.29
Mn =

Kn-m

137.958
Kn-m
Mn > Mu, ok (safe)

Mn=(/2)
Mu=

Design Moment:
(+)Mu=

64

Cross Section of Beam:


b=
230
d=
480
h=
550

KN-m

Positive

mm
mm
mm

Area of Steel:
Roots:

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(^ ))

=((^24))/2

a^2+b+=0

91080518284

1 =

0.13935

b = -13153674240

2 =

0.00506

a=
c=

new =

64270000

As =
Bar Diam.()=

560.41
20

mm2
mm

no. of bars (n)=

1.78

bars

Final:
n=
As=

0.00506 choose the smaller


rho new < rho min, use rho min
= 20
2
628.320

mm
bars
mm

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75
= /
actual =
0.00569
min =

= (0.25(^ ))/
0.00508
0.00439
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max > rho actual, ok!

0.00508

Check if Stirrups are needed:


Ultimate Shear Moment (Vu)= 46.90 KN/m
=0.17(^ ) bwd
Shear Strenght by Concrete (Vc) = 90.98 KN/m
Vc= 68.24 KN/m
Vu > 0.5Vc, Stirrups are needed!
Vu < Vc, Provide minimum shear reinforcement!
Design for Shear Reinforcement:
=
8
mm
Av min.=

100.5312

mm

Maximum Spacing (smax):


a.) smax1=
240
b.)smax2=
600

mm
mm

c.)smax3=

355

mm

Use smax=

240

mm

240

mm

120

mm

Av(min) = (
2)/4

Actual Spacing (s):


s=

First Stirrup:
s 1=
Stirrups:
1
Rest

@
@

0.12
0.240

m
m

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 19

Bar cut-off and Development Length:


Moment Diagram:

Theoritical Bar Cut-off Graph: Wight & macGregor "Reinforced Concrete",6th edition, pp.1102

Bar Cut-off (1/3 and 2/3 of bars that satisfy the ACI code)
As=

628.32

mm2 positive moment

As=
ln=
Moment
Positive
---Negative

1256.64
3.40
x
1
---2

mm2 negative moment


m
(1/3)As
(2/3)As %As (cut-off)
209.44
66.67
---------418.88
66.67

* Refer to Theoritical Bar Cut-Off Graph

As%= (As As1)/As x 100

Bar Spacing (s): clear spacing between parallel bars

s =(b-2(cover+stirrup)s=

7
mm
s < 2db, use other cases equation for ld

Factors :
t=

e=

s=

1
=
1
Developement Length:
ld=
0.55
m ld=12fyte/(25(fc)
12db=
0.24
m
d=
0.48
m
use:
0.55
m choose the maximum
Actual Bar Cut-Off from support:
X1actual=
m, X1 - development length
0.40
X2actual=

0.90

m, X2 + development length

Factor
0.260
---0.102

Cut-off
0.88
---0.35

Estimate for Beam:


Total Volume of Concrete:
Vol.conc.=

0.430

Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)


No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
3.8709
say:
4
Volume of Sand:
Vsand=
0.21505
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
Vgravel=
0.4301

Class A Mixture: Factor


m

bags

Cement (40kg)
sand
Gravel

No. bags =Volume x

Vol=Vsand x

Vol=Vgravel x

say:

Reinforcing Bars:
Top bars:
Bot. bars:
Stirrups:

4
2
6

bars (16mm)
bars (16mm)
bars (8mm)

Summary:

B-1
Quantity
16
4
4
Total
24
24
4
Total

Item
Concrete Cement
Works Sand
Gravel
16mm x 6m DSB

Rebar
Works

8mm x 6m DSB
#16 Tie Wire (Kls)

9.00
0.50
1.00

Direct Counting Method

Unit Cost
250
600
600
380
80
60

Total
4,000.00
2,400.00
2,400.00
8,800.00
9,120.00
1,920.00
240.00
11,280.00

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 21

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Beams
Beam2 of the second floor

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:

Model: Tributary Area (refer to analysis)

l 1=

1.90

1.90
Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
= 0.90
u = 0.003
Cover= 60.00

l 2=

Assume Section:
b=
230
d=
490
h=
550
slab thickness
170
Service Loads:
Dead loads:
Weight of beam (Wb)
Weight of Slab (Ws1 + Ws2)
Wall (Normal weight concrete, Ww1)
Wall (Foam/Plastered Finished, Ww2)
Live Loads:
Office

Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

mm

mm
mm

KN/m3

KN/m2

KN/m

25.00
25.00
21.20
----

---------0.50

3.16
16.15
7.42
0.025

Kpa
2.4

KN/m
9.12

Wb =
Ws = (1+2)
Ww1 =(
Ww2= 1

Ultimate Load:
KN/m
Wu(beam)= 1.2DL=
3.80
Wu(slab)=1.2DL + 1.6LL= 33.97

Wu1=

37.77

Wu2 =Wb+ Ws1 + Ww

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 23

Beam B-2:
Line of symmetry

Note: Choose biggest value of Shear & Moment.


Shear Diagram:

Moment Diagram

Design For Flexure:


Design Moment:
Mu=
197

Choose the biggest


Mu for beam

KN-m

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


b =

0.0421753

= 0.851 (^ )/
(600/(600+))

0.0253052 desired=0.6

(desired) =

Cross Section of Beam:

Nominal Moment:

bd2=/
2
bd =
b=
d=
h' =

Mn =

38064821.92 mm
250
mm
390.20
mm
390.21
mm
h (assume) > h', ok!

219.11

Kn-m Mn = /

Fexural Resistance factor


R=

5.75626

= (10.59 /(^ ))

Final:
b=
d=
h=

230
490
550

mm
mm
mm

Area of Steel:

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(
^ ))

a^2+b+=0

Roots:
=((^24))/2

94915071354

1 =

0.12821

b = -13707453060

2 =

0.01620

a=
c=

197200000

As =
=

1826.26
20

n=

5.81

new =

mm2
mm

Final:
n=

bars n =

0.01620 choose the smaller


rho new > rho min, use rho new
= 20
6

mm
bars

2
1884.960 mm

As=

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75
= /
actual =
0.01673
min =

= (0.25(^ ))/
0.00508
0.00439
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max> rho actual, ok!

Depth of Rectangular Stress Block (a):


a=

113.15709

Location of Neutral Axis, c:


c=

96.18353

Nominal Moment:
Mn =
225.32
Mn =

Kn-m

202.791
Kn-m
Mn > Mu, ok (safe)

0.00508

Check if Tension Steel Yields:

mm a = (
)/(0.85^
)

mm

Strain of steel Yeilds:


=/
y = 0.001379
Strain in Steel:
s= 0.01228328 =()/

c=
/

s y, Tension Steel Yields

Mn=(/2)
Mu=

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 25

Design Moment:
(+)Mu=

100

Cross Section of Beam:


b=
230
d=
490
h=
550

KN-m

Positive

mm
mm
mm

Area of Steel:
Roots:
=((^24))/2

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(
^ ))

a^2+b+=0
94915071354

1 =

0.13673

b = -13707453060

2 =

0.00769

a=

new =

c=

99800000

As =
=

866.69
20

mm2
mm

2.76

bars

n=

Final:

0.00769 choose the smaller


rho new > rho min, use rho new

= 20
n=
3
As=

942.480

mm
bars
mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75
= /
actual =
0.00836
min =

= (0.25(^ ))/
0.00508
0.00439
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max > rho actual, ok!

0.00508

Check if Stirrups are needed:


Ultimate Shear Moment (Vu)= 107.40 KN/m
=0.17(^ ) bwd
Shear Strenght by Concrete (Vc) = 92.88 KN/m
Vc= 69.66 KN/m
Vu > 0.5Vc, Stirrups are needed!
Vu > Vc, calculate Shear Strenght of steel!

Design For Shear:


At Left Support:
=
8
=
0.75
Factored Shear Force:
Vu=
107.40

mm
ACI CODE 2010
KN

Shear Strength in Concrete:


Vc=
92.88
KN
Vc=
69.66
KN
0.5Vc=
34.83
KN
Spacing (s) Required:
Av=
S=
say:

100.5312
269.97
270

Shear Strenght in Steel:


Vs=
37.74

mm
mm s =
mm

KN Vs =

Point of Minimum Stirrups starts:


By ratio and proportion:
Vu/xu=Vc/(xu-x1)

Xu=
X1 =

3.95
1.39

m
m

Xu=
X2 =

3.95
2.67

m
m

Point where Stirrups are not needed:


By ratio and proportion:
Vu/xu=(0.5Vc)/(xu-

Design For Shear Reinforcement:


Vs

37.74

360580.12
0.66(f^
Maximum Spacing (smax):
a.) smax1=
245
b.)smax2=
600
c.)smax3=
355

mm
mm
mm

Use smax=

mm

245

ok, proceed to smax

Check for maximun spacing:


Vs
, smax
Vs
, smax
0.33(f^
37.74

180.29
0.33(f^
smax will not be halved!
Smax =

245

mm

250

mm

125

mm

Actual Spacing (s):


s=

First Stirrup:
s 1=
Stirrups:
1
6
Rest

@
@
@

0.065
0.250
0.245

m
m
m

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 27

Design For Shear:


At Right Support:
=
8
=
0.75
Factored Shear Force:
Vu=
99.30

mm
ACI CODE 2010
KN

Shear Strength in Concrete:


Vc=
92.88
KN
Vc=
69.66
KN
0.5Vc=
34.83
KN
Spacing (s) Required:
Av=
100.5312
S=
343.75
say:
340
Shear Strenght in Steel:
Vs=
29.97

mm
mm s =
mm
KN Vs =

Point of Minimum Stirrups starts:


By ratio and proportion:
Vu/xu=Vc/(xu-x1)

Xu=
X1 =

3.65
1.09

m
m

Xu=
X2 =

3.65
2.37

m
m

Point where Stirrups are not needed:


By ratio and proportion:
Vu/xu=(0.5Vc)/(xu-x2)

Design For Shear Reinforcement:


Vs

29.97

360580.12
0.66(f^
Maximum Spacing (smax):
a.) smax1=
245
b.)smax2=
600
c.)smax3=
355

mm
mm
mm

Use smax=

mm

245

Check for maximun spacing:


Vs

Vs

0.33(f^
29.97

180.29
0.33(f^
smax will not be halved!
Smax =

245

mm

250

mm

125

mm

ok, proceed to smax

, smax d/4
, smax d/2

Actual Spacing (s):


s=

First Stirrup:
s 1=
Stirrups:
1
5
Rest

@
@
@

0.075
0.250
0.245

m
m
m

Bar cut-off and Development Length:


Moment Diagram:

Theoritical Bar Cut-off Graph: Wight & macGregor "Reinforced Concrete",6th edition, pp.1102

