INFORMATION GRAPHICS (INFOGRAPHICS

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Information graphics or infographics are graphic visual representations o in or!ation" #ata or $no%le#ge inten#e# to present co!ple& in or!ation 'uic$l( an# clearl()*+,*-, The( can i!prove cognition .( utili/ing graphics to enhance the hu!an visual s(ste!0s a.ilit( to see patterns an# tren#s) *1,*2, The process o creating in ographics can .e re erre# to as #ata visuali/ation" in or!ation #esign" or in or!ation architecture)*-,

OVERVIEW
In ographics have .een aroun# or !an( (ears an# recentl( the proli eration o a nu!.er o eas(3to3use" ree tools have !a#e the creation o in ographics availa.le to a large seg!ent o the population) Social !e#ia sites such as Face.oo$ an# T%itter have also allo%e# or in#ivi#ual in ographics to .e sprea# a!ong !an( people aroun# the %orl#) In ne%spapers" in ographics are co!!onl( use# to sho% the %eather" as %ell as !aps" site plans" an# graphs or statistical #ata) So!e .oo$s are al!ost entirel( !a#e up o in or!ation graphics" such as 4avi# Macaula(5s The Way Things Work) The Snapshots in 6SA To#a( are also an e&a!ple o si!ple in ographics use# to conve( ne%s an# current events) *7, Mo#ern !aps" especiall( route !aps or transit s(ste!s" use in ographic techni'ues to integrate a variet( o in or!ation" such as the conceptual la(out o the transit net%or$" trans er points" an# local lan#!ar$s) Pu.lic transportation !aps" such as those or the 8ashington Metro an# the 9on#on 6n#ergroun#" are %ell3$no%n in ographics) Pu.lic places such as transit ter!inals usuall( have so!e sort o integrate# :signage s(ste!: %ith stan#ar#i/e# icons an# st(li/e# !aps) In his +;<1 5lan#!ar$ .oo$5 The Visual Display of Quantitative Information " =#%ar# Tu te #e ines 5graphical #ispla(s5 in the ollo%ing passage> :Graphical #ispla(s shoul#> • sho% the #ata • in#uce the vie%er to thin$ a.out the su.stance rather than a.out !etho#olog(" graphic #esign" the technolog( o graphic pro#uction or so!ething else • avoi# #istorting %hat the #ata have to sa( • present !an( nu!.ers in a s!all space • !a$e large #ata sets coherent • encourage the e(e to co!pare #i erent pieces o #ata • reveal the #ata at several levels o #etail" ro! a .roa# overvie% to the ine structure) • serve a reasona.l( clear purpose> #escription" e&ploration" ta.ulation or #ecoration) • .e closel( integrate# %ith the statistical an# ver.al #escriptions o a #ata set) Graphics reveal #ata) In#ee# graphics can .e !ore precise an# revealing than conventional statistical co!putations):*?, 8hile conte!porar( in ographics o ten #eal %ith 5'ualitative5 or so t su.@ects" generall( spea$ing Tu te5s +;<1 #e inition still spea$s" in a .roa# sense" to %hat in ographics are" an# %hat the( #o33%hich is to con#ense large a!ounts o in or!ation into a or! %here it %ill .e !ore easil( a.sor.e# .( the rea#er)

out the rotation o the sunA In ographics appeare# in the or! o illustrations #e!onstrating the Sun0s rotation patterns) In +B.on#s an# !athe!atical properties)*++.ar an# pie charts" #epicting the nu!.ination o stac$e# .les that contri. His !aps inclu#e# share# ra!es" agree# !ap legen#s" scales" repeata.oo$ The Commercial and olitical !tlas ) To represent the econo!( o +<th Centur( =nglan#" Pla( air use# statistical graphs" .@ect o Napoleon5s #isastrous !arch on Mosco%) The graphic0s creator" Charles Goseph Minar#" capture# our #i erent changing varia.les that contri. Graph Theor( +B1?3+.@ect o Napoleon5s #isastrous !arch on Mosco%) The graphic0s creator" Charles Goseph Minar#" capture# our #i erent changing varia.ute# to Napoleon0s #o%n all in a single t%o3 #i!ensional i!age> the ar!(5s #irection as the( travele#" the location the troops passe# through" the si/e o the ar!