Sessions Trial No.

477 of 2012

In the Court of Additional Sessions Judge/Special Judge Anti!Corruption C.".I. #ha$ia%ad Present: S. &A& '.J.S. Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012 The State of (.). Through the C.".I. *s. +a,esh Tal-ar . Another R.C. No.1(S)/2008/SCR-III/CBI/N ! " #$I %/ss &02 r/' Se(tion &4) 201 r/' Se(tion &4 * 20& I.P.C. J(/#01NT T+e (,nos-re of .-/i(ial /eter0ination is t+e fl-(t-atin1 fort-nes of t+e /entist (o-2le "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar) '+o +a3e 4een arrai1ne/ for (o00ittin1 an/ se(retin1 as also /era(inatin1 t+e e3i/en(e of (o00ission of t+e 0-r/er of t+eir o'n a/oles(ent /a-1+ter-a 4ea-t /a0sel an/ sole +eiress 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ +a2less /o0esti( ai/e $e0ra.) '+o +a/ 0i1rate/ to In/ia fro0 nei1+4o-rin1 Ne2al to e7e o-t li3in1 an/ atten/e/ ro-tinel, to t+e (+ores of /o0esti( /r-/1er, at t+e +o-se of t+eir 0asters. T+e mise en scene is 8lat No. #-&2) 9al3a,:i+ar) Se(tor 2;) N.<.I.".6.) a s-4-r4 of Ne' "el+i. T+e Dramatis Personae are "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar) +is
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

'ife "r. N-2-r Tal'ar) t+e a((-se/ of t+is (ase) 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ $e0ra.) '+o 'ere 4l-/1eone/ an/ t+ereafter) .-1-late/ to /eat+ on t+e inter3enin1 ni1+t of 1;/1= 5a,) 2008) 5r. %0es+ S+ar0a an/ 5rs. B+arti 5an/al. T+e 2arties are ad idem t+at t+e (ase is 4ase/ on (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e. S7i22in1 e>2atiation on 2rose(-tion stor,) a 3i1nette of fa(ts as -n3eile/ is t+at on 1;.0;.2008 at a4o-t 0?:&0 P.5. onl, "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar) "r. N-2-r Tal'ar) 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ $e0ra. 'ere last seen in t+e +o-se 4, %0es+ S+ar0a) t+e /ri3er of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ in t+e 0ornin1 of 1=.0;.2008 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as fo-n/ /ea/ in +er 4e/roo0) '+i(+ 'as a/.a(ent to t+e 4e/roo0 of a((-se/ 2ersons an/ in 4et'een t+ese 4e/roo0s t+ere 'as a 'oo/en 2artition 'all. T+e /ea/ 4o/, of /o0esti( ser3ant $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ on t+e terra(e of t+e +o-se on 17.0.2008 an/ t+ere is not+in1 to s-11est t+at intr-/er(s) 2er2etrate/ t+is fien/is+ an/ fla1itio-s (ri0e. 8e' 2refator, fa(ts ne(essar, for -nfol/in1 t+e se@-en(e of e3ents t+at follo'e/ after t+e t'in 0-r/ers are t+at on 1=.0;.2008 at a4o-t 0=:00 6.5. +o-se0ai/ S0t. B+arti 5an/al arri3e/ as -s-al at 8lat No. #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar an/ ran1 t+e (all-4ell of t+e +o-se 4-t no res2onse (a0e fro0 insi/e. 6fter 2ressin1 t+e (all-4ell se(on/ ti0e) s+e 'ent -2stairs to ta7e 0o22in1 4-(7et. T+ereafter) s+e 2-t +er +an/ on t+e o-ter 1rill/0es+ /oor 4-t it /i/ not o2en. S-4se@-ent to t+at) s+e a1ain 2resse/ t+e (all-4ell an/ t+en "r. N-2-r Tal'ar after o2enin1 t+e 'oo/en /oor (a0e near t+e 1rill /oor/0es+ /oor
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

sit-ate/ in t+e 2assa1e an/ en@-ire/ a4o-t t+e '+erea4o-ts of $e0ra. to '+i(+ s+e re2lie/ t+at s+e +a/ no i/ea of +i0 an/ t+en "r. N-2-r Tal'ar tol/ +er t+at $e0ra. 0i1+t +a3e 1one to fet(+ 0il7 fro0 5ot+er-"air, after lo(7in1 t+e 0i//le 1rill/0es+ /oor fro0 o-tsi/e an/ s+e (o-l/ 'ait -ntil +e ret-rne/. T+ere-2on) S0t. B+arti 5an/al as7e/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar to 1i3e +er 7e,s so t+at s+e 0a, (o0e insi/e t+e +o-se after -nlo(7in1 t+e sa0e an/ t+en "r. N-2-r Tal'ar tol/ +er to 1o to t+e 1ro-n/ le3el an/ s+e 'o-l/ 4e t+ro'in1 7e,s to +er fro0 4al(on,. 6((or/in1l,) S0t. B+arti 5an/al (a0e /o'n t+e stairs an/ rea(+e/ t+e 1ro-n/ le3el. 5ean'+ile) "r. N-2-r Tal'ar o2ene/ t+e lat(+ of 0i//le 1rill/0es+ /oor an/ tol/ +er fro0 4al(on, t+at t+e /oor is not lo(7e/ an/ onl, lat(+e/ fro0 o-tsi/e an/ t+en S0t. B+arti 5an/al (a0e 4a(7 an/ o2ene/ t+e lat(+ of t+e /oor an/ (a0e insi/e t+e +o-se an/ t+en t+ereafter) "r. N-2-r Tal'ar tol/ S0t. B+arti ADekho Hemraj Kya karke gaya hai” (Look here, what has been done by Hemraj). !+en 0ai/ S0t. B+arti 'ent in 6ar-s+iBs roo0 s+e sa' t+at /ea/ 4o/, of 6ar-s+i 'as l,in1 on t+e 4e/ an/ (o3ere/ 'it+ a '+ite 4e/ s+eet an/ +er t+roat 'as slit. S+e 1ot fri1+tene/. T+ereafter) s+e 'ent /o'n t+e stairs an/ infor0e/ t+e in0ate of t+e +o-se sit-ate/ in first floor. 6fter t+at) s+e left t+e +o-se to /o +er .o4 in anot+er +o-se. B, t+at ti0e) t+e 2arents of "r. N-2-r Tal'ar an/ "r. "ines+ Tal'ar) t+e 4rot+er of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar rea(+e/ t+ere. <ne 5r. P-nis+ Rai Tan/on) resi/ent of #-28) Se(tor 2;) 9al3a,- :i+ar also rea(+e/ t+ere at a4o-t 0=:1; 6.5. an/ after (o0in1 4a(7 to +is +o-se
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

tele2+one/ to t+e (on(ier1e of 9al3a,- :i+ar to infor0 t+e Poli(e re1ar/in1 t+e o((-rren(e. 6((or/in1l,) 5r. :iren/ra Sin1+) t+e se(-rit, 1-ar/ rea(+e/ t+ere an/ +e 'as infor0e/ 4, "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar t+at after (o00ittin1 t+e 0-r/er of 6ar-s+i) t+e ser3ant $e0ra. +as fle/ a'a,. T+ereafter) 5r. :iren/ra Sin1+ (a0e 4a(7 to Cate No.01 '+ere Consta4le Pa'an 0et +i0 an/ +e 'as infor0e/ a4o-t t+e in(i/ent. T+ere-2on) Consta4le Pa'an infor0e/ S-4-Ins2e(tor) In-(+ar1e Poli(e <-t2ost 9al3a,- :i+ar. S.I. 5r. Ba(+(+oo Sin1+ '+o rea(+e/ to t+e +o-se of t+e a((-se/ at a4o-t 07:&0 6.5. '+ere S.P.(Cit,)) C.<.(Cit,)) <ffi(er-in-(+ar1e Poli(e Station) Se(tor 20) N.<.I.".6.) Consta4le Pa'an D-0ar an/ t+e fa0il, 0e04ers an/ relati3es of t+e /e(ease/ 0et +i0. 5ean'+ile) "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar /elate/ t+e 0atter 'it+ t+e Poli(e Station) Se(tor 20) N.<.I.".6. statin1 t+erein t+at +e li3es in #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar) Se(tor 2;) N.<.I.".6.) alon1 'it+ +is 'ife an/ /a-1+ter 6ar-s+i. T+e ser3ant $e0ra.) '+o +ails fro0 Ne2al -se/ to li3e in one roo0 of t+e sai/ +o-se. $is /a-1+ter 6ar-s+i) a1e/ a4o-t 14 ,ears 'as slee2in1 in +er 4e/roo0 in t+e 2re(e/in1 ni1+t 4-t in t+e 0ornin1 s+e 'as fo-n/ /ea/ in +er 4e/) +a3in1 in(ise/ 'o-n/s in +er t+roat. T+e ser3ant +as (o00itte/ t+e 0-r/er of +is /a-1+ter '+o is 0issin1 sin(e ni1+t an/ t+erefore) t+e re2ort 4e lo/1e/ an/ a(tion ta7en. <n t+e 4asis of t+is re2ort Case Cri0e No. =?; of 2008 -/S &02 I.P.C. 'as re1istere/ a1ainst $e0ra. an/ t+e s-4stan(e of t+e infor0ation 'as re(or/e/ in C.". No. 12 at 07:10 6.5. on 1=.0;.2008.

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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

T+e in3esti1ation of t+e (ase 'as ta7en -2 4, S.I. "ata Ra0 Na-naria) t+e Station $o-se <ffi(er of Poli(e Station) Se(tor 20) N.<.I.".6.) '+o /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of in3esti1ation 2ro(ee/e/ to t+e s(ene of (ri0e) ins2e(te/ t+e 4e/roo0 of t+e /e(ease/ 6ar-s+i an/ re(or/e/ t+e state0ents of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar. 5ean'+ile) Poli(e <ffi(er S.I. Ba(+(+oo Sin1+)<ffi(er-In-(+ar1e of Poli(e <-t2ost 9al,a3- :i+ar of Poli(e Station Se(tor 20 an/ 2osse (o0itat-s /ra'n fro0 ot+er Poli(e Stations also rea(+e/ t+ere. <n ins2e(tion of 4e/ roo0 of 5s. 6ar-s+i it 'as fo-n/ t+at t+e /ea/ 4o/, of t+e /e(ease/ 'as l,in1 in t+e 4e/) +er t+roat 'as slit 4, a s+ar2-e/1e/ 'ea2on) +er +ea/ 'as on 2illo' an/ 4e/ s+eet an/ 0attress 'ere soa7e/ 'it+ 4loo/) +er T-S+irt (%22er 1ar0ent) 'as a4o3e t+e 'aist) tro-ser 'as .-st 4elo' +er 'aist an/ t'ine of tro-ser -ntie/ 4-t t+e arti(les of t+e roo0 'ere fo-n/ 2ro2erl, arran1e/ an/ 2la(e/ in or/er. T+e 4loo/ s2latters 'ere t+ere on t+e 'all 4e+in/ t+e +ea/rest of 6ar-s+iEs 4e/. T+e ser3i(es of Consta4le C+-nni #al Ca-ta0 'ere re@-isitione/ '+o on 1=.0;.2008 at a4o-t 08.00 6.5. too7 t+e 2+oto1ra2+s of roo0 of 6ar-s+i an/ lo44,. $e also too7 fin1er 2rints on 4ottle of '+is7,) 2late) 1lasses) roo0 of $e0ra.) t'o 4ottle of li@-or) one 4ottle of s2rite an/ 0ain /oor. In@-est on t+e /ea/ 4o/, of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as +el/ 4, S.I. Ba(+(+oo Sin1+) 4et'een 8.00 6.5. to 10.00 6.5. in t+e 2resen(e of Pan(+ 'itnesses. T+ereafter) 4o/, 'as seale/ an/ sent to t+e 0or1-e for Post-0orte0 e>a0ination t+o-1+ Consta4le Ra. Pal Sin1+ an/ Pa'an D-0ar alon1 'it+ ne(essar,
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

2a2ers. "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re) 5e/i(al <ffi(er) In(+ar1e of Pri0ar, $ealt+ Centre) Se(tor 22) N.<.I.".6. (on/-(te/ a-to2s, on t+e (a/a3er of 5s. 6ar-s+i 4et'een 12.00 oB (lo(7 in t+e noon till 01:&0 P.5. T+e /e(ease/ 'as a1e/ a4o-t 14 ,ears) ri1or 0ortis 'as 2resent in 4ot+ -22er li04 an/ lo'er li04. S+e 'as a3era1e 4-ilt) 4ot+ e,es 'ere (on1este/. !+itis+ /is(+ar1e 'as fo-n/ in t+e 3a1ina. T+e follo'in1 ante-0orte0 in.-ries 'ere fo-n/ on t+e 2erson of t+e /e(ease/ 6ar-s+i:
1) #a(erate/ 'o-n/ 4 (0. > & (0.) 1 (0.

a4o3e left e,e 4ro' on frontal re1ion. T+is in.-r, 'as enterin1 into s7-ll (a3it,.
2) In(ise/ 'o-n/ 2 (0. > 1 (0. on left e,e

4ro'
&) #a(erate/ 'o-n/ 8 (0. > 2 (0. on left

2arietal re1ion
4) In(ise/ 'o-n/ 14 (0. > = (0. on ne(7)

a4o3e t+,roi/ (artila1e. Tra(+ea 2artiall, in(ise/. T+is 'o-n/ 'as & (0. a'a, fro0 left ear an/ = (0. a'a, fro0 ri1+t ear an/ 4 (0. 4elo' (+in. #eft (aroti/ arter, 'as slit. <n internal e>a0ination) t+ere 'as fra(t-re in left 2arietal 4one. $ae0ato0a 8 (0. > ; (0. 'as 2resent 4elo' 2arietal 4one. Si0ilar +ae0ato0a 'as fo-n/ on ri1+t si/e of s7-ll) tra(+ea 'as 2artiall, (-t) 4ot+ t+e (+a04ers of +eart 'ere e02t,) l-n1s 'ere nor0al. T+e /e(ease/ 'as +a3in1 teet+ 1; > 1;. <eso2+a1-s an/ Peritone-0 'ere nor0al. Se0i-/i1este/ foo/ 'as fo-n/. T+e /e(ease/ +a/ /ie/ a4o-t 12-18 +o-rs 4efore /-e to +,2o3ole0ia. :is(era of sto0a(+ 'it+ (ontents) 2ie(e of s0all intestine) 2ie(e of li3er 'it+ 1all
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

4la//er) 2ie(e of one 7i/ne, 'as 2reser3e/ an/ sent for e>a0ination. :a1inal sli/es 'ere 2re2are/. "-rin1 in3esti1ation S.I. "ata Ra0 Na-naria seiFe/ t+e 4loo/ staine/ 2illo') 4e/ s+eet an/ 2ie(es of 0attress fro0 t+e roo0 of 6ar-s+i in t+e 2resen(e of 'itnesses 5o+/. 6a0ir an/ "i1a04ar Sin1+ an/ 0e0o 'as 2re2are/. !+ere after) t+e roo0 of $e0ra. 'as sear(+e/ an/ a 4ottle (ontainin1 S-la 'ine) one e02t, 4ottle of Din1fis+er 4eer) a 2lasti( 4ottle of 1reen (olo-r 'ere re(o3ere/ an/ ta7en into 2ossession. <ne Ballentine S(ot(+ 4ottle (ontainin1 so0e li@-or 'as re(o3ere/ fro0 t+e ta4le of /inin1 +all. 6ll t+ese arti(les 'ere seiFe/ an/ a 0e0o 'as 2re2are/ an/ si1nat-res of t+e 'itnesses 5o+/. 6a0ir an/ "i1a04ar Sin1+ 'ere o4taine/ t+ereon. 6 site-2lan 'as also 2re2are/ 4, +i0. T+e state0ents of B+arti 5an/al) 9ee3an) 5o+/. 6a0ir) "i1a04ar Sin1+) S+i3ra0) :a7il 6+0a/) 5-Fi4-%r-Ra+0an an/ 67+iles+ C-2ta 'ere ta7en. $e trie/ to 1o to t+e roof of t+e +o-se 4-t t+e /oor of t+e roof 'as fo-n/ lo(7e/ an/ t+e lo(7 'as +a3in1 4loo/ stains. $e as7e/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar to 1i3e t+e 7e,s of lo(7 of t+e /oor of t+e terra(e to +i0 4-t "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar tol/ +i0 t+at +e 'as not +a3in1 t+e 7e,s an/ +e s+o-l/ not 'aste +is ti0e in 4rea7in1 o2en t+e lo(7) else $e0ra. 'ill 0ana1e to flee a'a,. <n 17.0;.2008 "r. "ines+ Tal'ar 'as as7e/ to 2ro3i/e t+e 7e, of t+e lo(7 of t+e /oor of t+e terra(e 4-t +e also tol/ t+at +e +a/ no 7e, 'it+ +i0 an/ t+erefore) t+e In3esti1ator "ata Ra0 Na-naria 4ro7e o2en t+e lo(7 of t+e /oor of t+e terra(e an/ 'ent to t+e terra(e alon1 'it+ D.D. Ca-ta0) a retire/ 2oli(e offi(er) "r. S-s+il
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

C+a-/+ar, an/ "r. "ines+ Tal'ar an/ fo-n/ t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. l,in1 t+ere in a 2ool of 4loo/. T+e /ea/ 4o/, 'as (o3ere/ 'it+ a 2anel of (ooler an/ /ra11in1 0ar7s 'ere 3isi4le. "r. "ines+ Tal'ar 'as tol/ to i/entif, t+e /ea/ 4o/, 4-t +e state/ t+at +e (o-l/ not re(o1niFe t+e /ea/ 4o/,. $o'e3er Ra0 Prasa/) R-/ra #al an/ ot+er 2ersons '+o +a/ 1at+ere/ t+ere i/entifie/ t+e /ea/ 4o/, as t+at of $e0ra.. <n 17.0;.2008 Consta4le C+-nni #al Ca-ta0 too7 t+e 2+oto1ra2+s an/ fin1er 2rints of t+e terra(e. In@-est on t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. 'as +el/ 4, S.I. Ba(+(+oo Sin1+ 4et'i>t 12.&0 to 14.&0 an/) t+ereafter) t+e /ea/ 4o/, 'as seale/ an/ sent to 0ort-ar, t+ro-1+ Consta4le Ra. Pal Sin1+ an/ Pa'an D-0ar alon1 'it+ ne(essar, Poli(e 2a2ers. "r. Nares+ Ra. (on/-(te/ Post-0orte0 e>a0ination of t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. on 17.0;.2008 at a4o-t ?.00 P.5. as 2er or/er of t+e "istri(t 5a1istrate) Ca-ta0 B-/+ Na1ar. T+e /e(ease/ 'as a1e/ a4o-t 4; ,ears an/ a3era1e 4-ilt. Ri1or 0ortis 'as 2resent in t+e -22er an/ lo'er li04s an/ +a/ 2asse/ fro0 +ea/ an/ ne(7. $is e,es 'ere 2rotr-/in1 4ilaterall,. Blee/in1 fro0 nostril an/ 0o-t+ 'as seen. Penis 'as s'ollen. T+e follo'in1 ante-0orte0 in.-ries 'ere fo-n/ on +is 2erson:
1) 64rasion & (0. > 2 (0. 4e+in/ t+e ri1+t

el4o'.
2) 64ra/e/ (ont-sion & (0. > 4 (0. 4e+in/ t+e

left el4o'
&) In(ise/ 'o-n/ on t+e front an/ si/es of ne(7

a4o3e t+e le3el of t+,roi/ (artila1e. T+e 'o-n/ is &0 (0s. lon1 an/ is sit-ate/ ; (0.
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

4elo' ri1+t ear) = (0 4elo' left ear an/ = (0 4elo' t+e (+in. T+e 'o-n/ is in3ol3in1 t+e tra(+ea.
4) 64ra/e/ (ont-sion & (0. > 2 (0. on t+e left

frontal re1ion 2 (0 a4o3e t+e left e,e 4ro'
;) 64ra/e/ (ont-sion 2 (0. > 2 (0. on t+e left

frontal re1ion
=) #a(erate/ 'o-n/ & (0. > 2 (0. > 4one /ee2

on t+e o((i2ital re1ion
7) #a(erate/ 'o-n/ 8 (0. > 2 (0. > 4one /ee2

on t+e o((i2ital re1ion) 1 (0. 4elo' In.-r, No. 0;. <n internal e>a0ination) fra(t-re of o((i2ital 4one 'as seen. Tra(+ea se3ere/ a4o3e t+e t+,roi/ (artila1e. C+a04ers of 4ot+ t+e +eart 'ere e02t,. 64/o0en 'as /isten/e/. T+e /e(ease/ 'as +a3in1 1=/1= teet+. 2; 0l. li@-i/ (ontents 'ere seen in t+e sto0a(+. T+e /e(ease/ /ie/ a4o-t 11/2-2 /a,s 4efore as a res-lt of s+o(7 /-e to +,2o3ole0ia) (a-se/ 4, ante-0orte0 in.-ries. :is(era of sto0a(+ 'it+ (ontents) 2ie(e of s0all intestine) 2ie(e of li3er 'it+ 1all 4la//er) 2ie(e of one s2leen an/ 7i/ne, 'as 2reser3e/. "-rin1 t+e (o-rse of in3esti1ation) a re/ (olo-re/ 'ater of (ooler 'as ta7en in a 4ottle an/ its 0e0o 'as 2re2are/ in t+e 2resen(e of in/e2en/ent 'itnesses S+i3ra0 an/ "i1a04ar

Sin1+. Bloo/ staine/ an/ 2lain floor of t+e terra(e 'ere also ta7en an/ 0e0o t+ereof 'as 2re2are/ an/ t+e si1nat-re of 'itnesses Ta0an 9eet Sin1+ C+a//+a an/ 6t-l Sa(+/e3a 'ere o4taine/. Site2lan of t+e terra(e 'as also 2re2are/ 4, +i0. <n t+e sa0e /ate t+e state0ents of Ta0an 9eet Sin1+
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

