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Chapter 2: Human Resources
2.1 Human Resource Planning 2.2 Organizational Structure 2.3 Communication 2.4 Leadership and Management 2.5 Motivation 2.6 Organizational and Corporate Culture 2.7 Employer and Employee Relations 2.8 Crisis Management and Contingency Planning
Unit 2.1: Human Resource Planning
Many say that people are a firm‟s most valuable resource and recruiting the right people helps businesses to achieve their aims and objectives. To do this, a firm requires human resource planning – preempting the future HR needs of the firm by looking at: Historical data and trends Sale and income levels Labor turnover rates Demographic changes Technological changes „Human Resources‟ refers to the management of people within an organization. This entails: Workforce planning Recruitment, selection and induction Training and development Performance management and appraisals Staff promotion and relocation Reviewing remuneration Disciplinary and grievance procedures Employee welfare
Supply of Human Resources and Demographic Changes
The supply of human resources in a country is affected by demographic changes, which are caused by changes in: Net birth rate (the difference between births and deaths) – a higher birth rate means a larger supply of human resources Net migration rate (the difference between immigrants and emigrants) – the effects is the same as above Retirement age (the age at which can claim a pension) – if raised, the workforce will grow Workforce flexibility (staff able to adapt to change) Women entering the workforce – will boost HR supply Mobility of Labour (the extent to which they can move locations and/or jobs) – higher mobility creates higher supply Labour Mobility Limitations (geographic): Friends and family ties hold back movement for most Relocation is costly Language and cultural differences are limiting Fear of the unknown Limitations (occupational): Younger workers are more confident and flexible Some workers are highly specialized and struggle to find jobs Employer discrimination
HR supply is also affected by: Internal workforce (existing employees) – if highly skilled and flexible, the need to hire is lowered Cost of living – this may deter relocation Transport – accessible areas tend to attract workers Unemployment Rate Population longevity can create an ageing population. Effects include: Increased dependent population – those out of working age who are dependent on taxpayers Reduced labour mobility – with a greater amount of elderly (who tend to be immobile) reduces international competitiveness Changing consumption patterns – a predominantly elderly population creates opportunities to cater for their consumption Changing employment patterns – an ageing population means firms are more likely to retain staff beyond retirement age due to labor shortage, some firms might even consider relocation (due to shortage)
This is the process of anticipating the current and future demand for workers in an organization (short-term or long-term): Short-term: existing and upcoming demand including hiring cover staff Long term: needs in the foreseeable future, e.g. Disney hired and trained employees two years before the opening of Disneyland Hong Kong Human resource needs requires consideration of labour demand, which depends on several factors: Historical data, from which we can identify trends – e.g. labour turnover rates – if a drop is predicted in the next year, HR can begin recruitment Flexibility and workloads, of staff helps determine demand – capable staff can handle increased workload and skilled workers may be able to be reassigned rather than hire a new employee to fill a position Capital intensity, an automated business may be able to increase output without new workers by the use of capital goods Work study, a measurement tool estimating the most efficient number of staff to complete a task Derived demand, the need for labour in areas becoming increasingly popular Natural wastage, when an old employees position isn’t filled Before recruitment, managers should undertake job analysis, detailing: The skills and training required to do the job Qualifications and personal qualities required to do the job The rewards needed to recruit and retain the post holder This document is useful later in recruitment and selection. The main six (acceptable) reasons that people leave their jobs are indicated by the acronym CLAMPS:
The Recruitment Process 1. rate of pay. Perform aptitude testing 8. benefits.Recruitment and Selection Labour – one of the four factors of production – is needed for the provision of any service. duties and responsibilities o Usually flexible description to exploit workers‟ skills Person Specification: o Profiles the ideal candidate – qualities. employment history. Produce a job description and person specification 4. Conduct a job analysis to determine the need to hire a new employee 3. Interview shortlisted candidates 7. Therefore. follow a structured approach and ask questions from the following categories (see what/not to do): o Behaviour-based questions – explain an example of when… o Situational-based questions – hypothetical scenarios o Testing (although time consuming) can determine a candidates suitability . Advertise the vacant post 5. hiring the right employees is vital as well as expensive and time consuming so it must be carried out effectively. Carry out the induction of the new recruit Job description: o Outlines details of job – what it entails and includes: job title. skills and qualifications o Cover letter – an introductory note written by the applicant Selection Process: o A shortlist is created of the most suitable candidates o Interviews are held between the employer and the candidate – they should be well planned. skills and experiences sought o Personal attributes the candidate should possess Advertisement: o Hours of work. Sign the contract of employment 11. contact and deadline details o A good advertisement will attract the best candidates and considers the five „TRAPS‟ to a good ad: Candidate Application: o Application form – a standardized form o Curriculum Vitae – personal statement including education. Check references of candidates 9. roles. A position becomes vacant 2. Screen applications and shortlist candidates 6. Offer the position to the best candidate 10.