( as troops #ie# ro! hunger an# %oun#s" an# the ree/ing te!peratures the( e&perience#) Ga!es Goseph S(lvester intro#uce# the ter! :graph: in +<B< in the scienti ic !aga/ine Nature an# pu.( Carl Ritter)*<.ar charts" line graphs an# histogra!s) In his %or$" Statistical "reviary" he is cre#ite# %ith intro#ucing the irst area chart an# pie chart)*B.lishe# the Rosa Ursina sive Sol" a .( Charles San#ers PeirceDconsisting o s(!.ines sign s(ste!sDas #e ine# .lishe# .ilit(" an# i#elit() Such a !ap can .ute# to Napoleon0s #o%n all in a single t%o3 #i!ensional i!age> the ar!(5s #irection as the( travele#" the location the troops passe# through" the si/e o the ar!( as troops #ie# ro! hunger an# %oun#s" an# the ree/ing te!peratures the( e&perience#) .er an# causes o #eaths #uring each !onth o the Cri!ean 8ar) +<?+ sa% the release o an in luential in or!ation graphic on the su.oo$ that reveale# his research a.e seen in the %or$s o geographers Ritter an# Ale&an#er von Hu!. Other e&a!ples can .HISTORY Early In +?-?" Christoph Scheiner pu.e consi#ere# a :supersign: %hich co!..lishe# a set o #iagra!s sho%ing the relationship . chart" a co!.ols" icons" in#e&es as representations) *.1?" pp) ?7) These %ere also so!e o the irst !athe!atical graphs) 20th Century +<?+ sa% the release o an in luential in or!ation graphic on the su.et%een che!ical . Aroun# +<-C" !o#ern geograph( %as esta.lishe# the irst #ata graphs in his .C" 8illia! Pla( air" an engineer an# political econo!ist" pu.ol#t)*+C. In +<7B" =nglish nurse Florence Nightingale use# in or!ation graphics to persua#e Eueen Fictoria to i!prove con#itions in !ilitar( hospitals) The principal one she use# %as the Co&co!.

Ga!es Goseph S(lvester intro#uce# the ter! :graph: in +<B< in the scienti ic !aga/ine Nature an# pu.on#s an# !athe!atical properties)*++.1) As o -C+-" Tu te still gives these lectures) *+7.egan to give #a(3long lectures an# %or$shops on the su.1?" pp) ?7) These %ere also so!e o the irst !athe!atical graphs) In +.le a vie%er to see tren#s an# patterns in the #ata) Tu te0s contri.een applie# to co!!onl( use# co!puter s(ste!s" inclu#ing #es$top pu.oo$s" such as Information !n$iety" helpe# propel the phrase :in or!ation #esign: ro! a concept to a @o.e un#erstan#a.i'uitous in co!puting in the -+st Centur(" #ata visuali/ations have .( The Ne% Hor$ Ti!es as the I#a Finci o 4ataJ" Tu te .an# +. Re erre# to .ution to the iel# o #ata visuali/ation an# in ographics is consi#ere# i!!ense" an# his #esign principles can .eings" %ho %oul# have no conception o hu!an language) A pioneer in #ata visuali/ation" =#%ar# Tu te" %rote a series o .le to e&traterrestrial .out the origin o the spacecra t) The i!ages %ere #esigne# .( Peter Sullivan or The Sun#a( Ti!es in the +.<-" esta.lishe# a set o #iagra!s sho%ing the relationship .lishing an# Geographic In or!ation S(ste!s (GIS)) Closel( relate# to the iel# o in or!ation graphics is in or!ation #esign" %hich is the creation o in ographics) Author an# oun#er o the T=4" Richar# Saul 8ur!an" is consi#ere# the originator o the phrase :in or!ation architect: an# !an( o his .sites" !aga/ines" an# ne%spapers to#a()*+?.ols that %ere inten#e# to provi#e in or!ation a.oo$s 3 Visual #$planations" The Visual Display of Quantitative Information " an##nvisioning Information 3 on the su. The in ographics create# .ute# in +.@ect o in or!ation graphics) *+-.eco!ing u. 2 st Century .@ect o in ographics starting in +.BCs" +.*+1.B.et%een che!ical .lishe# the goal o using graphics to !a$e in or!ation easier to co!prehen#) Ho%ever" the paper has receive# criticis! or oversi!pli (ing ne%s stories an# or creating in ographics that so!e in# e!phasi/e entertain!ent over content an# #ata) Tu te coine# the ter! chart@un$ to re er to graphics that are visuall( appealing to the point o losing the in or!ation containe# %ithin the!) 8ith vector graphics an# raster graphics .