Ecology and Evolution

Rosie Year 11IB

Ecology and evolution: TOPIC 5
5.1.1Define species, habitat, population, community, ecosystem and ecology.  Species: A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring           Habitat: The environment in which a species normally lives or location of the living organism Population: A group of organisms of the same species tat live in the same area at the same time Community: A group or populations living and interacting with each other in an area. Ecosystem: A community and it’s abiotic environment Ecology: The study of relationships between living organism and between living organisms and their environment. Autotroph: An organism that synthesizes it’s organic molecules from simple inorganic substances. Heterotroph: An organism that obtains organic molecules from other organisms Consumer: An organism that ingest other organic matter that is living or recently killed Saprotroph: An organism that obtains organic molecules from other organisms. Detritivore: An organism that ingest non-living organic matter

5.1.2 Distinguish between autotroph and heterotroph. Distinguish means to give the differences between two or more different items.

5.1.3 Distinguish between consumers, detritivores and saprotrophs.

5 Describe what is meant by a food web .    Consumer cow.fungi ( extra cellular digestion) secrets digestive enzymes. E. eats soil organic matter. etc. each with at least three linkages (four organisms)    A food chain shows the linear feeding relationships between species in a community The arrows represent the transfer of energy and matter as one organism is eaten by another (arrows point in the direction of energy flow) The first organism in the sequence is the producer. followed by consumers (1°. 3°. abosrobs nutrients for growth.4 Describe what is meant by a food chain. not living Saprophytes. 2°.g. giving three examples. eats grass Detritivore.1.) amples of Food Cha ins 5.Distinguish means to give the differences between two or more different items.earthworm. 5.1.

Producers always occupy the first trophic level.  A food web is a diagram that shows how food chains are linked together into more complex feeding relationships within a community There can be more than one producer in a food web.1. always try to position an organism relative to its highest trophic level (to keep all arrows pointing in same direction) Food web (trophic levels in red) .6 Define trophic level    position it occupies in a food chain. using appropriate information Hint: When constructing a food web. and consumers can occupy multiple positions (trophic levels) 5.8 construct a food web containing up to 10 organisms.1.1. while saprotrophs would generally occupy the ultimate trophic level of a given food chain or food web The trophic levels in a community are: 5.7 deduce the trophic levels of organisms in a food web and food chain    The trophic level of an organism can be determined by counting the number of feeding relationships preceding it and adding one (producer always first) Trophic Level = Number of arrows (in sequence) before organism + 1 In food webs. a single organism may occupy multiple trophic levels 5.

5.they use light as a source of energy for synthesizing organic molecules ▪ This makes light the initial source of energy for almost all communities ▪ Some bacteria are chemo-autotrophic and use energy derived from chemical processes (e. are photo-autotrophic . the rest is lost ▪ Because ~90% of energy is lost between trophic levels. plants) and converted into chemical energy via photosynthesis ▪ Energy then gets passed to the primary consumer (herbivore) when they eat the plant. where it is absorbed by autotrophs (e. and some bacteria.1.10 explain the energy flow in a food chain ▪ Energy enters most communities as light.1.g. and then gets passed to successive consumers (carnivores) as they are eaten in turn ▪ Only ~10% of energy is passed from one trophic level to the next. the number of trophic levels are limited as energy flow is reduced at higher levels Summary of Energy Flow in a Food Chain .9 State that light is the initial energy source for almost all communities ▪ All green plants.g. nitrogen-fixating bacteria) 5.

be used up during cellular respiration.g.1. energy transformations in living things are ~10% efficient. as energy transformations are ~10% efficient .1. with about 90% of the energy lost between trophic levels ▪ This energy may be lost as heat. be excreted in feces or remain unconsumed as the uneaten part of food 5. kJ m2 year -1) ▪ Pyramids of energy will never appear inverted as some of the energy stored in one source is always lost when transferred to the next source ▪ This is an application of the second law of thermodynamics ▪ Each level of the pyramid of energy should be approximately one tenth the size of the level preceding it.5.11 State that energy transformations are never 100% efficient ▪ When energy transformations take place in living organisms the process is never 100% efficient ▪ Typically.12 Explain the reason for the shape of pyramids of energy pe ▪ A pyramid of energy is a graphical representation of the amount of energy of each tropic level in a food chain ▪ They are expressed in units of energy per area per time (e.

