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SUV is the widely used and known acronym for Sport Utility Vehicle. t first conception! an SUV was a "ehicle that com#ined the towin$ capacity of a full%si&e truck with the passen$er and stora$e capacity of a mini"an. 'owe"er! as consumer demands ha"e chan$ed! so has the "ehicle. Typical features of an SUV include seatin$ for fi"e to se"en! hi$h seatin$ and road positionin$! roomy interior! non%dedicated trunk space! hi$h en$ine capacity and ( wheel dri"e capa#ility. Thou$h it was ori$inally desi$ned to #e an off%road "ehicle for sportin$ purposes! its popularity has spawned se"eral different #reeds! includin$ the lu)ury SUV. Thou$h many modern day motorists "alue the SUV for its si&e and roominess! many others critici&e their lack of fuel%efficiency and their contri#ution to air pollution. Consumers who "alue the "ehicle do so not only for its si&e! #ut for its percei"ed safety ad"anta$es. Thou$h crash test safety ratin$s "ary with makes and models! some are known to pose the risk of rollo"er. s a concern for the en"ironment and the demand for fuel%efficient "ehicles increases! manufacturers worldwide are continuin$ to e)plore ways to make impro"ements to the SUV family to keep them a leadin$ sellin$ "ehicle.

,hy Suspension The .o# of a car suspension is to ma)imi&e the friction #etween the tires and the road surface! to pro"ide steerin$ sta#ility with $ood handlin$ and to ensure the comfort of the passen$ers. In this article! we/ll e)plore how car suspensions work! how they/"e e"ol"ed o"er the years and where the desi$n of suspensions is headed in the future. If a road were perfectly flat! with no irre$ularities! suspensions wouldn/t #e necessary. 0ut roads are far from flat. +"en freshly pa"ed hi$hways ha"e su#tle imperfections that can interact with the wheels of a car. It/s these imperfections that apply forces to the wheels. ccordin$ to Newton/s laws of motion! all forces ha"e #oth ma$nitude and direction. #ump in the road causes the wheel to mo"e up and down perpendicular to the road surface. The ma$nitude! of course! depends on whether the wheel is strikin$ a $iant #ump or a tiny speck. +ither way! the car wheel e)periences a"ertical acceleration as it passes o"er an imperfection. ,ithout an inter"enin$ structure! all of wheel/s "ertical ener$y is transferred to the frame! which mo"es in the same direction. In such a situation! the wheels can lose contact with the road completely. Then! under the downward force of $ra"ity! the wheels can slam #ack into the road surface. ,hat you need is a system that will a#sor# the ener$y of the "ertically accelerated wheel! allowin$ the frame and #ody to ride undistur#ed while the wheels follow #umps in the road.



1oal llow the "ehicle #ody to ride undistur#ed while tra"elin$ o"er rou$h roads.

Solution #sor# ener$y from road #umps and dissipate it without causin$ undue oscillation in the "ehicle.

The "ehicle/s a#ility to a#sor# or isolate Road Isolation road shock from the passen$er compartment The de$ree to which a car maintains contact with the road surface in "arious types of directional chan$es and in a strai$ht line 2+)ample3 The wei$ht of a car will shift from the rear tires to the front tires durin$ #rakin$. 0ecause the nose of the car dips toward the road! this type of motion is known as 4di"e.4 The opposite effect %% 4s5uat4 %% occurs durin$ acceleration! which shifts the wei$ht of the car from the front tires to the #ack.6

Road 'oldin$

7eep the tires in contact with the $round! #ecause it is the friction #etween the tires and the road that affects a "ehicle/s a#ility to steer! #rake and accelerate.

8inimi&e the transfer of "ehicle wei$ht from side to side and front to #ack! as this transfer of wei$ht reduces the tire/s $rip on the road.