o Psychometric tests – assesses personality. o o o o Advantages Cost effective Less down-time Less risk Motivational o o o o Disadvantages Fewer applicants Time consuming No new „life‟ to business Internal politics External recruitment involves hiring new employees through: o Newspaper advertising Advantages Disadvantages o Specialist trade publications o Internet advertising o New workers o Time consuming o Commercial employment o Wider range of o Expansive agencies experiences o Headhunting (poaching) o Larger pool of o University visits applicants o Employee referrals . outlook and temperament Circumstances working hours What not to do 1. Be late. Prepare by researching the organization and becoming familiar with the position 2. giving a bad first impression 2. Dress appropriately the give a good first impression 3. motivation and organization o Aptitude tests – examining skills and abilities such as typing o Intelligence tests – calculate mental ability and general knowledge o Trade tests – specific skills such as news presenting o References are contacted to ensure applicants have been truthful o Contract of employment (to which employees are entitled by law) is given o Induction is undertaken to settle the new employee into the business What to do 1. Be critical of past employees or the businesses current state 3. physicality Qualifications and training Innate abilities and aptitudes Motivation and success rate Emotional adjustment – handle stress Internal and External Recruitment Internal recruitment involves hiring people who are already part of a business to fill a vacant position – this often happens during restructuring. Falsify answers that way be uncovered eventually Munro-Fraser’s 5-fold grading system Impact on others. Practice interview skills to appear confident Alec Roger’s seven-point plan Physical make-up (appearance/manner) Attainments and qualifications General intelligence Specialty skills Interests and hobbies Disposition. Internal posts are usually advertised within the organization.
Almost any aspect of performance can be examined and are carried out in a standardized manner. Upward Appraisal An employee evaluated someone more senior. It also suggests courses of action to remedy the identified problem areas. it is time consuming. The essay method is flexible as it statement may be written and edited by the appraiser alone. line managers and other parties (customers) through questionnaires. This method provides practical feedback from a „360 degree scope‟. it relies solely on opinion rather than evidence and thus is not always suitable. resulting in inaccurate scores. subordinates. poor performance outstanding performance. making the result easy to compare and remain fair/equal. An advantage is that both parties are familiar with the role and difficulty of the job. . the criteria selected may not apply to all. e. Reasons for appraisals include: o Assess performance in line with targets o Assist staff with reflection and improvement o Provide opportunity for praise o Identify barriers hindering performance o Identify training needs o Set new targets and goals o Aid professional development o Assess the suitability of pay rise and promotion o o o o Advantages Make changes progress Allow praise Constructive criticism Method for feedback o o o o o o Disadvantages Time consuming and costly Daunting experience Rather subjective Offense taken from comments Anxiety and stress Feedback must be confidential Essay Appraisal The appraiser prepares a written statement about the employee being appraised. However. or it be composed in collaboration with the appraisee. Peer Appraisal Employees on the same level appraise one another.g.Appraisals An appraisal is the formal assessment of an employee‟s performance in fulfilling his or her job based on roles outlined in the job description. The statement usually concentrates on describing specific strengths and weaknesses in job performance. However. However. The technique is growing in popularity but both parties may be intimidated and reluctant with the subordinate fearful of being reprimanded and the manager feeling attacked by unhappy employees. 360-Degree Appraisal Job performance data is collected from peers. Rating System An appraiser examines different components of a job and rates each part on a scale. but workers are often too reluctant to criticize each other and may just lie.
Objectives include: o To enhance staff efficiency and effectiveness o To improve quality of work by employees o To facilitate career and personal development of each staff member o To develop a multi-skilled and productive workforce o To help staff adapt to change Benefits include: o Targets met effectively. MBO provides clarity about what is to be assessed. Employee performance is assesed based on records An appraisal meeting on conducted Appraiser completes a written report Both parties sign the final written report A senior manager may counter sign to approve the assessment If the appraisal rating is low: o An advisory letter can be sent to the employee o The employee may be counseled and given advice as to how to improve o If there is no improvement. Training can focus on job-related concepts or personal skills (assertiveness and stress-management).Management by Objectives An appraiser assesses the extent to which an employee has met their objectives – if they are met then their job performance is satisfactory. However. unrealistic targets create the façade that the employee is not trying or cannot complete given tasks. reducing costs o Higher morale less absenteeism and lower staff turnover o Good reputation attracts greater quality of workers . Self-Appraisal Employees appraise themselves based on set criteria. action is taken toward dismissal Training Training is the process of providing opportunities for workers to acquire skills and knowledge. Some jobs require constant training others may only need basic training. consequences may be discussed o Performance will be closely monitored o If no improvements are made. and are expected to be honest. increase of quality o Less wastage.