Bar Cut-off (1/3 and 2/3 of bars that satisfy the ACI code)
2

As=

942.48

mm positive moment

As=
ln=
Moment
Positive
---Negative

1884.96
7.20
x
1
---2

mm negative moment
m
(1/3)As
(2/3)As %As (cut-off)
314.16
66.67
---------628.32
66.67

Factor
0.260
---0.102

Cut-off
1.87
---0.73

* Refer to Theoritical Bar Cut-Off Graph

As%= (As -As1)/As x


100

Bar Spacing (s): clear spacing between parallel bars

s =(b-2(cover+stirrup)s=

17
mm
s < 2db, use other cases equation for ld
Factors (ACI CODE 2010):
t=
1
e=

s=

1
=
1
Developement Length:
ld=
0.82
m ld=18fyte/(25
12db=
0.24
m
d=
0.49
m
use:
0.82
m Choose whichever is
Actual Bar Cut-Off from support:
X1actual=
m, X1 - development length
1.10
X2actual=

1.60

m, X2 + development length

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 29

Estimate for Beam:


Total Volume of Concrete:
Vol.conc.=

0.911

Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)


No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
8.1972
say:
9
Volume of Sand:
Vsand=
0.4554
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
Vgravel=
0.9108
say:

Vol =L x W x

Cement (40kg)
sand
Gravel

bags

No. bags =Volume x

m3

Vol=Vsand x

m3

Vol=Vgravel x

9.00
0.50
1.00

Reinforcing Bars:
Top bars:
6
Bot. bars:
3
Stirrups:
10
Summary:

Item
Concrete Cement
Works Sand
Gravel
20mm x 6m DSB

Rebar
Works

Class A Mixture: Factor


2

8mm x 6m DSB
#16 G.I Tie Wire

*Verify actual to minimize cost

bars (20mm)
bars (20mm)
bars (8mm)
B-2
Quantity
18
2
2
Total
18
20
5
Total

Direct Counting Method

Unit Cost
250
600
600
650
8
60

Total
4,500.00
1,200.00
1,200.00
6,900.00
11,700.00
160.00
300.00
12,160.00

)
)

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 31

(governs)

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 33

(governs)

edition, pp.1102

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 35

2)
)

Ww

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 37

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 39

(governs)

(governs)

(governs)

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 41

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 43

edition, pp.1102

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 45

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Beams
Beam RB-1 - Roof Deck Framing Plan

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:

Model: Tributary Area (refer to analysis)

l=
Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
= 0.90
u = 0.003
Cover= 70.00
Assume Section :
b=
230
d=
490
h=
550
slab thcikness
70
Service Loads:
Dead loads:
Weight of beam (Wb)

1.90

Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

mm

mm
mm
mm

KN/m3

KN/m2

KN/m

25.00
Weight of Slab (Ws)
25.00
Parapet (Normal weight concrete,Wp
21.20 1)

-------

3.16
3.325

----

1.91

Parapet (Decorative Tile Finished,---Wp2)

0.77

0.77

Kpa
2.4

KN/m
4.56

Live Loads:

Wb =
Ws =

Wp1 =( )

Wp2= 1

Ultimate Load:
Wu(beam)= 1.2DL=
Wu(slab)=1.2DL + 1.6LL =
Wu(Parapet)= 1.2DL=
Wu=

KN/m
3.80
11.29
3.21
18.29

Wu = + Ws + Wp

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 46

BEAM 1: ROOF DECK

Wu

Note: Choose maimum value of Shear & Moment.


Shear Diagram:

`
Moment Diagram

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 47

Design For Flexure:


Design Moment:
Mu=
25

KN-m

Choose the maximum


biggest Mu
for beam
Mu
for beam
dept(d)
depth (d)

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


b =

0.0421753

(desired) =
0.0253052
Cross Section of Beam:

= 0.851 (^ )/ (600/(600+))
desired=0.6

Nominal Moment:

Mn = Mu/

bd2=Mu/
2

bd =
b=
d=
h' =

Mn =

4806359.36 mm
250
mm
138.66
mm
138.66
mm
h (assume) > h', ok!

27.67

Kn-m

Fexural Resistance factor


= (10.59 /(^ ))

R=

5.75626

R = f (1-0.59 f f^

Final:
b=
230
mm
d=
490
mm
h=
550
mm
Area of Steel:
Mu = Mn= fybd^2 (1-0.59
a^2+b+c=0

Roots:

a = 94915071354
b = -13707453060
c=
24900000

As =
Bar Diam.()=
no. of bars (n)=

572.08
16
2.85

=((^24))/2

1 =

0.14258

2 =

0.00184

new =

0.00184

mm
mm
bars

choose the smaller

rho new < rho min, use rho min


Final:

n=
As/(((2)/

=
n=
As=

16
3
603.187

mm
bars
mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
0.03163
max=0.75
max =
0.00535
= /
actual =
0.00508
0.00439

0.00508
min = rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max> rho actual, ok!
Check if Tension Steel Yields:
Depth of Rectangular Stress Block (a):
Strain of steel Yeilds:
a = (As fy)/(0.85f^ c
y = 0.001379
=/
a=
36.21027
mm
Strain in Steel:
s= 0.044760257 =()/
Location of Neutral Axis, c:
c=
30.77873
mm c =
Nominal Moment:
s y, Tension Steel Yields
Mn =
78.50
Kn-m Mn=Asfy(dMn =

(governs)

70.654
Kn-m Mu=
Mn > Mu, ok (safe)

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 48

Design Moment:
(+)Mu=
14
Cross Section of Beam:
b=
d=
h=

230
480
550

KN-m

Positive Moment

mm
mm
mm

Area of Steel:
Mu = Mn= fybd^2 (1-0.59 fy/(f^ c))

Roots:
=(-b(b^2-4ac))/2a

a^2+b+c=0
a = 94915071354

1 =

0.14341

b = -13707453060

2 =

0.00101

c=

new =

13700000

As =
Bar Diam.()=
no. of bars (n)=

560.41
16
2.79

mm2
mm
bars

Final:

=
n=
As=

0.00101
choose the smaller
rho new < rho min, use rho min
16
3
603.187

mm
bars
mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163
actual =
0.00535
min =

0.00508
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max > rho actual, ok!

0.00439

0.00508

(governs)

Check if Stirrups are needed:


Ultimate Shear (Vu)=
37.50
KN/m
Shear Strenght by Concrete (Vc) =
92.88
KN/m
Vc=
69.66
KN/m
Vu < 0.5Vc, Stirrups not anymore required!
Vu < Vc, Just provide minimum shear reinforcement!
Design for Shear Reinforcement:
=
Av min.=

8
100.5312

mm
Av(min) =
mm2

Maximum Spacing (smax):


a.) smax1=
245
mm
b.)smax2=
600
mm
c.)smax3=
355
mm
Use smax=
245
Actual Spacing (s):
s=
250
First Stirrup:
s1=

125

mm
mm

mm

Stirrups:
1
Rest

@
@

0.125
0.250

m
m

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 49

Bar cut-off and Development Length:


Moment Diagram:

Theoritical Bar Cut-off Graph: Wight & macGregor "Reinforced Concrete",6th edition, pp.1102

Bar Cut-off (1/3 and 2/3 of bars that satisfy the ACI code)
As=
603.19
mm2 positive moment
As=
603.19
mm2 negative moment
ln=
3.40
m
Moment
x
(1/3)As
(2/3)As
Positive
1
201.06
------------Negative
2
201.06
* Refer to Theoritical Bar Cut-Off Graph

%As (cut-off)
66.67
---66.67

Factor
0.260
---0.102

Cut-off
0.88
---0.35

As%= (As -As1)/As x


100

Bar Spacing (s): clear spacing between parallel bars


s =(b-2(cover+stirrup)s=

13
mm
s < 2db, use other cases equation for ld

Factors (ACI CODE 2010):


t=
1
e=

s=
1
=
1
Developement Length:
ld=
0.44
mld=12fyte/(25
12db=
0.19
m
d=
0.49
m
use:
0.49
m Choose whichever is greater
Actual Bar Cut-Off from support:
X1actual=
m, X1 - development length
0.40
X2actual=

0.90

m, X2 + development length

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 50

Estimate for Beam:


Total Volume of Concrete:
Vol.conc.=
0.430
m2
Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)
No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
3.8709
bags No. bags =Volume x
say:
4
Volume of Sand:
m3 Vol=Vsand x
Vsand=
0.21505
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
m3 Vol=Vgravel x
Vgravel=
0.4301
say:
1
Reinforcing Bars:
Top bars:
3
Bot. bars:
3
Stirrups:
8
Summary:

4
Item

Concrete
Works

Cement
Sand
Gravel
16 mm x 6m DSB

Rebar
Works

8 mm x 6m DSB
#16 Tie Wire (Kls)

bars (16mm)
bars (16mm)
bars (8mm)

Factor
9.00
0.50
1.00

Direct Counting Method

ROOF BEAM 1
Quantity
Unit Cost
16
4
4
Total
24
32
4
Total

Class A Mixture:
Cement (40kg)
sand
Gravel

250
600
600
380
80
60

Total
4,000.00
2,400.00
2,400.00
8,800.00
9,120.00
2,560.00
240.00
11,920.00

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 51

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Beams
Beam RB-2 - Roof Deck Framing Plan

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:

Model: Tributary Area (refer to analysis)

l1=
l2=

Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
= 0.90
u = 0.003
Cover= 60.00
Assume Section :
b=
230
d=
490
h=
550
slab thcikness
70
Service Loads:
Dead loads:
Weight of beam (Wb)
Weight of Slab (Ws)
Live Loads:

1.90
1.90

m
m

Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

mm

mm
mm
mm
KN/m3

KN/m2

KN/m

25.00
25.00

-------

3.16
6.65

Kpa
2.4

KN/m
9.12

Wb =

Ws = (1+2)

Ultimate Load:

Wu(beam)= 1.2DL=
Wu(slab)=1.2DL + 1.6LL =
Wu=

KN/m
3.80
22.57
26.37
Wu=Wb + Ws

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 52

BEAM 2: ROOF DECK

Wu

Note: Choose maximum value of Shear & Moment.


Shear Diagram:

91.8 kN

Moment Diagram:

-123.4KN

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 53

Design Moment:
Mu=
36

KN-m

Choose the maximum


biggest Mu
for beam
Mu
for beam
dept(d)
depth (d)

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


b =

0.0421753

= 0.851 (^ )/ (600/(600+))

(desired) =
0.0253052 desired=0.6
Cross Section of Beam:
Nominal Moment:

bd2=/
2
bd =
b=
d=
h' =

Mn = /

6987558.587 mm3
250
mm
167.18
mm
167.19
mm
h (assume) > h', ok!

