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ABNT STANDARD LIFTING PURPOSES - SHACKLES

NBR 13545

1. Scope This standard specifies the general characteristics, performance and critical dimensions necessary for interchangeability and compatibility with other components of forged dee and bow shackles in a range of sizes having working load limits from 0.63 to 200 metric tons., and in grades M (4), T (8) and 10. In the case of dee shackles for use with forged steel lifting hooks (see ISO 4779 and 7597), it may be necessary to use intermediate components to make the connection. 2. References The following standards contain provisions, which through reference in this text constitute provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and agreements based on this standard shall investigate the possibility of applying the most recent edition of the standards indicated below. ABNT maintains registers of currently valid national standards. ISO 261:1998, ISO general-purpose metric screw threads - General plan ISO 263:1973, ISO inch screw threads - General plan and selection for screws, bolts and nuts - Diameter range 0.06 to 6 in. ISO 643:1983, Steels - Micrographic determination of the ferritic or austenitic grain size. ISO 2859-1:1989, Sampling plans and procedures for attribute inspection Procedure ISO 4779:1986, Forged steel lifting hooks with point and eye for use with steel chains of grade M (4). ISO 4948-1:1982, Steels - Classification - Part 1: Classification of steel into unalloyed and alloy steels based on chemical composition ISO 6506-1:1999, Metallic materials - Brinell hardness test Part 1: test method ISO 6508-1:1999. Metallic materials - Rockwell hardness test - Part 1: Test method scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T) ISO 7597:1987, Forged steel lifting hooks with point and eye for use with steel chains of grade T (8).

3. Definitions For the purposes of this standard, the following definitions apply. See also figures 1 and 2. 3.1 Shackle: a component for handling or attaching load consisting of two separate parts, the body and the pin. 3.2 Body: one of the two parts of the shackle consisting of a bar of suitable section formed or forged to the appropriate shape and terminating in coaxial eyes. 3.3 Crown: the part of the shackle body opposite to the pin. 3.4 Eyes: bosses on the ends of the body with coaxial holes through which the pin passes.
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ABNT STANDARD

NBR 13545

3.5 Pin: a straight bar of circular section which passes through the eyes, arranged so as to be secure when in position and that can be readily disassembled (see figures 1, 2 and 3). 3.6 Dee shackle: a shackle which crown forms a semicircle of internal radius equivalent to half the width between the eyes. 3.7 Bow shackle: a shackle which crown forms more than a semicircle of internal radius equivalent to more than half the width between eyes. 3.8 Ultimate strength: the maximum force reached during the static test of a shackle before it fails to retain the load. 3.9 Minimum ultimate strength: the minimum force that the shackle shall sustain without fracture. The shackle shall be capable of sustaining the load under the action of this force. 3.10 Proof force, Fe: the force applied as a test to a finished shackle, as specified on item 12. 3.11 Working load limit (WLL): the maximum weight the shackle is designed to sustain in regular service. 4. Shape and dimensions 4.1 Dee shackles The dimensions of dee shackles shall comply with the requirements shown on figure 1 and table 1. 4.2 Bow shackles The dimensions of bow shackles shall comply with the requirements shown on figure 2 and table 2. 4.3 Hole diameter The diameter of the unthreaded hole or holes in the body of the shackle shall not exceed the following values, where D is the actual pin diameter: a) b) c) Hole diameter for pins with diameter up to and including 20 mm: D + 1 mm; Hole diameter for pins with diameter greater than 20 mm and up to and including 45 mm: D + 1.5 mm; Hole diameter for pins with diameter greater than 45 mm: 1.05 x D.

4.4 Types of shackle pin The threaded shackle pin shown in figure 3 only illustrates typical examples of pins. Other suitable forms of pins are acceptable. The pins illustrated are of the following types. Type W: screwed with eye and collar (see figure 3a.) Type X: bolt with hexagonal head, hexagonal nut and split cotter pin (see figure

Other types of pin are designated as type Z for purposes of the designation system (see item 15).

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ABNT STANDARD

NBR 13545

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ABNT STANDARD

NBR 13545

5. Mechanical properties 5.1 General The mechanical properties of shackles in terms of proof force and ultimate strength shall be as specified in tables 1 and 2. 5.2 Proof force Each shackle tested in accordance with 11.2 shall be capable of sustaining the proof force specified in tables 1 and 2 with a permanent deformation not greater than 1% of the initial dimension or 0.5 mm, whichever is the greater. Also, the actual dimension L of the shackle body or a similar dimension measured between punch marks on the eyes and the crown shall not increase in excess of 0.25% or 0.5 mm, whichever is the greatest. The pin, after loosening, shall turn freely. 5.3 Ultimate strength Each shackle, tested in accordance with 11.3, shall have an ultimate strength at least equal to that specified in tables 1 and 2 without fracture or distortion that may void the its capacity of sustaining the load. Upon completion of the test, each shackle shall show evidence of deformation. 5.4 Fatigue resistance (grades T (8) and 10) Shackles with a working load limit up to and including 32 metric ton, shall be capable of sustaining the load when tested in accordance with 11.4 and after at least 20,000 cycles.