It occurs in the following circumstances: o Incompetence o Gross misconduct o Misconduct o Legal requirements . delivered by a colleague of manager. and selected employees attend a course to attain knowledge that they are expected to share with their team members. o o o o o Advantages Relatively cheap Issues targeted directly Few disruptions Establishes colleague relationship Convenient location Disadvantages o Trainees may develop bad habits from unqualified trainers o Internal trainers may lack skill o Trainers must give of their time to conduct Off-the-job Training This is carried out off site. Junior managers may shadow a senior to observe their methods and learn through doing. foreign languages) o No work distractions o Networking can take place Disadvantages o Very expensive o All skills may not be relevant o Newly skilled employees may feel to qualified for their position and leave to find a better position Dismissal and Redundancies Dismissal: termination of a worker‟s employment due to incompetence or breach of contract.g. touring the premises.g.o Better levels of customer service o Employees adjust better to change and can cope with growth Drawbacks Include o Costs of training o Loss of productivity when workers are absent o Time consuming o No guaranteed improvement Induction Training Introduces new employees to an organization by introducing them to key personnel. Advantages o Experts provide training o Wide range of training (e. Advantages Establishes good working habits Introduces corporate culture Settles workers in to contribute more promptly Morale and confidence is boosted Disadvantages o Time consuming o Key personnel must take time out of their schedules o May experience „information overload‟ o o o o On-the-job Training This is training carried out at the workplace. evacuation. learn about their duties and cover the company policies e.
there are two options: o Voluntary Redundancies – the employer asks for volunteers who are offered a redundancy package (unlikely as it causes conflict) o Compulsory Redundancies – the employer chooses who is made redundant by… LIFO method (last in first out). This usually occurs due to discrimination (on the grounds of age. race. Fraudulent conduct (theft) 6. When this occurs. inaccurate accusation. They have the right to take the case to a hearing and be compensated. The employee is under criminal investigation Unfair dismissal is termination without valid reasoning e. National Minimum Wage o All businesses must pay their workers a minimum of an indicated hourly rate.Grounds for Immediate Termination 1. Employee is unfit for position during probation Significant breach of rules and regulations Neglect of duty that leads to significant damage Inappropriate relationship with another employer that jeopardizes the business 5. 2. reducing absenteeism and increasing competitive advantage Statutory Employment Benefits o All employers must offer maternity leave. irrespective of the work they do or any other factor o NMW is enforced to increase the income of the poorest paid workers in the country . keeping the loyal and longserved employees Retention by merit.) or constructive dismissal – forced resignation.g. Redundancy: when the employer can no longer afford to hire the worker or when the job ceases to exist. holiday pay etc.) Equal Pay Legislation o It is unlawful to award different pay for the same job unless one candidate has greater experience or qualifications o Location must also be considered – the cost of living in different cities must be accounted for by pay Health and Safety at Work o Businesses must offer a secure and hygienic working environment for their staff and adequate facilities (restrooms and lights) o It may be costly but improves the quality of the workplace. gender etc. the least productive employees are made redundant HL: Employment Rights Anti-discrimination Legislation o Sex discrimination o Racial discrimination o Disability discrimination (This is not always applied – it is acceptable for an all-girls school to hire only female PE teachers etc. 4. 3.
working elsewhere and communicating through technology. often seen in banks. Firms will need to appoint and retain older employees and train existing staff to extend their longevity. insurance firms. workers shift from the primary sector to the secondary and tertiary sectors. with varying technology systems Lack of morale o o o o o o o o o o o Telecommuting . as workers aren‟t closed of from one another Observe other people‟s work habits and learn from them Flexibility for movement when working on different projects Cheaper and more efficient for employers due to space maximization Environmental savings (less paper wastage) Disadvantages Depersonalization leads to lack of connection to work Cultural shift can be stressful and time consuming Employees may feel they deserve their own space Quick spread of illness with movement from desk to desk Set up wastes time each morning. most revenue comes from the tertiary sector. Ageing Population As the birthrate falls.) Not always possible due to space o o o o o o o o o o o o o o . market research firms and airlines Advantages Accessibility for those in remote areas Suitable for parents No commuting costs/stress Autonomy for workers Reduced overheads Flexible hours for customers Reduced absenteeism Disadvantages ICT reliance disruption Social isolation and boredom Workers exceed work hours More distractions at home High equipment costs Specific employment profile (self-motivated etc. In a developed economy.Changing Employment Patterns and Practices Employment Sector As a country develops. the workforce will shrink so a labour shortage will impact planning. recruitment and training. Flexible Work Structures o Organizational Restructuring: Less likely to be a traditional structure o Flexi-time: Businesses offer flexible working hours o Changing Recruitment Practices: Firms hire more flexible workers o Retention of Core Staff: Key employees will be retained for experience and skills by using financial rewards o Training: Firms will less likely invest in training but the pressure to be up-to-date with technology will increase given competitive workforce Hot Desking – workers work at a communal desk to save space and costs Advantages Teamwork atmosphere.