C+a//+a) 6t-l Sa(+/e3a) S+i3 Ra0) :a7il 6+0a/) "i1a04ar Sin1+) "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ "r. "ines+ Tal'ar 'ere ta7en. It 'as fo-n/ fro0 t+e in3esti1ation t+at t+e e3i/en(e of t+e offen(e +as 4een (on(eale/ an/ t+erefore) Se(tion 201 I.P.C. 'as a//e/. Re2ort of sli/es 'as re(ei3e/ on t+at /a,. !+ere after) t+e in3esti1ation 'as transferre/ to 5r. 6nil Sa0ania) S.$.<. of Poli(e Station Se(tor &?) N.<.I.".6. <n 18.0;.2008 Consta4le C+-nni #al too7 t+e 2+oto1ra2+s of /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. fro0 t+e 0ort-ar,. <n 2&.0;.2008 "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as arreste/ 4, t+e lo(al 2oli(e. T+e Co3ern0ent of %ttar Pra/es+ iss-e/ Notifi(ation No. 1?&7-:I-P-&-2008-1;(48) P/2008 /ate/ 2?.0;.2008 1i3in1 (onsent for transfer of in3esti1ation fro0 Poli(e to C.B.I. P-rs-ant to t+at) t+e "e2art0ent of of In/ia) Personnel iss-e/ an/ Trainin1) No. Co3ern0ent Notifi(ation

228/47/2008-6:" II /ate/ &1.0;.2008 '+ere -n/er t+e in3esti1ation of t+e (ase 'as +an/e/ o3er to t+e C.B.I. Conse@-entl,) C.B.I. re1istere/ RC No. 1(S)/2008/SCR-III/CBI/N ! " #$I on &1.0;.2008. T+e in3esti1ation 'as ta7en -2 4, 5r. :i.a, D-0ar) t+e t+en S.P.) C.B.I./SCR-III Ne' "el+i) '+o 'as assiste/ 4, 6//itional S.P. 5r. T. Ra.a4ala.i) ",. S.Ps. 5r. D.S. T+a7-r) R.S. D-reel an/ $ari Sin1+) Ins2e(tors 5.S. P+art,al) Nares+ In/ora) R.D. 9+a) 5-7es+ S+ar0a et(. $e 3isite/ t+e 2la(e of o((-rren(e alon1 'it+ retin-e on 01.0=.2008 an/ on +is /ire(tion Ins2e(tor 5-7es+ S+ar0a 2re2are/ 5e0o of 14 arti(les '+i(+ 'ere seiFe/ an/ seale/. Co2, of t+e 0e0o 'as s-22lie/ to N-2-r Tal'ar. <n 02.0=.2008 on +is /ire(tions T. Ra.a Bala.i) Nares+
Pa1e 10

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

In/ora)

tea0

of

C.8.S.#.

e>2erts)

in/e2en/ent

'itnesses 5ano. D-0ar an/ San.ee3 D-0ar too7 in 2ossession t+e 4loo/ staine/ 2al0 2rint on 'all of t+e terra(e an/ its 0e0o 'as 2re2are/. <n 1&.0=.2008 Dris+na 'as arreste/. <n 14.0=.2008 ",. S.P. 5r. D-reel) 6n-. 6r,a) Ins2e(tor R.D. 9+a) S.D. Sin1la an/ B.D. 5o+a2atra) t+e s(ientists an/ P+oto1ra2+er 5r. Ca-ta0 of C.8.S.#. ins2e(te/ t+e ser3ant @-arter of Dris+na in $o-se No. #-14) Se(tor 2;) N.<.I.".6. an/ t+ree arti(les 'ere seiFe/) seale/ an/ ta7en into 2ossession. <n 18.0=.2008 5r. $ari Sin1+ '+o 'as 2art of t+e in3esti1atin1 tea0) on /ire(tion of t+e (+ief in3esti1ator 5r. :i.a, D-0ar seiFe/ +alf Pant an/ T-s+irt of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar) 1o'n an/ 4at+roo0 sli22ers of "r. N-2-r Tal'ar an/ 4 set of s+oes of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar. <n 27.0=.2008 Ra. D-0ar 'as (ollare/. <n 11.07.2008 :i.a, 5an/al 'as also a22re+en/e/. <n 0?.0=.2008 2s,(+olo1i(al test of Dris+na 'as -n/erta7en in 6.I.I.5.S) Ne' "el+i. <n 12.0=.2008 Brain-0a22in1) Nar(o-anal,sis an/ Pol,1ra2+ tests of Dris+na 'ere (on/-(te/ at 8orensi( S(ien(e #a4orator,) Ban1alore. <n 11.07.2008 C.B.I. file/ re2ort -n/er se(tion 1=? Cr.P.C. in t+e (o-rt of #earne/ S2e(ial 9-/i(ial 5a1istrate (C.B.I.)) C+aFia4a/ an/ a((or/in1l, "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as release/ fro0 (-sto/,. Sin(e 5r. :i.a, D-0ar 'as 4it off) t+e in3esti1ation 'as transferre/ on 2;.08.2008 to Ins2e(tor 5r. 5.S. P+art,al) '+o in3esti1ate/ t+e (ase till 1&.0&.200? an/ /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of in3esti1ation) +e re(or/e/ t+e state0ents of 'itnesses San.a, C+a-+an) Ra3in/ra T,a1i) "r. Ri(+a Sa>ena) San7al2 6rora) R-/ra #al) Na3neet Da-s+i7) 6fFal D+an) S.I. B.R.
Pa1e 11

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

Da7ran) Consta4le Ra. Pal) S.I. "ata Ra0 Na-naria) S.I. Ba(+(+oo Sin1+) "r. S.C. Sin1+al) P-nis+ Rai Tan/on) "r. S-neel D-0ar "o+re an/ Dri2a S+an7ar Tri2at+i. $e 'as assiste/ in t+e in3esti1ation 4, Ins2e(tor Ri(++ Pal Sin1+) Ins2e(tor Pan7a. Bansal) Ins2e(tor N.R. 5eena an/ S.I. Gatis+ S+ar0a. T+ereafter) +e 'as transferre/ to C.B.I.) 6.C.B.) "e+ra/-n an/ +en(e in3esti1ation 'as transferre/ to Ins2e(tor Ri(++ Pal Sin1+) '+o (on/-(te/ in/e2en/ent in3esti1ation fro0 5ar(+ 200? to first 'ee7 of Se2te04er 200? alt+o-1+ +e 'as assistin1 I.<. fro0 t+e in(e2tion. 6fter t+at) t+e in3esti1ation 'as 0a/e o3er to 5r. 6.C.#. Da-l) ",. S.P.) C.B.I.) SC-III) '+o in t+e (o-rse of in3esti1ation ins2e(te/ t+e s(ene of (ri0e) (reate/ e-0ail I"+e0ra...al3a,-3i+arH10ail.(o0 to re0ain in to-(+ 'it+ t+e a((-se/ an/ a1ain re(or/e/ t+e state0ents of rele3ant 'itnesses. $e also /ire(te/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar to 2ro/-(e 1olf sti(7s. Prior to t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as en@-ire/ a4o-t one 0issin1 1olf sti(7 4-t +e +a/ not 1i3en satisfa(tor, e>2lanation t+ereof. T+e 1olf sti(7s 'ere sent to C.8.S.#. for e>a0ination. S.P.) C.B.I.) "e+ra/-n +a/ as7e/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar t+at '+en one 1olf sti(7 'as 0issin1 t+en +o' +e +a/ 2ro/-(e/ t+e (o02lete set) t+en on 4e+alf of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar one 6.a, C+a//+a +a/ sent an e-0ail fro0 +is e-0ail I" a.a,H0e/i(onF.(o0 to 5r. Da-l inti0atin1 t+erein t+at one 1olf sti(7 'as fo-n/ in t+e atti( o22osite to t+e roo0 of 6ar-s+i /-rin1 (leanin1 of t+e flat. <n e>a0ination of 1olf sti(7s) it 'as fo-n/ t+at t'o 1olf sti(7s 'ere (leaner t+an ot+ers. T+ese 1olf sti(7s 'ere 1ot i/entifie/ 4, %0es+ S+ar0a) t+e /ri3er of
Pa1e 12

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

"r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar) '+o state/ t+at sai/ t'o 1olf sti(7s 'ere 7e2t 4, +i0 in t+e roo0 of $e0ra.. T+e i/entifi(ation 2ro(ee/in1 'as (on/-(te/ in t+e 2resen(e of 'itness #a>0an Sin1+. "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ tol/ +i0 t+at t+e 4oo7 title/ IT+ree 0ista7es of 0, lifeB 'as in t+e 4e/ of 6ar-s+i at t+e ti0e of +er 0-r/er. "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +an/e/ o3er t+e sai/ 4oo7 an/ (arton of 0o4ile set of 6ar-s+i to Ins2e(tor 6r3in/ 9aitle,. T+e I.5. .I. No. of t+is 0o4ile set '+i(+ 'as -se/ 4, 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as 2rinte/ on (ar/-4oar//(arton an/ t+e sa0e 0o4ile set +a3in1 t+is I.5. .I. No. 'as re(o3ere/ later on. In t+e 4oo7 no 4loo/ or "N6 'as tra(e/. 5r. Da-l also (on/-(te/ a /-00, test an/ its 0e0o 'as 2re2are/. 6fter (o02letin1 t+e in3esti1ation 5r. Da-l rea(+e/ to t+e (on(l-sion t+at t+ese t'in 0-r/ers 'ere (o00itte/ 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/ not 4, Dris+na) Ra.7-0ar an/ :i.a, 5an/al or an, ot+er o-tsi/er. $o'e3er) on inter3entions of s-2er sle-t+s of C.B.I. (los-re re2ort 'as lai/ 4, 5r. Da-l in t+e (o-rt of #earne/ S2e(ial 9-/i(ial 5a1istrate (C.B.I.)) C+aFia4a/ on 2?.12.2010/01.01.2011 '+o on re(ei2t of t+e sai/ re2ort iss-e/ noti(e to t+e infor0ant-"r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar) '+o 4ein1 a11rie3e/ 4, an/ /issatisfie/ 'it+ t+e (los-re re2ort file/ 2rotest 2etition see7in1 i02etrator, relief to /ire(t C.B.I. for (arr,in1 o-t f-rt+er in3esti1ation 4-t t+e sa0e 'as re.e(te/. T+e (los-re re2ort 'as also re.e(te/ 4, t+e #earne/ 5a1istrate on 0?.02.2011 an/ too7 (o1niFan(e of t+e offen(e -n/er se(tion 1?0 (1)(4) of t+e (o/e of (ri0inal 2ro(e/-re an/ s-00one/ 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 2ersons to stan/ trial for offen(es 2-nis+a4le -n/er
Pa1e 1&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

se(tions &02/&4 an/ 201/&4 IPC. T+e sai/ or/er 'as (+allen1e/ in t+e $onB4le $i1+ Co-rt) 6lla+a4a/ 4-t 'it+o-t s-((ess. T+ereafter) t+e 0atter 'as (arrie/ to t+e $onB4le S-2re0e Co-rt) '+ere also it 0et its 'aterloo an/ t+e or/er 2asse/ 4, t+e #earne/ 5a1istrate 'as finall, affir0e/ an/ re(ei3e/ t+e imprimatur of t+e $onE4le Co-rt 62e>. T+e (ase) 4ein1 e>(l-si3el, tria4le 4, t+e (o-rt of sessions 'as (o00itte/ to t+e (o-rt of sessions 4, t+e or/er /ate/ 0?.0;.2012 2asse/ 4, t+e #earne/ S2e(ial 9-/i(ial 5a1istrate (CBI)) C+aFia4a/. 6((or/in1l,) t+e (ase 'as re1istere/ in t+e learne/ Co-rt of Sessions) C+aFia4a/ on 10.0;.2012 an/ s-4se@-entl, 0a/e o3er to t+is (o-rt sa0e /a,) an/) t+-s t+e ine>ora4le (o-rse of la' +as ta7en t+e a((-se/ to t+is (o-rt. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ 'ere (+ar1e/ for offen(es 2-nis+a4le -n/er se(tion &02 rea/ 'it+ se(tion &4 an/ se(tion 201 rea/ 'it+ se(tion &4 I.P.C. T+ere'it+al) "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as also (+ar1e/ for offen(e 2-nis+a4le -n/er se(tion 20& I.P.C. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ a4.-re/ t+eir 1-ilt an/ (lai0e/ to 4e trie/. T+e 2rose(-tion in s-22ort P.!.-1 of t+e

a((-sations/(+ar1es

e>a0ine/

Consta4le

C+-nni #al Ca-ta0) P.!.-2 Ra.es+ D-0ar) P.!.-& 60ar "e3 Sa+) P.!.-4 San.a, C+a-+an) P.!.-; "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re) P.!.-= "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra) P.!.-7 D.D. Ca-ta0) P.!.-8 S+o+rat) P.!.-? :iren/ra Sin1+) P.!.-10 5rs. B+arti 5an/al) P.!.-11 Dri2a S+an7ar Tri2at+i) P.!.-12 P-nis+ Rai Ton/on) P.!.-1& "r. Ra.ee3 D-0ar :ars+ne,) P.!.-14 "r. Ro+it Do(+ar) P.!.-1; %0es+ S+ar0a) P.!. 1=Pa1e 14

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

#a>0an Sin1+) P.!. 17- "ee2a7 Dan/a) P.!.-18 B+-2en/ra Sin1+ 63as,a) P.!.-1? "ee2a7) P.!.-20 :ino/ B+a1'an Ra0 Te7e) P.!.-21 R.D. Sin1+) P.!.-22 5.N. :i.a,an) P.!.-2& 5rs. D-s-0) P.!.-24 S-res+ D-0ar Sin1la) P.!.-2; S.P.R. Prasa/) P.!.-2= "ee2a7 D-0ar Tan'ar) P.!.-27 "r. Ra.en/ra Sin1+) P.!.-28 Consta4le Pa'an D-0ar) P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra) P.!.-&0 "r. "ines+ D-0ar) P.!.-&1 $ari Sin1+) P.!.-&2 Ri(++ Pal Sin1+) P.!.-&& S.I. Ba(+(+- Sin1+) P.!.-&4 S.I. "ata Ra0 Na-naria) P.!.-&; Ins2e(tor 5.S. P+art,al) P.!.-&= "r. Nares+ Ra.) P.!.-&7 :i.a, D-0ar) P.!.-&8 "r. 5o+in/er Sin1+ "a+i,a an/ P.!.-&? 6.C.#. Da-l. P.!.-2 +as 2ro3e/ +is letter as >+i4itJDa-1. >+i4it J

P.!.-& +as 2ro3e/ e>a0ination re2ort as re2ort as as

Da-2. P.!.-; +as 2ro3e/ 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination >+i4itJDa-&) entr, of 2ost0orte0 no. &;=/8 /ate/ 1=.0;.2008 in t+e Post-5orte0 Re1ister >+i4itJDa-4) entr, at serial no. ;& of :is(era >+i4itJDa-;. P.!.-= +as 2ro3e/ +is >+i4itJ Re1ister as

e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ 1?.0=.2008 as Ra, as

Da-=) letter /ate/ 1?.0=.2008 of S0t. Bi4+a Rani >+i4itJDa-7) e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ 01.07.2008 as >+i4itJDa-8) letter /ate/ 02.07.2008 of S0t. Bi4+a Rani Ra, as >+i4itJDa-?) e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ &0.0=.2008 as >+i4itJDa-10)letter /ate/ &0.0=.2008 of S0t. Bi4+a Rani Ra, as >+i4itJ Da-11) e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ 21.07.2008 as >+i4itJDa-12)e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ 1;.10.200? as >+i4itJDa-1&)e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ 1;.07.2010 as >+i4itJDa-14. P.!.-11 +as 2ro3e/ >+i4itJDa-1;)
Pa1e 1;

t+e 2+oto(o2, of entr, /ate/ 1=.0;.2008 0a/e at 2a1e no.18 of (re0ation re1ister as

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

P.!.-1& +as 2ro3e/ +is state0ent re(or/e/ -n/er se(tion 1=4 Cr.P.C. as Cr.P.C. as >+i4itJDa-1=. P.!.-14 +as 2ro3e/ +is state0ent re(or/e/ -n/er se(tion 1=4 >+i4it J Da-17. P.!.- 1= +as 2ro3e/ 1olf >+i4itJDa-18. P.!.-17 (l-4s i/entifi(ation 0e0o as

+as 2ro3e/ 2rint o-t of e-0ail sent to 5r. Neela4+ Dis+ore as >+i4itJDa-1?) 2rint o-t of e-0ail sent 4, 5r. Neela4+ Di+sore as of internet lo1 as +as 2ro3e/ >+i4itJDa-20) 2rint o-t of 4ill an/ (all /etails re(or/ as >+i4itJDa-21) 2rint o-t >+i4itJDa-22. P.!.-18 +as 2ro3e/ >+i4itJDa-2&. P.!.-1? se(tion =;-B of -n/er letter /ate/ 21.0?.2010 as (ertifi(ate 3i/en(e 6(t as as

>+i4itJDa-24) 2rint o-t of (all

/etails re(or/ 2ertainin1 to 0o4ile no. ????1010?4 >+i4itJDa-2;) (ertifi(ate -n/er se(tion =;-B of >+i4itJDa-2=) 2rint o-t of (all +as +is 2ro3e/ letter +is >+i4itJ /ate/ 3i/en(e 6(t as as Da-28.

/etails re(or/ 2ertainin1 to 0o4ile no. ?8??;;;??? >+i4itJDa-27.P.!.-20 P.!.-21 +as 2ro3e/ e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ 18.0=.2008 as

08.08.2008 as >+i4itJDa-2?)2+oto(o2, of (ons-0er a22li(ation for0 of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar relatin1 to 0o4ile no. ??10;20=&0 as >+i4itJDa-&0)2+oto(o2, of (ons-0er a22li(ation for0 of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar relatin1 to 0o4ile no. ?871;;72&; as >+i4itJDa-&1) 2+oto(o2, of (ons-0er a22li(ation for0 of Ra7es+ 6rora relatin1 to 0o4ile no. ?810;0??11 as >+i4itJ Da-&2) 2+oto(o2, of (ons-0er a22li(ation for0 of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar relatin1 to 0o4ile no. ?871=2;74= as >+i4itJDa-&&)2+oto(o2, of (ons-0er a22li(ation as >+i4itJDa-&4)2+oto(o2, of for0 of "r. Praf-ll "-rrani relatin1 to 0o4ile no. ??10==?;40 (ons-0er a22li(ation for0 of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar
Pa1e 1=

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

relatin1 to 0o4ile no. ?8100&7?2= as >+i4itJDa-&;) 2rint o-t of (all /etails re(or/ of 0o4ile no. ??10;20=&0 ?871=2;74= ?8100&7?2= ?871;;72&; ?810&022?8 ?8101=;0?2 ?810178071 ?8100?=24= ??10==?;40 as ?810;0??11 as as as as as as as as as >+i4itJDa-&=)0o4ile >+i4itJDa-&7)0o4ile >+i4itJDa-&8)0o4ile >+i4itJDa-&?)0o4ile >+i4itJDa-40)0o4ile >+i4itJDa-41)0o4ile >+i4itJDa-42)0o4ile >+i4itJDa-4&)0o4ile >+i4itJDa-44 an/ 0o4ile no. no. no. no. no. no. no. no. no.

>+i4it J Da-4;. P.!.-22 +as 2ro3e/ >+i4it J Da-4=) 2rint of (ons-0er

+is letter /ate/ 18.11.2010 as as >+i4itJDa-47 an/

o-t of (all /etails re(or/s of 0o4ile no. ?21&;1;48; 2+oto(o2, a22li(ation for0 of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar relatin1 to +is 0o4ile no. ?21&;1;48; as 2&.0=.2008 as letter /ate/ >+i4itJDa-48. P.!.-24 +as 2ro3e/ +is serolo1i(al e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ >+i4itJDa-4?. P.!.-2; +as 2ro3e/ 0=.11.2008 of "ire(tor of >+i4itJDa-;0)re2ort /ate/

C.".8.".)$,/era4a/ as

0=.11.2008 of C.".8.".) $,/era4a/ as >+i4itJDa-;1) (larifi(ator, letter /ate/ 24.0&.2011 of "r. N. 5a/+-s-/an Re//, of C.".8.".) $,/era4a/ as >+i4itJDa-;2) 1olf sti(7s e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ 1&.07.2010 as as >+i4itJDa-;&) /ia1ra0 of 1olf sti(7s >+i4itJDa-;4)0e0o of e>2eri0ents relatin1 to

(arria1e of /ea/ 4o/, as >+i4itJ Da-;;. P.!.-27 +as 2ro3e/ +is (ri0e s(ene re(onstr-(tion re2ort /ate/ 1=.12.2012 as >+i4itJDa-;=) o4ser3ation 0e0o >+i4it J relatin1 to (ri0e s(ene re(onstr-(tion as

Da-;7 an/ (ri0e s(ene ins2e(tion re2ort as >+i4it J Da-;8. P.!.-&0 +as 2ro3e/ letter of 5r. Dan/2al of
Pa1e 17

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

5a-lana 6Fa/ Instit-te of "ental S(ien(es) Ne' "el+i as >+i4itJDa-;?. P.!.-&1 +as 2ro3e/ seiF-re >+i4itJDa-=0. P.!.-&2 0e0o /ate/ 18.0=.2008 as

+as 2ro3e/ 0e0o /ate/ &0.10.200? 2ertainin1 to seiF-re of 12 1olf (l-4s) re(ei2t 0e0o /ate/ 02.07.2008 an/ seiF-re 0e0o /ate/ 1&.0?.200? as >+i4its Da =1-=& res2e(ti3el,. P.!.-&& +as 2ro3e/ in@-est re2ort of t+e /ea/ 4o/, of t+e /e(ease/ 5s. 6ar-s+i as >+i4it J Da-=4) 2oli(e 8or0 No. 1& as re2ort of C.5.<. as >+i4itJ >+i4itJDa-=;) /ia1ra0/s7et(+ of /ea/ 4o/, as >+i4itJDa-==) Da-=7)s2e(i0en seal i02ression as >+i4itJDa-=8)

en/orse0ent on 4a(7 of 2oli(e 8or0 No. 1& as >+i4itJDa-=?) ori1inal (+i7 8.I.R. of Poli(e Station Se(tor 20) N.<.I.".6. as re2ort of C.5.<. as of /ea/ 4o/, as as 8or0 No. 1& as 5a1istrate) >+i4itJDa-70) in@-est >+i4itJDa-71) re2ort of t+e /e(ease/ $e0ra. as

>+i4it J Da-72) /ia1ra0/ s7et(+

>+i4itJDa-7&) 2oli(e 8or0 No. 1& >+i4itJDa-7;) or/er of t+e "istri(t Na1ar for (on/-(tin1 >+i4it J

>+i4itJDa-74) en/orse0ent on 4a(7 of 2oli(e Ca-ta04-/+

2ost0orte0 e>a0ination in t+e ni1+t as 1=.0;.2008 of 07.10 6.5. as 0e0o /ate/ 1=.0;.2008 as site-2lan as