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ABNT STANDARD

NBR 13545

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ABNT STANDARD

NBR 13545

6. Material 6.1 General The steel shall be produced by electric or oxygen-blown process. The steel shall be made in conformity with fine grain practice in order to obtain an austenitic grain size of 5 (grades M (4) or T (8)) and 6 (grade 10) or finer when tested in accordance with ISO 643. This can be achieved, for example, by ensuring that it contains sufficient aluminum or an equivalent element to permit the manufacture of shackles stabilized against strain-age embrittlement during service; a minimum value of 0.025% (m/m) of total aluminum is given for guidance. 6.2 Specific requirements for grade M (4) In its finished state as supplied to the shackle manufacturer, the steel shall comply with the requirements specified in this clause, as determined by a cast analysis or check analysis on the bar or on the finished shackle. It is recommended the manufacturer to supply a cast analysis report if required by the purchase. The steel shall be fully killed, suitable for forging and capable of being heat treated to obtain the mechanical properties required by this standard. The sulfur and phosphorus contents in the steel shall be restricted to the specifications in table 3. Within the limitations specified above, it is the responsibility of the shackle manufacturer to select steel so that the finished shackle, suitably heat-treated, complies with the requirements for the mechanical properties specified in this standard for the grade of shackle. 6.3 Specific requirements for grades T (8) and 10. In its finished state, as supplied to the shackle manufacturer, the steel shall comply with the requirements specified in this clause, as determined by a cast or check analysis on the bar or on the finished shackle. The manufacturer shall supply a cast analysis of the steel if required by purchaser. The steel shall be fully killed, suitable for forging and contain alloying elements in sufficient quantity to guarantee the mechanical properties of the shackle after appropriate heat treatment. The steel for grade T (8) and 10 shackles shall contain at least two of following elements, in the alloy proportions specified on ISO 4948-1: nickel, chromium, molybdenum.

The sulfur and phosphorus contents in the steel shall be restricted as specified in table 3. Within the limitations specified above, it is the responsibility of the shackle manufacturer to select steel so that the finished shackle, suitably heat-treated, complies with the requirements for the mechanical properties specified in this Standard for the grade of shackle.
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ABNT STANDARD

NBR 13545

7. Heat treatment 7.1 Grade M (4) After forging the shackle shall be normalized or hardened and tempered. 7.2 Grades T (8) and 10 After forging the shackles shall be hardened to a temperature above the AC3 point and tempered before being subjected to the manufacturing proof force. The tempering temperature shall be a minimum of 400 deg.C. The tempering conditions shall be as effective as temperature of 400 deg.C maintained for a period of 1h. NOTE Method of verification: After the components in their finished condition are reheated to 400 deg.C, maintained for 1h and then cooled down to room temperature, they shall comply with the proof force and minimum ultimate strength of tables 1 and 2. Surface hardening shall not be permitted for load-bearing parts of the shackle. 8. Hardness 8.1 Hardness requirement The hardness values for shackles shall not exceed the values specified in table 4. 8.2 Hardness testing In order to determine Brinell hardness numbers, the tests shall be carried out in accordance with ISO 6506 using when possible a 10 mm steel ball and force of 29.42 kN (HBS, 10/3000). In order to determine Rockwell C hardness numbers, the tests shall be carried out in accordance with ISO 6508. Other methods of determining hardness may be used provided the values obtained, when converted to equivalent Brinell or Rockwell C values, comply with the requirements laid down in table 4. The surface on which the impression is to be made shall be obtained by filing, grinding or smooth machining, and shall be in a suitable position on the body (as shown on figures 1 and 2) and on the shackle pin. Special care shall be taken to assure that the surface to be tested actually represents the material, and it is not affected by excessive carbon, lack of carbon or by the method used for preparing the test surface.