14 State that saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (decomposers) recycle nutrients ▪ In order for organisms to grow and reproduce.g the sun) ▪ Nutrients refer to material required by an organism.1. while nutrients cycle within them 5. which are then fed on by the consumers ▪ When heterotrophic organisms die.g. free inorganic materials from the dead bodies and waste products of organisms.5. ensuring a continual supply of raw materials for the producers (which can then be ingested by consumers) Thus saprotrophic bacteria and fungi play a vital role in recycling nutrients within an ecosystem 5. energy cannot be recycled and an ecosystem must be powered by a continuous influx of new energy from an external source (e. sugars) ▪ Feeding: In which organic carbon is moved from one trophic level to the next in a food chain ▪ Respiration: All organisms (including plants) metabolise organic compounds for energy.2.g. carbon can be reversibly trapped and stored as limestone (storage happens more readily at low temperatures) The Carbon Cycle .13 Explain that energy enters and leaves ecosystems. oil and gas (fossil fuels) ▪ Combustion: During the burning of fossil fuels and biomass ▪ In oceans. plants) produce organic materials from inorganic sources.1 Draw and label a diagram of the carbon cycle to show the processes involved There are four main 'pools' of carbon in the environment:  • Atmosphere Sediments • Biosphere • Ocean • There are a number of processes by which carbon can be cycled between these pools: ▪ Photosynthesis: Atmospheric carbon dioxide is removed and fixed as organic compounds (e. these inorganic nutrients are returned to the soil to be reused by the plants (as fertiliser) ▪ Thus energy flows through ecosystems. but nutrients must be recycled ▪ The movement of energy and matter through ecosystems are related because both occur by the transfer of substances through feeding relationships ▪ However. and are constantly being recycled within an ecosystem as food (either living or dead) ▪ The autotrophic activities of the producers (e. releasing carbon dioxide as a by-product ▪ Fossilization: In which carbon from partially decomposed dead organisms becomes trapped in sediment as coal. they need a supply of the elements of which they are made ▪ The saprotrophic activity of decomposers (certain bacteria and fungi).1.

2 Analyse the changes in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide using historical records Recent Trends: ▪ Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have been measured at the Mauna Loa atmospheric observatory in Hawaii from 1958 and has since been measured at a number of different locations globally ▪ The data shows that there is an annual cycle in CO2 concentrations which may be attributable to seasonal factors. but when data from the two hemispheres is incorporated. including analysing the gases trapped in ice (and thus providing a historical snapshot of atmospheric concentrations) ▪ Data taken from the Vostok ice core in Antarctica shows that fluctuating cycles of CO2 concentrations over thousands of years appear to correlate with global warm ages and ice ages ▪ It is compelling to note that CO2 levels appear to be currently higher than at any time in the last 400. it suggests that atmospheric CO2 levels have risen steadily in the past 30 years Long Term Estimates: ▪ Carbon dioxide concentration changes over a long period of time have been determined by a variety of sources.2.5.000 years Recent and Long-term Changes in Carbon Dioxide Concentration .

3 Explain the relationship between the rises in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. resulting in increased temperatures (the greenhouse effect) The Greenhouse Effect .Mauna Loa CO2 Data (last 50 years) Vostok Ice Core Data . methane and oxides of nitrogen and the enhanced greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is a natural process whereby the earth's atmosphere behaves like a greenhouse to create the moderate temperatures to which life on earth has adapted (without the greenhouse effect.CO2 vs Temperature (last 400.2. temperatures would drop significantly every night) ▪ The incoming radiation from the sun is short-wave ultraviolet and visible radiation ▪ Some of this radiation is reflected by the earth's surface back into space as longwave infrared radiation ▪ Greenhouse gases absorb this infrared radiation and re-reflect it back to the earth as heat.000 years) 5.

including increased frequency of severe weather conditions (e.g. carbon dioxide (CO2). droughts. it is thought that the atmospheric temperature may increase and threaten the viability of certain ecosystems. including: • Deforestation (less trees) • Industrialisation (more combustion) • Increased farming / agriculture (more methane) With increases in greenhous gas emission.g. communities and even the individual ▪ The precautionary principle is the reverse of previous historical practices whereby the burden of proof was on the individual advocating action 5. leading to poverty ▪ All of these consequences could place a far greater economic burden on countries than if action were taken now . and is based on time frames well beyond human lifespans. resulting in famine in certain regions ▪ The effects of increased temperatures (e.2.The enhanced greenhouse effect refers to the suggested link between the increase in greenhouse gas emissions by man and changes in global temperatures and climate conditions The main greenhouse gases are water vapour.4 Outline the precautionary principle The precautionary principle states that when a human-induced activity raises a significant threat of harm to the environment or human health. man is increasing greenhouse gas emissions via a number of processes.2. it is arguably impossible to provide appropriate scientific evidence for enhanced global warming before consequences escalate to potentially dire levels ▪ According to the precautionary principle. then precautionary measures should be taken even if there is no scientific consensus regarding cause and effect ▪ Because the global climate is a complex phenomena with many emergent properties.this makes it the responsibility of governments. although this link is still being debated 5.g. resulting in a loss of biodiversity ▪ Changes in global temperature may affect food production. industries. NO2) While these gases occur naturally. methane (CH4) and oxides of nitrogen (e. floods) and rising sea levels ▪ Higher temperatures will increase the spread of vector-borne diseases ▪ Loss of habitat will result in the extinction of some species. the onus falls on those contributing to the enhanced greenhouse effect to either reduce their input or demonstrate their actions do not cause harm .5 Evaluate the precautionary principle as a justification for strong action in response to the threats posed by the enhanced greenhouse effect Arguments for Action ▪ Risks of inaction are potentially severe. rising sea levels) could destroy certain industries which countries rely on.