Da-7=. P.!.-&4 +as 2ro3e/ C.". No. 12 /ate/ >+i4itJDa-77) seiF-re >+i4itJDa-78)anot+er >+i4itJDa-7?) >+i4itJ

seiF-re 0e0o /ate/ 1=.0;.2008 as

>+i4it JDa-80) (ar4on (o2, of letter

sent to C.5.<.) Ca-ta0 B-/+ Na1ar as /oor of terra(e an/ its seiF-re as

Da-81) 0e0o re1ar/in1 4rea7in1 o2en of lo(7 of t+e >+i4itJ Da-82) 0e0o re1ar/in1 ta7in1 of 'ater of (ooler as >+i4itJ Da-8&) 0e0o re1ar/in1 ta7in1 of 4loo/ staine/ an/ 2lain floor as >+i4it J Da-84 an/ si1+t 2lan of
Pa1e 18

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

terra(e as >+i4itJDa-8;. P.!.-&; +as 2ro3e/ seiF-re 0e0o /ate/ 01.0=.2008 as >+i4itJDa-8=) 0e0o /ate/ 0;.11.2008 re1ar/in1 re(ei2t of 2+oto(o2, of as+es-re1ister of (re0atori-0 of N.<.I.".6. as >+i4it J Da-87. P.!.-&= +as 2ro3e/ 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of $e0ra. as >+i4itJDa-88. P.!.-&7 +as 2ro3e/ (+i7 8.I.R. of RC No.1(S)/2008 as >+i4itJDa-8?)ins2e(tion 0e0o /ate/ 01.0=.2008 of t+e s(ene of (ri0e as 0e0o as >+i4itJDa-?0) (ri0e s(ene of ser3ant >+i4itJ /ate/ (terra(e of 8lat No. #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar) e>a0ination >+i4itJDa-?1)ins2e(tion @-arter of $o-se No. #-14) Se(tor 2; an/ ins2e(tion (-0 seiF-re 0e0o /ate/ 14.0=.2008 as re2ort as >+i4itJDa-?& an/ +is letter Da-?2. P.!.-&8 +as 2ro3e/ (ri0e s(ene anal,sis 2=.10.200? as >+i4itJDa-?4. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e a/0itte/ t+e 1en-ineness of re2ort of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar a//resse/ to S.$.<.)Poli(e Station Se(tor-20) N.<.I.".6. an/ +en(e it 'as 0ar7e/ as >+i4itJ Da-?;. P.!.-&? +as 2ro3e/ 2rint o-t of e-0ail sent 4, 6.a, C+a//+a to +i0 as >+i4itJDa-?=) Pro/-(tion (-0 seiF-re 0e0o /ate/ 2=.0?.200? as Da-?7 an/ (los-re re2ort as "r. 6n/rei Se0i7+o/s7ii) >+i4itJ >+i4itJDa-?8. T+e "ire(tor) 5e/i(al

learne/ 2-4li( 2rose(-tor +as 1ot 2ro3e/ e-0ail of Ceno0i(s) #on/on sent to t+is (o-rt an/ e-0ail of "r. 6n/rei Se0i7+o/s7ii sent on 10.0=.2010 to S.P.) C.B.I.) 6CB) "e+ra/-n 4, ".!.-7 an/ +en(e t+e, are res2e(ti3el, 0ar7e/ as >+i4itsJDa-?? an/ Da-100. P.!.-1 +as also 2ro3e/ 2& 2+oto1ra2+s as 0aterial 0aterial >+i4its-1 to 2&) 2; ne1ati3es as 0aterial >+i4it-4?) ta1 as 0aterial >+i4it-;0)
Pa1e 1?

>+i4its-24 to 48. P.!.-& +as 2ro3e/ (arton as

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

4ottle of s(ot(+ '+is7, as 0aterial 0aterial

>+i4it-;1)

2ol,t+ene 'it+ '+i(+ t+is 4ottle 'as 'ra22e/ as >+i4it-;2) en3elo2e insi/e '+i(+ t+is >+i4it-;&. P.!.-= "r. >+i4it-;;) e02t, 4ottle 'as 7e2t as 0aterial

B.D. 5o+a2atra +as 2ro3e/ en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-;4) 4e/ s+eet as 0aterial 0aterial en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-;=) 2illo' 'it+ (o3er as >+i4it-;7) 2ie(e of 0attress as 0aterial >+i4it-;?) en3elo2e of 2ar(el as >+i4it-;8) (on(rete 0aterial in(l-si3e of (ontainer as 0aterial 0aterial >+i4it-=0) one seale/ (lot+ as 0aterial >+i4it-=2) 2ar(el as 0aterial >+i4it-=4) >+i4it-=7) 0aterial as

>+i4it-=1) s(rat(+e/ 0aterial of floor alon1 'it+ (ontainer as 0aterial lo(7 as 0aterial >+i4it-=&) one (lot+ of seal as 0aterial >+i4it-==) one (lot+ of seal as 0aterial s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial of 4eer of as Din1fis+er 0aterial Co02an, >+i4it-70) as

>+i4it-=;) 2ar(el as 0aterial >+i4it-=8) e02t, 4ottle

>+i4it-=?) 2ol,t+ene 'it+ '+i(+ t+is 4ottle 'as 'ra22e/ 0aterial en3elo2e >+i4it-71) 4ottle of s2rite as 0aterial >+i4it-74) en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-7=) as 0aterial >+i4it-77)en3elo2e

>+i4it-72) 2ol,t+ene as 0aterial >+i4it-7&) (lot+ of seal as 0aterial 2ol,t+ene 0aterial 6ar-s+i 6ar-s+i as >+i4it-7;)S-la 'ine 4ottle as 0aterial

>+i4it-78) 1reen (olo-re/ to2 (s+irt of >+i4it-7?) lo'er (tro-ser) of >+i4it-80) -n/er-'ear ; of >+i4it-81) ear-to2s as as 0aterial 0aterial

6ar-s+i) as 0aterial

(olle(ti3el, 0ar7e/ as as 0aterial 0aterial

>+i4it-82) e02t, 2ol,t+ene >+i4it-84)en3elo2e as

>+i4it-8&) t+e (lot+ in '+i(+ ear-to2s

'ere 'ra22e/ as 0aterial

>+i4it-8;) anot+er en3elo2e as 0aterial
Pa1e 20

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

>+i4it-8=) T-s+irt of /e(ease/ $e0ra. as 0aterial >+i4it-87) en3elo2e in '+i(+ t+is s+irt 'as 7e2t as 0aterial >+i4it-88) en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-8?) ta1 as 0aterial >+i4it-?0) 2antaloon of $e0ra. as >+i4it-?&) ta1 as >+i4it-?=) anot+er 0aterial >+i4it-?1) en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-?2) anot+er en3elo2e as 0aterial 0aterial >+i4it-?;) en3elo2e as 0aterial en3elo2e as 0aterial 0aterial >+i4it-100) >+i4it-??) anot+er >+i4it-?4) 3est of $e0ra. as 0aterial >+i4it-?7) ta1 as 0aterial en3elo2e en3elo2e as as 0aterial 0aterial

>+i4it-?8) 4loo/ staine/ -n/er-'ear of $e0ra. as

>+i4it-101) ta1 as 0aterial >+i4it-102) 'rist 'at(+ of $e0ra. as 0aterial 0aterial as 0aterial >+i4it-108) >+i4it-104) >+i4it-10&) en3elo2e as 2ol,t+ene as 0aterial >+i4it-10=) ta1 >+i4it-10?)

>+i4it-10;) en3elo2e as 0aterial en3elo2e as

>+i4it-107) 2lasti( t-4e as 0aterial 0aterial >+i4it-110) ta1 of >+i4it-112) s0all

anot+er en3elo2e as 0aterial 2ar(el no. 10 as 0aterial 2ar(el no. 10 as 0aterial

>+i4it-111) en3elo2e of

en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-11&) en3elo2e of 2ar(el no. 11 as 0aterial as 0aterial >+i4it-114) ta1 of 2ar(el no. 11 >+i4it-11;) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial

>+i4it-11=) en3elo2e of 2ar(el no. 12 as 0aterial >+i4it-117) ta1 of 2ar(el no. 12 as 0aterial >+i4it-118) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial ta1 of 2ar(el no. 1& as 0aterial en3elo2e of 2ar(el no. 1& as 0aterial s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-11?) >+i4it-120) >+i4it-121)

>+i4it-122) eart+ as

0aterial >+i4it-12&) ta1 of 2ar(el no. 14 as 0aterial >+i4it-124) en3elo2e of 2ar(el no. 14 as 0aterial >+i4it-12;) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-12=)
Pa1e 21

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

ta1 of 2ar(el no. 1; as 0aterial

>+i4it-127)

en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it- 128) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-12?) ta1 of 2ar(el no. 1= as 0aterial >+i4it-1&0) en3elo2e of 2ar(el no. 1= as 0aterial >+i4it-1&1) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-1&2) ta1 of 2ar(el no. 17 as 0aterial en3elo2e of 2ar(el no. 17 as 0aterial no. 18 as 0aterial no. 18 as 0aterial 0aterial 0aterial 0aterial >+i4it-1&&) >+i4it-1&4)

s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-1&;) ta1 of 2ar(el >+i4it-1&=) en3elo2e of 2ar(el >+i4it-1&7) s0all en3elo2e as

>+i4it-1&8) ta1 of 2ar(el no. 1?-6 as >+i4it-1&?) en3elo2e of 2ar(el no.1?-6 as >+i4it-140) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial

>+i4it-141) ta1 of 2ar(el no. 1?-B as 0aterial >+i4it-142) en3elo2e of 2ar(el no. 1?-B as 0aterial >+i4it-14&) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-144) ta1 of >+i4it 1?-C as 0aterial >+i4it-14;) en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-147) >+i4it-14=) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial ta1 of >+i4it 1?-" as 0aterial >+i4it-14?) s0all as 0aterial

>+i4it-148)en3elo2e as 0aterial as 0aterial >+i4it-1;1)

en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-1;0) ta1 of >+i4it 1?en3elo2e >+i4it-1;2) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-1;&) ta1 of >+i4it 1?-8 as 0aterial >+i4it-1;4) en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-1;=) >+i4it-1;;) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial ta1 of >+i4it 1?-C as 0aterial >+i4it-1;8) s0all

>+i4it-1;7)en3elo2e as 0aterial $ as 0aterial ta1 of

en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it- 1;?) ta1 of >+i4it 1?>+i4it-1=0) en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-1=1) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-1=2) >+i4it 1?-I as 0aterial >+i4it-1=&) en3elo2e >+i4it-1=4) s0all en3elo2e as 0aterial ta1 of >+i4it 1?-9 as 0aterial
Pa1e 22

as 0aterial >+i4it-1=;)

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

>+i4it-1==)en3elo2e as 0aterial en3elo2e as 0aterial 20 as 0aterial >+i4it-171) 0aterial

>+i4it-1=7)s0all

>+i4it- 1=8) ta1 of 2ar(el no.

>+i4it-1=?) 4e/ s+eet as 0aterial t+ree en3elo2es as 0aterial

>+i4it-170) en3elo2e of 2ar(el no. 20 as 0aterial >+i4it-172) 17&) 174) ta1 of 2ar(el no. 21 as >+i4it-17;)2illo' 'it+ (o3er as 0aterial >+i4it-177) >+i4it-17=) (lot+ of seal as 0aterial

one t+i(7 4ro'n (olo-re/ 2a2er of 4i1 siFe as 0aterial >+i4it-178) ta1 of 2ar(el no. 22 as 0aterial >+i4it-180) 4lan7et as 0aterial >+i4it-181) (lot+ of seal as 0aterial >+i4it-18&) >+i4it-182) 4ro'n (olo-re/ t+i(7 of 2a(7et as 0aterial >+i4it-18=) >+i4it-188) 2a2er in '+i(+ 4lan7et 'as 'ra22e/ as 0aterial 'ra22er >+i4it-184) ta1 of 2ar(el no. 2& as 0aterial >+i4it-18;) (ello ta2e as 0aterial >+i4it-187) 0ain en3elo2e as 0aterial 0aterial en3elo2e in '+i(+ 4a1 'as 'ra22e/ as 0aterial enlar1e/ 2+oto of 4loo/ staine/ 2al0 2rint as >+i4it-18?) ta1 of +alf 2ant as 0aterial >+i4it-1?2) >+i4it-1?0) +alf 2ant as 0aterial >+i4it-1?1) 2a2er in '+i(+ 2ant 'as 'ra22e/ as 0aterial ta1 of T-s+irt as 0aterial 0aterial 'ra22e/ as 0aterial >+i4it-1?&) T-s+irt as

>+i4it-1?4) 2a2er in '+i(+ T-s+irt 'as >+i4it-1?;) ta1 of ni1+tie as

0aterial >+i4it-1?=) ni1+tie as 0aterial >+i4it-1?7) 2a2er in '+i(+ ni1+tie 'as 'ra22e/ as 0aterial >+i4it-1?8) ,ello' (olo-re/ en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-1??) anot+er en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it-200) 0ain en3elo2e as 0aterial >+i4it- 201) ta1 of t+e 4oo7 AT+e t+ree 0ista7es of 0, lifeK as 0aterial 0aterial >+i4it-202) t+e a4o3e 0entione/ 4oo7 as >+i4it-20&) ,ello' en3elo2e as 0aterial
Pa1e 2&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

>+i4it-204) 0ain en3elo2e as 0aterial (arton as 0aterial

>+i4it-20;)

>+i4it-20=. P.!.-12 +as 2ro3e/

1olf 4a1 as 0aterial >+i4it-207. P.!.-2; +as 2ro3e/ (+it of >+i4it 17= as 0aterial >+i4it-208) 2ar(el as 0aterial >+i4it-210 >+i4itan/ 20?) ot+er en3elo2e en3elo2e as as 0aterial 0aterial >+i4it-212)

>+i4it-211) '+ite (lot+ as 0aterial e02t, en3elo2e as 0aterial 2a(7et as 0aterial 0aterial 0aterial 2-r2le (olo-r as 0aterial >+i4it-218)

>+i4it-21&) 2a2er of

>+i4it- 214) 2illo' (o3er of >+i4it- 21;) t'o ta1s as >+i4it no. 214 as as 0aterial sti(7s

>+i4it-21=) 217) (+it of 1olf

>+i4its-21? to 2&0 an/ en3elo2e in '+i(+ t+ese sti(7s 'ere seale/ as 0aterial +as 2ro3e/ en3elo2e as 0aterial en3elo2e as 0aterial en3elo2e as 0aterial .ars as 0aterial >+i4it-2&1.P.!.-&2 >+i4it-2&2) '+ite

>+i4it-2&&) 4ro'n (olo-re/ >+i4it-2&4) ot+er en3elo2e in >+i4it-2&;) fo-r

'+i(+ .ars 'ere 7e2t as 0aterial sli/es as 0aterial

>+i4its-2&=) 2&7) 2&8) 2&?) fo-r >+i4its- 240) 241) 242) 24&) >+i4it-244) (arton in '+i(+ 0o4ile set as 0aterial

en3elo2e as 0aterial 0aterial >+i4it24;)

0o4ile +a3in1 SI5 No. ?=&?02?&0= 'as 7e2t as >+i4it-24= an/ ta1 as 0aterial >+i4it-247. 6fter (los-re of t+e 2rose(-tion e3i/en(e t+e a((-se/ 'ere e>a0ine/ -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. T+e a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +as a/0itte/ in +is state0ent -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at on 1;.0;.2008 at a4o-t ?.&0 P.5. +is /ri3er %0es+ S+ar0a +a/ /ro22e/ +i0 in +is resi/en(e an/ at t+at ti0e +e) "r. N-2-r Tal'ar) Ba4, 6ar-s+i an/ ser3ant $e0ra. 'ere 2resent. Cate No. 2 of 9al3a,:i+ar is (lose/ in t+e ni1+t 4-t Cate No. 1 an/ &
Pa1e 24

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

re0ain o2ene/. $e an/ +is 'ife +a/ 1one to slee2 at a4o-t 11.&0 P.5. an/ t+e air (on/itioner of t+eir roo0 'as on. $e +as no i/ea as to '+et+er t+e s-22l, of ele(tri(it, 'as /isr-2te/ or not in t+at fatef-l ni1+t. $e +as a/0itte/ t+at S0t. B+arti 5an/al -se/ to 'or7 in +is +o-se as a +o-se0ai/ an/ '+en at a4o-t =.00 a0 on 1=.0;.2008 S0t. B+arti 5an/al +a/ r-n1 t+e (all-4ell) +e 'as aslee2. $is 'ife "r. N-2-r Tal'ar +a/ not tol/ S0t. B+arti 5an/al t+at t+e 1rill /oor is lat(+e/ fro0 o-tsi/e 4-t N-2-r Tal'ar +a/ t+ro'n t+e 7e,s fro0 t+e 4al(on,. T+e 'itness San.a, C+a-+an +a/ ne3er 3isite/ +is resi/en(e. !+en +e an/ +is 'ife +a/ seen t+e /ea/ 4o/, of 6ar-s+i it 'as (o3ere/ 'it+ a flannel 4lan7et 4-t +er -22er 1ar0ent 'as not a4o3e t+e 'aist an/ lo'er 1ar0ent not 4elo' t+e 'aist. T+e, 'ere not in 2osition to tal7 to an,one as t+e, 'ere l-1-4rio-s. $e +as a/0itte/ t+at t+e lo(7 of t+e roo0 of 6ar-s+i 'as li7e t+at of a +otel '+i(+ if lo(7e/ fro0 t+e o-tsi/e) (o-l/ 4e o2ene/ fro0 insi/e 'it+o-t 7e, 4-t (o-l/ not 4e o2ene/ fro0 o-tsi/e 'it+o-t 7e,. T+e /oor of t+e roo0 of $e0ra. o2enin1 to'ar/s 0ain /oor re0aine/ (lose/. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at in t+e /innin1 ta4le one 4ottle of Ballentine S(ot(+ !+is7, 'as fo-n/ 4-t t+ere 'as no an, t-04ler an/ e>(e2t in t+e roo0 of 6ar-s+i) no 4loo/ stains 'ere fo-n/ at t+e re0ainin1 2art of t+e +o-se an/ e3en in -2stairs t+ere 'ere no 4loo/ stains. No4o/, +a/ as7e/ +i0 to 1i3e t+e 7e, of /oor of t+e terra(e. S(+ool 4a1 an/ '+i0-'+a0s 'ere in t+e 4e/ of 6ar-s+i 4-t +e +as no 7no'le/1e as to '+et+er t+ese 'ere +a3in1 4loo/ stains or not. $e +a/ not 1one to t+e 2oli(e station to lo/1e +is
Pa1e 2;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

re2ort)na,) t+e re2ort 'as /i(tate/ to +i0 4, 2oli(e 2ersonnel in +is +o-se. T+e site-2lan is not on s(ale an/ in t+e site-2lan 4at+roo0 of t+e roo0 of $e0ra. +as 4een 'ron1l, s+o'n an/ s+aft +as 4een 'ron1l, s+o'n to 4e 2art of t+at roo0. $e +a/ not noti(e/ as to '+et+er t+e 4e/-s+eet of 6ar-s+iBs 4e/ +a/ an, 'rin7les or not. <n +earin1 -l-lation 5r. P-nis+ Rai Tan/on +a/ (o0e to +is +o-se 4-t +e +a/ not 2-s+e/ asi/e +i0 '+en +e trie/ to (onsole +i0. "r. Ra.ee3 D-0ar :ars+ne, an/ "r. Ro+it Do(+ar +a/ also (o0e to +is +o-se. $e 'as 'earin1 T-s+irt an/ +alf 2ant an/ "r. N-2-r 'as 'earin1 2ei1noir sin(e ni1+t an/ it is in(orre(t to sa, t+at t+eir (lot+es 'ere not staine/ 'it+ 4loo/. $e +as state/ t+at 2resen(e of '+ite /is(+ar1e in t+e 3a1inal (a3it, of 6ar-s+i is 0atter of re(or/ 4-t t+e state0ent of "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re t+at o2enin1 of 3a1inal (a3it, 'as 2ro0inent is in(orre(t in as 0-(+ as t+is fa(t +as not 4een 0entione/ in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort an/ in t+e first t+ree state0ents 1i3en to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er. T+e e3i/en(e t+at +,0en 'as ol/) +eale/ an/ torn is not+in1 4-t an a(t of (al-0n, an/ (+ara(ter assassination of +is /a-1+ter. It is also in(orre(t to sa, t+at in.-ries no. 1 an/ & of 6ar-s+i 'ere (a-se/ 4, 1olf sti(7 an/ in.-ries no. 2 an/ 4 'ere (a-se/ 4, s+ar2-e/1e/ s-r1i(al 'ea2on. $e +as no 7no'le/1e as to '+et+er t+e roo0 of 6ar-s+i 'as (leane/ an/ 0attress 'as 7e2t in t+e terra(e of $o-se No. #-28 as at t+at ti0e +e 'as a'a, at t+e (re0atori-0 to 2erfor0 o4se@-ies of +is /a-1+ter. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at &-4 0ont+s 2rior to t+e o((-rren(e +e +a/ sent +is Santro Car for ser3i(in1 an/ +e +as no
Pa1e 2=

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

7no'le/1e as to '+ere t+e 1olf sti(7s an/ ot+er ite0s l,in1 in t+e (ar 'ere 7e2t 4, t+e /ri3er %0es+ S+ar0a. 64o-t 8-10 /a,s 4efore t+e o((-rren(e 2aintin1 of (l-ster +a/ starte/ an/ t+e na33ies -se/ to ta7e 'ater fro0 'ater tan7 2la(e/ on t+e terra(e of +is +o-se an/ t+en $e0ra. +a/ starte/ lo(7in1 t+e /oor of t+e terra(e an/ t+e 7e, of t+at lo(7 re0aine/ 'it+ +i0. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at t+ere is an iron 1rill 'all 4et'een t+e terra(es of $o-se No. #-&0 an/ #-&2 4-t +e +as no 7no'le/1e as to '+et+er an, 4e/-s+eet 'as 2la(e/ on t+is 2artition 'all. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at on 17.0;.2008 as+es of 6ar-s+i 'ere (olle(te/ an/ lo(7er no. 0? 'as allotte/ for 7ee2in1 t+e as+es. T+ese as+es 'ere not ta7en o-t after +alf an +o-r 4-t after 02.00-02.&0 +o-rs. It is in(orre(t to sa, t+at S.I. "ata Ra0 Na-naria +a/ en@-ire/ of +i0 a4o-t t+e i/entit, of t+e /ea/ 4o/, l,in1 in t+e terra(e rat+er +e +a/ i/entifie/ t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. 4, +is +airs in t+e 2resen(e of ot+er 2oli(e offi(er. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at $e0ra. 'as a3era1e 4-ilt 4-t +e +as no 7no'le/1e as to '+et+er +is 'ill, 'as t-r1i/. $e +as a/0itte/ t+at on 1;.0;.2008 at a4o-t 11.00 P.5. +is 'ife +a/ 1one to 6ar-s+iBs roo0 to s'it(+ on t+e internet ro-ter an/ +e an/ +is 'ife 'ent to slee2 aro-n/ 11.&0-11.&; P.5. an/ t+e sa0e a(ti3it, 'as seen fro0 =.00 6.5. to 1.00 P.5. on 1=.0;.2008) alt+o-1+ (o02-ters 'ere s+-t /o'n. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at 0o4ile n-04er ?21&;1;48; 'as in +is na0e 4-t t+e sa0e 'as -se/ 4, $e0ra. an/ '+et+er an, (all 'as 0a/e fro0 lan/ line n-04er 120-4&1=&87 to 0o4ile n-04er ?21&;1;48; at 0=:00:10 +o-rs on 1=.0;.2008 is a 0atter of re(or/.
Pa1e 27