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ABNT STANDARD

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ABNT STANDARD

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Table 3 Maximum content of phosphorus and sulfur, % m/m Element Sulphur Phosphorus Grade M (4) cast analysis 0.035 0.035 check analysis 0.04 0.04 Grade T (8) and 10 cast analysis 0.025 0.025 check analysis 0.03 0.03

Table 4 Hardness values Grade 4 8 10 Brinell hardness 217 380 420 Rockwell hardness 17 41 45

9. Workmanship The body shall be forged in one piece without welding. Holes in shackle bodies shall be aligned axially with each other and central to the outside diameter of the eyes. The pin shall be either forged or machine-finished, as necessary. It can be machined from a bar or subject to agreement between purchaser and manufacturer, or forged and suitably finished. The screwed portion of the pin shall be concentric with the main portion. The collar or head of the pin shall fit flat against the body of the shackle. When a threaded pin is fully tightened, the length of thread that remains visible between the jaws of the shackle shall not be greater than one thread and a half (e.g. in the case of type W pin). The length of the smooth portion of the bolt shall be such that when the nut is screwed onto the bolt it seats against the shoulder of the bolt and not on the shackle body (e.g. in the case of type X pin). In all cases when the pin is correctly fitted in the body of the shackle, the jaw width W shall not be significantly reduced. The finished shackle body and pin shall be free from any surface defects, including cracks and other defects. 10. Screw threads Unless otherwise specified screw threads shall conform to either ISO 261 or ISO 263 and they shall be class 6g/6H (medium fit). Other types of thread may be used provided that the strength of the shackle is not impaired.
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ABNT STANDARD

NBR 13545

11. Type testing 11.1 General Type tests demonstrate that shackles certified by manufacturer as in compliance with this Standard actually presents the mechanical properties specified herein. The purpose of these tests is to prove the design, material, heat treatment and method of manufacture of each size of finished shackle, as well as protective coating if applied. Type tests specified in 11.2 to 11.4 shall be carried out again if there is any change in the design, material specification, heat treatment, manufacturing method, including protective coating, if applied, or in any dimension outside normal manufacturing tolerances which may lead to a modification of the mechanical properties as defined in clause 5. All shackles subject to type-tests shall comply with all the other requirements of this Standard. The tests specified in 11.2 to 11.4 shall be carried out on each size of shackle of each design, material, heat treatment and manufacturing method as well as the protective coating, if applied. In the tests specified in 11.2 to 11.4, the force shall be axially applied to the crown of the body without shock, using a test machine fitting with diameter not greater than the actual diameter of the shackle pin. The force shall be applied to the center of the shackle pin, using a test machine fitting with width not exceeding the actual diameter of the pin. 11.2 Deformation test Three samples shall be tested and each shall be capable of sustaining the proof force specified on tables 1 and 2. After the test force has been removed, the shackle shall not present permanent deformation greater than 1% of the initial dimension. Additionally, the actual dimension L of the shackle body or a similar dimension measured between punch marks on the pin and the crown shall not increase in excess of 0.25% or 0.5 mm, whichever is greater. NOTE see also clause 12 for proof testing of shackles, where required. 11.3 Static strength test 11.3.1 WLL 100 metric ton NOTE This test may be carried out on the same shackles previously submitted to the deformation test. Three samples shall be tested and each shall have an ultimate strength at least equal to the minimum value specified on tables 1 and 2. The force shall be slowly applied until the minimum ultimate strength value is reached, remaining at this value until the gauge pointer of the machine stabilizes. Each shackle body and pin shall be capable of withstanding the force without fracture or distortion to the extent that shackles becomes incapable of sustaining the load. 11.3.2 WLL 100 metric ton

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ABNT STANDARD

NBR 13545

For shackles with a working load limit of over 100 metric ton the ultimate strength may be verified by calculation provided the shackles are of the same geometrical design and characteristics as those shackles with a working load limit of up to 100 metric ton that have been tested in accordance with 11.3.1. 11.4 Fatigue tests (Grades T (8) and 10; WLL 32 t) Shackles with a working load limit of up to and including 32 metric ton shall be submitted to fatigue test. Three samples shall be tested. The range applied during each cycle shall be equal to 1.5 times the working load limit specified in tables 1 and 2 for the shackle. The minimum force in each cycle shall be positive and less than or equal to 3 kN. The frequency of force application shall be between 3 Hz and 25 Hz. The samples tested shall be capable of sustaining at least 20,000 cycles of force without fail. 11.5 Acceptance criteria for type testing 11.5.1 Deformation test (see 11.2) All three samples tested shall pass the deformation test in order to the shackle be deemed as in compliance with this Standard. 11.5.2 Static strength test and fatigue test (see 11.3 and 11.4) If all three samples pass the test, the shackle complies with this Standard. If two or three samples fail to pass the test, the shackle does not comply with this Standard. 12. Proof test The finished shackles (i.e. after manufacture, heat treatment and machining, as well as protective coating, if applied) shall be submitted to the appropriate proof force specified in tables 1 and 2 and in accordance with annex A. The proof load shall be applied to the crown of the shackle and to the center of the pin by a test machine fitting with a diameter not greater than the actual diameter of the shackle pin. The force shall be slowly applied until the proof force value is reached, remaining at this value for at least one minute. After the proof force is removed, the requirements of 5.2 shall be verified. 13. Manufacturers certificate When the type test as specified in clause 11 has been carried out with satisfactory results, the manufacturer may issue certificates of conformity for shackles of the same nominal dimensions, size, material, heat treatment and manufacturing method, as well as the protective coating, if applied, as the shackles tested. The manufacturer shall keep a record, for at least 10 years after the last certificate has been issued, of the material specification, heat treatment, dimensions, test results and all relevant data