The a#ility of a "ehicle to tra"el a cur"ed path

8inimi&e #ody roll! which occurs as centrifu$al force pushes outward on a car/s center of $ra"ity while cornerin$! raisin$ one side of the "ehicle and lowerin$ the opposite side.

Transfer the wei$ht of the car durin$ cornerin$ from the hi$h side of the "ehicle to the low side.

car/s suspension! with its "arious components! pro"ides all of the solutions descri#ed. The suspension of a car is actually part of the chassis! which comprises all of the imp% ortant systems located #eneath the car/s #ody.

These systems include3 The frame % structural! load%carryin$ component that supports the car/s en$ine and #ody! which are in turn supported #y the suspension The suspension system % setup that supports wei$ht! a#sor#s and dampens shock and helps maintain tire contact The steerin$ system % mechanism that ena#les the dri"er to $uide and direct the "ehicle The tires and wheels % components that make "ehicle motion possi#le #y way of $rip and9or friction with the road So the suspension is .ust one of the ma.or systems in any "ehicle.

,ith this #i$%picture o"er"iew in mind! it/s time to look at the three fundamental components of any suspension3 sprin$s! dampers and anti%sway #ars. Today/s sprin$in$ systems are #ased on one of the #asic desi$ns3

Coil sprin$s % This is the most common type of sprin$ and is! in essence! a hea"y%duty torsion #ar coiled around an a)is. Coil sprin$s compress and e)pand to a#sor# the motion of the wheels. :eaf sprin$s % This type of sprin$ consists of se"eral layers of metal 2called 4lea"es46 #ound to$ether to act as a sin$le unit. :eaf sprin$s were first used on horse%drawn carria$es and were found on most merican automo#iles until ;<=>. They are still used today on most trucks and hea"y%duty "ehicles. Torsion #ars % Torsion #ars use the twistin$ properties of a steel #ar to pro"ide coil%sprin$%like performance. This is how they work3 One end of a #ar is anchored to the "ehicle frame. The other end is attached to a wish#one! which acts like a le"er that mo"es perpendicular to the torsion #ar. ,hen the wheel hits a #ump! "ertical motion is transferred to the wish#one and then! throu$h the le"erin$ action! to the torsion #ar. The torsion #ar then twists alon$ its a)is to pro"ide the sprin$ force. Shock #sor#ers % shock a#sor#er is #asically an oil pump placed #etween the frame of the car and the wheels. The upper mount of the shock connects to the frame 2i.e.! the sprun$ wei$ht6! while the lower mount connects to the a)le! near the wheel 2i.e.! the unsprun$ wei$ht6. In a twin%tu#e desi$n! one of the most common types of shock a#sor#ers! the upper mount is connected to a piston rod! which in turn is connected to a piston! which in turn sits in a tu#e filled with hydraulic fluid. The inner tu#e is known as the pressure tu#e! and the outer tu#e is known as the reser"e tu#e. The reser"e tu#e stores e)cess hydraulic fluid. ,hen the car wheel encounters a #ump in the road and causes the sprin$ to coil and uncoil! the ener$y of the sprin$ is transferred to the shock a#sor#er throu$h the upper mount! down throu$h the piston rod and into the piston. Orifices perforate the piston and allow fluid to leak throu$h as the piston mo"es up and down in the pressure tu#e. 0ecause the orifices are relati"ely tiny! only a small amount of fluid! under $reat pressure! passes throu$h. This slows down the piston! which in turn slows down the sprin$. Shock a#sor#ers work in two cycles %% the compression cycle and the e)tension cycle. The compression cycle occurs as the piston mo"es downward! compressin$ the hydraulic fluid in the cham#er #elow the piston. The e)tension cycle occurs as the piston mo"es toward the top of the pressure tu#e! compressin$ the fluid in the cham#er a#o"e the piston. typical car or li$ht truck will ha"e more resistance durin$ its e)tension cycle than its compression cycle. ,ith that in mind! the