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

It is on t+e re(or/ t+at t+e 2illo' 'it+ (o3er 'as re(o3ere/ fro0 t+e roo0 of $e0ra.. It is in(orre(t to sa, t+at no "N6 'as 1enerate/ in 2illo' (o3er an/ 7-7ri. $e +as state/ t+at >+i4it L-20 (o/e G-204C#-14 'as a 2illo' (o3er of 2-r2le (olo-r in '+i(+ "N6 'as 1enerate/. $e +as also state/ t+at (ase 2ro2ert, 'as ta02ere/ 'it+) +en(e a (o02laint 'as sent 4, +i0 to "e2art0ent of BioTe(+nolo1, t+at re2ort +as 4een (+an1e/. Sin(e t+e +o-se 'as in /a0a1e/ (on/ition an/ 'as to 4e let o-t an/ t+erefore) it 'as 1ot 'as+e//2ainte/. It is in(orre(t to sa, t+at 2artition 'all 'as of 'oo/. It 'as 0a/e of 4ri(7s o3er '+i(+ 'oo/en 2anellin1 'as /one an/ sa0e 'as 1ot 2ainte/ on t+e s-11estion of 2ainter as its 2olis+ +a/ fa/e/ a'a,. Iron 1rill of 0ain an/ 1ate an/ 4al(on, 'ere 'ere 1ot -na-t+oriFe/ t+erefore) t+ese

re0o3e/ an/ no4o/, +as o4.e(te/ to it. 5r. 5.S. "a+i,a +as 1i3en +is re2ort on i0a1inar, 1ro-n/s. 5o4ile n-04er ?8??;;;??? is in t+e na0e of In3ertis Instit-te an/ not in t+e na0e of D.D. Ca-ta0. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at area of +is +o-se is 1&00 s@. feet an/ it +as onl, one entr, 1ate. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at t+e /oor of 6ar-s+iBs roo0 'as +a3in1 (li(7 s+-t a-to0ati( lo(7 '+i(+ (o-l/ 4e o2ene/ fro0 insi/e 'it+o-t 7e, 4-t (o-l/ not 4e o2ene/ fro0 o-tsi/e 'it+o-t 7e,. 5r. 6.a, C+a//+a +a/ ne3er sent an e-0ail to 5r. Neela4+ Dis+ore) S.P.) C.B.I.) "e+ra/-n on +is 4e+alf. $e +as no 7no'le/1e as to '+et+er 0ain /oor 'as 4olte/ fro0 o-tsi/e or not at t+e ti0e of in(i/ent. It is in(orre(t to sa, t+at 0-r/ers 'ere not (o00itte/ 4, an o-tsi/er or 4, Dris+na) Ra. D-0ar an/ :i.a, 5an/al
Pa1e 28

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

an/ rat+er 4, +i0 an/ t+e (o-a((-se/. Re1ar/in1 t+e re0ainin1 e3i/en(e) +e +as state/ t+at eit+er it is a 0atter of re(or/ or is false or +e is not +a3in1 an, 7no'le/1e a4o-t t+e sa0e. $e +as also file/ 'ritten state0ent 2a2er no. &??-7+a/1 to &??7+a/11 -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. "r. N-2-r Tal'ar +as also a/0itte/ in +er e>a0ination -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at on 1;.0;.2008 at a4o-t 0?.&0 P.5. s+e) "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar) 4a4, 6ar-s+i an/ ser3ant $e0ra. 'ere 2resent at #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar) Se(tor 2;) Noi/a. T+e t+ree 1ates of 9al3a,- :i+ar re0ain o2ene/ ro-n/ t+e (lo(7 4-t in t+e ni1+t one of t+e 1ates is (lose/. S+e +as also a/0itte/ t+at S0t. B+arti 5an/al 'as 'or7in1 in +er +o-se as +o-se0ai/ an/ on 1=.0;.2008 at a4o-t =.00 6.5. S0t. B+arti 5an/al +a/ r-n1 (all-4ell 4-t s+e /i/ not 1o to o2en t+e /oor ass-0in1 t+at $e0ra. 'o-l/ o2en t+e /oor. S0t. B+arti 5an/al +as falsel, /e2ose/ t+at s+e +a/ 2-s+e/ t+e 1rill /oor 4-t it (o-l/ not 4e o2ene/ in 3ie' of t+e fa(t t+at t+is state0ent 'as not 1i3en to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er. It is (orre(t t+at s+e +a/ tol/ S0t. B+arti 5an/al t+at $e0ra. 0a, +a3e 1one to 4rin1 0il7. It is also (orre(t t+at 'oo/en /oor an/ 0es+ /oor are in t+e sa0e fra0e. It is also (orre(t t+at s+e +a/ tol/ S0t. B+arti 5an/al t+at /oor 'ill 4e o2ene/ '+en $e0ra. (a0e 4a(7 an/ -ntil t+en s+e s+o-l/ 'ait. S+e +as also a/0itte/ t+at S0t. B+arti 5an/al +a/ en@-ire/ of +er as to '+et+er s+e is +a3in1 t+e 7e, of t+e /oor an/ s+e +a/ re2lie/ in t+e affir0ati3e. S+e +as also a/0itte/ t+at t+ere-2on S0t. B+arti 5an/al as7e/ +er to 1i3e t+e 7e, so t+at s+e 0a, (o0e insi/e t+e +o-se after
Pa1e 2?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

-nlo(7in1 t+e /oor an/ t+en s+e +a/ tol/ S0t. B+arti 5an/al to 1o to 1ro-n/ le3el an/ s+e 'o-l/ 4e 1i3in1 7e, to +er. B-t it is in(orre(t to sa, t+at '+en S0t. B+arti 5an/al rea(+e/ at 1ro-n/ le3el) s+e 0i1+t +a3e tol/ +er fro0 4al(on, t+at s+e s+o-l/ (o0e -2 an/ see t+at /oor +as not 4een lo(7e/ an/ onl, lat(+e/. S+e +as also a/0itte/ t+at s+e +a/ t+ro'n /-2li(ate 7e, on t+e 1ro-n/ le3el. S+e +as state/ t+at '+en S0t. B+arti 5an/al (a0e insi/e t+e +o-se) s+e an/ +er +-s4an/ 'ere 'ee2in1. S+e +as a/0itte/ t+at s(+ool 4a1 an/ to,s 'ere in t+e 4e/ of 6ar-s+i 4-t s+e +as no 7no'le/1e as to '+et+er t+ese 'ere +a3in1 4loo/ stains or not. S+e +as also a/0itte/ t+at t+ere 'ere 4loo/ s2latters on t+e 4a(7 'all of t+e 4e/ 4-t not on t+e o-ter si/e of t+e /oor. !+en 6ar-s+i 'as seen +er 4o/, 'as (o3ere/ 'it+ a flannel 4lan7et 4-t t+e stat-s of t+e (lot+es 'orn 4, +er 'ere not s-(+ as /e2ose/ to 4, P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra) '+o +a/ not tal7e/ to "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar. S+e +as also a/0itte/ t+at lo(7 of t+e /oor of 6ar-s+iBs roo0 'as li7e t+at of +otel '+i(+ if lo(7e/ fro0 o-tsi/e (o-l/ 4e o2ene/ fro0 insi/e 4-t (o-l/ not 4e o2ene/ fro0 o-tsi/e 'it+o-t 7e,. S+e +a/ not tol/ 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra t+at o-ter /oor of t+e +o-se 'as of 1rill an/ it 'as lat(+e/ fro0 o-tsi/e an/ after o2enin1 t+e sa0e S0t. B+arti 5an/al (a0e insi/e t+e +o-se. S+e +as also a/0itte/ t+at t+e ser3ant roo0 +as t'o /oors an/ one o2ene/ to'ar/s t+e +o-se an/ ot+er one to'ar/s t+e 0ain 1ate 4-t t+e /oor to'ar/s t+e 0ain 1ate re0aine/ (lose/ an/ it 'as not -se/. S+e +as also a/0itte/ t+at Ballentine S(ot(+ 4ottle 'as fo-n/ in t+e
Pa1e &0

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

/innin1 ta4le 'it+o-t an, t-04ler. S+e +as also state/ t+at e>(e2t in t+e roo0 of 6ar-s+i 4loo/ stains 'ere not fo-n/ at t+e re0ainin1 2art of t+e +o-se. S+e +as also state/ t+at in t+e stairs no 4loo/ stains 'ere fo-n/. 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra +a/ not as7e/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar to 2ro3i/e 7e, of t+e /oor of t+e terra(e. S.I. Ba(+(+- Sin1+ +a/ ne3er trie/ to tal7 to +er an/ +er +-s4an/. "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ ne3er 1one to t+e 2oli(e station to lo/1e a re2ort an/ rat+er (o02laint 'as /i(tate/ to "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 4, 2oli(e 2ersonnel in t+e +o-se. S+e an/ +er +-s4an/ 'ere f-ll, 0o-rnf-l. S+e +a/ not noti(e/ as to '+et+er t+e 4e/-s+eet +a/ an, 'rin7les/fol/s on it. P-nis+ Rai Tan/on +a/ (o0e to +er +o-se on +earin1 4oo+oo. "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ not s+r-11e/ off P-nis+ Rai Tan/on. S+e an/ +er +-s4an/ 'ere 4a/l, 'ee2in1. S+e +as also state/ t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as 'earin1 T-s+irt an/ +alf 2ant an/ s+e 'as 'earin1 0a>i sin(e ni1+t an/ it is in(orre(t to sa, t+at t+eir (lot+es 'ere not staine/ 'it+ 4loo/. It is also in(orre(t to sa, t+at 6ar-s+i +a/ /ie/ 12-18 S+e +o-rs +as 4efore 2ost0orte0 t+at in t+e e>a0ination. a/0itte/

2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort '+ite /is(+ar1e +as 4een s+o'n in t+e 3a1inal (a3it, of 6ar-s+i. It is in(orre(t to sa, t+at /e(ease/ 6ar-s+i 0a, +a3e /ie/ t+ree +o-rs after ta7in1 t+e /inner. "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re +as falsel, /e2ose/ t+at 3a1inal (a3it, 'as o2en an/ 3a1inal (anal 'as 3isi4le) t+at o2enin1 of (a3it, 'as 2ro0inent in as 0-(+ as t+is fa(t +as not 4een 0entione/ in t+e 2ost-0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort an/ in t+e first fo-r state0ents 1i3en to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er. T+e e3i/en(e t+at
Pa1e &1

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

+,0en 'as ol/) +eale/ an/ torn is false. It is also in(orre(t to sa, t+at in.-ries no. 1 an/ & of 6ar-s+i 'ere (a-se/ 4, 1olf sti(7 an/ in.-ries no. 2 an/ 4 'ere (a-se/ 4, s+ar2-e/1e/ s-r1i(al 'ea2on as t+is fa(t 'as not state/ 4efore t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er in +is fo-r-fi3e state0ents 1i3en earlier to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er. S+e +as no 7no'le/1e as to '+et+er t+e roo0 of 6ar-s+i 'as (leane/ an/ 0attress 'as 7e2t in t+e terra(e of $o-se No. #-28 as at t+at ti0e s+e 'as at t+e 2la(e of (re0ation to 2erfor0 f-neral rites of 6ar-s+i. S+e +as also a/0itte/ t+at &-4 0ont+s 4efore t+e o((-rren(e "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ sent +is Santro Car for ser3i(in1 4-t s+e +as no 7no'le/1e as to '+ere t+e 1olf sti(7s an/ ot+er ite0s l,in1 in t+e (ar 'ere 7e2t 4, t+e /ri3er %0es+ S+ar0a. 64o-t 8-10 /a,s 4efore t+e in(i/ent) at t+e ti0e of 2aintin1 of flats) t+e la4o-rers -se/ to ta7e 'ater fro0 t+e 'ater tan7 of +er +o-se an/ t+en $e0ra. +a/ starte/ lo(7in1 t+e /oor of t+e terra(e an/ t+e 7e, of t+at lo(7 re0aine/ 'it+ +i0. T+e as+es of 6ar-s+i 'ere 7e2t in lo(7er of (re0atori-0 for a4o-t 2-& +o-rs. T+e site-2lan of t+e terra(e is not on s(ale. <n 1;.0;.2008 at a4o-t 11.&0 P.5. s+e an/ +er +-s4an/ +a/ 1one to slee2 after s'it(+in1 off la2to2. T+e start an/ sto2 a(ti3it, of internet 0a, 4e /-e to 0,ria/ reasons. S+e +a/ 0a/e a tele2+one (all fro0 lan/ line n-04er 0120-4&1=&88 to 0o4ile n-04er ?21&;1;48;) '+i(+ 'as -se/ 4, $e0ra.. Pillo' 'it+ (o3er 'as re(o3ere/ fro0 t+e roo0 of $e0ra.. S+e +as falsifie/ t+e e3i/en(e of P.!.-= t+at in 2illo' (o3er an/ 7-7ri no ".N.6. 'as 1enerate/. 6s 2er re2ort >+i4it-Da-;1) t+e >+i4it-L-20 (o/e
Pa1e &2

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

G-0204C#-14 is a 2illo' (o3er of 2-r2le (olo-r. T+e (larifi(ator, letter >+i4it-Da-;2 is ille1al an/ t+e re2ort '+i(+ 'as re2la(e/ (on(l-si3el, esta4lis+e/ t+e in3ol3e0ent of Dris+na. T+e C.B.I. +as ta02ere/ 'it+ t+e (ase 2ro2ert,. Sin(e t+e +o-se 'as to 4e 1i3en on lease an/ t+erefore) it 'as 1ot 2ainte//'as+e/ an/ t+ere 'as no instr-(tion for a4stainin1 fro0 2aintin1/'as+in1. It is in(orre(t to sa, t+at 2artition 'all 'as of 'oo/. It 'as 0a/e of 4ri(7s o3er '+i(+ 'oo/en 2anellin1 'as /one an/ t+e sa0e 'as 1ot 2ainte/ on t+e s-11estion of 2ainter as its 2olis+ +a/ 'it+ere/ a'a,. Iron 1rill of 0ain 1ate an/ 4al(on, 'ere -na-t+oriFe/ an/ t+erefore) t+ese 'ere 1ot re0o3e/ an/ C.B.I. +a/ not restraine/ to 0a7e an, alteration. 5r. 5.S. "a+i,a +as 1i3en +is re2ort on i0a1inar, 1ro-n/s. S+e +as also a/0itte/ t+at area of +er +o-se is 1&00 s@. feet an/ it +as onl, one entr, 1ate. S+e +as also a/0itte/ t+at t+e /oor of 6ar-s+iBs roo0 'as +a3in1 (li(7 s+-t a-to0ati( lo(7 of Co/re. (o02an, '+i(+ (o-l/ 4e o2ene/ fro0 insi/e 'it+o-t 7e, 4-t (o-l/ not 4e o2ene/ fro0 o-tsi/e 'it+o-t 7e,. 5r. 6.a, C+a//+a +a/ ne3er sent an e-0ail to 5r. Neela4+ Dis+ore) S.P.) C.B.I.) "e+ra/-n on t+eir 4e+alf. 5r. Da-l +a/ f-ll e3i/en(e a1ainst Dris+na) Ra. D-0ar an/ :i.a, 5an/al 4-t it 'as (on(eale/ 4, +i0 to 0islea/ t+e (o-rt. In res2e(t of t+e ot+er e3i/en(e) s+e +as state/ t+at eit+er it is a 0atter of re(or/ or is false or s+e is not +a3in1 an, 7no'le/1e a4o-t t+e sa0e. S+e +as also file/ 'ritten state0ent -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. '+i(+ is 2a2er no. 4007+a/1 to 400-7+a/12.

Pa1e &&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

T+e a((-se/ 2ersons +a3e e>a0ine/ ".!.-1 Ra.en/ra 7a-l) ".!.-2 "r. 60-l,a C+a//+a) ".!.-& "r. %r0il S+ar0a) ".!.-4 "r. R.D. S+ar0a) ".!.-; :i7as Set+i) ".!.-= :is+al Ca-ra3 an/ ".!.-7 "r. 6n/rei Se0i7+o/7sii in /efen(e. 8in1er2rint re2orts /ate/ 2?.0;.2008)

&0.07.2008)24.07.2008) 17.0=.2008 an/ 1&.0=.2008 +a3e 4een 1ot 2ro3e/ 4, P.!.-& an/ +en(e t+ese +a3e 4een res2e(ti3el, 0ar7e/ as >+i4its-7+a-1) 7+a-2) 7+a-&) 7+a-4 an/ 7+a-;. 8in1er2rints 2a2er no.- 4;-7+a/1 to 4;-7+a/; +a3e 4een 1ot 2ro3e/ 4, P.!.-1 an/ +en(e +a3e 4een res2e(ti3el, 0ar7e/ as >+i4its-7+a-=) 7+a-7) 7+a-8) 7+a-? an/ 7+a-10. #etter /ate/ 22.12.200? (2a2er no. 18?-6a/1) of "r. Bi4+a Rani Ra,) "ire(tor) C.8.S.#.) Ne' "el+i) 1eno2lots 2a2er no. 18?-6a/2) 18?-6a/& an/ 2+oto(o2, of re2ort /ate/ 28.12.2010 2a2er no. 8=7a/1 to 8=-7a/& +a3e 4een 1ot 2ro3e/ 4, P.!.-= "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra an/ as s-(+ +a3e 4een 0ar7e/ as >+i4its-7+a-11) 7+a-12) 7+a-1& an/ 7+a-14 res2e(ti3el,. Re2ort /ate/ 20.0=.2008 2a2er no. 171-6a/=) 171-6a/7 an/ re2ort /ate/ 18.0=.2008 2a2er no. 1=&-6a/= +a3e 4een 1ot 2ro3e/ 4, P.!.-2= an/ +en(e 0ar7e/ as >+i4its-7+a-1; an/ 7+a-1=. Re2ort /ate/ 0=.0?.2008 2a2er no. 1;46a/2 to 1;4-6a/1? +as 4een 1ot 2ro3e/ 4, P.!.-27 an/) as s-(+) 0ar7e/ as >+i4it-7+a-17.SeiF-re 0e0o /ate/ 11.0=.2008 2a2er no. 12;-6a) seiF-re 0e0o /ate/ 12.0=.2008 2a2er no. 112-6a/1 to 1126a/2) o4ser3ation-(-0-seiF-re 0e0o 2a2er no. 1146a +a3e 4een 1ot 2ro3e/ 4, P.!.-&2 an/ t+erefore) 0ar7e/ as >+i4its-7+a-18) 7+a-1? an/ 7+a-20 /ate/ 11.0=.2008 for res2e(ti3el,.622li(ation

Pa1e &4

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

1rantin1 2er0ission of 4rain 0a22in1) lie /ete(tion an/ nar(o anal,sis e>a0inations of t+e s-s2e(t Dris+na at 8.S.#.) Ban1alore +as 4een 1ot 2ro3e/ 4, P.!.-&; an/) +en(e) +as 4een 0ar7e/ as 7+a-21.Pro/-(tion (-0 seiF-re 0e0o >+i4it/ate/

0=.07.2008 2a2er no. 11?-6a/1 +as 4een 1ot 2ro3e/ 4, P.!.-&7 an/ 0ar7e/ as >+i4it-7+a-22. T+e 1en-ineness of re2orts 2a2er no. 187-6a/2 to 1876a/4 an/ 1?0-6a/1 +as 4een a/0itte/ 4, t+e #earne/ Co-nsel for t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/) +en(e) 2a2er no. 187-6a/2 to 187-6a/4 +as 4een 0ar7e/ as >+i4it-7+a-2& 4-t 2a2er no. 1?0-6a/1 >+i4it-7+a-2; an/ 'as 0ar7e/ ina/3ertentl, as 1?0-6a/1 0ar7e/ as

t+erefore) t+is 0ar7in1 is a0en/e/ an/ 2a2er no. >+i4it-7+a-2; is 0ar7e/ as >+i4it-7+a-24. ".!.-4 +as 2ro3e/ +is re2ort 2a2er no. 4&1-7+a/2 to 4&1-7+a/17 4-t at t+e ti0e of e>a0ination of t+is 'itness) t+is 2a2er 'as 0ar7e/ as >+i4it-D+a-2= an/ t+erefore) t+is re2ort is as >+i4it-7+a-2;.".!.-= +as 2ro3e/ 0ar7e/

2rinto-t of Cell I" C+art 2a2er no. 4=8-7+a/1 to 4=87+a/82 of B+arti 6irtel #t/. '+i(+ 'as 0ar7e/ as >+i4it-7+a-27 an/ t+erefore) t+is 2a2er is 0ar7e/ as >+i4it-7+a-2=. ".!.-7 +as 2ro3e/ +is e>a0ination re2ort 2a2er no. ;0&-7+a/1 to ;0&7+a/1&) 2a2er no. ;0&-7+a/14 to ;0&-7+a/1?) 2a2er no. ;0&-7+a/20 to ;0&-7+a/2=) e-0ail (orres2on/en(e 2a2er nos. ;0=-7+a/1) ;0=-7+a/2) ;0=-7+a/&) ;0=-7+a/4) ;0=-7+a/;) ;0=-7+a/=. 6t t+e ti0e of e>a0ination of t+ese 'itnesses t+e afore state/ 2a2ers +a3e 4een res2e(ti3el, 0ar7e/ as >+i4its-7+a-28 to 7+a-&= an/ t+erefore) t+ese /o(-0ents are res2e(ti3el, 0ar7e/ as >+i4itsPa1e &;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