immigration.2.( M + E ) . red fox vs arctic fox) ▪ Decomposition of detritus previously trapped in ice will significantly increase greenhouse gas levels (potentially exacerbating temperature changes) ▪ Increased spread of pest species and pathogens (threatening local wildlife) ▪ Behavioural changes in native species (e. increasing poverty in these regions ▪ Very difficult to police . retraining workers will require significant time and money 5.6 Outline the consequences of a global temperature rise on arctic ecosystems Increases in global temperature pose a credible threat to arctic ecosystems.1 Outline how population size is affected by natality. including: ▪ Changes in arctic conditions (reduced permafrost. potentially leading to increased international tensions Arguments for Inaction ▪ Cutting greenhouse emissions may delay economic growth in developing countries. hibernation patterns of polar bears.3. mortality and emigration The change in population size over a given period of time can be summarised by the following equation: Population Size = ( N + I ) . early spring rains may wash away seal dens) Extinction and resultant loss of biodiversity as food chains are disrupted 5. seasonal blooms of oceanic algae) ▪ Loss of habitat (e.g. loss of tundra to coniferous forests) ▪ Rising sea levels ▪ Expansion of temperate species increasing competition with native species (e.what level of action would be considered sufficient on a global scale in the current absence of scientific consensus? ▪ Boycotting trade with non-compliant countries could negatively effect economies and create international tensions ▪ No guarantee that human intervention will be sufficient to alter global climate patterns ▪ Money and industrial practices that may be used to develop future technologies may be lost due to restrictions imposed by carbon reduction schemes ▪ Carbon reduction schemes will likely result in significant job losses from key industries.g. diminished sea ice cover. migration of birds and fish.▪ These factors would increase competition for available resources.g.

g.3.e.2 Draw and label a graph showing the sigmoid (S-shaped) population growth curve Population Growth Curve 5. predation. the plateau phase and the transitional phase between these two phases .Natality: Increases to population size through reproduction (i. births) Immigration: Increases to population size from external populations Mortality: Decreases to population size as a result of death (e.3 Explain reasons for the exponential growth phase. senescence) Emigration: Decreases to population size as a result of loss to external populations 5.3.

as there is a shortage of reproducing individuals which may be widely dispersed As numbers increase and reproduction gets underway. shelter and water) and limited environmental resistance (disease and predation uncommon) Transitional Phase ▪ As the population continues to grow. it will oscillate around the carrying capacity to remain relatively even (no net growth) 5.3.4 List three factors that sets limits to population increase ▪ Every species has limits to the environmental conditions it can endure and must remain within appropriate levels for population growth to occur ▪ Some of these factors are density-dependent.g. predation and disease all contribute to keeping the population size balanced ▪ While the population size at this point may not be static. population growth may be slow. three stages of population growth are seen: Exponential Growth Phase ▪ There is a rapid increase in population size / growth as the natality rate exceeds the mortality rate ▪ This is because there is abundant resources (e. eventually competition increases as availability of resources are reduced ▪ Natality starts to fall and mortality starts to rise. food. leading to a slower rate of population increase Plateau Phase ▪ Eventually the increasing mortality rate equals the natality rate and population size becomes constant ▪ The population has reached the carrying capacity (K) of the environment ▪ Limited resources. while others are unrelated to the density of the population Factors affecting population growth: .Initially.

selective breeding of domesticated animals and homologous structures Something provides evidence for evolution when it demonstrates a change in characteristics from an ancestral form The Fossil Record .2 Outline the evidence for evolution provided by the fossil record.1 Define evolution Evolution is the cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a population 5.5.4.4.