( Carl Sagan an# Fran$ 4ra$e an# %ere uni'ue in that their graphical !eanings %ere to .*+2. categor()*+B..Cs %ere so!e o the $e( actors in encouraging ne%spapers to use !ore in ographics) Sullivan is also one o the e% authors %ho have %ritten a.<Cs" an# +. To Tu te" goo# #ata visuali/ations represent ever( #ata point accuratel( an# ena.e seen in !an( %e.B1" respectivel(" the Pioneer +C an# Pioneer ++ spacecra t inclu#e# on their vessels the Pioneer Pla'ues" a pair o gol#3ano#i/e# alu!inu! pla'ues" each eaturing a pictorial !essage) The pictorial !essages inclu#e# nu#e !ale an# e!ale igures as %ell as s(!.out in or!ation graphics in ne%spapers) 9i$e%ise the sta artists at 6SA To#a(" the 6nite# States ne%spaper that #e.. Graph Theor( +B1?3+.

@ect as the( e&plore the graphic) Man( .an# at its pea$ 1"1?7 ti!es in a span o -2 hours)*-2.e Flash" such as HTM9 7 an# CSS1" in ographics are no% create# in a variet( o !e#ia %ith a nu!. an# have .sites have also use# interactive in or!ation graphics in %hich the user can e&tract in or!ation on a su. 8ith the popularit( o social !e#ia" in ographics have .e co!ple& in or!ation e icientl() 8ith the rise o alternatives to A#o.e Flash3..er o so t%are tools)*+.e use# to point to certain #ata" although the( are not al%a(s oun# in in ographics) Statistics an# acts .eco!e a tool or internet !ar$eters an# co!panies to create content that others %ill lin$ to" thus possi. The visual consists o colors an# graphics) There are t%o #i erent t(pes o graphics N the!e an# re erence) The!e graphics are inclu#e# in all in ographics an# represent the un#erl(ing visual representation o the #ata) Re erence graphics are generall( icons that can . The iel# o @ournalis! has also incorporate# an# applie# in or!ation graphics to ne%s stories) For stories that inten# to inclu#e te&t" i!ages" an# graphics" the s(ste! calle# the !aestro conceptallo%s entire ne%sroo!s to colla. inter aces" covering an( nu!.l( .et%een users o social net%or$s such as Face.usinesses use in ographics as a tool or co!!unicating %ith an# attracting potential custo!ers)*-C. Si!ilarl(" in -CC2" a television co!!ercial or the Frenchenerg( co!pan( Areva use# ani!ate# in ographics as an a#vertising tactic) Koth o these vi#eos an# the attention the( receive# have conve(e# to other iel#s the potential value in using in or!ation graphics to #escri.( the Nor%egian !usicians o RL($sopp" or their song :Re!in# Me): The vi#eo %as co!pose# entirel( o ani!ate# in ographics) *+<.er o topics) Such in ographics are o ten share# .us( rea#ers o !e#ia) Man( ne%s . In ographics are in#ing a ho!e in the classroo! as %ell) Courses that teach stu#ents to create their o%n in ographics using a variet( o tools !a( encourage engage!ent in the classroo! an# !a( lea# to a .eco!e popular" o ten as static i!ages or si!ple %e.K( the (ear -CCC" A#o.egan to incorporate in ographics into the vie%ers0 e&periences in the earl( -CCCs) One e&a!ple o in ographics usage in television an# in pop culture is the -CC!usic vi#eo . In or!ation graphics are a or! o content !ar$eting*-+.ase# ani!ations on the Internet ha# !a#e use o !an( $e( practices in creating in ographics in or#er to create a variet( o pro#ucts an# ga!es) 9i$e%ise" television .etter un#erstan#ing o the concepts the( are !apping onto the graphics)*-1.oo$" T%itter" an# Re##it) The hashtag Min ographic %as t%eete# 7?"B?7 ti!es in March -C+.ase# %e. !nalysis The three parts o all in ographics are the visual" the content" an# the $no%le#ge) *-7.orate an# organi/e a stor( to success ull( incorporate all co!ponents) Across !an( ne%sroo!s" this tea!%or$3integrate# s(ste! is applie# to i!prove ti!e !anage!ent) The !aestro s(ste! is #esigne# to i!prove the presentation o stories or .oosting a co!pan(5s reputation an# online presence)*--.