compression cycle controls the motion of the "ehicle/s unsprun$ wei$ht! while e)tension controls the hea"ier! sprun$ wei$ht. ll modern shock a#sor#ers are "elocity%sensiti"e %% the faster the suspension mo"es! the more resistance the shock a#sor#er pro"ides. This ena#les shocks to ad.ust to road conditions and to control all of the unwanted motions that can occur in a mo"in$ "ehicle! includin$ #ounce! sway! #rake di"e and acceleration s5uat. nother common dampenin$ structure is the strut %% #asically a shock a#sor#er mounted inside a coil sprin$. Struts perform two .o#s3 They pro"ide a dampenin$ function like shock a#sor#ers! and they pro"ide structural support for the "ehicle suspension. That means struts deli"er a #it more than shock a#sor#ers! which don/t support "ehicle wei$ht %% they only control the speed at which wei$ht is transferred in a car! not the wei$ht itself. 0ecause shocks and struts ha"e so much to do with the handlin$ of a car! they can #e considered critical safety features. ,orn shocks and struts can allow e)cessi"e "ehicle%wei$ht transfer from side to side and front to #ack. This reduces the tire/s a#ility to $rip the road! as well as handlin$ and #rakin$ performance.

nti%sway 0ars nti%sway #ars 2also known as anti%roll #ars6 are used alon$ with shock a#sor#ers or struts to $i"e a mo"in$ automo#ile additional sta#ility. n anti%sway #ar is a metal rod that spans the entire a)le and effecti"ely .oins each side of the suspension to$ether. ,hen the suspension at one wheel mo"es up and down! the anti%sway #ar transfers mo"ement to the other wheel. This creates a more le"el ride and reduces "ehicle sway. In particular! it com#ats the roll of a car on its suspension as it corners. ?or this reason! almost all cars today are fitted with anti%sway #ars as standard e5uipment! althou$h if they/re not! kits make it easy to install the #ars at any time.

:eaf Sprin$
leaf sprin$ comprises of se"eral lea"es clamped to$ether. The main leaf pro"ides the location of the a)le! and the laminated construction $i"es the re5uired properties of fle)i#ility and ener$y stora$e. s each leaf deflects towards its elastic limit! it transfers the additional loads to the ne)t leaf in the stack! with a small de$ree of relati"e slidin$ motion at each interface. This slidin$ motion incurs friction.

*re"iously! #efore introduction of hydraulic 2or "iscous6 dampers! friction was an ad"anta$e #ecause it pro"ided dampin$ in suspension system. Nowadays! with effecti"e hydraulic dampers! friction in suspension system is a disad"anta$e. Structurally! leaf sprin$s are desi$ned to produce constant stress alon$ their len$th when loaded.

Coil Sprin$
This type of sprin$ pro"ides a li$ht and compact form of compliance which is important features in terms of wei$ht and packa$in$ constraints. It re5uires little maintenance and pro"ides the opportunity for co%a)ial mountin$ with a


Its disad"anta$e is that #ecause of low le"els of structural dampin$ there is possi#ility of sur$in$ 2resonance alon$ the len$th of coil6 and the sprin$ as a whole does not pro"ide any lateral support for $uidin$ the wheel motion. Unlike leaf sprin$s coil sprin$s don@t pro"ide a)le or wheel location and therefore re5uire separate suspension arms.

Torsion 0ar
Torsion #ar is simply a rod actin$ in torsion and takin$ shear stresses only. These are made of heat treated alloy sprin$ steel. The amount of ener$y stored per unit wei$ht of

material is nearly the same as for coil sprin$. Torsion #ars are usually used with independent suspension system.

The #ar is fi)ed at one end to the frame! while the! while other end of the wheel arm is connected to the wheel hu#. ,hen the wheel strikes a #ump! it starts "i#ratin$ up and down! thus e)ertin$ a tor5ue on the torsion #ar! which acts as a sprin$.

nti%roll 0ars
These are used to reduce #ody roll and ha"e an influence on "ehicles cornerin$ characteristics.The ends of U%shaped #ar are connected to the wheel supports and the central len$th of the #ar is su#.ected to torsional loadin$ without #endin$.