over time. leaves. teeth. tracks. tooth marks. different kinds of organisms do not occur randomly but are found in rocks of particular ages in a consistent order (law of fossil succession) ▪ This suggests that changes to an ancestral species was likely responsible for the appearance of subsequent species (speciation via evolution) ▪ Furthermore. the occurrence of transitional fossils demonstrate the intermediary forms . burrows.A fossil is the preserved remains or traces of any organism from the remote past Fossil evidence may be either: ▪ Direct (body fossils): Bones. ▪ Indirect (trace fossils): Footprints. changes have occurred in features of organisms living on the planet (evolution) ▪ Moreover. etc. etc. Types of Fossils The totality of fossils (both discovered and undiscovered) is known as the fossil record ▪ The fossil record reveals that. shells.

it is important to realise that the fossil record is incomplete ▪ Fossilization requires a unusual combination of specific circumstances to occur. demonstrating evolutionary changes in a much shorter time frame than might have occurred naturally Examples of selective breeding include: ▪ Breeding horses for speed (race horses) versus strength and endurance (draft horses) ▪ Breeding dogs for herding (sheepdogs).that occurred over the evolutionary pathway taken within a single genus Law of Fossil Succession While fossils may provide clues regarding evolutionary processes and ancestral relationships. which occurs when man directly intervenes in the breeding of animals to produce desired traits in offspring As a result of many generations of selective breeding. hunting (beagles) or racing (greyhounds) . meaning there are many gaps in the fossil record ▪ Only the hard parts of an organism are preserved and often only fragments of fossilized remains are discovered Fossilization Selective Breeding Selective breeding of domesticated animals is an example of artificial selection. domesticated breeds can show significant variation compared to the wild counterparts.

4. whereby many animals show a common bone composition.4. human hand for manipulating tools.3 State that populations tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support ▪ The Malthusian dilemma states that populations tend to multiply geometrically. whale fin for swimming.g.4 Explain that the consequence of the potential overproduction of offspring is a . implying a common ancestry ▪ Homologous structures are those that are similar in shape in different types of organisms despite being used in different ways ▪ An example is the pentadactyl limb structure in vertebrates.▪ Breeding cattle for increased meat production or milk ▪ Breeding zebras in an attempt to retrieve the colouration gene from the extinct Quagga Homologous Structures ▪ Comparative anatomy of groups of animals or plants shows certain structural features are basically similar. the more closely related they are likely to be Homologous Structures (Pentadactyl Limb) 5. horse hoof for galloping. etc. while food sources multiply arithmetically ▪ Hence populations tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support 5. despite the limb being used for different forms of locomotion (e. bat wing for flying.) ▪ This illustrates adaptive radiation (divergent evolution) as a similar basic plan has been adapted to suit various environmental niches ▪ The more similar the homologous structures between two species are.

g. with more offspring there will be less resources available to other members of the population (environmental resistance) ▪ This will lead to competition for available resources and a struggle for survival ▪ Intraspecific competition occurs when members of the same species compete for the same resources in an ecosystem (e. leading to an Scurve growth rate as the population approaches the carrying capacity (K) 5.struggle for survival ▪ When there is an abundance of resources. skin pigmentation in humans) There are three primary sources of variation within a given population ▪ Gene mutations (a permanent change to the genetic composition of an individual) ▪ Gene flow (the movement of genes from one population to another via immigration and emigration) . which leads to a range of characteristics (e.g. a population can achieve a J-curve maximum growth rate (biotic potential) ▪ However. which leads to distinct classes (e.g.4.5 State that members of a species show variation Members of a species show variation. food. water) ▪ It is density dependent. light. ABO blood group in humans) ▪ Continuous variation: A type of variation controlled by many genes. as the available resources must be shared among members of the species ▪ Competition that occurs between different species for resources is interspecific ▪ The result of this competition will be an increase in the mortality rate. which can manifest itself in one of two forms: ▪ Discontinuous variation: A type of variation usually controlled by a single gene.

the paired chromosomes can randomly arrange themselves in one of two orientations (paternal left / maternal right OR maternal left / paternal right) ▪ When the chromosomes separate in anaphase I. when homologous chromosomes line up at the equator. the final gametes will differ depending on whether they got the maternal or paternal chromosome ▪ Independent assortment of chromosomes creates 2n different gamete combinations (n = haploid number of chromosomes) .4.6 Explain how reproduction promotes variation within a species There are three primary ways by which sexual reproduction promotes variation within a species: Independent Assortment ▪ During metaphase I.▪ Sexual reproduction (the combination of genetic materials from two parental sources) 5.