However. for example 8 hours Monday-Thursday and have Friday off Advantages Suitable to working parents (more time with children) Ability to break up work week. they can feel undervalued and show less loyalty to the business. and businesses hire part time workers as they cost less as they are entitled to lower remuneration and are easy to „hire and fire‟. jobs occur only when required and therefore. professional workers who handle daily operations crucial to survival and growth (this group is shrinking) Peripheral workers: part-time or temporary workers who are employed as required and are paid for short periods of time. co-founder of London Business School in 1967 o People are the most important resource within any organization o Businesses ought to place greater emphasis on meeting the needs if workers through job enrichment and flexible working practices o In a „shamrock organization‟. pay is insecure Part-time Employment – Employees work part time for flexibility. reducing labour costs – often makes up the largest portion Outsourced workers: individuals/businesses not employed by the business but paid to complete mall and specific tasks o Each component has its own advantages and limitations . in turn receiving a flexible timetable and variety in their career. there are three groups of staff: Core staff: full time.Flexitime – Staff work a core number of hours whenever they please. However. allowing for more recreation More rest = less stress and happier employees Workers have more time for appointments or further study More productive and well-rested employees a greater output Disadvantages Scheduling limitations – hard to predict future free time Team projects may be hindered by absence Must balance times to ensure never short staffed Many employees may be absent on a busy day Scheduling can create conflict – requires a fair system o o o o o o o o o o Portfolio Working – one is employed to undertake multiple jobs simultaneously. affecting productivity and turnover HL: Handy’s Shamrock Organization o Theory by Charles Handy.
Summary Problems as a result of poor human resource planning can be summed up in the five R‟s: Recruitment (costs and time loss) Resources (time and money spent on personnel problems) Reservations (lower morale continual change in staffing) Returns (low return on input – profit) Reputation (poor corporate image – NOT employer of choice) There are four main measures of personnel effectiveness: o Labour turnover (resigned staff ÷ total staff) x 100 o Absenteeism (absent staff÷ total staff) x 100 o Labour productivity (total output ÷ total staff) o Waste levels (waste ÷ total output) x 100 .
such as the operations manager being in charge of all production workers The Formal Organization: Job Roles As a business gets larger and more complex.Unit 2. There are two main types of directors: o Executive directors – work full time at the organization o Non-executive directors – do not work at the organization but are consulted for their expertise Duties of the BOD include: o Target setting o Devising long-term plans o Establishing organizational policies and codes of practice o Monitoring and controlling the organization‟s activities o Overseeing staff issues o Advising and supporting the CEO . This helps a business to function more efficiently due to: o Accountability: shows who is held responsible for what jobs o Responsibility: shows who is in charge of whom. concerns and decisions o Devise and implement business strategy The Board of Directors (BOD) Directors are responsible for overall running of the business – there is usually one for each of the functional areas. hierarchy. it has to become more structured for tasks and roles to be fulfilled in a manageable and coherent way.2: Organizational Structure Introduction In most businesses there is a need for a more formal and organized structure. It addresses the following queries: o The overall business structure – size. functional areas o Who is the supervisor/line manager (accountability) o Which people have authority and to what extent o How different areas link to one another o Verify staff positions in the overall organization o Identify various channels of communication The CEO The Chief Executive Officer represents the head of the BOD (below) and is the top of an organization. Main roles include: o Act as a figurehead or ambassador for the organization o Lead the team of directors o Represent the desires. ideas and beliefs of the directors o Formulate organizational objectives and policies with the BOD o Communicate with the BOD regarding problems. They are ultimately responsible for running the business and are accountable to the company‟s shareholders.
It shows four important features of a business: 1. production. competitive. Supervisors and Team Leaders These are junior managers. finance. They have direct contact with the workforce for whom they are responsible. Chain of Command – VERTICAL ASPECT (length of the chart) various positions of authority in the organization and direct line authority 3. forming the majority of an organization‟s workforce. . Official Channels of Communication – the route that messages are communicated within the organization Both the chain of command and span of control must be kept to the ideal amounts. Therefore most org charts are wide based pyramids. CEO Board of Directors Management Supervisors and Team Leaders Other Employees The Formal Organization: Org Charts An organizational (org) chart is a diagrammatic representation of a firm‟s formal structure. They assist and are accountable to the BOD. They take on tasks delegated to them by directors. for managerial. They are more likely to be involved in operational decisions. carrying out some but not all of the duties of a middle or senior manager. human resources 2. functional and communication purposes. Other Employees (Operatives) Other employees will exist in a large organization. Functional Departments – marketing. Span of Control – HORIZONTAL ASPECT (width of the chart) the number of subordinates directly accountable to a single line manager 4.Managers Managers are responsible for a team of people and/or tasks. They are decision makers with responsibility for day-to-day implementation of the organization‟s policy.