7+a-27 to 7+a-&; in seriati0. T+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ +as a/0itte/ t+e 1en-ineness of serolo1i(al e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ 17.0=.2008 2a2er 6a) no. 1=;-6a/7 of to 1=;-6a/?) 4iolo1i(al /ate/ e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ 07.01.2010 2a2er no. 1812+oto(o2, 2at+olo1i(al re2ort 1=.0;.2008 2a2er no. 107-6a/&4) #etter /ate/ 0?.0?.2008 'ritten 4, T.". "o1ra of 6.I.I.5.S to 5r. :i.a, D-0ar) S.P.) C.B.I. no. 2a2er no. to 1;4-6a/1) 1?1-6a/4) e>a0ination re2ort /ate/ 1;.0=.2008 of C.8.S.#.) $,/era4a/ 2a2er 1?1-6a/1 en(los-re No. 1 2a2er no. 1;1-6a/? to 1;1-6a/2=) e0ail 2a2er no. 4=1-7+a/1) 4=1-7+a/2 'it+ 2rinto-t of (all /etails re(or/ 2a2er nos. 4=1-7+a/& to 4=17+a/1?) 2+oto(o2, of 0e0oran/-0 of 2ro(ee/in1s 2a2er no. 4=0-7+a/1 to 4=0-7+a/4) letter /ate/ 2;.07.201& of "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra to 5r. 6.C.#. Da-l) 2a2er no. 4=4-7+a/1) 1enot,2e 2lots 2a2er no. 4=47+a/2 to 4=4-7+a/8) letter /ate/ 04.0=.2008 of S.P.) C.B.I.-SCR-III) Ne' "el+i to t+e "ire(tor) C.8.S.#.) Ne' "el+i 2a2er no. ==-7a/1 to ==-7a/1& an/ letter /ate/ 1?.0=.2008 of 5r. :i.a, D-0ar to t+e "ire(tor) C.8.S.#.) Ne' "el+i 2a2er no. =7-7a/1 to =7-7a/&) 4-t t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ 0ar7e/ t+e0 res2e(ti3el, as >+i4its-7+a-&7 to 7+a-47 4, 0ista7e an/ t+erefore) nos. of >+i4its +a3e 4een (orre(te/ an/ 0ar7e/ as >+i4its-7+a-&= to 7+a-4=. No ot+er e3i/en(e in /efen(e +as 4een 1i3en. I +a3e +ear/ 'it+ 2atien(e to all t+e

s-40issions 1oo/) 4a/) rele3ant) irrele3ant an/ in/ifferent of 5r. R.D. Saini) t+e Senior P-4li( Prose(-tor an/ 5r. B.D. Sin1+) t+e P-4li( Prose(-tor a22earin1 for CBI as 'ell as 5r. Tan3ir 6+0a/ 5ir
Pa1e &=

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

an/ 5r. Sat,a Det- Sin1+) t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/ 2er-se/ t+e 0aterial on re(or/. T+e 'ritten ar1-0ent 2a2er no. ;=2-7+a/1 to ;=2-7+a/212 file/ on 4e+alf of t+e a((-se/ +as 4een 4ro-1+t on re(or/. No' is t+e ti0e to 1et /o'n to 4rass ta(7s. T+e 1ra3a0en of t+e ar1-0ent on 4e+alf of 2rose(-tion is t+at fro0 t+e e3i/en(e a//-(e/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion an/ t+e (ir(-0stan(es) it is f-ll, esta4lis+e/ 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t t+at in t+e inter3enin1 ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008) 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 'ere seen ali3e in t+e (o02an, of 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 2ersons 4, %0es+ S+ar0a at a4o-t ?.&0 P.5. an/ in t+e 0ornin1 of 1=.0;.2008 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as fo-n/ /ea/ in +er 4e/ an/ t+e /ea/ 4o/, of t+e ser3ant $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ on 17.0;.2008 in t+e terra(e of t+e +o-se an/ t+ere is not+in1 to s-11est t+at in t+e fatef-l ni1+t an, intr-/er(s) (a0e insi/e t+e +o-se an/ (o00itte/ t+e 0-r/ers of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/. It 'as f-rt+er a//e/ in t+e s-40issions of t+e learne/ 2rose(-tors t+at no e>2lanation +as 4een offere/ 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons as to +o' an/ -n/er '+at (ir(-0stan(es 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ /ie/ an/ t+e (ir(-0stan(es -nerrin1l, 2oint o-t to'ar/s t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ 2ersons t+at t+e, are t+e a-t+ors of t+is /ia4oli(al (ri0e. In f-rt+eran(e of t+e ar1-0ents) it 'as also s-40itte/ t+at fro0 t+e e3i/en(e an/ 0aterial as a3aila4le on re(or/) it is also 2ro3e/ t+at 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 7no'in1 t+at t+e /o-4le 0-r/er +as 4een (o00itte/) (a-se/ t+e e3i/en(e of t+e (o00ission of t+e 0-r/ers to /isa22ear 'it+ t+e intention to
Pa1e &7

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

s(reen t+e0sel3es fro0 le1al 2-nis+0ent an/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar also 7no'in1l, 1a3e false infor0ation to t+e 2oli(e station Se(tor- 20) N.<.I.".6. t+at t+e 0-r/er of 5s. 6ar-s+i +as 4een (o00itte/ 4, $e0ra.) '+o is a4s(on/in1 sin(e ni1+t an/ as s-(+ t+e a((-se/ 2ersons are lia4le to 4e (on3i(te/ a((or/in1l,. T+e learne/ 2rose(-tors in s-22ort t+eir ar1-0ents +a3e 2la(e/ relian(e on State of +a,asthan *s. 2ashi +a3 AI+ 2007 SC 144 Tri3u4h 0aroti 2ir4an *s. State of 0aharashtra 2007 Cr.&.J. 20 5SC6 Chattar

Singh . another *s. State of 'ar7ana 2008 Cr.&.J. 918 5SC6 Ara%indra 0u4her,ee *s. State of :est "engal 2012 Cr.&.J. 1207 /r. Sunil Clifford /aneil *s. State of )un,a% 2012 Cr.&.J. 4;<7 0unish 0u%ar *s. State of 'ar7ana 2019 Cr.&.J. <; *i=e4 2alra *s. State of +a,asthan 2019 Cr.&.J. 1<24 )ar4ash 2040 *s. an/ State of +a,asthan 2019 Cr.&.J. +ohtash

2u3ar *s. State of 'ar7ana 2019 Cr.&.J. 91>9. T+e terminus a uo of 5r. Tan3ir 6+0a/ 5ir

t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ is t+at t+is (ase is +e/1e/ on (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e an/ t+e t+eor, of 1ra3e an/ s-//en 2ro3o(ation as 2ro2o-n/e/ 4, P.!.-&8 "r. 5. S. "a+i,a in +is re2ort la4oratin1 +is s-40issions) it 'as >+i4it-7a-?& 3i1oro-sl, /oes not ins2ire (onfi/en(e an/ is lia4le to fo-n/er. ar1-e/ 4, 5r. 5ir t+at "r. "a+i,a +as in(-l(ate/ t+is t+eor, in +is re2ort >+i4it-7a-?& on t+e 4asis of infor0ation s-22lie/ to +i0 4, t+e in3esti1atin1 a1en(, t+at t+e 4loo/ of $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ on t+e 2illo' of 6ar-s+i in +er 4e/roo0M t+at it a22ears t+at t+e a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ seen 4ot+
Pa1e &8

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

t+e

/e(ease/

in

t+e

4e/roo0

of

6ar-s+i

in

(o02ro0isin1 2osition '+i(+ in(ense/ t+e a((-se/ to (o00it t+e 0-r/ersM t+at "r. "a+i,a +as +i0self 0entione/ in +is re2ort >+i4it-7a-?& t+at 2er-sal of 2+oto1ra2+s) C"s) 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2orts et(. (annot 4e a s-4stit-te for a real site 3isit an/ +en(e t+e o4ser3ation of +is o'n re2ort +as its li0itationM t+at "r. "a+i,a +as no '+ere 0entione/ in +is re2ort t+at +e 3isite/ an/ ins2e(te/ t+e s(ene of (ri0e on 0?.10.200? an/ in +is (ross-e>a0ination +e of +as a/0itte/ an/ t+at no no 2-4li( 2erson 0e0o 'as 'as asso(iate/ /-rin1 t+e alle1e/ ins2e(tion of t+e 2la(e o((-rren(e ins2e(tion 2re2are/M t+at "r. "a+i,a +as state/ t+at +e 3isite/ t+e 2la(e of o((-rren(e alon1'it+ ins2e(tor 6r3in/ 9aitel, 4-t ins2e(tor 9aitel, +as not 4een 2ro/-(e/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion to (orro4orate t+e state0ent of "r. "a+i,aM t+at 5r. 6.C.#. Da-l +as +i0self 0entione/ in +is (los-re re2ort >+i4it-7a-?8 t+at no 4loo/ of $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ on t+e 4e/-s+eet an/ 2illo' of 6ar-s+i an/ t+at t+ere is no e3i/en(e to s-11est t+at $e0ra. 'as 7ille/ in roo0 of 6ar-s+i. It +as also 4een s-40itte/ t+at no 4loo/) 4iolo1i(al fl-i/) s2-t-0) s2er0) 4o/, +air) 2-4i( +air) s7in/fles+ or an, 4iolo1i(al 0aterial 4elon1in1 to $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ in 6ar-s+iEs roo0 an,'+ere. It 'as also ar1-e/ t+at "r. "o+re +as si02l, 0entione/ in +is 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of 5s. 6ar-s+i t+at '+ite /is(+ar1e 'as o4ser3e/ in t+e 3a1ina of 5s. 6ar-s+i 4-t +e +as not 0entione/ in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort t+at o2enin1 of 3a1inal (a3it, 'as 2ro0inent an/ t+e 3a1inal (anal 'as 3isi4leM t+at t+e 3a1inal orifi(e of 6ar-s+i
Pa1e &?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

'as 'i/e an/ o2en an/ t+at 3a1inal (anal (o-l/ 4e seenM t+at t+e +,0en of t+e /e(ease/ 'as ol/) torn an/ +eale/ an/ t+ese fa(ts 'ere not state/ to t+e earlier in3esti1atin1 offi(ers on 18.0;.2008) 18.07.2008 an/ 0&.10.2008M P.!.-; "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re +as a/0itte/ on internal 2a1e no. ; of +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort it +as not 4een 0entione/ t+at '+ite /is(+ar1e 'as fo-n/ in t+e 3a1inal (a3it, of 6ar-s+i an/ in (ol-0n no. ;) = an/ 14 no a4nor0alit, /ete(te/ +as 4een 'ritten an/ t+is 'itness +as also a/0itte/ in +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at no s2er0atoFoa 'as /ete(te/ in t+e sli/es an/ t+e s-4.e(ti3e fin/in1 of "r. "o+re is ina/0issi4le in e3i/en(e an/ as s-(+ no relian(e (an 4e 2la(e/ on t+e e3i/en(e of "r. "o+re. #i7e'ise) it +as 4een (onten/e/ 4, t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ t+at t+e e3i/en(e of P.!.-&= "r. Nares+ Ra. to t+e effe(t t+at s'ellin1 of t+e 2e(7er of $e0ra. 'as 4e(a-se eit+er +e +a/ 4een 0-r/ere/ in t+e 0i/st of se>-al inter(o-rse or .-st 4efore +e 'as a4o-t to +a3e t+e se>-al inter(o-rse '+i(+ +e +as state/ on t+e 4asis of 0arital e>2erien(e is not+in1 4-t a 0e/i(al 4las2+e0, an/ t+is 2art of e3i/en(e s0a(7s of +is la(7 of 7no'le/1e of forensi( s(ien(e an/ +e +as ne3er state/ s-(+ fa(t to t+e in3esti1ators 6nil D-0ar Sa0ania) C.B.I. Ins2e(tor S.$. Sa(+an an/ 5r. 6.C.#. Da-l -n/er se(tion 1=1 Cr.P.C. an/ t+-s in t+e (o-rt +e +as 1i3en t+e a4o3e state0ent for t+e first ti0e after 0a7in1 i02ro3e0ents an/ +en(e no relian(e (an 4e 2la(e/ -2on s-(+ testi0on, of "r. Nares+ Ra.. It 'as f-rt+er (onten/e/ t+at "r. Nares+ Ra. +as +i0self
Pa1e 40

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

a/0itte/ in +is e3i/en(e t+at +e (annot 2ro/-(e an, a-t+orit, '+atsoe3er in s-22ort of a4o3e state0ent an/ rat+er +e +as a/0itte/ t+at +e a1ree/ 'it+ t+e o2inion of 5o/i on 5e/i(al 9-ris2r-/en(e) 8orensi( S(ien(e an/ To>i(olo1, t+at Afro0 18 to &= +o-rs or 48 +o-rs after /eat+) e,es are for(e/ o-t of t+eir so(7ets) a frot+, re//is+ fl-i/ or 0-(-s is for(e/ o-t of t+e 0o-t+ an/ nostrils) a4/o0en 4e(o0e 1reatl, /isten/e/) t+e 2enis an/ s(rot-0 4e(o0e enor0o-sl, s'ollenK an/ t+-s t+e e3i/en(e of "r. Nares+ Ra. /oes not len/ an, (re/en(e t+at 2enis of $e0ra. 'as inflate/ /-e to 4ein1 en1a1e/ in se>-al inter(o-rse an/ a((or/in1l, t+eor, of 1ra3e an/ s-//en 2ro3o(ation 4ase/ on noo7s as 2ro.e(te/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion +as to 4e re.e(te/ in toto. T+e ne>t (ontention 2-t for'ar/ 4, t+e learne/ (o-nsel is t+at 4ot+ "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re an/ "r. Nares+ Ra. 'ere t+e 0e04ers of t+e e>2ert (o00ittee (onstit-te/ 4, t+e in3esti1atin1 a1en(, an/ after e>a0inin1 n-04er of /o(-0entar, e3i/en(e s-(+ as in@-est re2orts) 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2orts of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/) re2ort >+i4it-7+a-17 'as 1i3en 4, t+e (o00ittee in '+i(+ it 'as 0entione/ t+at no fin/in1 in/i(ati3e of se>-al assa-lt is 0entione/ in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort an/ in.-ries as 0entione/ in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2orts of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ (o-l/ +a3e 4een 2ossi4le also 4, a +ea3, 'ea2on li7e 7-7ri +a3in1 4ot+ s+ar2-e/1e an/ 4l-nt 2ortion/e/1e an/ t+-s t+e e3i/en(e of 'itness "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re t+at in.-ries no. 1 an/ & of 5s. 6ar-s+i 0a, +a3e 4een (a-se/ 4, 1olf sti(7 an/ in.-ries no. 2 an/ 4 0a, 4e 2ossi4le /-e to -se of s-r1i(all,
Pa1e 41

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

s+ar2-e/1e/ 'ea2on an/ e3i/en(e of 'itness "r. Nares+ Ra. t+at in.-ries no. = an/ 7 of $e0ra. are 2ossi4le to +a3e 4een (a-se/ 4, 4l-nt o4.e(t s-(+ as 1olf sti(7 an/ in.-r, no. & 0a, 4e (a-se/ 4, s(al2el (annot 4e a((e2te/. 6not+er le1 of ar1-0ent is t+at 5r. 6.C.#. Da-l +as (learl, 0entione/ in +is (los-re re2ort t+at no 4loo/ of $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ on t+e 4e/-s+eet an/ 2illo' of 6ar-s+i) t+ere is no e3i/en(e to 2ro3e t+at $e0ra. 'as 0-r/ere/ in t+e roo0 of 6ar-s+i) s(ientifi( tests on "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar +a3e not (on(l-si3el, in/i(ate/ t+eir in3ol3e0ent in t+e (ri0e) t+e e>a(t se@-en(e of e3ents in t+e inter3enin1 ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 to =.00 6.5. in t+e 0ornin1 is not (lear) t+e offen(e +as ta7en 2la(e in an en(lose/ flat) +en(e) no e,e'itnesses are a3aila4le an/ t+e (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e (olle(te/ /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of in3esti1ation +a3e (riti(al an/ s-4stantial 1a2s an/ t+ere is a4sen(e of (lear-(-t 0oti3e an/ non re(o3er, of an, 'ea2on of offen(e an/ t+eir lin7 eit+er to t+e ser3ants or to t+e 2arents. It 'as also ar1-e/ t+at all t+e >+i4its (olle(te/ fro0 t+e roo0 of 6ar-s+i 'ere e>a0ine/ 4, P.!.-= "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra 4-t +e +as no '+ere state/ t+at 4loo/ of $e0ra. an/ "N6 of $e0ra. 'ere fo-n/ on an, of >+i4its e>a0ine/ 4, +i0. Si0ilarl, P.!.-2; 5r. S.P.R. Prasa/ +as no '+ere state/ t+at 4loo/ or "N6 of $e0ra. 'ere fo-n/ in t+e >+i4its e>a0ine/ 4, +i0 an/ e3en 4iolo1i(al fl-i/ li7e se0en (o-l/ not 4e /ete(te/ in t+e -n/er1ar0ents of $e0ra. an/ as s-(+ it 4e(o0es 2ell-(i/ t+at fro0 t+e e3i/en(e it is not esta4lis+e/ t+at 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 'ere en1a1e/ in
Pa1e 42

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

se>-al inter(o-rse '+i(+ 0a, +a3e enra1e/ t+e a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar to eli0inate t+e /e(ease/ 2ersons an/ ".!.-& "r. %r0il S+ar0a +a/ (ate1ori(all, state/ in +er e3i/en(e t+at in a 1irl of a4o-t 1&-14 ,ears of a1e) /-e to +or0onal (+an1es 4et'een t'o 0enstr-al (,(les) t+ere is nor0al 2+,si(al an/ 4iolo1i(al /is(+ar1e '+i(+ is of '+ite (olo-r an/ a22ears at t+e (er3i>M if t+ere is 0ore /is(+ar1e) t+en t+e sa0e (an flo' o-t of t+e 3a1inal (anal an/ t+ro-1+ t+e 3a1inal o2enin1M nor0al 2+,siolo1i(al an/ 4iolo1i(al /is(+ar1e 'ill not sti(7 to 3a1inal 'all -nless an/ -ntil one /oes not 1et infe(te/M 'it+o-t 0i(ros(o2i( e>a0ination it (annot 4e fo-n/ o-t an/ sai/ '+et+er t+e /is(+ar1e is 4iolo1i(al /is(+ar1e or fro0 an o-tsi/e so-r(eM /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of 3a1inal e>a0ination) t+e 3a1inal (anal (annot 4e seen -nless 4ot+ la4ia are se2arate/ 'it+ t+e +el2 of an instr-0entM t+e la4ia are se2arate/ 'it+ t+e +an/ an/ for t+e 2-r2oses of seein1 t+e 3a1inal (anal) a s2e(-l-0 +as to 4e inserte/) onl, t+en t+e 3a1inal (anal 'ill 4e seenM if t+e /ea/ 4o/, of 1&-14 ,ears ol/ 1irl is e>a0ine/ for t+e 2-r2oses of +er 3a1inal e>a0ination) t+en t+e 3a1inal orifi(e s+all not 4e fo-n/ o2en an/ t+e 3a1inal (anal (annot 4e seenM in (ase of a 1irl '+o +as a torn +,0en (ol/ torn) an/ is -se/ to se>-al inter(o-rse) if after +er /eat+ an/ /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of ri1or 0ortis) +er 3a1ina is (leane/) t+en in t+at sit-ation) t+e 0o-t+ of t+e 3a1ina s+all not re0ain o2enM in a (ase '+ere ri1or 0ortis +as starte/ an/ after an +o-r t+e 3a1ina is o2ene/ an/ (leane/ 'it+ (otton) e3en t+en t+e 0o-t+ of t+e 3a1ina 'ill re0ain (lose/ an/ e3en if ri1or 0ortis +as

Pa1e 4&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

/e3elo2e/ all o3er t+e 4o/, an/ if so0eone atte02ts to for(i4l, o2en t+e 3a1ina) t+en /efinitel,) t+ere 'ill 4e in.-r, 0ar7s in t+e 3a1ina an/ it 0a, re0ain o2en. 5r. 5ir +as also in3ite/ 0, attention to'ar/s t+e e3i/en(e of ".!.-4 "r. R.D. S+ar0a '+o too +as /e2ose/ t+at in a (ase '+ere t+e ri1or 0ortis +as .-st starte/ or +as /e3elo2e/ an/ if so0eone tries to interfere 'it+ t+e 3a1inal (a3it, or 1enital or1ans) t+en in t+at area) 2eri0orte0 in.-ries 'ill 4e (a-se/) '+i(+ 'ill /e2en/ -2on +o' 0-(+ for(e 'as -se/M in t+is area) one is 4o-n/ to see 4r-ises) la(erations) tears an/ /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of 2ost0orte0) t+ese 'o-l/ 4e (learl, 3isi4leM t+e in.-res '+i(+ are (a-se/ after t+e /eat+) t+e, are (alle/ 2eri0orte0 in.-riesM if /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of 2ost0orte0) t+e 2ost0orte0 /o(tor '+ile (on/-(tin1 3a1inal e>a0ination fin/s t+at t+e 3a1inal orifi(e is o2ene/ an/ 3a1inal (a3it, is 3isi4le) t+en in t+is sit-ation Eno a4nor0alit, /ete(te/E (annot 4e 'ritten in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ortM no s-4.e(ti3e fin/in1 (an 4e 1i3enM in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of $e0ra. "r. Nares+ Ra. +as 'ritten t+at e,es 'ere 2rotr-/in1 o-t) 4loo/ ooFin1 o-t of 0o-t+ an/ nostrils) sto0a(+ 'as /isten/e/ an/ t+ere 'as s'ellin1 in t+e 2enis '+i(+ are all si1ns of 2-trifi(ation an/ t+erefore) s'ellin1 in t+e 2enis an/ s(rot-0 'as an a((o-nt of 2-trifi(ation of t+e /ea/ 4o/, an/ not 4e(a-se of se>-al inter(o-rse an/ t+-s it is 0anifest t+at t+eor, of 1ra3e an/ s-//en 2ro3o(ation (an +ar/l, 4e 4elie3e/ an/ t+e s2-n an/ str-(t-re of t+e 2rose(-tion stor, is /e3oi/ of
Pa1e 44