including skin and lung infections) Variation: Antibiotic resistance (some strains have a drug-resistant gene .7 Explain how natural selection leads to evolution The theory of natural selection was postulated by Charles Darwin (and also independently by Alfred Wallace) who described it as 'survival of the fittest' ▪ There is genetic variation within a population (which can be inherited) ▪ There is competition for survival (populations tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support) ▪ Environmental selective pressures lead to differential reproduction ▪ Organisms with beneficial adaptations will be more suited to their environment and more likely to survive to reproduce and pass on their genes ▪ Over generations there will be a change in allele frequency within a population (evolution) 5.8 Explain two examples of evolution in response to environmental change.Crossing Over ▪ During prophase I. resulting in offspring that have a combination of paternal and maternal traits ▪ Because fertilisation is random. offspring will receive different combinations of traits every time. genetic information can be exchanged between non-sister chromatids ▪ The further apart two genes are on a chromosome.4. one must be antibiotic resistance in bacteria Example 1: Staphylococcus aureus (associated with a variety of conditions. other strains . when homologous chromosomes pair up as bivalents.4. the more likely they are to recombine ▪ Crossing over greatly increases the number of potential gamete variations by creating new genetic combinations Random Fertilisation ▪ Fertilisation results from the fusion of gametes from a paternal and maternal source. resulting in near infinite genetic variability 5.

the frequency of the melanic form increased (with improved industrial practices. Homo) Species follows and is written in lower case (e.1 Outline the binomial system of nomenclature The binomial system of nomenclature was devised by Carolus Linnaeus as a way of classifying organisms that was globally recognised and could demonstrate evolutionary relationships between organisms (and thus allow for the prediction of features closely related organisms may share) According to the binomial system of nomenclature. genus and species . organisms are grouped according to a series of hierarchical taxa .g. Homo sapiens) Some species may also have a sub-species designation (e. the frequency of antibiotic resistance in the population increases (drug-resistant gene can also be transferred by conjugation) Example 2: Peppered Moth (Biston betularia) Variation: Colouration (some moth have a light colour.using an example from two different kingdoms for each level When classifying living things. while others are a darker melanic colour) Environmental change: Pollution from industrial activities caused trees to blacken with soot during the Industrial Revolution Response: Light coloured moths died from predation. aureus (MRSA) survive and can pass on their genes Evolution: Over time. aureus (MSSA) die. order.kingdom.5. the name should be in italics. Homo sapiens sapiens) Conventions: When typing. the closer the grouping Classification of Animals and Plants . phylum.do not) Environmental change: Exposure to antibiotic (methicillin) Response: Methicillin-susceptible S. whereas melanic moths were camouflaged and survived to pass on their genes Evolution: Over time.5.2 List the seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa . the lighter variant has become more common) 5. whereas when hand writing. family. class.g.the more similar their characteristics. every organism is designated a scientific name with two parts: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Genus is written first and is capitalised (e. it should be underlined 5. whereas methicillin-resistant S.g.

4 Distinguish between the following phyla of animals. cnidaria. filicinophyta. platyhemlnthes. coniferophyta and angiospermophyta 5.5. using simple external recognition features: porifera. using simple external recognition features: bryophyta.5.3 Distinguish between the following phyla of plants. annelida. mollusca and arthropoda .5.

...................................................... Go to Q4 4............................ Coniferophyta Has flowers ................... Bryophyta Has leaves and roots .......................... Go to Q5 2...... .... Organism is a plant ................................................................5 Apply and design a key for up to eight organisms A dichotomous key is a method of identification whereby a group of organisms are sequentially divided into two categories until all are identified Example of a Dichotomous Key: 1............ Has no flowers .................... Has no seeds (sporangia) ................................................5......... Go to Q3 3................................................ Go to Q2 Organism is not a plant (animal) ........................................5................................................................................................ Filicinophyta Has seeds ................................... Has no 'true' leaves or roots .........................................................................................................................................................................

.......... Annelida Dichotomous Key as a Flowchart ......................................................................................................................................................................... Go to Q7 7...................................... Porifera Symmetrical body plan ............................... Platyhelminthes Has an anus ...... Mollusca 9....................... Has radial symmetry ................... Go to Q8 8........................................... Has no anus . Has a segmented body ......... Arthropoda Have no exoskeleton .................. Go to Q9 Has no visible body segmentation ....................................................................... Go to Q6 6..........................................................................................................Angiospermophyta 5.............. Cnidaria Has bilateral symmetry .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Have an exoskeleton ............................. Asymmetrical body plan ....................

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