Mn =
40.22
Fexural Resistance factor

Kn-m

= (10.59 /(^ ))

R=

5.75626

Final:
b=
d=
h=
Area of Steel:

230
490
550

mm
mm
mm

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(^ ))

a^2+b+=0

Roots:

a = 94915071354
b = -13707453060
c=
36200000

As =
()=
(n)=

572.08
16
2.85

=((^24))/2

1 =

0.14173

2 =

0.00269

new =

0.00269

mm
mm
bars

choose the smaller

rho new < rho min, use rho min


Final:

n=
As/(((2)/

=
n=
As=

16
3
603.187

mm
bars
mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75

= /
actual =
0.00535
= (0.25(^ ))/

0.00439

0.00508

(governs)

min =

0.00508
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max> rho actual, ok!
Depth of Rectangular Stress Block (a):

Strain of steel Yeilds:


y = 0.001379
Strain in Steel:
s= 0.044760257

a = ( )/(0.85^ )

a=
36.21027
mm
Location of Neutral Axis, c:
c=
30.77873
Nominal Moment:
Mn =
78.50
Mn =

Check if Tension Steel Yields:

c = /

mm

=/
=()/

s y, Tension Steel Yields

Kn-m Mn=(/2)

70.654
Kn-m
Mn > Mu, ok (safe)

Mu=

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 54

Design Moment:
(+)Mu=

20

KN-m

Cross Section of Beam:


b=
230
d=
490
h=
550

Positive Moment

mm
mm
mm
`

Area of Steel:

Roots:

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(^

=((^24))/2

))

a^2+b+=0

1 =

0.14296

a = 94915071354

2 =

0.00146

b = -13707453060
c=
19750000

new =

Final:
As =
()=
(n)=

572.08
16
2.85

mm
mm
bars

=
n=
As=

0.00146
choose the smaller
rho new < rho min, use rho min
16
3
603.187

mm
bars
mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75

= /
actual =
0.00535
= (0.25(^ ))/

min =

0.00508
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max > rho actual, ok!

0.00439

1.4/

0.00508

(governs)

Check if Stirrups are needed:


Ultimate Shear (Vu)=
54.40
KN/m
=0.17(^ ) bwd
Shear Strenght by Concrete (Vc) =
92.88
KN/m
Vc=
69.66
KN/m
Vu < 0.5Vc, Stirrups not needed!
Vu < Vc, Provide minimum shear reinforcement!

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 55

Design For Shear:


At Right Support:
=
8
=
0.75
Factored Shear Force:
Vu=
54.40

mm
ACI CODE
KN

Shear Strength in Concrete:


Vc=
92.88
KN
Vc=
69.66
KN
0.5Vc=
34.83
KN
Spacing (s) Required:
Av=
100.5312
S=
-667.83
say:
-670

mm2
mm s = ()/()
mm

Shear Strenght in Steel:


Vs=
-15.21

KN Vs = ()/

Point of Minimum Stirrups starts:


By ratio and proportion:
/=/(1)

Xu=
X1 =

4.04
-1.13

m
m

Point where Stirrups are not needed:


By ratio and proportion:
Xu=
/=(0.5)/(2)
X2 =

4.04
1.45

m
m

Design For Shear Reinforcement:


Vs

0.66(^ )bwd
-15.21

360580.12 ok, proceed to smax


Maximum Spacing (smax):
a.) smax1=
245
mm
b.)smax2=
600
mm
c.)smax3=
355
mm
Use smax=

245

mm

Check for maximun spacing:


0.33(^ )bwd
Vs

0.33(^ )bwd
Vs

-15.21

180.29
smax will not be halved!
Smax =
245
Actual Spacing (s):
s=
250
First Stirrup:
s1=
Stirrups:
1
-6
Rest

125
@
@
@

, smax /4 24"
, smax /2 24"

mm
mm

mm
0.125
0.250
0.245

m
m
m

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 56

Design For Shear:


At Left Support:
=
8
=
0.75
Factored Shear Force:
Vu=
45.80

mm
ACI CODE 2010
KN

Shear Strength in Concrete:


Vc=
92.88
KN
Vc=
69.66
KN
0.5Vc=
34.83
KN
Spacing (s) Required:
Av=
100.5312
S=
-427.10
say:
-430

mm2
s = ()/(
mm )
mm

Shear Strenght in Steel:


Vs=
-23.70

KN

Vs = ()/

Point of Minimum Stirrups starts:


By ratio and proportion:
/=/(1)

Xu=
X1 =

3.56
-1.85

m
m

Point where Stirrups are not needed:


By ratio and proportion:
Xu=
/=(0.5)/(
X2 =
2)

3.56
0.85

m
m

Design For Shear Reinforcement:


Vs

0.66(^ )bwd
-23.70

360580.12 ok, proceed to smax


Maximum Spacing (smax):
a.) smax1=
245
mm
b.)smax2=
600
mm
c.)smax3=
355
mm
Use smax=

245

mm

Check for maximun spacing:


0.33(^ )bwd
Vs

0.33(^ )bwd
Vs

-23.70

180.29
smax will not be halved!
Smax =

245

mm

Actual Spacing (s):


s=
250

mm

First Stirrup:
s1=

mm

125

, smax /4 24"
, smax /2 24"

Stirrups:
1
-8
Rest

@
@
@

0.065
0.250
0.245

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

m
m
m

PAGE 57

Bar cut-off and Development Length:


Moment Diagram:

Theoritical Bar Cut-off Graph: Wight & macGregor "Reinforced Concrete",6th edition, pp.1102

Bar Cut-off (1/3 and 2/3 of bars that satisfy the ACI code)

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 58

As=
603.19
mm2 positive moment
As=
603.19
mm2 negative moment
ln=
7.20
m
Moment
x
(1/3)As
(2/3)As
Positive
1
201.06
------------Negative
2
201.06
* Refer to Theoritical Bar Cut-Off Graph

%As (cut-off)
66.67
---66.67

Factor
0.260
---0.102

Cut-off
1.87
---0.73

As%= (As -As1)/As x


100

Bar Spacing (s): clear spacing between parallel bars


s =(b-2(cover+stirrup)s=

30
mm
s < 2db, use other cases equation for ld
Factors (ACI CODE 2010):
t=
1
e=
1
s=
1
=
1
Developement Length:
ld=
0.66
mld=18fyte/(25
12db=
0.19
m
d=
0.49
m
use:
0.66
m Choose whichever is greater
Actual Bar Cut-Off from support:
X1actual=
m, X1 - development length
1.30
X2actual=

1.40

m, X2 + development length

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 59

Estimate for Beam:


Total Volume of Concrete:
Vol.conc.=
0.911
m2
Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)
No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
8.1972
bags No. bags =Volume x
say:
9
Volume of Sand:
m3 Vol=Vsand x
Vsand=
0.4554
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
m3 Vol=Vgravel x
Vgravel=
0.9108
say:
1
Reinforcing Bars:
Top bars:
7
Bot. bars:
5
Stirrups:
10
Summary:

2
Item

Concrete
Works

Cement
Sand
Gravel
20mm x 6m DSB

Rebar
Works

8mm x 6m DSB
#16 Tie Wire (Kls)

Class A Mixture:
Cement (40kg)
sand
Gravel

Factor
9.00
0.50
1.00

bars (20mm)
bars (20mm)
bars (8mm)
RB-2
Quantity
18
2
2
Total
24
20
4
Total

Unit Cost
250
600
600
650
80
60

Total
4,500.00
1,200.00
1,200.00
6,900.00
15,600.00
1,600.00
240.00
17,440.00

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 60

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Beams
Beam 1 & 3 of Second Floor
Model: Tributary Area (refer to analysis)

Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
= 0.90
u = 0.003
Cover= 70.00
Assume Section:
b=
230
d=
490
h=
550
Slab thickness
170

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:

l 1=

0.00

l 2=

1.90

Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

mm

mm
mm

Service Loads:
Dead loads:
Weight of beam (Wb)
Weight of Slab (Ws1 + Ws2 )
Wall (Normal weight concrete, Ww1)
Wall (Foam/Plastered Finished, Ww2)

KN/m

25.00
25.00
21.20
----

Live Loads:
Office

KN/m

KN/m

---------0.50

3.16
8.08
7.42
0.025

Kpa
2.4

KN/m
4.56

Wb =
Ws = (1+2)
Ww1 =( )

Ww2= 1

Ultimate Load:
KN/m
Wu(beam)= 1.2DL=
3.80
Wu(slab)=1.2DL + 1.6LL = 16.99
Wu(wall)= 1.2DL=
8.93
Wu1=

29.72

12.73

Wu1 =Wb+ Ws + Ww

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 61

BEAM 1

L = 7.60 m

Note: Choose biggest value of Shear & Moment.


Shear Diagram:

Moment Diagram

55.0kN

L = 7.60 m

Design For Flexure:


Design Moment:
Mu=
40

Choose the biggest


Mu for beam
maximum
Mu for

KN-m

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


b =
0.0421753
= 0.851 (^ )/ (600/(600+))
0.0253052 desired=0.6

(desired) =

Cross Section of Beam:

Nominal Moment:

bd2=/
2
bd =
b=
d=
h' =

Mn =

7721059.213 mm
250
mm
175.74
mm
175.74
mm
h (assume) > h', ok!

44.44

Kn-m Mn = /

Fexural Resistance factor

= (10.59 /(^ ))
R=

5.75626

Final:
b=
d=
h=

230
480
550

mm
mm
mm

Area of Steel:

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(

Roots:

^ ))

=((^24))/2

a^2+b+=0
91080518284

1 =

0.14131

b = -13153674240

2 =

0.00311

a=
c=

new =

40000000

As =
Bar Diam.()=

560.41
20

no. of bars (n)=

1.78

mm2
mm

Final:

bars n =

0.00311 choose the smaller


rho new < rho min, use rho min

= 20
n=
2
As=

628.320

mm
bars
mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75
= /
actual =
0.00569
min =

0.00508

= (0.25(^ ))/

rho actual > rho min, ok!


rho max> rho actual, ok!