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

realit, an/ t+e a((-se/ /eser3e (o02-r1ation 4, 1i3in1 t+e0 4enefit of /o-4t. To 4-ttress +is ar1-0ents) 5r. 5ir +as 2la(e/ relian(e on Sha3%hu Nath 0ehra *s. State of A,3er AI+ 18<; SC 404 *./. Jhingan *s. State of (.). AI+ 18;; SC 17;2 59JJ6 2ali +a3 *s. State of 'i3achal )radesh 518796 2 SCC >0> 59JJ6 ?ogendra 0orar,i *s. State of #u,arat 518>06 2 SCC 21> 59JJ6 Shan4arlal #7arasilal *s. State of 0aharashtra 518>16 2 SCC 9< 59JJ6 Sharad "irdhichand Sarda *s. State of 0aharashtra 518>46 4 SCC 11; 59JJ6 )adala *eera +edd7 *s. State of A.). 18>8 Supp 526 SCC 70; 59JJ6 State of '.). *s. Jai &al 7 @rs. 518886 7 SCC 2>0 Sha3nsahe% 0. 0ulttani *s. State of 2arnata4a 520016 2 SCC <77 59JJ6 2a,al Sen *s. State of Assa3 520026 2 SCC <<1 0ousa3 Singha +o7 *s. State of :" 520096 12 SCC 977 Anil Shar3a *s. State of Jhar4hand 520046 < SCC ;78 #affar "adshaha )athan *s. State of 0aharashtra 520046 10 SCC <>8 ).0ani *s. State of T.N. 5200;6 9 SCC 1;1 *i4ra3 Jeet Singh =s. State of )un,a% 5200;6 12 SCC 90; +a3esh Chandra Agar-al *s. +egenc7 'ospital &td. 520086 8 SCC 708 Su%ra3ania3 *s. State of T.N. 520086 14 SCC 41< Niran,an )an,a *s. State of :est "engal 520106 ; SCC <2< "a%u *s. State of 2erala 520106 8 SCC 1>8 Sunil 2u3ar Sa3%huda7al *s. State of 0aharashtra 520106 19 SCC ;<7 2al7an 2u3ar #ogoi *s. Ashutosh Agnihotri 520116 2 SCC <92 #o=ind +a,u A #o=ind *s. State 520126 4 SCC 722 0ani4 #a-ali *s. State of

Pa1e 4;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

0aharashtra Crl. Appeal No. 282 of 200; /e(i/e/ 4, $onE4le $i1+ Co-rt of Bo04a, +ishipal *s. State of (ttara4hand 2019 Cr.&.J. 1<94 an/ Jo7de% )atra *s. State of :est "engal 2019 Cr.&.J. 2728. Co-nter3ailin1 t+e s-40issions of learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ it 'as 3e+e0entl, ar1-e/ on 4e+alf of 2rose(-tion t+at fro0 t+e e3i/en(e on re(or/ it 4roo7s no /is2-te t+at '+itis+ /is(+ar1e 'as fo-n/ in t+e 3a1ina of 5s. 6ar-s+i at t+e ti0e of 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination of +er /ea/ 4o/, '+i(+ (on(l-si3el, /e0onstrates t+at 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 'ere in/-l1e/ in se>-al inter(o-rse an/ t+e 4e/s+eet 4elo' t+e 2el3i( re1ion of t+e /e(ease/ 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as fo-n/ 'et an/ no 4iolo1i(al fl-i/ 'as /ete(te/ /-rin1 t+e e>a0ination of 4e/-s+eetM t+e strin1 of tro-ser of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as fo-n/ -ntie/M Ts+irt of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as .-st a4o3e t+e 'aist an/ tro-ser 'as .-st 4elo' t+e 'aist as is e3i/ent fro0 t+e 2er-sal of 2+oto1ra2+s 0aterial >+i4its-1) 2 an/ 4 '+i(+ (learl, s-11est t+at 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 'ere seen on t+e .o4 an/ +en(e t+e, 'ere eli0inate/ an/ t+e a((-se/ 'ere 7no'in1 t+is fa(t an/ +en(e a22re+ensi3e t+at in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of 5s. 6ar-s+i t+e e3i/en(e of (oit-s 0a, s-rfa(e of ,e an/ Care t+erefore) $os2ital) "r. S-s+il C+a-/+ar, Se(tor-2=)

N.<.I.".6. 0a/e a tele2+one (all to 2re3io-sl, a(@-ainte/ P.!.-7 D.D. Ca-ta0) a retire/ 2oli(e offi(er to see t+at no o4ser3ation re1ar/in1 e3i/en(e of se>-al inter(o-rse s+o-l/ (o0e in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort an/ t+is fa(t is a4-n/antl, 2ro3e/ fro0 t+e (all-/etail re(or/s of "r.
Pa1e 4=

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

"ines+ Tal'ar) 4rot+er of t+e a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar) "r. S-s+il C+a-/+ar, an/ 5r. D.D. Ca-ta0. It 'as also ar1-e/ t+at P.!.-; "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re +as /e2ose/ t+at '+en +e 'as 1oin1 to'ar/s t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination roo0 t+en "r. "ines+ Tal'ar 1a3e +i0 a (ell-2+one an/ tol/ +i0 to tal7 'it+ "r. T.". "o1ra of 8orensi( 5e/i(ines) 6.I.I.5.S an/ t+en +e tal7e/ 'it+ "r. "o1ra. It 'as also +aran1-e/ t+at in/-4ita4l, 4ot+ t+e 0-r/ers 'ere (o00itte/ in t+e ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 'it+in t+e fo-r-'all of flat no. #-&2 an/ as s-(+ in t+e 1i3en (ir(-0stan(es t+e 2rose(-tion is not 4o-n/ to e>2lain ea(+ an/ e3er, +,2ot+esis 2-t for'ar/ 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/ sin(e fro0 t+e 2rose(-tion e3i/en(e it is esta4lis+e/ t+at t+e 0-r/ers 'ere (o00itte/ insi/e t+e flat no. #-&2 an/ 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 'ere 2resent t+ere in t+e ni1+t an/ t+erefore) '+en 2ri0a fa(ie t+e 2rose(-tion +as 2ro3e/ t+e 2resen(e of t+e a((-se/ 2ersons insi/e t+e flat in t+e fatef-l ni1+t an/ +en(e in 3ie' of t+e 2ro3isions as (ontaine/ in se(tion 10= of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t) it 'as o4li1ator, on t+e 2art of t+e a((-se/ 2ersons to r-le o-t t+e t+eor, of 1ra3e an/ s-//en 2ro3o(ation as also to esta4lis+ t+at so0e4o/, else ot+er t+an t+e a((-se/ 2ersons +as (o00itte/ t+e 0-r/ers '+i(+ t+e, (o-l/ not esta4lis+ an/ t+erefore) in t+ese (ir(-0stan(es t+e ar1-0ents of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ /eser3e to 4e re.e(te/. I +a3e (o1itate/ o3er t+e ri3al s-40issions 0a/e on eit+er si/e. 6/0itte/l,) t+e (ase in +an/ is not 4ase/ on 2er(i2ient e3i/en(e an/ rat+er +in1es on (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e. To 4e1in at t+e

Pa1e 47

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

4e1innin1) it a22ears a22osite to /eal 'it+ t+e (on(e2t of 2roof 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t. 5r. Ra0 Co2al in BIndia of *edic 2alpsutrasC +as state/ at 2a1e no. 201 t+at e3en -n/er t+e an(ient s,ste0 of a/0inistration of Cri0inal .-sti(e) t+e 4enefit of /o-4t 'as al'a,s 1i3en to t+e a((-se/. So

62asta04a lai/ /o'n t+at Au%

p~% lUnsgs n.Me~

dqfj;kr~C (t+e 7in1 s+o-l/ not 2-nis+ an, 2erson in
(ase of /o-4t). It 'ill 4e a22osite to refer to Para ;.2; of t+e re2ort of t+e (o00ittee on Refor0s of Cri0inal 9-sti(e S,ste0 :ol-0e 1) 200& '+i(+ (onsi/ere/ t+e +istori(al 4a(71ro-n/ of t+e 2rin(i2le of IProof 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4tB. Para ;.2;- AT+e 2rin(i2le of 2roof 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t 'as e3ol3e/ in t+e (onte>t of t+e s,ste0 of .-r, trial in t+e %nite/ Din1/o0. T+e 3er/i(t on t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ 'as t+e res2onsi4ilit, of t+e .-r,. T+e .-r, (onsiste/ of or/inar, (itiFens in t+e lo(alit,. 6s t+e, are not traine/ .-/1es) t+e, 0a, .-02 to t+e (on(l-sion 'it+o-t /-e (are an/ (on(ern for t+e ri1+ts of t+e a((-se/. T+erefore) stan/ar/ of 2roof 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t a22ears to +a3e 4een e3ol3e/ for t+e 1-i/an(e of t+e .-r,. T+at 2rin(i2le '+i(+ 'as ori1inall, 0eant for t+e 1-i/an(e of t+e .-r, is 4ein1 follo'e/ 4, all t+e (o-rts of t+e (o-ntries '+i(+ follo' (o00on la'K. It a22ears see0l, to tra(e t+e (on(e2t of 2roof 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t as e3ol3e/ 4, s-2erior la' (o-rts of n1lan/ an/ In/ia. In 0iller *s. 0inister
Pa1e 48

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

or )ensions 518476 All 1ngland &a- +eports 972 5*ol.26 #or/ "ennin1 9. o4ser3e/) AINNNN 2roof 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t /oes not 0ean 2roof 4e,on/ t+e s+a/o' of a /o-4t. T+e la' 'o-l/ fail to 2rote(t t+e (o00-nit, if it a/0itte/ fan(if-l 2ossi4ilities to /efle(t t+e (o-rse of .-sti(e. If t+e e3i/en(e is so stron1 a1ainst a 0an as to lea/ onl, to a re0ote 2ossi4ilit, in +is fa3o-r '+i(+ (an 4e /is0isse/ 'it+ t+e senten(e Aof (o-rse) it is 2ossi4le) 4-t not in t+e least 2ro4a4leK t+e (ase is 2ro3e/ 4e,on/ /o-4tNN.K. T+e (on(e2t of 4enefit of /o-4t +as 4een e>2laine/ in 0an, /e(isions '+i(+ +a3e (onsistentl, 4een follo'e/ in a (atena of (ases) an/ are referre/ to in!ra for rea/, referen(e:6 strea0 of r-lin1s of t+e $onE4le S-2re0e Co-rt (o00en(in1 'it+ t+e 0.#. Agar-al *s. State of 0aharashtra 518;96 2 SC+ 40< 481D AI+ 18;9 SC 200D 518;96 1 Cri &J 29< an/ (li0a>e/ 4, Su,it "is-as *s. State of Assa3 2019 5>26 ACC 4;7 5SC6 +as settle/ t+e la' on t+is as2e(t an/ t+ere is no le1al 0aelstro0 a4o-t it. In 0.#. Agar-al *s. State of 0aharashtra 518;96 2 SC+ 40< 481D AI+ 18;9 SC 200D 518;96 1 Cri #9 2&;) it 'as o4ser3e/ 4, t+e Constit-tion Ben(+ of t+e $onB4le S-2re0e Co-rt as 4elo':AIt is a 'ell esta4lis+e/ r-le in (ri0inal .-ris2r-/en(e t+at (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e (an 4e reasona4l, 0a/e t+e 4asis of an a((-se/ 2ersonBs (on3i(tion if it is of s-(+ a (+ara(ter t+at it is '+oll, in(onsistent 'it+ t+e inno(en(e of t+e a((-se/ an/
Pa1e 4?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

is (onsistent onl, 'it+ +is 1-ilt. If t+e (ir(-0stan(es 2ro3e/ in t+e (ase are (onsistent eit+er 'it+ t+e inno(en(e of t+e a((-se/ or 'it+ +is 1-ilt) t+en t+e a((-se/ is entitle/ to t+e 4enefit of /o-4t. T+ere is no /o-4t or /is2-te a4o-t t+is 2osition. B-t in a22l,in1 t+is 2rin(i2le) it is ne(essar, to /istin1-is+ 4et'een fa(ts '+i(+ 0a, 4e (alle/ 2ri0ar, or 4asi( on t+e one +an/ an/ inferen(e of fa(ts to 4e /ra'n fro0 t+e0 on t+e ot+er. In re1ar/ to t+e 2roof of 4asi( or 2ri0ar, fa(ts t+e (o-rt +as to .-/1e t+e e3i/en(e in t+e or/inar, 'a, an/ in t+e a22re(iation of e3i/en(e in res2e(t of t+e 2roof of t+ese 4asi( or 2ri0ar, fa(ts t+ere is no s(o2e for t+e a22li(ation of t+e /o(trine of 4enefit of /o-4t. T+e (o-rt (onsi/ers t+e e3i/en(e an/ /e(i/es '+et+er t+at e3i/en(e 2ro3es a 2arti(-lar fa(t or not. !+en it is +el/ t+at a (ertain fa(t is 2ro3e/) t+e @-estion arises '+et+er t+at fa(t lea/s to t+e inferen(e of 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ 2erson or not) an/ in /ealin1 'it+ t+is as2e(t of t+e 2ro4le0) t+e /o(trine of 4enefit of /o-4t 'o-l/ a22l, an/ an inferen(e of 1-ilt (an 4e /ra'n onl, if t+e 2ro3e/ fa(t is '+oll, in(onsistent 'it+ t+e inno(en(e of t+e a((-se/ an/ is (onsistent onl, 'it+ +is 1-ilt.K T+e follo'in1 o4ser3ations 0a/e in 'i3achal )radesh Ad3inistration *s. @3 )ra4ash AI+ 1872 SC 87< are also 3er, 2ertinent. ANNNT+e 4enefit of /o-4t to '+i(+ t+e a((-se/ is entitle/ is reasona4le /o-4t- t+e /o-4t '+i(+ rational t+in7in1 0an 'ill reasona4l,) +onestl, an/ (ons(ientio-sl, entertain an/ not t+e /o-4t of a ti0i/ 0in/ '+i(+ fi1+ts s+,- t+o-1+ -n'ittin1l, it 0a, 4e- or is afrai/ of t+e lo1i(al
Pa1e ;0

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

(onse@-en(es) if t+at 4enefit 'as not 1i3en or as one 1reat .-/1e sai/ Ait is not t+e /o-4t of t+e 3a(illatin1 0in/ t+at +as not t+e 0oral (o-ra1e to /e(i/e 4, s+elters itself in a 3ain an/ i/le s(e2ti(is0.K It /oes not 0ean t+at t+e e3i/en(e 0-st 4e so stron1 as to e>(l-/e e3en a re0ote 2ossi4ilit, t+at t+e a((-se/ (o-l/ not +a3e (o00itte/ t+e offen(e. If t+at 'ere so) t+e la' 'o-l/ fail to 2rote(t so(iet, as in no (ase (an s-(+ a 2ossi4ilit, 4e e>(l-/e/. It 'ill 1i3e roo0 for fan(if-l (on.e(t-res or -ntena4le /o-4ts an/ 'ill res-lt in /efle(tin1 t+e (o-rse of .-sti(e if not t+'artin1 it all to1et+er. It for t+is reason t+at t+e 2+rase +as 4een (riti(iFe/NN.. T+e 0ere fa(t t+at t+ere is a re0ote 2ossi4ilit, in fa3o-r of a((-se/ is itself s-ffi(ient to esta4lis+ t+e (ase 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4ts. T+is t+en is t+e a22roa(+.K In Jennison *s. "a4er 1872 516 A&& 1+ 887E518726 2 F" <2) it 'as 2it+il, state/: A#a' s+o-l/ not 4e seen to sit 4, li02l,) '+ile t+ose '+o /ef, it 1o free) an/ t+ose '+o see7 its 2rote(tion lose +o2e.K In(reasin1l, 2eo2le are 4elie3in1 as o4ser3e/ 4, Sal0on/ @-ote/ 4, "io1enes #aerti-s in A#ines of t+e 2+iloso2+ersK la's are li7e s2i/ersE 'e4s) if so0e li1+t or 2o'erless t+in1 falls into t+e0) it is (a-1+t) 4-t 4i11er one (an 4rea7 t+ro-1+ an/ 1et a'a,. 9onat+an S'ift in +is A ssa, on t+e 8a(-lties of t+e 5in/K sai/ in si0ilar lines: Ala's are li7e of (o4 'e4s) '+i(+ 0a, (at(+ s0all flies) 4-t let 'as2s an/ +ornets 4rea7 t+ro-1+.K In Shi=a,i Saha%rao "o%ade and another *s. State of 0aharashtra 518796 2 SC 789) it 'as o4ser3e/ 4, a t+ree 9-/1e Ben(+ of t+e $onB4le
Pa1e ;1

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

S-2re0e Co-rt- A 3en at t+is sta1e 'e 0a, re0in/ o-rsel3es of a ne(essar, so(ial 2ers2e(ti3e in (ri0inal (ases '+i(+ s-ffers fro0 ins-ffi(ient forensi( a22re(iation. T+e /an1ers of e>a11erate/ /e3otion to t+e r-le of 4enefit of /o-4t at t+e e>2ense of so(ial /efen(e an/ to t+e soot+in1 senti0ent t+at all a(@-ittals are al'a,s 1oo/ re1ar/less of .-sti(e to t+e 3i(ti0 an/ t+e (o00-nit,) /e0an/ es2e(ial e02+asis in t+e (onte02orar, (onte>t of es(alatin1 (ri0e an/ es(a2e. T+e .-/i(ial instr-0ent +as a 2-4li( a((o-nta4ilit,. T+e (+eris+e/ 2rin(i2les or 1ol/en t+rea/ of 2roof 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t '+i(+ r-ns t+ro-1+ t+e 'e4 of o-r la' s+o-l/ not 4e stret(+e/ 0or4i/l, to e04ra(e e3er, +-n(+) +esitan(, an/ /e1ree of /o-4t. T+e e>(essi3e soli(it-/e refle(te/ in t+e attit-/e t+at a t+o-san/ 1-ilt, 0en 0a, 1o 4-t one inno(ent 0art,r s+all not s-ffer is a false /ile00a. <nl, reasona4le /o-4ts 4elon1 to t+e a((-se/. <t+er'ise an, 2ra(ti(al s,ste0 of .-sti(e 'ill t+en 4rea7 /o'n an/ lose (re/i4ilit, 'it+ t+e (o00-nit,. T+e e3il of a(@-ittin1 a 1-ilt, 2erson li1+t +earte/l, as a learne/ a-t+or (Clan3ille !illia0s in IProof of C-iltB) +as sa2ientl, o4ser3e/) 1oes 0-(+ 4e,on/ t+e si02le fa(t t+at .-st one 1-ilt, 2erson +as 1one -n2-nis+e/. If -n0erite/ a(@-ittals 4e(o0e 1eneral) t+e, ten/ to lea/ to a (,ni(al /isre1ar/ of t+e la') an/ t+is in t-rn lea/s to a 2-4li( /e0an/ for +ars+er le1al 2res-02tions a1ainst in/i(ate/ I2ersonsB an/ 0ore se3ere 2-nis+0ent of t+ose '+o are fo-n/ 1-ilt,. T+-s) too fre@-ent a(@-ittals of t+e 1-ilt, 0a, lea/ to a fero(io-s 2enal la') e3ent-all, ero/in1 t+e .-/i(ial
Pa1e ;2

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

2rote(tion of t+e 1-iltless. 8or all t+ese reasons it is tr-e to sa,) 'it+ :is(o-nt Si0on) t+at Aa 0is(arria1e of .-sti(e 0a, arise fro0 t+e a(@-ittal of t+e 1-ilt, no less t+an fro0 t+e (on3i(tion of t+e inno(entN.. In s+ort) o-r .-ris2r-/ential ent+-sias0 for 2res-0e/ inno(en(e 0-st 4e 0o/erate/ 4, t+e 2ra10ati( nee/ to 0a7e (ri0inal .-sti(e 2otent an/ realisti(. 6 4alan(e +as to 4e str-(7 4et'een (+asin1 (+an(e 2ossi4ilities as 1oo/ eno-1+ to set t+e /elin@-ent free an/ (+o22in1 t+e lo1i( of 2re2on/erant inno(entsK. In State of )un,a% *s. Jagir Singh "al,it Singh AI+ 1879 SC 2407) it 'as a1ain o4ser3e/ t+at A6 (ri0inal trial is not li7e a fair, tale '+erein one is free to 1i3e fli1+t to oneBs i0a1ination an/ fantas,. It (on(erns itself 'it+ t+e @-estion as to '+et+er t+e a((-se/ arrai1ne/ at t+e trial is 1-ilt, of t+e (ri0e 'it+ '+i(+ +e is (+ar1e/. Cri0e is an e3ent in real life an/ is t+e 2ro/-(t of an inter2la, of /ifferent +-0an e0otions. In arri3in1 at t+e (on(l-sion of a (ri0e) t+e (o-rt +as to .-/1e t+e e3i/en(e 4, ,ar/sti(7 of 2ro4a4ilities) its intrinsi( 'ort+ an/ t+e ani0-s of t+e 'itnesses. 3er, (ase in t+e final anal,sis 'o-l/ +a3e to /e2en/ -2on its o'n fa(ts. 6lt+o-1+ t+e 4enefit of e3er, reasona4le /o-4t s+o-l/ 4e 1i3en to t+e a((-se/) t+e (o-rt s+o-l/ not at t+e sa0e ti0e re.e(t e3i/en(e '+i(+ is e" !acie tr-st'ort+, on 1ro-n/s '+i(+ are fan(if-l or in t+e nat-re of (on.e(t-res.K In /hara3 /as :adh-ani *s. State of (.). 518746 4 SCC 2;7) it +as 4een o4ser3e/ t+at t+e r-le of 4enefit of reasona4le /o-4t /oes not i02l, a
Pa1e ;&