eco!es !ost i!portant" ollo%e# .ut is ollo%e# irst .er o consi#erations !ust .@ect3!atter !ore accessi.. =ach o these can .( the in ographic) The or#er o i!portance o these provisions #epen#s on the purpose o the in ographic) I the in ographic is !eant to conve( in or!ation in an un. There ore" the #esigners o ten spatiall( represent the !ost i!portant relationship .usuall( serve as the content or in ographics" an# can .e consi#ere# irst" then retention" an# inall( appeal) Ho%ever" i the in ographic is .e o.iase# %a(" such as in the #o!ains o aca#e!ia or science" co!prehension shoul# .et%een #i erent t(pes o #ata) Ho%ever" stu#ies have sho%n that spatial position is the !ost e ective %a( to represent nu!erical #ata an# lea#s to the astest an# easiest un#erstan#ing .e !a#e relevant to a ne% au#ience through a gui#ance #esign techni'ue that lea#s the e(e) The page !a( lin$ to a !ore co!plete report" .tain in or!ation ro! te&t)*-.( vie%ers)*1.e a.ecause o their visual ele!ent) Hu!ans receive input ro! all ive o their senses (sight" touch" hearing" s!ell" taste)" .eing use# or e#itorial purposes" such as in a ne%spaper" appeal is again !ost i!portant" .ut the( receive signi icantl( !ore in or!ation ro! vision than an( o the other our) *-?.taine# ro! an( nu!. Further!ore" it is esti!ate# that ?7O o the population are visual learners (as oppose# to au#itor( or $inesthetic)" so the visual nature o in ographics caters to a large portion o the population) *-. Fi t( percent o the hu!an . In ographics are e ective .ute# to the increasing popularit( an# e ectiveness o in ographics) *-<.( retention an# co!prehension) 8hen in ographics are . 8hen the varieties o actors liste# a.ut processes te&t in a linear ashion" !eaning it ta$es !uch longer to o.ove are ta$en into consi#eration %hen #esigning in ographics" the( can .( co!prehension an# then retention) *-.eing #epicte# in an in ographic) There are also three .e a highl( e icient an# e ective %a( to conve( large a!ounts o in or!ation in a visual !anner) "ata#Visuali$ation . =ntire .le) *-B. Appeal is the i#ea that the co!!unication nee#s to engage its au#ience) Co!prehension i!plies that the vie%er shoul# .usiness processes or in#ustr( sectors can .er o sources" inclu#ing census #ata an# ne%s reports) One o the !ost i!portant aspects o in ographics is that the( contain so!e sort o insight into the #ata that the( are presenting N this is the $no%le#ge)*-7.er the #ata presente# ..asic provisions o co!!unication that nee# to . 8hen #esigning the visual aspect o an in ographic" a nu!.e utili/e# in its o%n %a( to represent relationships .e assesse# %hen #esigning an in ographic N appeal" co!prehension" an# retention) *-. Online tren#s" such as the increasingl( short attention span o Internet users" has also contri.rain processes pictures all at once" .e !a#e to opti!i/e the e ectiveness o the visuali/ation) The si& co!ponents o visual enco#ing are spatial" !ar$s" connection" enclosure" retinal properties" an# te!poral enco#ing)*2.ut the in ographic pri!es the rea#er !a$ing the su.rain is #e#icate# to visual unctions" an# i!ages are processe# aster than te&t) The .eing use# or co!!ercial purposes" then appeal .le to easil( un#erstan# the in or!ation that is presente# to the!) An# inall(" retention !eans that the vie%er shoul# re!e!.