0.00439

Depth of Rectangular Stress Block (a):

c=

c = /
32.06118

0.00508

Check if Tension Steel Yields:

a = ( )/(0.85^ )
a=
37.71903
Location of Neutral Axis, c:

Strain of steel Yeilds:


=/
y = 0.001379
Strain in Steel:
s= 0.04191414=()/

mm

mm

s y, Tension Steel Yields


Nominal Moment:
Mn =
79.91
Mn =

Kn-m

71.920
Kn-m
Mn > Mu, ok (safe)

Mn=(/2)
Mu=

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 63

Design Moment:
(+)Mu=

21

Cross Section of Beam:


b=
230
d=
480
h=
550

KN-m

Positive

mm
mm
mm

Area of Steel:
Roots:

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(^ ))

=((^24))/2

a^2+b+=0

91080518284

1 =

0.14283

b = -13153674240

2 =

0.00159

a=
c=

new =

20700000

As =
Bar Diam.()=

560.41
20

mm2
mm

no. of bars (n)=

1.78

bars

Final:
n=
As=

0.00159 choose the smaller


rho new < rho min, use rho min
= 20
2
628.320

mm
bars
mm

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75
= /
actual =
0.00569
min =

= (0.25(^ ))/
0.00508
0.00439
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max > rho actual, ok!

0.00508

Check if Stirrups are needed:


Ultimate Shear Moment (Vu)= 60.20 KN/m
=0.17(^ ) bwd
Shear Strenght by Concrete (Vc) = 90.98 KN/m
Vc= 68.24 KN/m
Vu > 0.5Vc, Stirrups are needed!
Vu < Vc, Provide minimum shear reinforcement!
Design for Shear Reinforcement:
=
8
mm
Av min.=

100.5312

mm

Maximum Spacing (smax):


a.) smax1=
240
b.)smax2=
600

mm
mm

c.)smax3=

355

mm

Use smax=

240

mm

240

mm

120

mm

Av(min) = (
2)/4

Actual Spacing (s):


s=

First Stirrup:
s 1=
Stirrups:
1
Rest

@
@

0.12
0.240

m
m

Bar cut-off and Development Length:


Moment Diagram:

Theoritical Bar Cut-off Graph: Wight & macGregor "Reinforced Concrete",6th edition, pp.1102

Bar Cut-off (1/3 and 2/3 of bars that satisfy the ACI code)
As=

628.32

mm2 positive moment

As=
ln=
Moment
Positive
---Negative

628.32
3.40
x
1
---2

mm2 negative moment


m
(1/3)As
(2/3)As %As (cut-off)
209.44
66.67
---------209.44
66.67

Factor
0.260
---0.102

Cut-off
0.88
---0.35

* Refer to Theoritical Bar Cut-Off Graph

As%= (As As1)/As x 100

Bar Spacing (s): clear spacing between parallel bars

s =(b-2(cover+stirrup)s=

7
mm
s < 2db, use other cases equation for ld

Factors :
t=

e=

s=

1
=
1
Developement Length:
ld=
0.55
m ld=12fyte/(25(fc)
12db=
0.24
m
d=
0.48
m
use:
0.55
m choose the maximum
Actual Bar Cut-Off from support:
X1actual=
m, X1 - development length
0.40
X2actual=

0.90

m, X2 + development length

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 65

Estimate for Beam:


Total Volume of Concrete:
Vol.conc.=

0.430

Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)


No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
3.8709
say:
4
Volume of Sand:
Vsand=
0.21505
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
Vgravel=
0.4301

Class A Mixture: Factor


m

Cement (40kg)
sand
Gravel

bags

No. bags =Volume x

m3

Vol=Vsand x

m3

Vol=Vgravel x

say:

Reinforcing Bars:
Top bars:
Bot. bars:
Stirrups:

2
2
4

bars (16mm)
bars (16mm)
bars (8mm)

Summary:

B-1
Quantity
16
4
4
Total
16
16
4
Total

Item
Concrete Cement
Works Sand
Gravel
16mm x 6m DSB

Rebar
Works

8mm x 6m DSB
#16 Tie Wire (Kls)

*Verify actual to minimize cost

9.00
0.50
1.00

Direct Counting Method

Unit Cost
250
600
600
380
70
60

Total
4,000.00
2,400.00
2,400.00
8,800.00
6,080.00
1,120.00
240.00
7,440.00

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Beams
Beam2 of the second floor

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:

Model: Tributary Area (refer to analysis)

l 1=

1.90

1.90
Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
= 0.90
u = 0.003
Cover= 60.00

l 2=

Assume Section:
b=
230
d=
490
h=
550
slab thickness
170
Service Loads:
Dead loads:
Weight of beam (Wb)
Weight of Slab (Ws1 + Ws2)
Wall (Normal weight concrete, Ww1)
Wall (Foam/Plastered Finished, Ww2)
Live Loads:
Office

Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

mm

mm
mm

KN/m3

KN/m2

KN/m

25.00
25.00
21.20
----

---------0.50

3.16
16.15
7.42
0.025

Kpa
2.4

KN/m
9.12

Wb =
Ws = (1+2)
Ww1 =(
Ww2= 1

Ultimate Load:
KN/m
Wu(beam)= 1.2DL=
3.80
Wu(slab)=1.2DL + 1.6LL= 33.97

Wu1=

37.77

Wu1 =Wb+Ws
Wu2 =Wb+ Ws1 + Ww

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 67

Beam B-2:

Note: Choose biggest value of Shear & Moment.


Shear Diagram:

Moment Diagram

Design For Flexure:


Design Moment:
Mu=
51

Choose the biggest Mu for


Mu fordepth
beam
beam(d)

KN-m

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


b =

0.0421753

= 0.851 (^ )/
(600/(600+))

0.0253052 desired=0.6

(desired) =

Cross Section of Beam:

Nominal Moment:

bd2=/
2
bd =
b=
d=
h' =

Mn =

9767139.904 mm
250
mm
197.66
mm
197.66
mm
h (assume) > h', ok!

56.22

Kn-m Mn = /

Fexural Resistance factor


R=

5.75626

= (10.59 /(^ ))

Final:
b=
d=
h=

230
490
550

mm
mm
mm

Area of Steel:

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(
^ ))

a^2+b+=0

Roots:
=((^24))/2

94915071354

1 =

0.14063

b = -13707453060

2 =

0.00379

a=
c=

50600000

As =
=

572.08
20

n=

1.82

new =

mm2
mm

Final:
n=

bars n =

0.00379 choose the smaller


rho new < rho min, use rho min
= 20
2

As=

628.320

mm
bars
mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75
= /
actual =
0.00558
min =

= (0.25(^ ))/
0.00508
0.00439
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max> rho actual, ok!

Depth of Rectangular Stress Block (a):


a=

37.71903

Location of Neutral Axis, c:


c=

32.06118

Nominal Moment:
Mn =
81.64
Mn =

Kn-m

73.480
Kn-m
Mn > Mu, ok (safe)

0.00508

Check if Tension Steel Yields:

mm a = (
)/(0.85^
)

mm

Strain of steel Yeilds:


=/
y = 0.001379
Strain in Steel:
s= 0.04284985 =()/

c=
/

s y, Tension Steel Yields

Mn=(/2)
Mu=

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 69

Design Moment:
(+)Mu=

27

Cross Section of Beam:


b=
230
d=
490
h=
550

KN-m

Positive

mm
mm
mm

Area of Steel:
Roots:
=((^24))/2

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(
^ ))

a^2+b+=0
94915071354

1 =

0.14246

b = -13707453060

2 =

0.00196

a=

new =

c=

26500000

As =
=

572.08
20

mm2
mm

1.82

bars

n=

Final:

0.00196 choose the smaller


rho new < rho min, use rho min

= 20
n=
2
As=

628.320

mm
bars
mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75
= /
actual =
0.00558
min =

= (0.25(^ ))/
0.00508
0.00439
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max > rho actual, ok!

0.00508

Check if Stirrups are needed:


Ultimate Shear Moment (Vu)= 76.30 KN/m
=0.17(^ ) bwd
Shear Strenght by Concrete (Vc) = 92.88 KN/m
Vc= 69.66 KN/m
Vu > 0.5Vc, Stirrups are needed!
Vu > Vc, calculate Shear Strenght of steel!

Design For Shear:


At Left Support:
=
8
=
0.75
Factored Shear Force:
Vu=
76.30

mm
ACI CODE 2010
KN

Shear Strength in Concrete:


Vc=
92.88
KN
Vc=
69.66
KN
0.5Vc=
34.83
KN
Spacing (s) Required:
Av=
S=
say:

100.5312
1533.99
1540

Shear Strenght in Steel:


Vs=
6.62

mm
mm s =
mm

KN Vs =

Point of Minimum Stirrups starts:


By ratio and proportion:
Vu/xu=Vc/(xu-x1)

Xu=
X1 =

3.95
0.34

m
m

Xu=
X2 =

3.95
2.15

m
m

Point where Stirrups are not needed:


By ratio and proportion:
Vu/xu=(0.5Vc)/(xu-

Design For Shear Reinforcement:


Vs

6.62

360580.12
0.66(f^
Maximum Spacing (smax):
a.) smax1=
245
b.)smax2=
600
c.)smax3=
355

mm
mm
mm

Use smax=

mm

245

ok, proceed to smax

Check for maximun spacing:


Vs
, smax
Vs
, smax
0.33(f^
6.62

180.29
0.33(f^
smax will not be halved!
Smax =

245

mm

250

mm

125

mm

Actual Spacing (s):


s=

First Stirrup:
s 1=
Stirrups:
1
2
Rest

@
@
@

0.065
0.250
0.245

m
m
m

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 71

Design For Shear:


At Right Support:
=
8
=
0.75
Factored Shear Force:
Vu=
99.30

mm
ACI CODE 318
KN

Shear Strength in Concrete:


Vc=
92.88
KN
Vc=
69.66
KN
0.5Vc=
34.83
KN
Spacing (s) Required:
Av=
100.5312
S=
343.75
say:
340
Shear Strenght in Steel:
Vs=
29.97

mm
mm s =
mm
KN Vs =

Point of Minimum Stirrups starts:


By ratio and proportion:
Vu/xu=Vc/(xu-x1)

Xu=
X1 =

3.65
1.09

m
m

Xu=
X2 =

3.65
2.37

m
m

Point where Stirrups are not needed:


By ratio and proportion:
Vu/xu=(0.5Vc)/(xu-x2)

Design For Shear Reinforcement:


Vs

29.97

360580.12
0.66(f^
Maximum Spacing (smax):
a.) smax1=
245
b.)smax2=
600
c.)smax3=
355

mm
mm
mm

Use smax=

mm

245

Check for maximun spacing:


Vs

Vs

0.33(f^
29.97

180.29
0.33(f^
smax will not be halved!
Smax =

245

mm

250

mm

125

mm

ok, proceed to smax

, smax d/4
, smax d/2

Actual Spacing (s):


s=

First Stirrup:
s 1=
Stirrups:
1
5
Rest

@
@
@

0.075
0.250
0.245

m
m
m

Bar cut-off and Development Length:


Moment Diagram:

Theoritical Bar Cut-off Graph: Wight & macGregor "Reinforced Concrete",6th edition, pp.1102