To be effective. managers need to relinquish some of their roles and responsibilities to others.CEO Marketing Director Human Resources Director Operations Director Finance Director Marketing Manager HR Manager Operations Manager Security Director Finance Manager Marketing Departmen t HR Assistants Quality Controller Security Staff Finance Staff Production Operatives Above is an example of a stereotypical organizational chart with five hierarchical levels. but others include: Organization by Product: large businesses with a large range of products may structure themselves according to the various types of products they create Organization by Process: this is an adaptation of organization by function and is suitable when there are clearly different stages in the production process Organization by Geography: multinational corporations often organize themselves by geographical region. Effective delegation is an important skill. Line managers entrust and empower staff to complete tasks but hold them accountable for their actions. benefits include: Saving time by not having to handle all tasks Employees become motivated as they have been entrusted with seemingly important tasks Managers often use the SMARTER acronym to ensure delegation is properly assigned. and height representing power. allowing the business to be more aware of and responsive to cultural differences and varied customer needs Delegation and Span of Control Delegation As a business grows. This is a traditional model. as one person alone cannot effectively manage all areas of the business through delegation. tasks must be: SPECIFIC MEASURABLE AGREED . functional departments providing structure.
REALISTIC TIME-BOUND ETHICAL RECORDED Span of Control This refers to the number of people who are directly accountable to a manager – the higher up in an organization a person is. The CEO. reducing costs with less managerial positions and a flatter structure also means that communication should be faster and more accurate In contrast. A wide span of control means there are fewer layers in the hierarchy. chairperson and BOD are usually at the top and the most unskilled employees are at the bottom. The person directly above an employee on the next level is known as the line manager and is responsible for day-to-day management of their subordinates. this means there are fewer subordinates who are accountable to a manager and therefore it easier to control a small team which will be more effective Large teams tend to suffer communication problems which may cause tension and conflict ADVANTAGES OF FLAT STRUCTURES Delegation becomes an important factor so there are more opportunities for subordinates to take on extra roles Overall improvement in communication since there are fewer layers Cheaper to operate as there are fewer levels of management Smaller psychological distance between those at the top and the bottom. Each level in the hierarchy refers to a rank that is associated with degree of authority and responsibility. Advantages o Clear lines of communication o Thus. the wider their span of control teds to be. improved coordination o Establishes teams creating a sense of belonging acting as a form of motivation Disadvantages o Workers are isolated to teams o Rather inflexible which can be problematic if there are external changes that require structural change in the organization . eliminating the ‟them and us‟ culture ADVANTAGES OF TALL STRUCTURES Quicker communication within small teams Smaller teams are easier to control and manage Greater specialization and division can lead to greater efficiency and productivity Greater opportunities for promotion – motivation for lower subordinates Levels of Hierarchy Hierarchy is an organizational structure based on a ranking system.
Flat and Tall Structures Tall organization structures have many layers in the hierarchy. HL: Delegation and Accountability HL: Bureaucracy HL: Centralization and Decentralization HL: Matrix Structures/Project Teams HL: Flexible Structures HL: The Informal Organization HL: Outsourcing. There are three main purposes to delayering: Reduce costs by removing levels of management Improve the speed of communication flows by having flatter structures Encourage delegation as wider spans provide opportunities for employees to take on more responsibilities Delayering is often associated with downsizing. harming morale and productivity Employees can be overstretched by an increased workload Decision making can take longer since managers are dealing with larger teams Chain of Command This is the formal line of authority through which orders are passed down in an organization (seen in the org chart). which can reduce a firm‟s costs because there are fewer core staff who are paid on full benefits. In contrast. A flat structure has a short chain of command and a tall structure has a longer chain of command. Offshoring and the Migration of Human Resources . Downsizing can lead to flexible working practices as businesses hire more contractual workers. But both actions have drawbacks: They create anxiety in workers who will be worried about their positions in the new structure. therefore managers tend to have a narrower span of control. Delayering This is the process of removing one or more levels in the hierarchy to flatten out the structure. flat organizational structures have fewer levels and managers have a wider span of control.
customers and other stakeholders External Communication Communication between organization and another Internal Communication Communication within the business organization Oral Communication Oral or verbal communication involves people talking and listening to one another. Advantages o Little cost. The effectiveness of the communication depends on the skill of the speaker.3: Communication Introduction Communication: The transfer of information from one party to another.Unit 2. Managers spend a significant part of their time communicating to both internal and external stakeholders. The purposes of communication include: Instruction Receiving Clarification Feedback Interpretation Reviewing Notification INFORMING Warning Communication is vital to the success of any business so that: Staff are aware of their roles and expectations Managers can gather and act upon feedback from employees. such as the tone of voice. The method allows questions to be asked and for feedback/clarification to be given. if any o Detailed questions can be asked o Questions can be answered without delay o Can help to judge an employee‟s ability to communicate o Facial reactions and body language differentiate from text Examples include: Giving instructions Discussing problems Business meeting Job interviews for recruitment Disadvantages o No permanent record of the conversation for future reference o Information mayn‟t be complete or truthful o Confidential messages are more difficult to keep that way o Meetings and interviews can be time-consuming . It is a quick method because the sender and receiver are usually in direct contact and there is little time delay between questions and answers.