ers an# !a$e it #i icult to accuratel( interpret tren#s) An alternative to stac$e# graphs is s!all !ultiples) Instea# o stac$ing each area chart" each series is in#ivi#uall( sho%n so the overall tren#s o each sector are !ore easil( interprete#) Hori/on graphs are a space e icient !etho# to increase the #ata #ensit( o a ti!e3series %hile preserving resolution) *1C. Time#Series Ti!e3series #ata is one o the !ost co!!on or!s o #ata visuali/ation) It #ocu!ents sets o values over ti!e) =&a!ples o graphics in this categor( inclu#e in#e& charts" stac$e# graphs" s!all !ultiples" an# hori/on graphs) In#e& charts are i#eal to use %hen ra% values are less i!portant than relative changes) It is an interactive line chart that sho%s percentage changes or a collection o ti!e3series #ata . .4ata visuali/ations are o ten use# in in ographics an# !a( !a$e up the entire in ographic) There are !an( t(pes o visuali/ations that can .utions" !aps" hierarchies" an# net%or$ing)*1C.ase# on a selecte# in#e& point) For e&a!ple" stoc$ investors coul# use this .( ta$ing into consi#eration graphical eatures such as position" si/e" shape" an# color) There are pri!aril( ive t(pes o visuali/ation categories N ti!e3series #ata" statistical #istri.e use# to represent the sa!e set o #ata) There ore it is crucial to i#enti ( the appropriate visuali/ation or the #ata set an# in ographic .ecause the( are less concerne# %ith the speci ic price an# !ore concerne# %ith the rate o gro%th) Stac$e# graphs are area charts that are stac$e# on top o each other" an# #epict aggregate patterns) The( allo% vie%ers to see overall patterns an# in#ivi#ual patterns) Ho%ever" the( #o not support negative nu!.

ers are #istri.inne# .( a circle an# the si/ePcolor is #irectl( proportional to other in or!ation" such as population si/e)*1C.ase# on the irst signi icant #igit" an# %ithin each stac$ .ute#) Co!!on e&a!ples inclu#e histogra!s an# .3 sections) An alternative is a#@acenc( #iagra!s" %hich is a space3 illing variant o the no#e3 lin$ #iagra!) Instea# o #ra%ing a lin$ .les in t%o #i!ensions" the #ata is repeate#l( plotte# on a parallel a&is an# correspon#ing points are then connecte# %ith a line) The a#vantage o parallel coor#inates is that the( are relativel( co!pact" allo%ing !an( varia.et%een hierarchies" no#es are #ra%n as soli# areas %ith su. Hierarchies Man( #ata sets" such as spatial entities o countries or co!!on structures or govern!ents" can .o&3an#3%his$er plots" %hich conve( statistical eatures such as !ean" !e#ian" an# outliers) In a##ition to these co!!on in ographics" alternatives inclu#e ste!3an#3lea plots" E3E plots" scatter plot !atrices (SP9OM) an# parallel coor#inates) For assessing a collection o nu!.e help ul) The nu!.inne# again .ols" such as pie charts or each area" over a !ap) This !ap allo%s or !ore #i!ensions to .Statistical Statistical #istri.ers an# ocusing on re'uenc( #istri.les) Another statistical #istri.ase# on the secon# signi icant #igit) On the other han#" E3E plots co!pare t%o pro.ution" ste!3an#3lea plots can .les) It uses !ultiple scatter plots to represent a pair%ise relation a!ong varia.ranches o into !ultiple su.e organi/e# into natural hierarchies) No#e3lin$ #iagra!s" a#@acenc( #iagra!s" an# enclosure #iagra!s are all t(pes o in ographics that e ectivel( co!!unicate hierarchical #ata) No#e3lin$ #iagra!s are a popular !etho# #ue to the ti#( an# space3e icient results) A no#e3lin$ #iagra! is si!ilar to a tree" %here each no#e .e #epicte# through the use o lo% !aps) 9ine stro$es are use# %ith various %i#ths an# colors to help enco#e in or!ation) Choropleth !aps" %hich enco#e #ata through color an# geographical region" are also co!!onl( use#) Gra#uate# s(!.ol !aps are another !etho# to represent geographical #ata) The( are an alternative to choropleth !ap an# use s(!.e sho%n si!ultaneousl() *1C.ution approach to visuali/e !ultivariate #ata is parallel coor#inates) Rather than graphing ever( pair o varia.les to . .ers are .ase# on ho% nu!.e easil( represente# than in the no#e3lin$ #iagra!s) =nclosure #iagra!s are also a space3 illing visuali/ation !etho#) Ho%ever" the( uses contain!ent rather than a#@acenc( to represent the hierarch() Si!ilar to the a#@acenc( #iagra!" the si/e o the no#e is easil( represente# in this !o#el) *1C.le) Instea# o using a geographic !ap" regions are re#ra%n proportionall( to the #ata) For e&a!ple" each region can .3sections insi#e o each section) This !etho# allo%s or si/e to .ilit( #istri.utions reveal tren#s .( graphing 'uantiles against each other) This allo%s the vie%er to see i the plot values are si!ilar an# i the t%o are linearl( relate#) SP9OM is a techni'ue that represents the relationships a!ong !ultiple varia.e represente# using various shapes" si/e" an# color) Cartogra!s" on the other han#" co!pletel( #istort the shape o a region an# #irectl( enco#e a #ata varia. %aps Maps are a natural %a( to represent geographical #ata) Ti!e an# space can .a.utions .e represente# .