2ro4a4ilit,

to

2-nis+

0ar1inal

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

frail 'illo' 4en/in1 to e3er, '+iff of +esitan(,. 9-/1es are 0a/e of sterner st-ff an/ 0-st ta7e a 2ra(ti(al 3ie' of le1iti0ate inferen(es flo'in1 fro0 e3i/en(e) (ir(-0stantial or /ire(t. 6t t+e sa0e ti0e) it 0a, 4e affir0e/) as 2ointe/ o-t in 2ali +a3 *s. State of '.). 518796 2 SCC >0> t+at if reasona4le /o-4t arises re1ar/in1 t+e 1-ilt of a((-se/) t+e 4enefit of t+at (annot 4e 'it++el/ fro0 +i0. If (ri0e is to 4e 2-nis+e/ 1ossa0er 'e4 ni(eties 0-st ,iel/ to realisti( a22raisals. T+e test t+at t+e a((-se/ 0-st 4e 1-ilt, an/ not 0a, 4e 1-ilt, s+o-l/ not 4e (onf-se/ 'it+ e>(l-sion of e3er, (ontrar, 2ossi4ilit,. T+is (o-rt is (ons(io-s) to @-ote 1reat 60eri(an 9-/1e 9-sti(e $ol0es) of t+e Afelt ne(essities of ti0eK. In Narotta3 Singh *s. State of )un,a% and others 18>0 SCC 5Crl.6 119) it +as 4een +el/ t+at t+e Asa(re/ (o'sK of s+a/o', /o-4ts an/ 0ar1inal 0ista7es) 2ro(ess-al or ot+er) (an not /eter t+e (o-rt fro0 2-nis+in1 (ri0e '+ere it +as 4een sensi4l, an/ s-4stantiall, 4ro-1+t +o0e. In State of 'ar7ana *s. "hagirath 518886 < SCC 8; it 'as o4ser3e/: ANN B-t t+e 2rin(i2le of 4enefit of /o-4t 4elon1s e>(l-si3el, to (ri0inal 9-ris2r-/en(e. T+e 2ristine /o(trine of 4enefit of /o-4t (an 4e in3o7e/ '+en t+ere is a reasona4le /o-4t re1ar/in1 t+e 1-ilt of a((-se/. It is t+e reasona4le /o-4t '+i(+ a (ons(ientio-s .-/i(ial 0in/ entertains on a (ons2e(t-s of t+e entire e3i/en(e t+at t+e a((-se/ 0i1+t not +a3e (o00itte/ t+e offen(e) '+i(+ affor/s t+e 4enefit to a((-se/ at t+e en/ of t+e (ri0inal trial. Benefit of /o-4t is not a le1al /osa1e
Pa1e ;4

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

to 4e a/0inistere/ at e3er, se10ent of t+e e3i/en(e) 4-t an, a/3anta1e to 4e affor/e/ to t+e a((-se/ at t+e final en/ after (onsi/eration of t+e entire e3i/en(e) if t+e .-/1e (ons(ientio-sl, an/ reasona4l, entertains /o-4t re1ar/in1 t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/. It is nearl, i02ossi4le in an, (ri0inal trial to 2ro3e all t+e ele0ents 'it+ a s(ientifi( 2re(ision. 6 (ri0inal (o-rt (o-l/ 4e (on3in(e/ of t+e 1-ilt onl, 4e,on/ t+e ran1e of a reasona4le /o-4t. <f (o-rse) t+e e>2ression Areasona4le /o-4tK is in(a2a4le of /efinition. 5o/ern t+in7in1 is in fa3o-r of t+e 3ie' t+at 2roof 4e,on/ a reasona4le /o-4t is t+e sa0e as 2roof '+i(+ affor/s 0oral (ertaint, to t+e .-/1e. 8ran(is !+arton) a (ele4rate/ 'riter on (ri0inal la' in t+e %nite/ States +as @-ote/ fro0 .-/i(ial 2rono-n(e0ents in +is 4oo7 !+artonBs Cri0inal 3i/en(e (at 2. &1) :ol. 1 of t+e 12t+ follo's:AIt is /iffi(-lt to /efine t+e 2+rase Ireasona4le /o-4tB. $o'e3er) in all (ri0inal (ases a (aref-l e>2lanation of t+e ter0 o-1+t to 4e 1i3en. 6 /efinition often @-ote/ or follo'e/ is t+at 1i3en 4, C+ief 9-sti(e S+a' in t+e !e4ster (ase. $e sa,s: IIt is not 0ere 2ossi4le /o-4t) 4e(a-se e3er,t+in1 relatin1 to +-0an affairs an/ /e2en/in1 -2on 0oral e3i/en(e is o2en to so0e 2ossi4le or i0a1inar, /o-4t. It is t+at state of t+e (ase '+i(+) after t+e entire (o02arison an/ (onsi/eration of all t+e e3i/en(e) lea3es t+e 0in/s of t+e .-rors in t+at (onsi/eration t+at t+e, (annot sa, t+e, feel an /n.) as

Pa1e ;;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

a4i/in1 (on3i(tion to a 0oral (ertaint, of t+e tr-t+ of t+e (+ar1e.B K In t+e treatise The &a- of Cri3inal 1=idence a-t+ore/ 4, '.C. (nderhill it is state/ (at 2. &4) :ol. 1 of t+e ;t+ /n.) t+-s: AT+e /o-4t to 4e reasona4le 0-st 4e s-(+ a one as an +onest) sensi4le an/ fair-0in/e/ 0an 0i1+t) 'it+ reason) entertain (onsistent 'it+ a (ons(ientio-s /esire to as(ertain t+e tr-t+. 6n +onestl, entertaine/ /o-4t of 1-ilt is a reasona4le /o-4t. 6 3a1-e (on.e(t-re or an inferen(e of t+e 2ossi4ilit, of t+e inno(en(e of t+e a((-se/ is not a reasona4le /o-4t. 6 reasona4le /o-4t is one '+i(+ arises fro0 a (onsi/eration of all t+e e3i/en(e in fair an/ reasona4le 'a,. T+ere 0-st 4e a (an/i/ (onsi/eration of all t+e e3i/en(e an/ if) after t+is (an/i/ (onsi/eration is +a/ 4, t+e .-rors) t+ere re0ains in t+e 0in/s a (on3i(tion of t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/) t+en t+ere is no roo0 for a reasona4le /o-4t.K In 0unicipal Corporation of /elhi *s. +a3 2ishan +ohtagi 518>96 1 SCC!1 Ta4ha,i 'ira,i *s. Tha4ur 2u%er Singh Cha3an Singh . others 520016 ; SCC 14< 59 JJ6 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at 4enefit of /o-4t 0-st al'a,s 4e reasona4le an/ not fan(if-l. In 2rishna . others *s. State 520096 7 SCC <; "atcu *ain4atesh-arlu and others *s. )u%lic )rosecutor 'igh Court of A.). 2008 516 CCSC 1 59JJ6 0uruga3 *s. State 2008 516 () Cr.+. 74 5SC6 State through C"I *s. 0ahendra Singh /ahi7a AI+ 2011 SC 1017 IG%al 0oosa )atel *s. State of #u,arat 2011
Pa1e ;=

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

Cr.&.J. 1142 5SC6

Chhotanne7 . others *s.

State of (.). . others AI+ 2008 SC 2019 *alson and others *s. State of 2erala 520086 2 SCC 5Crl.6 20> and "has4ar +a3appa 0adar . others *s. State of 2arnata4a 2008 Cr.&.J. 2422 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at to (onstit-te a reasona4le /o-4t) it 0-st 4e free fro0 a o3er e0otional res2onse an/ Fest for a4stra(t s2e(-lation. "o-4ts 0-st 4e a(t-al an/ s-4stantial /o-4ts as to t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ 2ersons. 6 reasona4le /o-4t is not an i0a1inar,) tri3ial or a 0erel, 2ossi4le /o-4t) 4-t a fair /o-4t 4ase/ -2on reason an/ (o00on sense. In /e=endra )al Singh *s. State of N.C.T. of /elhi 520026 < SCC 294 and Sucha Singh . others *s. State of )un,a% 520096 7 SCC ;49 it +as 4een +el/ t+at 2roof 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t is a 1-i/eline) not a fetis+. In +a3esh 'ari,an *s. State of (.). 520126 < SCC 777 Nagesh *s. State of 2arnata4a 2012 5776 ACC 800 and Su,it "is-as *s. State of Assa3 2019 5>26 ACC 4;7) it 'as a1ain o4ser3e/ t+at 2roof 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t is not i0a1inar,) tri3ial or 0erel, 2ossi4le /o-4t. It is a fair /o-4t 4ase/ -2on reason or (o00on sense. r1o) t+is (o-rt (annot 4e o4li3io-s t+at in a (ri0inal trial s-s2i(ion no 0atter +o' stron1 (annot an/ 0-st not 4e 2er0itte/ to ta7e 2la(e of 2roof. T+is is for t+e reason t+at t+e 0ental /istan(e 4et'een I0a, 4eB an/ I0-st 4eB is @-ite lar1e an/ /i3i/es 3a1-e (on.e(t-res fro0 s-re (on(l-sions. 5ere (on.e(t-res or s-s2i(ion /o not ta7e t+e 2la(e of le1al 2roof. T+e lar1e /istan(e 4et'een I0a, 4e tr-eB an/ I0-st 4e tr-eB) 0-st 4e (o3ere/ 4, 'a, of
Pa1e ;7

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

(lear) (o1ent an/ -ni02ea(+a4le e3i/en(e 2ro/-(e/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion 4efore an a((-se/ is (on/e0ne/ as a (on3i(t an/ t+e 4asi( 1ol/en r-le 0-st 4e a22lie/. It is also to 4e re0e04ere/ t+at in t+e (ase of Narendra 2u3ar *s. State 5N.C.T. of /elhi6 520126 7 SCC 171) it +as 4een +el/ t+at t+e 2rose(-tion +as to 2ro3e its o'n (ase 4e,on/ t+e reasona4le /o-4ts an/ (annot ta7e s-22ort fro0 t+e 'ea7ness of t+e (ase of /efen(e an/ +en(e t+ere 0-st 4e 2ro2er an/ le1al e3i/en(e to re(or/ t+e (on3i(tion of t+e a((-se/. Re(entl,) in 0ohd. Hai$an Ah3ad *s. State of "ihar 520196 2 SCC 191) t+e $onB4le 62e> Co-rt +as a1ain (a-tione/ 4, 0a7in1 o4ser3ation t+at s-s2i(ion +o'e3er 1ra3e (annot ta7e t+e 2la(e of 2roof. Cra3e 3iolen(e to 4asi( tenets of (ri0inal .-ris2r-/en(e 'o-l/ o((-r if in a4sen(e of an, (re/i4le e3i/en(e) (ri0inal (o-rts are s'a,e/ 4, 1ra3it, of offen(e an/ 2ro(ee/ to +an/ o-t 2-nis+0ent on t+at 4asis. T+e o4ser3ations 0a/e 4, t+e $onB4le S-2re0e Co-rt in @3a *s. State of T.N. 520196 9 SCC 440 t+at a .-/1e tr,in1 a (ri0inal (ase +as a sa(re/ /-t, to a22re(iate t+e e3i/en(e in a see0l, 0anner an/ is not to 4e 1o3erne/ 4, an, 7in/ of in/i3i/-al 2+iloso2+,) a4stra(t (on(e2ts) (on.e(t-res an/ s-r0ises an/ s+o-l/ ne3er 4e infl-en(e/ 4, so0e o4ser3ations or s2ee(+es 0a/e in (ertain @-arter of t+e so(iet, 4-t not in 4in/in1 .-/i(ial 2re(e/ents +a3e also to 4e 7e2t in 0in/. It also a22ears a22osite to 7ee2 in 0in/ t+e follo'in1 o4ser3ations) alt+o-1+ in /ifferent (onte>t) of t+e $onB4le S-2re0e Co-rt in National TeItile

Pa1e ;8

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

:or4ersJ (nion = ).+. +a3 2rishna 518>961 SCC 22>! A!e (annot allo' t+e /ea/ +an/ of t+e 2ast to stifle t+e 1ro't+ of t+e li3in1 2resent. #a' (annot stan/ stillM it 0-st (+an1e 'it+ t+e (+an1in1 so(ial (on(e2ts an/ 3al-es. If t+e 4ar7 t+at 2rote(ts t+e tree fails to 1ro' an/ e>2an/ alon1 'it+ t+e tree) it 'ill eit+er (+o2 t+e tree or if it is a li3in1 tree it 'ill s+e/ t+at 4ar7 an/ 1ro' a ne' li3in1 4ar7 for itself. Si0ilarl,) if t+e la' fails to res2on/ to t+e nee/s of (+an1in1 so(iet,) t+en eit+er it 'ill stifle t+e 1ro't+ of t+e so(iet, an/ (+o7e its 2ro1ress or if t+e so(iet, is 3i1oro-s eno-1+ it 'ill (ast a'a, t+e la' '+i(+ stan/s in t+e 2at+'a, of its 1ro't+. #a' 0-st t+erefore (onstantl, 4e on t+e 0o3e a/a2tin1 itself to t+e fast (+an1in1 so(iet, an/ not la1 4e+in/.K T+e la' on (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e is not tene4ro-s. 9o+nson -n/er:AIn 0atters of /ire(t testi0on,) if (re/en(e 4e 1i3en to t+e relators) t+e a(t of +earin1 an/ t+e a(t of 4elief) t+o-1+ reall, not so) see0 to 4e (onte02oraneo-s. B-t t+e (ase is 3er, /ifferent '+en 'e +a3e to /eter0ine -2on (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e) t+e .-/10ent in res2e(t of '+i(+ is essential inferential. T+ere is no a22arent ne(essar, (onne(tion 4et'een t+e fa(ts an/ t+e inferen(eM t+e fa(ts 0a, 4e tr-e an/ t+e inferen(e erroneo-s) an/ it is onl, 4, (o02arison 'it+ t+e res-lts of
Pa1e ;?

In

an

ssa,

on

t+e t+e

Prin(i2les (on(e2t

of of

Cir(-0stantial 3i/en(e 4, !illia0 !ills 4, T. * 9.!. * Co02an, 1872) (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e +as 4een e>2laine/ as

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

o4ser3ation in si0ilar or analo1o-s (ir(-0stan(es) t+at 'e a(@-ire (onfi/en(e in t+e a((-ra(, of (on(l-sions. T+e ter0 I2res-02ti3eB is fre@-entl, -se/ as s,non,0o-s 'it+ (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(eM 4-t it is not so -se/ 'it+ stri(t a((-ra(,. T+e 'or/ I2res-02tionB) e" #i termini) i02orts an inferen(e fro0 fa(ts) an/ t+e a/.-n(t I2res-02ti3eB) as a22lie/ to e3i/entiar, fa(ts) i02lies t+e (ertaint, of so0e relation 4et'een t+e fa(ts an/ t+e inferen(e. Cir(-0stan(es 1enerall,) 4-t not ne(essaril,) lea/ to 2arti(-lar inferen(esM for t+e fa(ts 0a, 4e in/is2-ta4le) an/ ,et t+eir relation to t+e 2rin(i2al fa(t 0a, 4e onl, a22arent) an/ not realM e3en '+en t+e (onne(tion is real) t+e /e/-(tion 0a, 4e erroneo-s. Cir(-0stantial an/ 2res-02ti3e e3i/en(e /iffer) t+erefore) as 1en-s an/ s2e(ies. T+e for(e an/ effe(t of (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e /e2en/ -2on on its in(o02ati4ilit, 'it+ an/ in(a2a4ilit, of) e>2lanation or sol-tion -2on an, ot+er s-22osition t+an t+at of t+e tr-t+ of t+e fa(t '+i(+ it is a//-(e/ to 2ro3eM t+e 0o/e of ar1-0ents rese04lin1 t+e 0et+o/ of /e0onstration 4, t+e reductio ad absurdum.K In 'anu3ant #o=ind Nargund4ar *s. State of 0.). AI+ 18<2 SC 949 "hagat +a3 *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 18<4 SC ;21 1radu *s. State of '7dera%ad AI+ 18<; SC 91; 'u4u3 Singh *s. State of +a,asthan AI+ 1877 SC 10;9 #a3%hir *s. State of 0aharashtra 518>26 2 SCC 9<1 1ara "hadrappa *s. State of 2arnata4a AI+ 18>9 SC 44; Sharad "irdhi Chand Sarda *s.
Pa1e =0

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

State of 0aharashtra 518>46 4 SCC 11; State of (.). *s. Su4h%asi AI+ 18>< SC 1224 "al-inder Singh *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 18>7 SC 9<0 Asho4 2u3ar Chatter,ee *s. State of 0.). AI+ 18>8 SC 1>80 )adala *eera +edd7 *s. State of A.). 18>8 Supple3entar7 526 SCC 70; Tan=i%eI )an4a, 2u3ar /i=etia *s. State of #u,arat 518876 7 SCC 1<; Anthon7 /Jsou$a and others *s. State of 2arnata4a 2009 54;6 ACC 91> 5SC! 9JJ6 State of +a,asthan *s. 2hera, +a3 520096 > SCC 224 State of (.). *s. Satish AI+ 200< SC 1000 "irendra )oddar *s. State of "ihar 520116 ; SCC 9<0 C. Changa +edd7 *s. State of A.). 1887 JIC 2<> 5SC6 State of (.). *s. +a3 "ala4 5200>6 1< SCC <<1 Inspector of )olice T.N. *s. John /a=id 2011 526 JIC <28 5SC6 172 +a3 +edd7 +a,esh 2hanna +edd7 *s. State of A.). 5200;6 10 SCC Anil 2u3ar Singh *s. State of "ihar 520096 8 SCC ;7 +edd7 Sa3path 2u3ar *s. State of A.). 5200<6 7 SCC ;09 Sattati7a *s. State of 0aharashtra 5200>6 9 SCC 210 "harat *s. State of 0.). 520096 9 SCC 10; State of #oa *s. )andurang 0ohite 5200>6 1; SCC 714 *i,a7 2u3ar Arora *s. State 5N.C.T.6 @f /elhi 520106 2 SCC 9<9 Sidharth *ashistha A 0anu Shar3a *s. State 5N.C.T. of /elhi6 2010 5;86 ACC >99 5SC6D 520106 ; SCC 1 #. )ars-anath *s. State of 2arnata4a 520106 < SCC <89 "hag-an /ass *s. State 5N.C.T.6 of /elhi AI+ 2011 SC 1>;9 +u4ia "egu3 *s. State of 2arnata4a 520116 4 SCC 778 2ul=inder Singh *s. State of 'ar7ana 520116 < SCC 2<>
Pa1e =1

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

0oha33ad 0annan A A%dul 0annan *s. State of "ihar 520116 < SCC 917 0usta4ee3 A Sira,uddin *s. State of +a,asthan 2011 Cr.&.J. 4820 5SC6 "ra,endra Singh *s. State of 0.). 520126 4 SCC 2>8 /hanan,o7 Chatter,ee *s. State of :est "engal 518846 2 SCC 220 Shi=u *s. State of 2arnata4a 520076 4 SCC 719 Shi=a,i *s. State of 0aharashtra 5200>6 1< SCC 2;8 A%u "uc4er SiddiGue *s. State AI+ 2011 SC 81 Jagroop Singh *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 2012 SC 2;00 Tulsi +a3 Sahadu Sur7a=anshi *s. State of 0aharashtra 520126 10 SCC 979 0adhu *s. State of 2erala 2012 516 JIC ;08 5SC6 )udhu +a,a *s. State 2012 5786 ACC ;42 5SC6 an/ +a, 2u3ar Singh A +a,a *s. State of +a,asthan 520196 < SCC 722) it +as (onsistentl, 4een +el/ t+at in t+e (ase 4ase/ on (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e t+e (ir(-0stan(es 0-st -nerrin1l, lea/ to one (on(l-sion (onsistent onl, 'it+ t+e +,2ot+esis of t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ an/ in (ase of (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e e3er, in(ri0inatin1 (ir(-0stan(e 0-st 4e (learl, esta4lis+e/ 4, relia4le an/ (lin(+in1 e3i/en(e. Cir(-0stan(es so 2ro3e/ 0-st for0 a (+ain of e3ents fro0 '+i(+ t+e onl, irresisti4le (on(l-sion t+at (o-l/ 4e /ra'n is t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ an/ t+at no ot+er +,2ot+esis a1ainst t+e 1-ilt is 2ossi4le. Constit-tion Ben(+ of t+e $onE4le S-2re0e Co-rt in #o=inda +edd7 *s. State of 07sore AI+ 18;0 SC 28) after follo'in1 t+e 2rin(i2le lai/ in 'anu3ant #o=ind Nargun4ar *s. State of 0.). AI+ 18<2 SC 949 +as +el/ t+at t+ere 0-st 4e a (+ain of e3i/en(e so (o02lete as not to lea3e an,
Pa1e =2

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

reasona4le /o-4t for a (on(l-sion (onsistent 'it+ t+at inno(en(e of t+e a((-se/ an/ it 0-st 4e s+o'n t+at 'it+in all +-0an 2ro4a4ilit, t+e a(t 0-st +a3e 4een (o00itte/ 4, t+e a((-se/. In /hara3 /as :adh-ani *s. State of (.). 518746 4 SCC 2;7) it +as l-(-lentl, 4een +el/ t+at Ae3er, e3i/entiar, (ir(-0stan(e is a 2ro4ati3e lin7) stron1) or 'ea7) an/ 0-st 4e 0a/e o-t 'it+ (ertaint,. #in7 after lin7) for1e/ fir0l, 4, (re/i4le testi0on, 0a, for0 a stron1 (+ain of s-re 1-ilt 4in/in1 t+e a((-se/. a(+ lin7 ta7in1 se2aratel, 0a, .-st s-11est 4-t '+en +oo7e/ on to t+e ne>t an/ on a1ain 0a, 0ana(le t+e a((-se/ ines(a2a4l,. <nl, t+en (an a (on(atenation of in(ri0inatin1 fa(ts s-ffi(e to (on3i(t a 0anK. C+ief 9-sti(e 8let(+er 5o-lton on(e o4ser3e/ t+at Bproof does not 3ean rigid 3athe3atical for3ulae since Bthat is i3possi%leC. $o'e3er 2roof 0-st 0ean s-(+ e3i/en(e as 'o-l/ in/-(e a reasona4le 0an to (o0e to a /efinite (on(l-sion. Cir(-0stan(e e3i/en(e on t+e ot+er +an/) +as 4een (o02are/ 4, #or/ Coleri/1e Bli4e a gossa3er thread light and as unsu%stantial as the air itself and 3a7 =anish -ith the 3erest of touches.C !+ile a22re(iatin1 (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e) 'e 0-st re0e04er t+e la' as lai/ /o'n in Ashraf Ali *s. 13peror 549 Indian Cases 241 at para 146 t+at '+en in a (ri0inal (ase t+ere is (onfli(t 4et'een 2res-02tion of inno(en(e an/ an, ot+er 2res-02tion) t+e for0er 0-st 2re3ail. In #agan 2ano,ia *s. State of )un,a% 2007 516 Allaha%ad
Pa1e =&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

Cri3inal +ulings 291 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at t+e 2rose(-tion 0-st 2ro3e t+at 'it+in all +-0an 2ro4a4ilities t+e a(t 0-st +a3e 4een /one 4, t+e a((-se/. T+e 2rose(-tion (ase) t+-s) 0-st 4e .-/1e/ in its entiret, +a3in1 re1ar/ to t+e totalit, of t+e (ir(-0stan(es. T+e a22roa(+ of t+e (o-rt s+o-l/ 4e an inte1rate/ one an/ not tr-n(ate/ or isolate/. T+e (o-rt s+o-l/ -se t+e ,ar/-sti(7 of 2ro4a4ilit, an/ a22re(iate t+e intrinsi( 3al-e of t+e e3i/en(e 4ro-1+t on re(or/s an/ anal,Fe an/ assess t+e sa0e o4.e(ti3el,. In /r. Sunil Clifford /aniel *s. State of )un,a% 2012 Cr.&.J. 4;<7 5SC6 State of +a,asthan 520196 4 )ra4ash *s. SCC ;;>