If one of the wheels is lifted relati"e to the other! half of the total anti%roll stiffness acts downward on the wheel and the reaction on #ody of "ehicle tends to resist #ody roll.

If #oth wheels lift #y the same amount the #ar is not twisted and there is no transfer of load to the "ehicle #ody.

If displacement of wheels are mutually opposed 2one wheel up and the other wheel down #y the same amount6! the full effect of anti%roll stiffness is produced. The total roll stiffness is e5ual to sum of roll stiffness produced #y suspension sprin$s and the roll stiffness of anti%roll #ar.

Toe-in or Toe-out3
Toe%in is the amount #y which the front wheels are set closer to$ether at the front than at the rear when the "ehicle is stationary. On the other hand! the wheel may #e set closer at the rear than at the front in which case the difference of the difference of the distances #etween the front wheels at the front and rear wheels at the rear I called toe%out.

+ffect3 There is usually an inherent tendency of the wheel to toe%out #ecause of purposeful de"iation from centre point steerin$ and also due to errors in steerin$ an$les of the inner and outer wheels on moderate #ends. To offset this tendency a small amount of toe%in is initially pro"ided so that wheels mo"e perfectly strai$ht ahead under normal runnin$ conditions. 'owe"er! in some front wheel dri"e cars! initial toe%out has #een pro"ided to counter the tendency to toe%in present therein. The toe%in or toe%out as pro"ided is sometimes called wheel alignment. mount3 Toe%in initially pro"ided $enerally does not e)ceed A mm.

Cam#er is the tilt of the car wheels from the "ertical. Cam#er is positi"e if the wheel tilt is outward at the top. Cam#er is also called wheel rake. +ffect3 It is always desira#le that tires should roll on the $round "ertically so that the wear is uniform. If while runnin$! the tyres are inclined from the "ertical either inward or outward! they will wear more on one side than the other. It is seen that #ecause of this positi"e cam#er! the rollin$ radius at different points of tire tread is different as a result of which tire tends to roll like truncated cone a#out centre of rotation. Thus the tendency of the wheel would #e to toe%out. In addition tires would wear more on outer side. In the

same manner ne$ati"e cam#er will cause the wheels to toe%in and wear more on the insides. Initial positi"e cam#er is pro"ided to the wheels so that when "ehicle is loaded! they automatically come to a "ertical position.

King pin Inclination

Inclination of the kin$ pin from the "ertical is called kin$ pin inclination or kin$ pin rake. In modern cars where kin$ pin has #een replaced #y the #all .oints! this term is also renamed as BSteerin$ )is Inclination@ and is defined as inclination of #all .oint from the "ertical. Steerin$ a)is is an ima$inary line drawn throu$h the lower and the upper steerin$ pi"ot points. S I is nonad.usta#le! since it would chan$e only if the wheel

spindle or steerin$ knuckle is #ent. +ffect3 7in$ pin inclination or steerin$ a)is inclination helps the strai$ht ahead reco"ery! thus pro"idin$ directional sta#ility. ,hen the "ehicle takes a turn! the inclination of kin$ pin causes the "ehicle #ody to mo"e up in relation to the wheels. So as soon as the steerin$ wheel is left after the turn is completed! the wei$ht of the "ehicle tends to return the wheel to the strai$ht ahead position.

The an$le #etween the kin$ pin centreline 2or steerin$ a)is6 and the "ertical! in the plane of the wheel is called the castor an$le. If the kin$ pin centre line meets the $round at a point ahead of the "ertical wheel centre line it is called positi"e castor while if it is #ehind the "ertical wheel centre line! it is called ne$ati"e castor. +ffect3 In rear wheel dri"e "ehicles! the steerin$ a)is pulls the front tire! whereas the tire dra$s on account of the "ehicle wei$ht is on the "ertical line at the centre of the footprint. Since in positi"e castor steerin$ a)is would meet the $round ahead of the

centre of the tire print! the latter would always follow the former. Thus positi"e castor on car wheels pro"ides directional sta#ility.