Bar Cut-off (1/3 and 2/3 of bars that satisfy the ACI code)
2

As=

628.32

mm positive moment

As=
ln=
Moment
Positive
---Negative

628.32
7.20
x
1
---2

mm negative moment
m
(1/3)As
(2/3)As %As (cut-off)
209.44
66.67
---------209.44
66.67

Factor
0.260
---0.102

Cut-off
1.87
---0.73

* Refer to Theoritical Bar Cut-Off Graph

As%= (As -As1)/As x


100

Bar Spacing (s): clear spacing between parallel bars

s =(b-2(cover+stirrup)s=

17
mm
s < 2db, use other cases equation for ld
Factors (ACI CODE 2010):
t=
1
e=

s=

1
=
1
Developement Length:
ld=
0.82
m ld=18fyte/(25
12db=
0.24
m
d=
0.49
m
use:
0.82
m Choose whichever is
Actual Bar Cut-Off from support:
X1actual=
m, X1 - development length
1.10
X2actual=

1.60

m, X2 + development length

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 73

Estimate for Beam:


Total Volume of Concrete:
Vol.conc.=

0.911

Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)


No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
8.1972
say:
9
Volume of Sand:
Vsand=
0.4554
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
Vgravel=
0.9108
say:
1

Class A Mixture: Factor


m

bags

Cement (40kg)
sand
Gravel

No. bags =Volume x

Vol=Vsand x

Vol=Vgravel x

Reinforcing Bars:
Top bars:
Bot. bars:
Stirrups:

2
2
4

bars (20mm)
bars (20mm)
bars (8mm)

Summary:

B-2
Quantity
18
2
2
Total
8
8
5
Total

Item
Concrete Cement
Works Sand
Gravel
20mm x 6m DSB

Rebar
Works

8mm x 6m DSB
#16 G.I Tie Wire

9.00
0.50
1.00

Direct Counting Method

Unit Cost
250
600
600
650
80
60

Total
4,500.00
1,200.00
1,200.00
6,900.00
5,200.00
640.00
300.00
6,140.00

)
)

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 75

(governs)

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 77

(governs)

edition, pp.1102

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 79

2)
)

Ww

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 81

(governs)

(governs)

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 83

(governs)

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 85

edition, pp.1102

CE 161 STRUCTUTAL ANALYSIS-BEAMS SECOND FLOOR

PAGE 87

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Columns

Date Prepared:
Checked By:

Column - C1

Rating:

Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
u = 0.003
cover= 60.00

Assume Section:
b=
h=
d=
d'=

400
400
340
70

Model:
Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

Pu
Mu

mm

mm
mm
mm
mm

Factored Load: GRASP Results


Mark
Type
X-direction
Pu
80
2nd - Roof
Mu
16
Pu
177
Ground -2nd
Mu
7

Y-direction
108
106
216
32

Total
188
--393
---

Unit
KN
KN-m
KN
KN-m

*Choose biggest values of Pu and Mu from frame analysis

ACI CODE 2010


Type
Tied Column ()
Spiral Column ()

Compression Controlled
0.65
0.75

Tension Controlled
0.90
0.90

Cross Section:

h=0.400

b= 0.400

Square Column

0.80
0.85

Design of Columns: Ground - 2nd Floor


Type:

Tied Column - Tension Controlled

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


=
0.02
Gross Area of Column:
A g= b x h
Ast = Ag
Pu= Pn

Pu=[0.85^ ()+]
Pu=[0.85^ (0.02)+0.02]
Ag=/([0.85^ + 0.02(
A g=

21753.71

mm2

Ast =

435.07

mm2

Ast= x Ag

Cross Section:
b = h = Ag
b'=
147.49
mm
h'=
147.49
mm
b' & h' < b & h, safe!
Final:
b=
h=
d=
Area of Steel:
Agnew=

400
400
340

mm
mm
mm

160000

mm2

Ag=

mm2 Ast=((0.85^

Ast1 =

-11472.25

Ast2 =

3200.00

mm2 Ast= x Ag

3200.00

mm

Use: Ast =

No. of Reinforcing bars:


Bar Diam.()=
20
No. of bars (n)=
10.19
Try:
NBY=
NBX=

6
3
2

mm
bars

n =

Latearal Ties:
stirrups=

bars (Check @ Interaction Diagram)


bars (y-axis)
bars (x-axis)

8
spacing (s):
1.) 16db
2.) 48stirrups
3.) 7.5"

mm

320
384
300

mm
mm
mm

Astnew =

1884.96

mm

use:

s=

300

mm

Check for ACI Requirements:


Maximum Load bearing capacity:
Pu=
188
Pn(max)=
Pn(max)=[0.85^ ()+]
2675
Pn(max) >= Pu,Ok!
Clear spacing of longitudinal bars:
spacing(s)min=
25
mm
Clear spacing=

122
mm
Clear spacing > smin,ok!

Steel ratio:
min =

0.010

max =

0.080

actual =

Clear spacing = (2(++()/2))/((1)) -

ACI CODE 2010 (410.10.1)

= /
0.012
min < actual,ok!
actual <max, ok!

Check if column is short or slender:


For compression members braced against sidesway:
/ 34 - 12(1/2) 40

Klu/r =
34-12(M1/M2)=

30.00
33.40
Column is short

ACI CODE 2010 (410-8)

where:
k=
lu =

1
3.6

r1 =

0.120

r2 =

0.1

M1/M2=

0.05

effective length
unsupported length
ratio of gyration(rectangular)
ratio of gyration(circular)
ratio of end moments

Design of Columns: 2nd Floor - Roof Deck


Type:

Tied Column - Tension Controlled

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


=
0.02
Gross Area of Column:
A g= b x h
Ast = Ag
Pu= Pn

Pu=[0.85^ ()+]
Pu=[0.85^ (0.02)+0.02]
Ag=/([0.85^ + 0.02(
A g=

10406.36

mm2

Ast =

208.13

mm2

Ast= x Ag

Cross Section:
b = h = Ag
b'=
147.49
mm
h'=
147.49
mm
b' & h' < b & h, safe!
Final:
b=
400
mm
h=
400
mm
d=
340
mm
Area of Steel:
A g=

160000

mm2

Ag=

mm2 Ast=((0.85^

Ast1 =

-12492.92

Ast2 =

3200.00

mm2 Ast= x Ag

3200.00

mm

Use: Ast =

No. of Reinforcing bars:


Bar Diam.()=
20
No. of bars (n)=
10.19
Use:
NBY=
NBX=
Astnew =

6
3
2
1884.96

mm
bars

n =

Latearal Ties:
stirrups=

bars (Check @ Interaction Diagram)


bars
bars
mm

mm

spacing (s):
1.) 16db
2.) 48stirrups
3.) 7.5"
use:

s=

320
384
300
300

mm
mm
mm
mm

Check for ACI Requirements:


Maximum Load bearing capacity:
Pu=
393
Pn(max)=
2648
Pn(max) >= Pu,Ok!
Clear spacing of longitudinal bars:
spacing(s)min=
25
mm Clear spacing = (2(+
+(
Clear spacing=
244
mm
Clear spacing > smin,ok!
Steel ratio:
min =

0.010

max =

0.080

actual =

ACI CODE 2010 (410.10.1)

= /
0.012
min < actual,ok!
actual <max, ok!

Check if column is short or slender:


For compression members braced against sidesway:

/ 34 - 12(1/
2) 40
Klu/r =
28.33
34-12(M1/M2)=

33.40
Column is short

ACI CODE 2010 (410-8)

where:
k=
lu =

1
3.4

r1 =

0.120

r2 =

0.1

M1/M2=

0.05

effective length
unsupported length
ratio of gyration(rectangular)
ratio of gyration(circular)
ratio of end moments

Column Details:
Level

Mark

Sections
0.400

2nd Floor Roof Deck

C1

8mm

3
2

8mm
0.300 m
On Center

C1
0.400

6 - 20 mm
Section:

Ties

0.300 m
On Center

0.400

6 - 20 mm
0.400

Ground Flr 2nd Floor

NBY
NBX
3
2

Estimate for Column:


Total Volume of Concrete:
Vol.conc.=

1.264

Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)


No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
11.376
say:
12
Volume of Sand:
Vsand=
0.632
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
Vgravel=
1.264
say:

Vol =L x W x H

bags

Factor

Cement (40kg)
sand
Gravel

9.00
0.50
1.00

No. bags =Volume x

Vol=Vsand x Factor

Vol=Vgravel x

Reinforcing Bars:
Rebars:
Stirrups:

8
8

bars (20mm)
bars (8mm)

Summary:

C1

Concrete
Works

Item
Cement
Sand
Gravel
20mm x 6m DSB

Rebar
Works

Class A Mixture:

8mm x 6m DSB
#16 Tie Wire (Kls)

Quantity
72
6
12
Total
48
48
9
Total

Direct Counting Method

Unit Cost
250
600
600
650
80
60

Total
18,000.00
3,600.00
7,200.00
28,800.00
31,200.00
3,840.00
540.00
35,580.00

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Columns
Column - C2
Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
u = 0.003
cover= 70.00

Assume Section:
b=
400
h=
400
d=
330
d'=
60

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:
Model:
Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

Pu
Mu

mm

mm
mm
mm
mm

Factored Load: GRASP Results


Mark
Type
X-direction Y-direction
Pu
117
124
2nd - Roof
Mu
126
30
Pu
263
167
Ground -2nd
Mu
7
13

Total
241
--430
---

Unit
KN
KN-m
KN
KN-m

*Choose biggest values of Pu and Mu from frame analysis

ACI CODE 2010


Type
Tied Column ()
Spiral Column ()

Compression ControlledTension Controlled


0.65
0.90
0.75
0.90

Cross Section:

b=0.400

h= 0.400

Square Column

0.80
0.85

Design of Columns: Ground - 2nd Floor


Type:

Tied Column - Tension Controlled

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


=
0.02
Gross Area of Column:
A g= b x h
Ast = Ag
Pu= Pn

Pu=[0.85^ ()+]
Pu=[0.85^ (0.02)+0.02]
Ag=/([0.85^ + 0.02(
A g=

23801.77

mm2

Ast =

476.04

mm2

Ast= x Ag

Cross Section:
b = h = Ag
b'=
154.28
mm
h'=
154.28
mm
b' & h' < b & h, safe!
Final:
b=
h=
d=

400
400
330

Area of Steel:
Agnew=
160000
Ast1 =

mm
mm
mm

mm2

Ag=

2
-11184.51 mm Ast=((0.85^

Ast2 =

3200.00

mm2 Ast= x Ag

Use: Ast =

3200.00

mm2

No. of Reinforcing bars:


Bar Diam.()=
20
mm
No. of bars (n)=
10.19
bars
Try:
NBY=
NBX=
Astnew =

6
2
3
1884.96

n =

Latearal Ties:
stirrups=

mm

spacing (s):
bars (Check @ Interaction Diagram)1.) 16db
320
2.) 48stirrups 384
bars (y-axis)
bars (x-axis)
3.) 7.5"
300

mm
mm
mm

mm2

mm

use:

s=

300

Check for ACI Requirements:


Maximum Load bearing capacity:
Pu=
241
Pn(max)=
2675
Pn(max)=[0.85^ ()+]
Pn(max) >= Pu,Ok!
Clear spacing of longitudinal bars:
spacing(s)min=
25
mm Clear spacing = (2(++()/2))/((1)) -

Clear spacing=

112
mm
Clear spacing > smin,ok!