sites an# tools that can .e create# %ith general illustration so t%are" such as A#o.een create#" allo%ing users to create in ographics ro! pre3#esigne# te!plates" a## custo! #ata" an# share in ographics an# charts on the %e.e #o%nloa#e# or the #es$top or use# online) It also inclu#es a nu!.ine !ultiple t(pes into one graphic" along %ith other eatures" such as illustrations an# te&t) So!e !o#ern in ographics #o not even contain #ata visuali/ation" an# instea# are si!pl( a color ul an# succinct %a(s to present $no%le#ge) Fi t(3three percent o the 1C !ost3vie%e# in ographics on the in ographic sharing site visual)l( #i# not contain actual #ata)*1+. or #o%nloa# as pictures or placing in presentations) 4iagra!s can . 8hile all o these visuali/ations can .scription to use) As the search volu!e or in ographics has increase# .lishes in ographics in an HTM9 or!at %hich !a$es their in ographics .eco!e too cluttere#) *1C.lishers e&pect in ographics to .er o te!plates to get users starte# on their #iagra!s) A##itionall(" it allo%s users to colla.e e ectivel( use# on their o%n" !an( !o#ern in ographics co!.( han# using si!ple ever(#a( tools such as graph paper" pencils" !ar$ers" an# rulers) Ho%ever" to#a( the( are !ore o ten create# using co!puter so t%are" %hich is o ten .e perceive# rapi#l() 8hile this !etho# !a$es it har# to vie% the path o the no#es" there are no line crossings" %hich in a large an# highl( connecte# net%or$ can 'uic$l( .eco!e a critical tool or tra ic ac'uisition an# client e#ucation or !an( co!panies) 8hile Gli ( o ers an open plat or!" other tools such as Pi$tochart" are $no%n or provi#ing a plat or! %ith te!plates" icons" an# rea#(!a#e #esigns structure# in a or!at that is !ore attune# to the conventions o internet pu.lishers33 or e&a!ple !ost pu.oth aster an# easier) The( can .er o speciali/e# %e.( <CCO ro! -C+C3-C+-" in ographics have .e Illustrator or the ree%are In$scape) There are also a nu!.orate on #iagra!s in real ti!e over the Internet) Gli ( is a si!ilar #iagra! creation tool that re'uires a pai# su.e ?CC pi&els %i#e" to eature highl( st(li/e# onts an# i!ages etc) Pi$tochart aslo pu.e !anuall( create# an# #ra%n using 9uci#chart" %hich can .ri#ges are easil( i#enti ie# in this la(out) Alternativel(" !athe!aticians an# co!puter scientists !ore o ten use !atri& vie%s) =ach value has an (&"() value in the !atri& that correspon#s to a no#e) K( using color an# saturation instea# o te&t" values associate# %ith the lin$s can .e use# to construct in ographics) Several online in ographics creators have .e create# .&et'or(s Net%or$ visuali/ation e&plores relationships" such as rien#ships an# cli'ues) Three co!!on t(pes are orce3#irecte# la(out" arc #iagra!s" an# !atri& vie%) Force3#irecte# la(outs are a co!!on an# intuitive approach to net%or$ la(out) In this s(ste!" no#es are si!ilar to charge# particles" %hich repel each other) 9in$s are use# to pull relate# no#es together) Arc #iagra!s are one3#i!ensional la(outs o no#es %ith circular arcs lin$ing each no#e) 8hen use# properl(" %ith goo# or#er in no#es" cli'ues an# . TOO)S In ographics can .