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ABNT STANDARD

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concerning the shackles which have satisfied the type tests. This record shall also include the manufacturing specifications, which apply to subsequent production. Any change in material specification, manufacturing method, heat treatment and protective coating if applied or in any dimension outside normal manufacturing tolerances which may lead to a modification of the mechanical properties as specified in clause 5 shall be considered as a design change. Tests in accordance with clause 11 shall be required before the manufacture issues certificate of compliance for any modified design. The manufacturer shall provide a certificate for each batch of shackles with the following data: a) b) c) d) e) quantity and description of the shackle; grade letter or number, i.e. M (4), T(8) or 10; traceability code to enable any particular shackles in the batch to be identified; proof force applied (see clause 12); working load limit in metric tons.

The certificate shall declare that each shackle complies with this Standard and is within the manufactures specification of the type-tested shackles. It shall also state the name and address of testing laboratory and name and position of the signatory. 14. Marking 14.1 Shackle body Each shackle shall be legibly marked in a manner that will not impair its mechanical properties. This marking shall present at least the following information: a) manufacturers identification mark or symbol; b) grade letter or number, in the case of shackles T(8) or 10; c) working load limit in metric tons; d) traceability code to enable any particular shackle or batch of shackles to be identified (mandatory for shackles with body diameter greater than 19 mm) 14.2 Shackle pins (grade T(8) and 10) Shackle pins with 13 mm and above shall be legibly marked with the grade number and manufacturers symbol in a manner that will not impair the mechanical properties of the pin. Pins with diameter below 13 mm shall be marked with at least the grade number.

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ABNT STANDARD

NBR 13545

15. Designation For reference and ordering purposes, shackles complying with this Standard may be designated as follows: Shackle NBR 13545 X YZ TN where X is the shackle grade, Y is the body type, Z is the type of shackle pin and TN is the nominal capacity in metric tons.

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ABNT STANDARD Annex A Sampling and acceptance criteria A.1 Dimensional inspection

NBR 13545

If no reference is made in the purchase document, the quantity of samples and the acceptance criteria of the dimensional characteristics mentioned in tables 1 and 2 shall be as per table A.1. A.2 Proof force The proof force test on shackles grades T(8) and 10 shall be performed according to table A.1. The proof force test on shackles grade M shall be performed according to table A.2. A.3 Minimum ultimate strength If the shackle lot has been approved on proof force tests in accordance with this Standard and the manufacturer has suitable process control and quality system, or if the product is subject to third party certification, the client shall wave the minimum ultimate strength test. However, if the performance of the test is required by the purchase document, the size of the sample and acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with table A.3. A.4 Hardness test Each shackle lot, after manufactured and heat treated, shall be submitted to hardness testing in order to verify compliance with table 4. The quantity of samples shall be per table A.4. Table A.1 Size of lots, quantity of samples and maximum permissible number of defectives shackles grades T(8) and 10 on proof force test Size of lot up to 50 51 to 150 151 to 280 281 to 500 501 to 1200
(1)

quantity of samples 5 20 32 50 80

maximum permissible number of defective shackles 0 1 2 3 5

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ABNT STANDARD

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Table A.2 Size of lots, quantity of samples and maximum permissible number of defectives shackles grade M on proof force test Size of lot up to 150 151 to 500 501 to 1200 (1) quantity of samples 5 20 32 maximum permissible number of defective shackles 0 1 2

Table A.3 Size of lots, quantity of samples and maximum permissible number of defectives shackles on minimum ultimate strength test Size of lot 25 26 to 50 51 to 500 500 and above quantity of samples 1 2 3 5 maximum permissible number of defective shackles 0 0 0 0

Table A.3 Size of lots, quantity of samples and maximum permissible number of defectives shackles on hardness test Size of lot 280 281 to 1200 (1) quantity of samples 8 32 maximum permissible number of defective shackles 0 1

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