Steel ratio:
min =

0.010

max =

0.080

actual =

ACI CODE 2010 (410.10.1)

= /
0.012
min < actual,ok!
actual <max, ok!

Check if column is short or slender:


For compression members braced against sidesway:
where:
/ 34 - 12(1/ ACI CODE 2010 (410-8)
k=
2) 40
Klu/r =
lu =
30.00
34-12(M1/M2)=

33.40
Column is short

1
3.6

r1 =

0.120

r2 =

0.1

M1/M2=

0.05

effective length
unsupported length
ratio of gyration(rectangular)
ratio of gyration(circular)
ratio of end moments

Design of Columns: 2nd Floor - Roof Deck


Type:

Tied Column - Tension Controlled

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


=
0.02
Gross Area of Column:
A g= b x h
Ast = Ag
Pu= Pn

Pu=[0.85^ ()+]
Pu=[0.85^ (0.02)+0.02]
Ag=/([0.85^ + 0.02(
A g=

13340.06

mm2

Ast =

266.80

mm2

Ast= x Ag

Cross Section:
b = h = Ag
b'=
154.28
mm
h'=
154.28
mm
b' & h' < b & h, safe!
Final:
b=
400
mm
h=
400
mm
d=
330
mm
Area of Steel:
A g=
160000
Ast1 =

mm2

Ag=

2
-12492.92 mm Ast=((0.85^

Ast2 =

3200.00

mm2 Ast= x Ag

Use: Ast =

3200.00

mm2

No. of Reinforcing bars:


Bar Diam.()=
20
mm
No. of bars (n)=
10.19
bars
Try:
NBY=
NBX=
Astnew =

6
2
3
1884.96

n =

Latearal Ties:
stirrups=

mm

spacing (s):
bars (Check @ Interaction Diagram)1.) 16db
320
2.) 48stirrups 384
bars
bars
3.) 7.5"
300
use:
s= 300
mm2

mm
mm
mm
mm

Check for ACI Requirements:


Maximum Load bearing capacity:
Pu=
430
Pn(max)=
2648
Pn(max) >= Pu,Ok!
Clear spacing of longitudinal bars:
spacing(s)min=
25
mm Clear spacing = (2(+
+(
Clear spacing=
224
mm
Clear spacing > smin,ok!
Steel ratio:
min =

0.010

max =

0.080

actual =

ACI CODE 2010 (410.10.1)

= /
0.012
min < actual,ok!
actual <max, ok!

Check if column is short or slender:


For compression members braced against sidesway:
where:
/ 34 - 12(1/ ACI CODE 2010 (410-8)
k=
2) 40
Klu/r =
lu =
28.33
34-12(M1/M2)=

33.40
Column is short

1
3.4

r1 =

0.120

r2 =

0.1

M1/M2=

0.05

effective length
unsupported length
ratio of gyration(rectangular)
ratio of gyration(circular)
ratio of end moments

Column Details:
Level

Mark

Sections
0.400

2nd Floor Roof Deck

C2

0.300 m
On Center

0.400

6 - 20 mm
0.400
Ground Flr
- 2nd
Floor

C2
0.400

6 - 20 mm
Section:

NBY
Ties
NBX
2 8mm
3

2 8mm
3
0.300 m
On Center

Estimate for Column:


Total Volume of Concrete:
Vol.conc.=

1.264

Class A Mixture:
Factor
2

Vol =L x

Cement (40kg) 9.00


sand
0.50
Gravel
1.00

Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)


No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
11.376
bags No. bags =Volume
say:
12
Volume of Sand:
m3
Vsand=
0.632
Vol=Vsand x
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
m3
Vgravel=
1.264
Vol=Vgravel x
say:
2
Reinforcing Bars:
Rebars:
8
Stirrups:
8

Summary:

bars (20mm)
bars (8mm)

C2
Item
Quantity
48
Concrete Cement
4
Works Sand
Gravel
8
Total
20mm x 6m DSB
32
32
Rebar 8mm x 6m DSB
6
Works #16 Tie Wire (Kls)
Total

Direct Counting Method

Unit Cost
250
600
600
650
80
60

Total
########
2,400.00
4,800.00
########
########
2,560.00
360.00
########

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Columns
Column - C3
Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
u = 0.003
cover= 60.00

Assume Section:
b=
400
h=
400
d=
340
d'=
60

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:
Model:
Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

mm

mm
mm
mm
mm

Factored Load: GRASP Results


Mark
Type
X-direction
Pu
128
2nd - Roof
Mu
12
Pu
173
Ground -2nd
Mu
3

Y-direction
73
0
139
0

Total
201
--312
---

Unit
KN
KN-m
KN
KN-m

*Choose biggest values of Pu and Mu from frame analysis

ACI CODE 2010


Type
Tied Column ()
Spiral Column ()

Compression Controlled
0.65
0.75

Tension Controlled
0.90
0.90

Cross Section:

b=0.400

h= 0.400

Square Column

0.80
0.85

Design of Columns: Ground - 2nd Floor


Type:

Tied Column - Tension Controlled

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


=
0.02
Gross Area of Column:
Ag= b x h
Ast = Ag
Pu= Pn
Pu=[0.85f^ c(Ag-Ast)+Astfy]
Pu=[0.85f^ c(AgAg=Pu/([0.85f^ c+
0.02(fy-0.85f^ c)] )
Ag=

17270.12

mm2

Ast =

345.40

mm

Ast= x

Cross Section:
b = h = Ag
b'=
131.42
mm
h'=
131.42
mm
b' & h' < b & h, safe!
Final:
b=
h=
d=
Area of Steel:
Agnew=

400
400
340

mm
mm
mm

160000

mm2

Ag=b x

mm2 Ast=(Pu-

Ast1 =

-11401.67

Ast2 =

3200.00

mm2 Ast= x

3200.00

mm2

Use: Ast =

No. of Reinforcing bars:


Bar Diam.()=
20
No. of bars (n)=
10.19
Try:
NBY=
NBX=
Astnew =

6
2
3
1884.96

mm
n=
bars

Latearal Ties:
stirrups=

bars (Check @ Interaction Diagram)


bars (y-axis)
bars (x-axis)
mm

mm

spacing (s):
1.) 16db
320
2.) 48stirrups 384
3.) 7.5"
300

mm
mm
mm

use:

mm

s=

300

Check for ACI Requirements:


Maximum Load bearing capacity:
Pu=
201
Pn(max)=
2675
Pn(max) >= Pu,Ok!

Pn(max)=[0.85f^ c(Ag-

Clear spacing of longitudinal bars:


spacing(s)min=
25
mm Clear spacing = (b-2(cover+stirrup+(longitudinal)/2))/((n-1)) Clear spacing=

longitudinal

122
mm
Clear spacing > smin,ok!

Steel ratio:
min =

0.010

max =

0.080

actual =

ACI CODE 2010 (410.10.1)

0.012
min < actual,ok!

=
actual <max, ok!

Check if column is short or slender:


For compression members braced against sidesway:
ACI CODE 2010 (410-8)
klKl
u/ur/r
= 34 - 30.00
34-12(M1/M2)=

33.40
Column is short

where:
k=
lu =

1
3.6

effective length
unsupported length

r1 = 0.120

ratio of gyration(rectangular)

r2 =

0.1

ratio of gyration(circular)

M1/M2=

0.05

ratio of end moments

Design of Columns: 2nd Floor - Roof Deck


Type:

Tied Column - Tension Controlled

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


=
0.02
Gross Area of Column:
Ag= b x h
Ast = Ag
Pu= Pn
Pu=[0.85f^ c(Ag-Ast)+Astfy]
Pu=[0.85f^ c(AgAg=Pu/([0.85f^ c+
0.02(fy-0.85f^ c)] )
Ag=

11125.95

mm2

Ast =

222.52

mm

Ast= x

Cross Section:
b = h = Ag
b'=
131.42
mm
h'=
131.42
mm
b' & h' < b & h, safe!
Final:
b=
400
mm
h=
400
mm
d=
340
mm
Area of Steel:
Ag=

160000

mm2

Ag=b x

mm2 Ast=(Pu-

Ast1 =

-12492.92

Ast2 =

3200.00

mm2 Ast= x

3200.00

mm2

Use: Ast =

No. of Reinforcing bars:


Bar Diam.()=
20
No. of bars (n)=
10.19
Try:
NBY=
NBX=
Astnew =

6
2
3
1884.96

mm
n=
bars

Latearal Ties:
stirrups=

bars (Check @ Interaction Diagram)


bars
bars
mm2

mm

spacing (s):
1.) 16db
320
2.) 48stirrups 384
3.) 7.5"
300
use:
s=
300

mm
mm
mm
mm

Check for ACI Requirements:


Maximum Load bearing capacity:
Pu=
312
Pn(max)=
2648
Pn(max) >= Pu,Ok!
Clear spacing of longitudinal bars:
spacing(s)min=
25
mm Clear spacing = (b-2(cover+stirrup+(longitudinal)/2))/((n-1)) -

longitudinal

Clear spacing=

244
mm
Clear spacing > smin,ok!

Steel ratio:
min =

0.010

max =

0.080

actual =

ACI CODE (410.10.1)

0.012
min < actual,ok!

=
actual <max, ok!