Castor has another effect also. ,hen the "ehicle ha"in$ positi"e castor takes a turn! the outer side of the "ehicle ha"in$ is lowered while the inner one is raised! i.e.! positi"e castor help the centrifu$al force in rollin$ out the "ehicle. Ne$ati"e castor tends to roll%in the "ehicle i.e.! the effect of centrifu$al forces is counteracted.

mount3 #out >o of castor $i"es $ood results.

To find out the accurate suspension properties ! we ha"e to find out the ma)imum forces that can act on the suspension. The ma)imum forces occur due to load transfer in addition to the "ehicle wei$ht. There are two cases of load transfer 3 ;. :ateral load transfer C. :on$itudinal load transfer :ateral load transfer occurs when the "ehicle is cornerin$ ! it is $i"en #y 3 L (lat.) = [(mass)*(CoG height)*(lateral accelaration)] / [track] :on$itudinal load transfer occurs when the "ehicle is acceleratin$ or #rakin$! it is $i"en #y 3 L(lon.) = [(mass)*(CoG height)*(longitudinal accelaration)] / [wheel base] The ma)imum force on a sprin$ occurs when the "ehicle is #rakin$ while cornerin$. In the case of leaf sprin$! the desi$nin$ procedure is 3 ;. Choose the material C. ?ind the ma)imum force that can act upon it A. ?ind its #endin$ moment. B = [! * L] / ["]

* 3 8a)imum force : 3 Span of the leaf (. +5uate it with the e5uation 3 B = [#/$]*[b*b*h]*%*&

N3 num#er of lea"es re5uired # 3#readth of the C9S of the leaf h 3hei$ht of the C9S of the leaf + 3 youn$s modulus >. ?ind % from the a#o"e e5uation

The front suspension desi$n of a SUV in :otus%Shark software Suspension type 3 'ouble ()(rm *ishbone +,-e .nde-endent !e"icle Dimensions :
,heel 0ase Track Tire 1round Clearance 1ross Vehicle ,ei$ht Rollin$ radius Parameters ta#en : 0ump Tra"el Re#ound Tra"el C o 1 'ei$ht Ride ?re5uency 8ass Distri#ution Tire Vertical Stiffness Static $ngles : Cam#er Toe Caster Results : Sprin$ Rate ?ree :en$th ?i)ed :en$th Damper Rate "#./ %/mm 011 mm 2"$./ mm 1." %)s/mm CDEE mm ;=<E mm *CA>9F> R;D CEE mm C(>E k$ AF=.;D> mm D> mm D> mm >EE mm C.> '& (EG at front H <=E k$s CEE N9mm %C .EE de$s. %E.;E de$s. >.EE de$s.

Cam#er "s ,heel tra"el

Toe "s ,heel tra"el Designing t"e ront Suspension:

Solid,orks rendered ima$e for front Suspension $nal%sis:

ront lo&er control arm


In rear :eaf sprin$s are chosen as the suspension systems. :ateral acceleration 3 m*a = (m*4*4)/r a = 0".$ m/s52 :on$itudinal ccelaration ! 4 = u 6 at 3

?rom the data ! we find a = ($1)1)/## = ##.## m/s52 :ateral load transfer I 22." k% :on$itudinal load transfer I /.1" k% 8a)imum force I 2cornerin$ J #rakin$6 I #0.72 k%

Now ! ?rom the #endin$ moment e5uation ! we $et the num#er of leaf sprin$s re5uired =%=0 'esigning 8
C TI V> Desi$n of Rear :eaf Sprin$

(nal,sis o9 :ear Lea9 ;-ring