.-++<) 1) . 6SA To#a( Snapshots) http>PPusato#a(1C)usato#a()co!Pne%sPsnapshot)ht! ?) -ump up. +st Kerlin S(!posiu! on Internet an# Societ(" I9earnings ro! Ale&an#er von Hu!.)) In or!ation visuali/ation) In A) Sears S G) A) Gac$o (=#s))" Hu!an3 Co!puter Interaction> 4esign Issues" Solutions" an# Applications (pp) 7+C3721)) Koca Raton" F9> CRC Press) 7) -ump up.rea#a.le . Kiggs" N)" 9lo(#" T)" S 8ilson" R) (+. Tu te" =#%ar# R) (+.al #ata ro! sources such as the O=C4 an# 8orl# Kan$ are .site an# #es$top progra! Gap!in#er) 6sers can vie% an# custo!i/e in ographics o %orl# #ata such as . Tu te" =#%ar# (+.lic is a #o%nloa#a.et%een Gap!in#er an# Google Pu.le progra! that auto!aticall( parses #atasets %hen users uploa# the!) It then suggests visuali/ations o the #ata an# allo%s the user to custo!i/e the in ographic using a si!ple #rag3an#3#rop inter ace) 6sers !a( also si!ultaneousl( !a$e a nu!.ase# on input ro! nu!erous people) A %ealth o glo.-+2-) B) -ump up.ol#t an# Carl Ritter to%ar#s the Gran# Glo.3?B) 2) R Gu!p up to>a b Car#" Scott (-CC..1B) Historical 4evelop!ent o the Graphical Representation o Statistical 4ata) Osiris" Fol) 1)" pp) -?.lic 4ata =&plorer" %hich is a large online repositor( o pu.) Man(=(es is a pro@ect .ar an# line graphs) There are a nu!. Ken$ing" Heiner" I6sing Maps an# Mo#els" SuperSigns an# SuperStructursJ" -CC7) *+.al Mo#ern Co!!unication ChallengesJ) ++) -ump up.)) +-) -ump up.?+1.irth rates an# G4P) It %as .<1)) The Visual Display of Quantitative Information) Cheshire" Conneticut> Graphics Press) ISKN C.) -ump up.out MeQ The site 8or#le allo%s users to provi#e te&t an# create %or# clou#s ro! it) RE*ERE&CES++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +) .oration plat or! or in ographics" allo%ing the! to change over ti!e .een e&pensive" re'uiring the intervention o a #eveloper to achieve) Ta.le #ata ro! resources such as the 6)S) Census Kureau" the 8orl# Resources Institute" an# =urostat) 6sers can also uploa# their o%n #atasets) 6sers can select speci ic #ata ro! a set" an# the site %ill create visuali/ations o the #ata in the or! o #i erent graphs" such as .leau Pu. This e&plains so!e o the si!ilarities .licl( availa. H) Gra( Fun$houser (+.e use# to create a visuali/ation .( changing the scale" a&es" an# other varia. +C) -ump up.( IKM that allo%s users to create visuali/ations ro! either their o%n or other users0 uploa#e# #atasets) The( can then share their visuali/ations %ith all the other users" %ho can co!!ent on an# !o#i ( the visuali/ation) It is !eant as a sharing an# colla..les) There are also nu!erous tools to create ver( speci ic t(pes o visuali/ations) The Photo Stats App an# InFoto can .e##e# #ata in the photos on a user0s s!artphone) 6sers can create an in ographic o their resu!e using visuali/e)!e or a Ipicture o their #igital li eJ using Intel0s 8hat A.N2C2) <) -ump up.?+1.C)) #nvisioning Information) ISKN C.er o in ographics using #i erent parts o the sa!e #ataset) It provi#es users %ith HTM9 o their in ographic so that the( can share it on the %e. The Pro ession o Geograph(> Ale&an#er von Hu!.uilt into the %e. 4oug Ne%so! an# Gi! Ha(nes (-CC2)) u%lic Relations Writing& 'orm and Style) p)-1?) -) R Gu!p up to>a b c d Mar$ S!ici$las (-C+-)) The Po%er o In ographics> 6sing Pictures to Co!!unicate an# Connect %ith Hour Au#ience) R Gu!p up to>a b Heer" G)" Kostoc$" M)" S Ogievets$e(" F) (-C+C)) A tour through the visuali/ation /oo) Co!!unications o the ACM" 71(?)" 7.ase# on e!.er o options or users to tailor the visuali/ation .( search engines33a eature that ha# previousl( .uilt on a plat or! calle# Tren#al(/er" %hich %as sol# to Google in -CCB)*1-.ol#t an# Carl Ritter .