Check if column is short or slender:


For compression members braced against sidesway:
ACI CODE 2010 (410-8)
klKl
u/ur/r
= 34 - 28.33
34-12(M1/M2)=

33.40
Column is short

where:
k=
lu =

1
3.4

effective length
unsupported length

r1 = 0.120

ratio of gyration(rectangular)

r2 =

0.1

ratio of gyration(circular)

M1/M2=

0.05

ratio of end moments

Column Details:
Level

Mark

Sections
0.400

2nd Floor Roof Deck

NBY
NBX
2
3

C3
0.400

2
3

C3
0.400

Section:

Estimate for Beam:


Total Volume of Concrete:
1.264

8mm
0.300 m
On Center

6 - 20 mm

Vol.conc.=

8mm

0.300 m
On Center

6 - 20 mm
0.400

Ground Flr 2nd Floor

Ties

Vol =L x W

Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)


No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
11.376
bags No. bags =Volume x
say:
12
Volume of Sand:
m3
Vsand=
0.632
Vol=Vsand x

Class A Mixture:

Factor

Cement (40kg)
sand
Gravel

9.00
0.50
1.00

say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
Vgravel=
1.264
say:

8
8

Summary:

Rebar
Works

Vol=Vgravel x

Reinforcing Bars:
Rebars:
Stirrups:

Concrete
Works

m3

bars (20mm)
bars (8mm)

C3
Item
Quantity
Cement
24
Sand
2
Gravel
4
Total
20mm x 6m DSB
16
8mm x 6m DSB
16
#16 Tie Wire (Kls)
3
Total

Direct Counting Method

Unit Cost
250
600
600
650
80
60

Total
6,000.00
1,200.00
2,400.00
9,600.00
10,400.00
1,280.00
180.00
11,860.00

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Beams
Beam RB-1 - Roof Deck Framing Plan

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:

Model: Tributary Area (refer to analysis)

l=
Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
= 0.90
u = 0.003
Cover= 70.00
Assume Section :
b=
230
d=
490
h=
550
slab thcikness
70

1.90

Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

mm

mm
mm
mm

Service Loads:
Dead loads:
Weight of beam (Wb)

KN/m3
25.00

KN/m2
----

KN/m
3.16

Wb =
b =
WW
s = (1+2)
Ww1
W
==(
)
s

Weight of Slab (Ws)

3.325

Ws = (1+2)
Ww1
W
==(
)

----

1.91

Ww2= 1

0.77

0.77

Kpa
2.4

KN/m
4.56

25.00
Parapet (Normal weight concrete,Wp
21.20 1)

----

Parapet (Decorative Tile Finished,


----Wp2)
Live Loads:

Wp1 =( )

Wp2= 1

Ultimate Load:
Wu(beam)= 1.2DL=
Wu(slab)=1.2DL + 1.6LL =
Wu(Parapet)= 1.2DL=
Wu=

KN/m
3.80
11.29
3.21
18.29

+ Ww
WuWu
=
+ Ws Ws
+ Wp
1 =Wb+

BEAM 1: ROOF DECK

Wu

L = 7.60 m

Note: Choose maimum value of Shear & Moment.


Shear Diagram:

L = 7.60 m

`
Moment Diagram

55.0kN

Choose the maximum


biggest Mu
for beam
Mu
for beam
dept(d)
depth (d)

= 0.851 (^ )/ (600/(600+))

= 0.851 (^ )/ (600/(600+))

desired=0.6

bd2=/

Design For Flexure:

Mn = /

Design Moment:
Mu=
98

Choose the maximum


biggest Mu
for beam
Mu
for beam
dept(d)
depth
(d)= (10.59 ^

/(
))

KN-m

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


b =

= 0.851 (^ )/ (600/(600+))

0.0421753

desired=0.6

(desired) =
0.0253052
Cross Section of Beam:

Nominal Moment:

Mn = Mu/

bd2=Mu/
Mn =
2

108.89

Kn-m

= 18916595.07
mm /(
Mu bd
= =
^2 (10.59
^ )) b =
250
mm
Fexural Resistance
factor
=((^24))/2
a^2+b+=0
d=
275.08
mm
= (10.59 /(^ ))
h' =
275.08
mm
h (assume) > h', ok!
R= 5.75626 R = f (1-0.59 f f^
Final:
b=
230
mm
d=
490
mm
h=
550
mm
n =
Area of Steel:
Mu = Mn= fybd^2 (1-0.59
a^2+b+c=0
a = 94915071354 max=0.75
= /

b = -13707453060
c=

As =
Bar Diam.()=
no. of bars (n)=

98000000

850.14
16
4.23

Roots:
=((^24))/2

1 =

0.13687

2 =

0.00754

new =

0.00754

= (0.25(^ ))/

mm
mm
bars

rho new > rho min, use rho new


Final:

n=
a = ( )/(0.85^ )
As/(((2)/

Checking for ACI requirements:

choose the smaller

=0.75

=
16
mm
n=
5
bars
As= 1005.312 mm2

=/

Steel ratio:
max =

max=0.75

0.03163
c0.00892
= /

=()/

= /

actual =
0.00508

0.00439

0.00508

min = rho actual > rho min, ok!


Mn=(/2)
rho max> rho actual, ok!
Check if Tension Steel Yields:
Mu=
Depth of Rectangular Stress Block (a):
Strain of steel Yeilds:
a = (As fy)/(0.85f^ c
y = 0.001379 =/
a=

60.35045

mm

Strain in Steel:
s= 0.0256562 =()/

Location of Neutral Axis, c:


c=
51.29788
mm c =
Positive Moment
Nominal Moment:
s y, Tension Steel Yields
Mn =
127.49
Kn-m Mn=Asfy(dMn =

114.744
Kn-m Mu=
Mn > Mu, ok (safe)

Design Moment:
(+)Mu=
117
Cross Section of Beam:

KN-m

Positive Moment

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(^ ))

=((^24))/2

a^2+b+=0

b=
d=
h=

230
480
550

mm
mm
mm

Area of Steel:
Mu = Mn= fybd^2 (1-0.59 fy/(f^ c))

Roots:
=(-b(b^24ac))/2a

a^2+b+c=0
a = 94915071354

1 =

0.13529

b = -13707453060

2 =

0.00913

c=

As =
Bar Diam.()=
no. of bars (n)=

117250000

1008.07
16
5.01

max=0.75

new =

= /

=2 (0.25(^ ))/

mm
mm
bars

Final:

0.00913 choose the smaller


rho new > rho min, use rho new

=
16
mm
n=
6
bars
As= 1206.374 mm2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163
actual =
0.01070
min =

=0.17(^ ) bwd

0.00508
min = (0.25(f^
rho actual > rho min, ok!
0.00439
rho max > rho actual, ok!
Av(min) = (
2)/4

0.00508

Check if Stirrups are needed:


Ultimate Shear (Vu)=
40.00
KN/m
Shear Strenght by Concrete (Vc) =
92.88
KN/m
Vc=
69.66
KN/m
Vu < 0.5Vc, Stirrups not anymore required!
Vu < Vc, Just provide minimum shear reinforcement!
Design for Shear Reinforcement:
=
Av min.=

10
157.08

mm
Av(min) =
mm2

Maximum Spacing (smax):


a.) smax1=
245
mm
b.)smax2=
600
mm
c.)smax3=
554
mm
Use smax=
245
Actual Spacing (s):
s=
250
First Stirrup:
s1=

125

mm
mm

mm

Stirrups:
1
Rest

@
@

0.125
0.250

Bar cut-off and Development Length:

m
m

Moment Diagram:

117.

-67.2kN
-98.0kN

Theoritical Bar Cut-off Graph: Wight & macGregor "Reinforced Concrete",6th edition, pp.1102

As%= (As Bar Cut-off


(1/3 and 2/3 of bars that satisfy the ACI code)
As1)/As
x 100

As=
1206.37
mm2 positive moment
As=
1005.31
mm2 negative moment
ln= s =(b3.40
m
Moment
x
(1/3)As
(2/3)As
Positive
1
402.12
------------Negative
2
402.12
* Refer to Theoritical Bar Cut-Off Graph

%As (cut-off)
66.67
---50.00

As%= (As -As1)/As x


100

Bar Spacing (s): clear spacing between parallel bars


ld=12fyte/(25(f

s =(b-2(cover+stirrup)c))
- db
s=

11
mm
maximum
s < 2db, use otherchoose
cases the
equation
for ld

Factors (ACI CODE 2010):


t=
1
e=

Factor
0.260
---0.102

s=
1
=
1
Developement Length:
ld=
0.44
mld=12fyte/(25
12db=
0.19
m
d=
0.49
m
use:
0.49
m Choose whichever is greater
Actual Bar Cut-Off from support:
X1actual=
m, X1 - development length
0.40
X2actual=
m, X2 + development length
0.90

Beam Details:
Beam Sections
Left

Midspan

Right

Left
8mm
1@
0.085 m
Rest @
0.170 m

Section:

No. bags =Volume x

Vol=Vsand x

Estimate for Beam:


Total Volume of Concrete:

Vol=Vgravel x

Class A Mixture:Factor

Vol.conc.=

0.430

Vol=Vgravel x

Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)


No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
3.8709
bags No. bags =Volume x
say:
4
Volume of Sand:
m3 Vol=Vsand x
Vsand=
0.21505
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
m3 Vol=Vgravel x
Vgravel=
0.4301
say:

Reinforcing Bars:
Top bars:
2
Bot. bars:
2
Stirrups:
4
Summary:

4
Item

Concrete
Works

Cement
Sand
Gravel
16 mm x 6m DSB

Rebar
Works

Cement (40kg) 9.00


sand
0.50
Gravel
1.00

8 mm x 6m DSB

#16 Tie Wire (Kls)

bars (16mm)
bars (16mm)
bars (8mm)

Direct Counting Method

ROOF BEAM 1
Quantity
Unit Cost
16
4
4
Total
16
16
4
Total

220
600
600
368
73
58

Total
3,520.00
2,400.00
2,400.00
8,320.00
5,888.00
1,168.00
232.00
7,288.00

The

Bar

As=
As=
ln=
Mom
Posi

Neg
* Re

Bar

Fact

Dev

Actu

Bea

*Clo
*Saf
Sect

Esti
Tota
Vo

Use
No.
N

Volu

Volu

Rein
T
B

Sum

Co
W

R
W

Two-Story office Building


A. Design of Beams
Beam RB-2 - Roof Deck Framing Plan

Date Prepared:
Checked By:
Rating:

Model: Tributary Area (refer to analysis)

l1=
l2=

Material Property:
fy= 275.80
f'c= 23.50
Es = 200000.00
1 = 0.85
= 0.90
u = 0.003
Cover= 60.00
Assume Section :
b=
230
d=
490
h=
550
slab thcikness
70
Service Loads:
Dead loads:
Weight of beam (Wb)
Weight of Slab (Ws)
)

1.90
1.90

m
m

Mpa
Mpa
Mpa

mm

mm
mm
mm
KN/m

25.00
25.00

KN/m
-------

KN/m
3.16
6.65

Wb =
Ws = (1+
Ww1
=(
b =
1(+
)
w2=
WW

1
2
s =

Ws = (1+2)
)

Live Loads:

Kpa

KN/m

2.4

9.12

Ultimate Load:
KN/m
Wu(beam)= 1.2DL=
3.80
Wu(slab)=
1.2DL + 1.6LL = 22.57
Wu=

26.37
Wu=Wb + Ws

BEAM 2: ROOF DECK

Wu

Note: Choose maximum value of Shear & Moment.