Job appraisals and feedback Oral presentations People simply talking to one another Written Communication Written communication refers to non-verbal methods such as: Letters Business letters follow a set format with important emphasis placed on the layout and language used. Reports These are a formal method of written communication in which researched information is presented. They are also very specific. specific and easy to understand. It can be typed or just a handwritten note. Executives do not have the time to read many reports and need fast and easy access to information so this type of communication proves useful. to send a reminder or pass on a quick message. they are timeconsuming and may take equally long to get a response. They can be both formal and informal depending on the content. They follow a specific format and tend to have: A title page with the author. They aren‟t intended for passing on complicated information. A typical summary follows the following format: . Notices are useful for reaching many staff and can be left up as a reminder. but notices are not confidential and old messages are often ignored. A memo can be quick to produce and is short. Memorandum A memo is a business note from one person to another. However. audience and date An executive summary of what the report is and it‟s purpose A contents page with page numbering An introduction Section headings for separation Conclusions and recommendations A bibliography An appendix with supplementary evidence Notices Notices are used to give a message to a range of people. perhaps by posting on a notice board or website. They are used internally to call a meeting. Letters should: Indicate name and address of sender Include the date Have a reference Include proper salutations They can be used both internally and externally and provide a hard copy for future reference. Executive Summaries Executive summaries are written to provide a condensed version of a report‟s content.
In addition. It may contain details of details of methods of research. Scope and purpose of report Methodology Main findings Conclusions and recommendations But executive summaries must be very accurate as they are often read by decision makers who base their decision based on what they read. maps. sketches and diagrams. It differs from an executive summary. tables. one could ignore the report if there is a succinct summary but this could not be done with an abstract. these forms of communication are slow and a single response may take hours or days and the equivalent of a ten minute verbal conversation can be covered in email over a span of weeks. an action plan and any foreseeable obstacles. Abstracts An abstract is a shortened version of a report. Other examples of visual communication include sign language and body language. symbols. Research Proposals This is a planning document and sets out the key issues to be investigated. Visual Communication Visual aids can enhance communication as they: Can be easily understood Can communicate ideas quickly Are often cheaper to produce that the same space filled with words Cater for visual learners Have a longer lasting impact Different images are used for different purposes: Bar chart – for ease of comparison Pie chart – for expressing percentage figures Line graph – to show time-series data. paper usage is growing. In essence. A major disadvantage of all written forms of written communication is storage – despite advanced ICT. alone which tends to be shorter. Effective Communication Notices Taking turns to speak Listening to others‟ opinions Ineffective Communication All speaking at once Bad arrangement of working space . as it provides no recommendations or guide to decision making whereas an executive summary summarizes the findings and recommendations. such as sales figures during the past year Histogram – for showing trends Other visual aid examples include photos.
and the receiving machine then reconverts back into an image that is presented onto a hard copy. Fax A facsimile machine converts text and images into electronic form for transmission. However. The data can be submitted to many recipients at once.Non-Verbal Communication Other than oral communication. meetings can be difficult to conduct with such heavy reliance on technology. It is a quick method. the initial costs (ICT equipment) and ongoing costs (internet) are quite high. Formal and Informal Communication Channels Informal Communication This refers to all unofficial communication channels that exist among informal groups. Information and Communication Technology Email Refers to the process using computer wide area networks as a mailing system. increasing motivation It can create a sense of security and mutual support – people can talk to colleagues to deal with concerns The pooling of ideas can generate solutions that may have been constrained by formality Formal Communication All official channels related to work matters and can then be further categorized into open channels (can be shared between anyone) and closed channels (confidential information). The method is less popular today as email is a cheaper equivalent with no need for paper or ink replacement. Once initial costs are paid. visual and ICT methods of communications. computer and video technology and allows meetings to take place when staff are in different locations – cutting travel costs. Some managers see informal communication as a hindrance to efficiency and mayn‟t support the management objectives. It is a very fast method because all data is already in the electronic form. More and more MNC‟s are choosing this option to interview overseas recruits. email data transition is not always secure and computer systems can always break down. and the fax can be send whether the receiver is by their fax machine or not. saving on telephone/fax bills and stationery costs. all forms come under this category. This includes written. Video-conferencing This communication method combines telephone. However. This type of communication doesn‟t necessarily relate to work matters. cheap and brings people together in one location – it can also be recorded for future reference. Others may see it‟s benefits. including: Can foster a sense of belonging in the workplace. it is quick. which tend to occur naturally in the workplace. Moreover. .