usinesses use in ographicsQJ" %ashingtonpost)co!" April <" -C+-) *7. -+) -ump up. Tu te" =#%ar# R) (+. Tha/an" Olga" IHo% can .east)co!" March . Fre(!ann38e(r" Ge re(" I=#%ar# Tu te" O ering UKeauti ul =vi#ence0J" NPR)org" August -C" -CC?) *-. -# R!-I)R#V-report-/010122343/05+ D') Retrieve# ? 4ece!. Fan Sle!. :8hat is an In ographicJ" http>PP%%%)custo!er!agnetis!)co! -7) R Gu!p up to>a b IThe Anato!( o an In ographic> 7 Steps to Create a Po%er ul FisualJ -?) -ump up.ait an# In ographics:) 4istille#) Retrieve# -C+-3CB3+.Real-estate-in-the-real-economy-.) The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (-n# e#))) ISKN C. +B) -ump up.) -1) -ump up. Ro!ano" An#re%" IHo% Master In or!ation 4esigner =#%ar# Tu te Can Help O. :The Anato!( o Creating Great In ographics:) Fenture Har.<1.uil# (our in ographics in HTM97 an# CSS1):) Paul Rouget) Retrieve# -C+-3CB3 +C) -C) -ump up.media.+1) -ump up.) Retrieve# . http>PPvi!eo)co!P--<7.B)) Visual #$planations& Images and Quantities( #vidence and )arrative) ISKN C.?+1. :8h( (ou shoul# . . +?) -ump up.Septe!. 4avi# McCan#less (-C+C)) The Keaut( o 4ata Fisuali/ation) T=4 Tal$ -B) -ump up.a!a GovernJ" the#ail(. Ros!arin" Rachel" IGoogle Ku(s 4ata Fisuali/ation So t%areJ" For.?+1.-+2-) +2) -ump up.) +.. +<) -ump up.-+-?) +7) -ump up.) -ump up. Hachani" Tari!) :8h( #o %e love in ographicsQ:) Pepper%e.) -ump up. MacEuarrie" Ashle(" IIn ographics in =#ucationJ" Gul( +C" -C+-2) -ump up." -C+C) *1.es)co!" March +?" -CCB) *B.ull" 4o!inic) :=PRA real econo!( in ographic:) ***+epra+com. :S=O Gui#e to Creating Firal 9in$.rouc$" Paul" IAnal(/ing the Top 1C In ographics on Fisuall(J" Gune -C+-) *?.er -C+1) R Gu!p up to>a b Gason 9an$o%" Gosh Ritchie" Ross Croo$s (-C+-)) In ographics> The Po%er o Fisual Stor(telling 1C) R Gu!p up to>a b c d e f Heer" G)" Kostoc$" M)" S Ogievets$(" F) (-C+C)) A tour through the visuali/ation /oo) Co!!unications o the ACM" 71(?)" 7. 1-) -ump up. Tne!e(er" 4ir$" IRichar# Saul 8ur!an> The In o4esign Intervie%J" Ganuar( -CC2) *2.our) Retrieve# -C+13+C3-B) --) -ump up.3?B) 1+) -ump up. Tu te" =#%ar# R) (-CC+) *+st Pu. Turn.C+.er -C+-) -<) -.

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