Shear Diagram:

Wu1 =Wb+Ws
Wu2 =Wb+ Ws1 + Ww

91.8 kN

Moment Diagram:

Choose the
biggest Mu for

= 0.851 (^ )/

= 0.851 (^ )/
(600/(600+))
desired=0.6

Design
Moment:
bd2=/
Mu=
123

KN-m

Choose the
biggest MuMu
maximum
forfor

Mn = /

Designer's Preferred Steel Ratio:


b =

0.0421753

= 0.851 (^ )/ (600/(600+)) = (10.59 /(^ ))

(desired) = 0.0253052 desired=0.6


Cross Section of Beam:
Nominal Moment:

bd2=/

Mn = /

bd = 23819467.67 mm3
b=
250
mm
d=
308.67
mm
h' = 308.67
mm
Mu = =
^2 (10.59 /(
h
(assume)
>
h',
ok!
^ ))
a^2+b+=0
Final:
b=
230
mm
d=
490
mm
h=
550
mm
Area of Steel:

Mn = 137.11 Kn-m
Fexural Resistance factor
= (10.59 /(^ ))
=((^24))/2
R= 5.75626

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(^ ))

a^2+b+=0

Roots:
n =

a = 94915071354
b = -1.3707E+10
c = 123400000

=((^24))/2

max=0.75

As =

1087.19

()=

20

(n)=

3.46

2= /

1 =

0.13477

2 =

0.00965 choose the smaller

new =

mm

0.00965
rho new > rho min, use rho new

mm

= (0.25(^ ))/

bars

Final:

n=
As/(((2)

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75

= (
=a/

= 20
mm
n=
4
bars
As= 1256.640 mm2

= (
=a/
)/(0.85^
)
= (0.25(^ ))/

actual =

0.01115

0.00439

min =

(governs)

=/

0.00508

0.00508

=()/

c=
rho actual > rho min, ok!
/
rho max> rho actual, ok! Check if Tension Steel Yields:
Depth of Rectangular Stress Block (a):
Mn=
(/2)
Strain
of steel Yeilds:
a = ( )/(0.85^ )
y = 0.001379
=/

a=

75.43806

Mu=

mm

Strain in Steel:
s= 0.0199249

Location of Neutral Axis, c:


c= 64.12235
Nominal Moment:
Mn =
156.75
Mn =

=()/

c = / s y, Tension Steel Yields


Positive
Mn=
(/2)
Kn-m

mm

141.077
Kn-m Mu=
Mn > Mu, ok (safe)

Design Moment:
63 (10.59
KN-m/(Positive
Mu =(+)Mu=
= ^2

=((^24))/2

^ ))

a^2+b+=0
Cross
Section of Beam:
b=
230
d=
490
h=
550

mm
mm
mm
`

Area of Steel:

Roots:

Mu = = ^2 (10.59 /(^

=((^24))/2

))

a^2+b+=0

1 =

0.13969

a = 94915071354

2 =

0.00473

b = -1.3707E+10

new =

c=

62700000

max=0.75
= / Final:

As =
()=
(n)=

572.08
20
1.82

0.00473 choose the smaller


rho new < rho min, use rho min

= 20
mm
mm
n=
2
bars
= (0.25(^ ))/
mm
As= 628.320 mm2
bars
2

Checking for ACI requirements:


Steel ratio:
max =
0.03163 max=0.75
= /
actual =
0.00558
= (0.25(^ ))/

min =
(governs)

0.00508
rho actual > rho min, ok!
rho max > rho actual, ok!

0.00439

=0.17(^ ) bwd
1.4/

0.00508

Check if Stirrups are needed:


Ultimate Shear (Vu)= 123.10 KN/m
=0.17(^ ) bwd
Shear Strenght by Concrete (Vc) = 92.88 KN/m
Vc= 69.66 KN/m
Vu > 0.5Vc, Stirrups are needed!
Vu > Vc, calculate Shear Strenght of steel!

s=

s=

Design For Shear:


At Right Support:
=
8
=
0.75
Factored Shear Force:
Vu=
123.10

Shear Diagram:
mm
Vs =
ACI CODE
KN

Shear Strength in Concrete:


Vc= -x 92.88
KN
Vu/xu=Vc/(x
u 1)
Vc=
69.66
KN
0.5Vc=
34.83
KN

on, pp.1102
Spacing (s) Required:
Av= 100.5312
Vu/xu=(0.5Vc)/(
S=
190.66
say:
200
Shear Strenght in Steel:
Vs=
50.95

mm2
mm s = ()/()
mm
0.66(f^
KN Vs = ()/

Point of Minimum Stirrups starts:


By ratio and proportion:
/=/(1)

Cut-off
0.88
---0.35

Xu=
X1 =

4.04
1.75

m
m

Point where Stirrups are not needed:


By ratio and proportion:
Xu=
smax
/=(0.5)/(,
2)
, smax
X2
0.33(f^ =

4.04
2.90

m
m

0.33(f^

Design For Shear Reinforcement:


Vs

0.66(^ )bwd
50.95

360580.12 ok, proceed to smax


Maximum Spacing (smax):
a.) smax1=
245
mm
b.)smax2=
600
mm
c.)smax3=
355
mm
Use smax=

245

mm

Check for maximun spacing:


Vs

0.33(^ )bwd
0.33(^ )bwd

, smax /4 24"
, smax /2 24"

0.33(^ bwd

)
Vs

50.95

180.29
smax will not be halved!

Smax =
245
Actual Spacing (s):
s=
250
First Stirrup:
s1=
Stirrups:
1
7
Rest

Right
8mm

125

mm
mm

mm

@
@
@

Design For Shear:


At Left Support:
=
8
=
0.75
Factored Shear Force:
Vu=
108.20

, smax /2 24"

0.125
0.250
0.245

m
m
m

Shear Diagram:
mm s =
ACI CODE 2010
KN

Vs =

SAME
Shear Strength in Concrete:
Vc=
92.88
KN
Vc=
69.66
KN
34.83
KN
Vu/x0.5Vc=
u=Vc/(xu-x1)
Spacing (s) Required:
Av= 100.5312
S=
264.37
say:
270
Vu/x =(0.5Vc)/(x -

mm2
s = ()/(
mm )
mm

Shear Strenght in Steel:


Vs=
37.74

KN

Vs = ()/

Point of Minimum Stirrups starts:


By ratio and proportion:
/=/(1)

Xu=
X1 =

3.56
1.27

m
m

Point where Stirrups are not needed:


By ratio and proportion:
Xu=
/=(0.5)/(

3.56

2)

/=(0.5)/(
2)

X2 = , smax
2.41d/4m
24"

, smax d/2
Design For Shear Reinforcement:
0.33(f^
Vs

0.66(^ )bwd
0.33(f^
37.74

360580.12 ok, proceed to smax

Maximum Spacing (smax):


a.) smax1=
245
mm
b.)smax2=
600
mm
c.)smax3=
355
mm
Use smax=

245

mm

Check for maximun spacing:


0.33(^ )bwd
Vs

0.33(^ )bwd
Vs

37.74

180.29
smax will not be halved!
Smax =

245

, smax /2 24"

mm

Actual Spacing (s):


s=
250

mm

First Stirrup:
s1=

mm

125

, smax /4 24"

Stirrups:
1
5
Rest

@
@
@

0.065
0.250
0.245

Bar cut-off and Development Length:


Moment Diagram:

Theoritical Bar Cut-off Graph: Wight & macGregor "Reinforced Concrete",6th edition, pp.1102

As%= (As -As1)/As


x 100

Bar Cut-off (1/3 and 2/3 of bars that satisfy the ACI code)
As=
628.32
mm2 positive moment
2
As= s =(b-2(cover+
1256.64stirrup)mm
negative moment
ln= nbars(row))/(n-1)
7.20
m
Moment
x
(1/3)As
(2/3)As %As (cut-off) Factor
Positive
1
209.44
66.67
0.260
------------------Negative
2
418.88
66.67
0.102
* Refer to Theoritical Bar Cut-Off Graph
As%= (As -As1)/As
x 100
ld=18fyte/(25

Bar Spacing (s): clear spacing between parallel bars


s =(b-2(cover+stirrup)-

Choose whichever is

s=

14
mm
s < 2db, use other cases equation for ld
Factors (ACI CODE 2010):
t=
1
e=
1
s=
1
=
1
Developement Length:
ld=
0.82
mld=18fyte/(25
12db=
0.24
m
d=
0.49
m
use:
0.82
m Choose whichever is
Actual Bar Cut-Off from support:
X1actual=
m, X1 - development length
1.10

1 @ 0.065 m
16 @ 0.125 m
Rest @ 0.170
m

1@
11 @
m
Rest @

X2actual=

1.60

m, X2 + development length

Beam Details:
Beam Sections
Left
Midspan Right

Stirrups
Left
8mm

Right
8mm

1 @ 0.065 m
15 @ 0.125 m
Rest @ 0.170 m
O.C

1 @ 0.075 m
23 @ 0.150
m
Rest @ 0.170

*Closed Stirrups were used for the ease of construction*


*Safe & Aesthetic design acquires if beams are uniformly tied (Structral Integrity)
Section:
Vol =L x W x

No. bags =Volume x

Vol=Vsand x

Vol=Vgravel x

Estimate for Beam:


Total Volume of Concrete:
Vol.conc.=
0.911
m2

Class A Mixture:
Factor
Cement (40kg) 9.00
sand
0.50
Gravel
1.00

Use Class A Mixture (1:2:4)


No. of Bags of Cement:
No.bags=
8.1972
bags No. bags =Volume x
say:
9
Volume of Sand:
m3 Vol=Vsand x
Vsand=
0.4554
say:
1
Volume of Gravel:
m3 Vol=Vgravel x
Vgravel=
0.9108
say:
1

Reinforcing Bars:
Top bars:
7
Bot. bars:
5
Stirrups:
10
Summary:
Concrete
Works

Rebar
Works

bars (20mm)
bars (20mm)
bars (8mm)

RB-2
Item
Quantity
Cement
18
Sand
2
Gravel
2
Total
20mm x 6m DSB
24
8mm x 6m DSB
20
#16 Tie Wire (Kls)
4
Total

Unit Cost
220
600
600
605
73
58

Total
3,960.00
1,200.00
1,200.00
6,360.00
########
1,460.00
232.00
########

1+2)
)

+
2)

+2)

+ Ww

^ ))

e smaller

se rho new

(governs)

)/

e smaller

(governs)

m
m
m

6th edition, pp.1102

Cut-off
1.87
---0.73

1 @ 0.075 m
11 @ 0.150
m
Rest @ 0.170