and which methods will be most efficient.Telephones/Mobile Mobile phones are still extremely popular in workplaces as they make all staff contactable at almost any time and location. they will focus on value for money. but can also require the need for expensive equipment. In summary. a different method may be used – a letter or email is less urgent than a phone call Cost: Businesses may opt for cheaper methods In reality. Barriers to Effective Communication High costs: Firms mayn‟t have sufficient funds to train staff in particular methods. Overall. Factors Influencing the Choice of Communication Method Personal preference Organizational structure: A tall structure requires more formal and sophisticated communication Security issues and concerns: Important records that need to be kept in case of technical breakdown Skills and training: Some methods can only be used if staff know how Ease of use: Some may prefer powerpoint over prezi due to the way it works Size of business: Large firms may require email whereas small firms may rely on meeting in person and communicating verbally Storage issues: Orders or complaints need to be recorded whereas conversations may not Location: Time zone differences may mean email is favoured over phone calls Urgency: Depending on the urgency of the information. Businesses that rely heavily on ICT equipment tend to come to a halt when technology fails. which could make them more effective Technological breakdowns Language: Messages can be lost or altered in translation Accents: Different pronunciations and tones of voice can be misinterpreted Jargon: Technical language can speed up communication but only if understood by all involved Cultural ignorance: Businesses need to be culturally aware to ensure they don‟t offend Technophobia Geographical location: Geographical location can impact importance factors like phone reception Internal politics Poor presentation skills: Listeners may lose interest Body language: Listeners can be put off and receive negative vibes . electronic communication methods are growing in popularity as they allow for faster and cheaper contact over long distances. a business will combine methods to fit their requirements.
messages can be distorted when being passed down the chain Physiological barriers: Poor hearing or sight for example Consequences of Poor Communication Poor communication hinders businesses in four ways: Low morale – staff feel out of touch. They set departmental objectives. budgeting. famously defined management as „the art of getting things done through people‟. monitoring and controlling. They accountable to senior management. They tend to focus on time frames and deadlines. Middle management: In charge of running individual departments. and . have lack of direction and may feel undervalued Errors will arise due to lack of direction can be costly or harm a firm‟s image The above factors may decrease competitiveness and in turn. and are responsible for implementing strategies to achieve them. organizing. reporting. They tend to focus on achieving broader goals or visions. Managers are involved in complex tasks including planning. ‘Chinese whispers’: In large organizations. There tends to be three broad levels of management: Senior management: Oversee long-term aims and strategies of the organization. Theorist Mary Parker Follett. They are responsible for the middle managers. Management is about problem solving and decision-making. with no definite time frame in mind. productivity Lack of control can arise due to unclear/ badly communicated instructions HL: Communication Networks Summary Unit 2.4: Leadership and Management Introduction A leader is someone who influences and inspires others to get things done.
iason Decisional Roles: Negotiator. monitor. leader. entrepreneur Informational Roles: Spokesperson. Junior (supervisory) management: Lower-ranking managers who are in charge of monitoring daily routine tasks. but leaders have to find a way that suits them He did find some general characteristics of successful leader Henry Mintzberg: Interpersonal Roles: Figurehead. Professor Warren Bennis: Believed that successful leaders take an interest in what is happening in their organization He found that there is no single way to lead an organization. resource allocator. disturbance handler. disseminator Communication tasks Routine tasks Planning Tasks Nature of Leadership .They are responsible for their team of workers. responsible for junior management.
Factors that could influence the required leadership style include: Culture Leader trust levels Organizational structure Task difficulty Subordinate skill *Remember the acronym „CLOTS‟ .Suitable in creative fields .Leadership Styles AUTOCRATIC . as there is limited direction .Appropriate for unskilled employees . Leaders need to be flexible and dynamic.No feedback for leader . as if a style is not applicable.Reliant on teamwork SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP .Better morale . it doesn't need to be used -Changing style might be confusing Situational Leadership: a leadership approach is dependent on the competence and confidence of the employees. as more people are involved .Not suited to a large workforce LAISSEZ-FAIRE .Sharing of idea > improved decisions -Time delay.Quick decision making during crises .Slow.High motivation. as employees feel trusted .Alientated workers DEMOCRATIC . Leaders must realize that the leadership style should depend on the situation and employee.Removes the limitations of each style.
LIKERT Four types of leadership were identified: Exploitative autocratic – no trust in subordinates. as what is effective in one situation my not be in another. the performance of the workforce in contingent on the personality of the leader.e. a paternalistic style Participative – place a great confidence in workforce but retain decision-making power consultative BLAKE AND MOUTON TANNEMBAUM AND SCHMIDT . the theory ignores other situational factors that impact effectiveness such as experience and training. The „best‟ style depends on factors that affect the situation such as size. FIEDLER A leader‟s own personality has a large effect on leadership effectiveness i. He also suggested that the effectiveness of leaders depends on the situation under consideration. Contingency Theory Based on the idea that there is no single best way to manage an organization or lead people. However. knowledge and expertise of the workforce. use threats and punishments to motivate Benevolent autocratic – some trust in employees and will seek their opinion at times. He believed that 3 principles determine leadership style: Relationships: how well they get along with subordinates Situation: the nature of the task itself Authority: how much power the leader has This suggests that almost anyone can be a leader if his or her leadership style is matched to the task at hand.Trait Theory Based on the idea that leadership and management styles depend on personal characteristics: Listening skills Enthusiasm and drive Ambitious aims Decisiveness in execution of business strategy Entrepreneurial Responsive to change Seeing the bigger picture High standards of integrity Influential and inspirational Prudence in decision-making Peter Drucker came to the conclusion that there were no exact traits that could be applied to all leaders.
delegating and allocating tasks to meet deadlines Commanding: giving instructions to achieve objectives.Functions of Management (HL) Functions of management are the responsibilities and tasks carried out by managers. i. both tactical and strategic Organizing: organizing resources. HENRI FAYOL Identified the five functions of management: Planning: setting the course of action to reach objectives. Measure performance 5. Communicate with and motivate employees 4. enforce discipline Coordinating: focus all sections/departments Controlling: taking corrective measures to meet standards Also outlined principles of effective management: Division of labour for specialization Formal lines of authority and wide spans of control (like the military) Authoritarian style Unity of command to improve communication Equity in treatment Create harmony and cohesiveness CHARLES HANDY Suggested common characteristics present in effective leaders: Intelligence Initiative Self-assurance Key roles of managers: General Practitioners: Managers must deal with health problems Confronters of Dilemmas Balancers of Cultural Mixes Have the Helicopter Factor: Rise above and see the bigger picture PETER DRUCKER He believed that managers should not get too involved in daily activates of employees.e. and thus encourage decentralization in the work place. Develop people . Organize tasks and people 3. They should carry out five basic functions: 1. Set organizational objectives 2. organizing. planning. directing and controlling of business operations.
5: Motivation Motivation: internal drive that causes an individual to take action If people are the most expensive investment a business makes. rewards and/or punishments o Failure o Punishment Workplace motivational theory has evolved over time as the nature of industrial development: 1911 1943 1960 1963 1927 1959 1961 1964 .g. internal o Desire to succeed o Being aware the advantages of doing something – e. and it is a manager‟s job to ensure that they come back. then you need to have your employees motivated to work to their full potential “A businesses most important asset leaves at the end of every day.” – Jim Goodnight Intrinsic: comes from oneself. I will be fitter.Unit 2. I will have more free time o To learn something new Extrinsic: driven by external factors.
If employees are not interested in pursuing change. corporate and national cultures. this will impact the business‟ success. aims and objectives Organizational Structure: Tall structures small independent teams. Acceptance of change will aid a business in responding to the changing market. Culture also applies to the attitude of workers toward change. Flat structures collaborative teamwork Rewards: Appropriate remuneration for effort will develop a strong and united culture Management Styles: Theory Y managers benefit from independent. Cultural harmony will come about if all staff share the same values. Theory X style managers foster a dependent culture Sanctions: Few sanctions can encourage staff to be slack but rigid policies may create resentful staff Advantages of Strong Culture Sense of belonging and security Theories of Organization or Corporate Cultures CHARLES HANDY . values and attitudes of the management and employees e.6: Organizational and Corporate Culture Introduction Culture: What is considered „normal‟ to an organization. Influences on Organizational Culture The acronym „NORMS‟ can be used to remember the interrelated determinants of organizational culture: Nature of the Business: Culture is shaped by mission. Measures the ability of people to adjust to unfamiliar situations such as hostile takeovers or crises. The main problem for managers is trying to foster a desired culture is that culture is established over a long period of time. autonomous workers.g. such as the way co workers behave within the business.Unit 2. Corporate Culture: Largely based on beliefs. Punctuality Dress-code Acceptability of smoking The Importance of Understanding Organizational Culture Cultural Quotient (CQ): the ability of an individual to blend into occupational.
create the ultimate culture. preservation of one's face. competitive o Feminine: relationships. low uncertainty avoidance cultures accept and feel comfortable in unstructured situations or changeable environments and try to have as few rules as possible Long versus short term orientation: A long-term oriented business focuses on the future. high levels of which create harmony/efficiency and low levels of which prioritize self-interest GEERT HOFSTEDE Studied the link between international cultures and organizational cultures – five dimensions: Power distance: The extent to which subordinates expect and accept unequal distribution of power.EDGAR SCHEIN DEAL AND KENNEDY KOTTER AND HESKETT Two types of corporate cultures: Adaptive Cultures: Receptive to change and exist in organizations that adapt themselves to change. staff are encouraged to be entrepreneurial and take risks by not having a culture of blame. Sociability: The extent to which people have concerns for their colleagues. Inert Cultures: Resistant to change and exist in organizations with negative values of change to the current culture. and feel responsible for to care for others or believe this is the role of the government Masculinity vs. quality of life Uncertainty avoidance: The extent to which people prefer structured routines to flexible structures. decentralized models Individualism: The extent to which people care for themselves. reciprocation and fulfilling social obligations Impacts of Culture . including steadiness. High sociability = „people culture‟. respect for tradition. this is similar to centralized vs. Femininity: The extent to which the organization lies within traditional gender roles o Masculine: strict. looking at two dimensions which when both present. Usually found in innovative cultures. They promote inertia rather than proactivity GOFFEE AND JONES „Double-S model. low sociability = task focus Solidarity: Degree of cohesiveness/unity. aggressive. whereas short-term oriented businesses are related to the past and the present.
Consequences of Culture Clashes Summary .
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