*adla4onda &enin = State of (.). 20195>16 ACC 91 5SC6 and 0a,enderan &anges-aran *s. State 5N.C.T. of /elhi6 . others 520196 7 SCC 182) it +as 4een reiterate/ t+at in a (ase of (ir(-0stantial esta4lis+ e3i/en(e t+e 2rose(-tion of 0-st ea(+ instan(e in(ri0inatin1

(ir(-0stan(e) 4, 'a, of relia4le an/ (lin(+in1 e3i/en(e an/ t+e (ir(-0stan(es so 2ro3e/ 0-st for0 a (o02lete (+ain of e3i/en(e) on t+e 4asis of '+i(+) no (on(l-sion ot+er t+an one of 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ (an 4e rea(+e/. In Sath7a Nara7an *s. State 2019 5>06 ACC 19> 5SC6 it +as re(entl, 4een +el/ t+at e3en in a4sen(e of e,e-'itness (o-rt (an a'ar/ (on3i(tion if 3ario-s (ir(-0stan(es relie/ -2on 4, t+e 2rose(-tion are f-ll, esta4lis+e/ 4e,on/ /o-4t. C+ain of e3ents +as to 4e (o02lete/ on t+e 4asis of 2ro3e/ (ir(-0stan(es.
Pa1e =4

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

T+-s) '+ere a (ase rests on (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e) fi3e 1ol/en 2rin(i2les of stan/ar/ of 2roof re@-ire/ are /e(o(te/:1) T+e (ir(-0stan(es fro0 '+i(+ t+e (on(l-sion of

1-ilt is to 4e /ra'n s+o-l/ 4e f-ll, esta4lis+e/. T+e (ir(-0stan(es 0-st 4e or s+o-l/ an/ not 0a, 4e esta4lis+e/M
2) T+e fa(ts so esta4lis+e/ s+o-l/ 4e (onsistent onl,

'it+ t+e +,2ot+esis of t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/) t+at is to sa,) t+e, s+o-l/ not 4e e>2laine/ on an, ot+er +,2ot+esis e>(e2t t+at t+e a((-se/ is 1-ilt,M
&) T+e (ir(-0stan(es s+o-l/ 4e of a (on(l-si3e

nat-re an/ ten/en(,M
4) T+e, s+o-l/ e>(l-/e e3er, 2ossi4le +,2ot+esis

e>(e2t t+e one to 4e 2ro3e/M
;) T+ere 0-st 4e a (+ain of e3i/en(e so (o02lete as

not to lea3e an, reasona4le 1ro-n/ for t+e (on(l-sion (onsistent 'it+ t+e inno(en(e of t+e a((-se/ an/ 0-st s+o' t+at in all +-0an 2ro4a4ilit, t+e a(t 0-st +a3e 4een /one 4, t+e a((-se/. T+ese fi3e 1ol/en 2rin(i2les (onstit-te t+e K)anch SheelJ of t+e 2roof of a (ase 4ase/ on (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e. T+-s) t+e e3i/en(e on re(or/ +a3e to an/ 4e

(ir(-0stan(es

o4tainin1

+erein

a22re(iate/ an/ 7e2t in 0in/ in t+e li1+t of t+e la' as en-n(iate/ in t+e afore-state/ (ases. 6/0itte/l,) 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 2ersons 'ere seen to1et+er 'it+ 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ on t+e inter3enin1 ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 at a4o-t ?.&0 P.5. 4, 5r. %0es+
Pa1e =;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

S+ar0a) t+e /ri3er of t+e a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar) '+o +as /e2ose/ t+at '+en on 1;.0;.2008 at a4o-t ?.&0 P.5. +e +a/ /ro22e/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar at #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar) N.<.I.".6.) t+en at t+at ti0e +e +a/ 1i3en t+e 7e,s of t+e (ar to t+e ser3ant $e0ra. at t+e 1ate of t+e +o-se an/ at t+at ti0e "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar) "r. N-2-r Tal'ar an/ 4a4, 6ar-s+i 'ere 2resent in t+e +o-se. T+is 2art of e3i/en(e +as 4een a/0itte/ 4, 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 2ersons in t+eir e>a0inations -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. In State of 0aharashtra *s. Su4hdeo Singh AI+ 1882 SC 2100 it +as 4een +el/ t+at in 3ie' of se(tion &1& (4) Cr.P.C. t+ere is no i02e/i0ent in ta7in1 t+e (onfessional state0ent or a/0ission of t+e a((-se/ into (onsi/eration 1i3en in +is state0ent -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. for re(or/in1 +is (on3i(tion an/ it (an e3en for0 t+e sole 4asis for (on3i(tion. In /harni /har *s. State of (.). 520106 7 SCC 7<8 it +as 4een +el/ t+at a/0ission or t+e (onfession of t+e a((-se/ -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. re(or/e/ in (o-rse of trial (an 4e a(te/ -2on an/ t+e (o-rt (an rel, on t+ese (onfessions to (on3i(t. In 2heruddin *s. State of :est "engal 520196 < SCC 7<9) it +as 4een +el/ t+at state0ent -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. (an 4e ta7en into (onsi/eration) not onl, 4e(a-se of '+at se(tion &1& (4) Cr.P.C. 2ro3i/es 4-t also 4e(a-se of la' lai/ /o'n in se3eral 2rono-n(e0ents s-(+ as in Sanatan Nas4ar *s. State of :est "engal 520106 > SCC 248 Asho4 2u3ar *s. State of 'ar7ana 520106 12 SCC 9<0 "ra,endra Singh *s. State of 0.). 520126 4 SCC 2>8 an/ +a3 Naresh *s. State of Chhatisgarh AI+ 2012 SC 19<7. T+-s) t+is fa(t
Pa1e ==

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

stan/s (on(l-si3el, 2ro3e/ t+at 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 'ere seen ali3e 'it+ t+e a((-se/ 2ersons at a4o-t ?.&0 P.5. on 1;.0;.2008 at #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar) N.<.I.".6. P.!.-; "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re +as state/ on oat+ t+at t+e /eat+ of 5s. 6ar-s+i too7 2la(e 12 to 18 +o-rs 4efore 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination of +er /ea/ 4o/,. P.!.-&= "r. Nares+ Ra. +as also /e2ose/ t+at t+e /e(ease/ $e0ra. +a/ /ie/ 4efore 11/2 to 2 /a,s 4efore 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination of +is /ea/ 4o/, an/ as s-(+ t+is fa(t also stan/s 2ro3e/ t+at 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 'ere 0-r/ere/ in t+e 0i/ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008. T+e a((-se/ 2ersons +a3e not ta7en 2lea of a$ibi. T+eir 2resen(e in t+e flat (annot 4e /o-4te/ 4, an, stret(+ of i0a1ination. 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as seen l,in1 /ea/ in +er 4e/ on 1=.0;.2008 at a4o-t =.00 6.5. 4, t+e 0ai/ ser3ant 5rs. B+arti 5an/al. T+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ on 17.0;.2008 in t+e terra(e of flat after 4rea7in1 o2en t+e lo(7 of /oor of t+e terra(e. It is to 4e note/ t+at 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 'ere fo-n/ 2resent in t+eir flat in t+e 0ornin1 of 1=.0;.2008 '+en t+e 0ai/ 5rs. B+arti 5an/al +a/ rea(+e/ t+ere. T+e 4e/-roo0 of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as a/.a(ent to t+e 4e/-roo0 of t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/ 4ot+ t+e 4e/-roo0s 'ere /i3i/e/ 4, 'oo/en 2artition 'all. T+e ser3ant $e0ra. 'as also li3in1 in a roo0 of t+is flat. T+e a((-se/ 2ersons +a3e no'+ere ta7en a 2lea t+at so0eone +a/ (o0e to 0eet t+e0 or t+eir ser3ant $e0ra. after ?.&0 P.5. on 1;.0;.2008. 3en no s-11estion +as 4een t+ro'n 4efore an, 'itness t+at so0e o-tsi/er(s) +a/ (o0e to 0eet an, of t+e in0ates of t+e flat in t+at ni1+t. P.!.-2 5r. Ra.es+ D-0ar) >e(-ti3e n1ineer) %r4an le(tri(it,
Pa1e =7

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

"istri4-tion "i3ision-:I) C+aFia4a/ +as /e2ose/ t+at in flat no. #-&2) Se(tor-2;) N.<.I.".6. t+e ele(tri(it, 'as s-22lie/ fro0 fee/er no. 01 an/ t+ere 'as no /isr-2tion in t+e s-22l, of ele(tri(it, '.e.f. =.00 P.5. on 1;.0;.2008 to 7.00 6.5. on 1=.0;.2008 an/ e3en no s+-t-/o'n 'as ta7en. $e +as f-rt+er state/ t+at +e +as 'ritten a letter >+i4it-7a-1 to S.P. (C.B.I.) on t+e 4asis of t+e lo1-4oo7 0aintaine/ at S-4-Station &&/11 D.:.) Se(tor-21-6) le(tri(it, N.<.I.".6.

infor0in1 t+erein a4o-t t+e stat-s of t+e s-22l, of ele(tri(it,. It +as no '+ere 4een s-11este/ 4efore t+is 'itness t+at t+ere 'as /isr-2tion of s-22l, of ele(tri(it, in t+at ni1+t. P.!.-? :iren/ra Sin1+ +as state/ 4efore t+is (o-rt t+at +e is e02lo,e/ as se(-rit, 1-ar/ of 9al3a,:i+ar) Se(tor-2;) N.<.I.".6.) '+i(+ is sentinelle/ 4, se(-rit, 2ersonnel an/ t+ere are se3en 1ates in 9al3a,- :i+ar an/ o-t of t+e0 t'o 1ates re0ain o2ene/ /-rin1 t+e /a, +o-rs an/ in t+e ni1+t +o-rs o-t of t+ese t'o 1ates one 1ate is (lose/ at 10.&0 P.5. 4-t anot+er 1ate re0ains o2ene/ 4-t t+e s0all 1ates of all t+e se3en 1ates are (lose/ after 10.&0 P.5. an/ in ea(+ 1ate one 1-ar/ is /e2lo,e/ in t+e ni1+t 4-t t'o 1-ar/s are /e2lo,e/ in t+e 1ate '+i(+ re0ains o2ene/ in t+e ni1+t. $e +as f-rt+er state/ t+at in t+e ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 +e 'as /e2lo,e/ at 1ate no. 1 an/ in t+e sai/ ni1+t +e +a/ not seen an, 2erson loiterin1 in s-s2i(io-s (ir(-0stan(es nor an, ot+er 1-ar/ +a/ tol/ +i0 t+at an, 2erson 'as seen loiterin1. T+e a((-se/ 2ersons +a3e not ta7en t+e 2lea t+at 4efore t+e, retire/ to 4e/ alle1e/l, at a4o-t 11.&0 P.5. in t+e ni1+t t+e 0ain /oor 'as not 4olte/ or lo(7e/ fro0 insi/e an/ it re0aine/ o2ene/ .-st to fa(ilitate
Pa1e =8

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

so0e intr-/er(s) to (o0e insi/e t+e flat. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e a/0itte/ t+at t+e /oor of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 4e/-roo0 'as +a3in1 (li(7 s+-t a-to0ati( lo(7 li7e t+at of a +otel '+i(+ if lo(7e/ fro0 t+e o-tsi/e) (o-l/ 4e o2ene/ fro0 insi/e 'it+o-t 7e, 4-t (o-l/ not 4e o2ene/ fro0 o-tsi/e 'it+o-t 7e,. It is 4-t nat-ral t+at t+e /oor of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 4e/roo0 0-st +a3e 4een lo(7e/ 4, t+e 2arents an/ 7e, re0aine/ 'it+ t+e0 an/ not 'it+ t+e ser3ant an/ t+erefore) no o-tsi/er(s) (o-l/ +a3e o2ene/ t+e /oor fro0 o-tsi/e 'it+o-t t+e 7e, of t+e lo(7. It is not 2ossi4le t+at t+e ser3ant $e0ra. 0i1+t 4e 7ee2in1 t+e 7e, of t+e /oor of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 4e/roo0 as no 2arents 'o-l/ 2er0it t+e ser3ant to 7ee2 t+e 7e, 'it+ +i0 2arti(-larl, in t+e ni1+t +o-rs '+en ,o-n1 1irl is insi/e +er 4e/-roo0. T+ere is no e3i/en(e of e1ress an/ in1ressM t+ere is no e3i/en(e of an, lar(eno-s a(tM t+ere is no e3i/en(e of an, for(i4le entr, insi/e t+e flatM t+ere is no e3i/en(e at all to s-11est t+at frien/s of $e0ra. (a0e insi/e t+e flat after ?.&0 P.5. an/ s+are/ /rin7s of li@-or 'it+ $e0ra. in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of $e0ra. no fin/in1 +as 4een 1i3en t+at li@-or (ontents 'ere fo-n/ in +is sto0a(+ an/ no s-11estion +as 4een 1i3en 4efore an, 'itness t+at $e0ra. +a/ ta7en al(o+ol 'it+ +is frien/s in t+at ni1+t. It is 'ell-ni1+ i02ossi4le t+at $e0ra. 'ill /are to 4ooFe 'it+ +is frien/s in +is ser3ant roo0 2arti(-larl, '+en t+e a((-se/ 2ersons 'ere 3er, 0-(+ 2resent in t+e near4, roo0. It is esta4lis+e/ fro0 t+e e3i/en(e of 5rs. B+arti 5an/al t+at 0es+ /oor 'as lat(+e/ fro0 insi/e an/ s+e 'as 0isle/ to 1o to t+e 1ro-n/ le3el an/ in t+e 0ean'+ile '+en
Pa1e =?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

s+e 'ent /o'n t+e stairs at t+e 1ro-n/ le3el t+e lat(+ 'as o2ene/ 4, "r. N-2-r Tal'ar. It is not 2ossi4le t+at an o-tsi/er(s) after (o00ittin1 t+e t'in 0-r/ers 'ill (lean t+e 2ri3ate 2arts of 5s. 6ar-s+i) /ress--2 t+e 4e/-s+eet) (o3er t+e /ea/ 4o/, 'it+ t+e flannel 4lan7et) 2la(e to,s in 2ro2er or/er) /are to /rin7 s(ot(+ an/ S-la 'ine) 'ill ta7e a'a, t+e 4o/, of $e0ra. to terra(e) 2la(e a 2anel of (ooler o3er +is 4o/,) 2la(e a 4e/-s+eet o3er t+e iron 1rill /i3i/in1 t+e roofs to sa3e fro0 1aFe 'ell 7no'in1 t+at 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ are in t+eir 4e/-roo0 an/ t+e, (an a'a7e at an, ti0e. T+is is not t+e (ase of /efen(e t+at t+eir 4e/-roo0 'as 4olte/ fro0 o-tsi/e 4, an, 2erson(s) an/ t+e, 'ere E(a4ine/) (ri44e/ an/ (onfine/E in t+eir 4e/-roo0. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e state/ in t+eir state0ents -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at a4o-t 8-10 /a,s 2rior to t+e o((-rren(e 2aintin1 of (l-ster +a/ starte/ an/ t+e la4o-rers -se/ to ta7e 'ater fro0 t+e 'ater tan7 2la(e/ in t+eir roof an/ t+erefore) $e0ra. +a/ lo(7e/ t+e /oor of terra(e an/ t+e 7e, of t+e /oor re0aine/ 'it+ +i0. If it 'as so) t+en it 'as not 2ossi4le for an o-tsi/er(s) to r-00a1e o-t t+e 7e, an/ t+ereafter) lo(7 t+e /oor of t+e terra(e fro0 insi/e '+en t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. 'as l,in1 in t+e terra(e. !+en t+e in3esti1ators as7e/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar to 2ro3i/e t+e 7e, of t+e /oor of t+e terra(e) +e 1a3e in(o+erent ans'ers an/ a /e3i(e 'as resorte/ to 4, "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar to t+ro' en@-irers off t+e s(ent. 8ro0 t+e e3i/en(e it is also esta4lis+e/ t+at 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ (+an1e/ t+eir 3est-res. It is a1ainst t+e or/er of +-0an nat-re t+at on seein1 t+eir /earest /a-1+ter l,in1 in a 2ool
Pa1e 70

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

of 4loo/ t+e a((-se/ 4ein1 t+e nat-ral fat+er an/ 0ot+er 'ill not +-1 +er. In t+e 2ro(ess of +-11in1) t+eir (lot+es 'ill 4e /ee2l, staine/ 'it+ t+e 4loo/ 4-t not fo-n/ so. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e also a/0itte/ in t+eir state0ents -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at t+e area of t+e flat is 1&00 s@. feet an/ it +as onl, one 1ate. If so0e o-tsi/er(s) 0i1+t +a3e (o00itte/ t+e offen(e t+en after 0a7in1 +is e>it fro0 t+e flat) eit+er +e 'ill 4olt t+e o-ter or 0i//le 0es+ /oor fro0 o-tsi/e or 'ill 7ee2 t+e0 o2en 4-t t+is 'as not /one an/ rat+er t+e o-ter 0es+ /oor 'as lat(+e/ fro0 insi/e 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/ t+atEs '+, '+en t+e 0ai/ (a0e an/ 2la(e/ +er +an/ on t+e 0es+ /oor) it /i/ not o2en an/ s+e 'as 2-r2osel, tol/ to 1o to t+e 1ro-n/ le3el an/ t+ereafter) lat(+ 'as o2ene/. In t+is 3ie' of t+e 0atter it (an safel, 4e (on(l-/e/ t+at no o-tsi/er (a0e insi/e t+e +o-se in t+e fatef-l ni1+t an/ t+erefore) '+en t+e 2rose(-tion +as 4een s-((essf-l in 2ro3in1 t+at 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 'ere last seen ali3e in t+e (o02an, of 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ at flat no. #-&2 at a4o-t ?.&0 P.5. on 1;.0;.2008 an/ 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 'ere 0-r/ere/ in t+e inter3enin1 ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 t+en fro0 t+is fa(t) as +el/ in Tu4ara3 #anpat )andare *s. State of 0aharashtra AI+ 1874 SC <14 t+is (o-rt 0a, +a3e re1ar/ to t+e (o00on (o-rse of nat-ral e3ents) +-0an (on/-(t) 2-4li( or 2ri3ate 4-siness) in t+eir relation to t+e fa(ts of t+e 2arti(-lar (ase as en3isa1e/ in se(tion 114 of 3i/en(e 6(t an/ (an reasona4l, 4e 2res-0e/ t+at it is t+e a((-se/ an/ a((-se/ onl, '+o +a3e 0-r/ere/ t+e /e(ease/ an/ none else for 'ant of 1i3in1 e3i/en(e in re4-ttal
Pa1e 71

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

-n/er se(tion 10= of t+e

3i/en(e 6(t '+i(+

2ro3i/es t+at '+en an, fa(t is es2e(iall, 'it+in t+e 7no'le/1e of an, 2erson) t+e 4-r/en of 2ro3in1 t+at fa(t is -2on +i0. In Cr7stal /e=elopers *s. Asha &ata #hosh 5200<6 < SCC 97< it +as 4een +el/ t+at it is 'ell settle/ t+at inferen(es +a3e to 4e /ra'n fro0 a 1i3en set of fa(ts an/ (ir(-0stan(es 'it+ realisti( /i3ersit, an/ not 'it+ /ea/ -nifor0it,. T+is 'as t+e 4o-n/en /-t, of 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 2ersonall, 7no'in1 t+e '+ole (ir(-0stan(es of t+e (ase to 1i3e e3i/en(e on t+eir 4e+alf an/ to s-40it to (ross-e>a0ination) '+i(+ t+e, +a3e faile/ to /o so. In #urcharan Singh *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 18<; SC 4;0 it +as 4een +el/ t+at t+e 4-r/en of 2ro3in1 a 2lea es2e(iall, set -2 4, an a((-se/ '+i(+ 0a, a4sol3e +i0 fro0 (ri0inal lia4ilit,) (ertainl, lies -2on +i0. In +a$i4 +a3 *s. J.S. Chouhan AI+ 187< SC ;;7 it 'as o4ser3e/ At+e 2rin(i2le -n/er l,in1 se(tion 10= '+i(+ is an e>(e2tion to t+e 1eneral r-le 1o3ernin1 4-r/en of 2roof a22lies onl, to s-(+ 0atters of /efen(e '+i(+ 'ere s-22ose/ to 4e s2e(iall, 'it+in t+e 7no'le/1e of t+e 2art, (on(erne/. It (annot a22l, '+en t+e fa(t is s-(+ as to 4e (a2a4le of 4ein1 7no'n also 4, 2ersons ot+er t+an t+e 2art,.K T+e (ase la'sSha3%hu Nath 0ehra *s. State of A,3er AI+ 18<; SC 404 2ali +a3 *s. State of 'i3achal )radesh 518796 2 SCC >0> 59JJ6 59JJ6 Shan4arlal #7arasilal *s. ?ogendra State of 0orar,i *s. State of #u,arat 518>06 2 SCC 21> 0aharashtra 518>16 2 SCC 9< 59JJ6 Sharad

"irdhichand Sarda *s. State of 0aharashtra 518>46 4 SCC 11; 59JJ6 )adala *eera +edd7 *s.
Pa1e 72

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

State of A.). 18>8 Supp 526 SCC 70; 59JJ6 Sha3nsahe% 0. 0ulttani *s. State of 2arnata4a 520016 2 SCC <77 59JJ6 2a,al Sen *s. State of Assa3 520026 2 SCC <<1 0ousa3 Singha +o7 *s. State of :" 520096 12 SCC 977 #affar "adshaha )athan *s. State of 0aharashtra 520046 10 SCC <>8 ).0ani *s.

State of T.N. 5200;6 9 SCC 1;1 *i4ra3 Jeet Singh =s. State of )un,a% 5200;6 12 SCC 90; Su%ra3ania3 *s. State of T.N. 520086 14 SCC 41< 2al7an 2u3ar #ogoi *s. Ashutosh "a%u *s. Agnihotri 520116 2 SCC <92 #o=ind +a,u A

#o=ind *s. State 520126 4 SCC 722

State of 2erala 520106 8 SCC 1>8 +ishipal *s. State of (ttara4hand 2019 Cr.&.J. 1<94 and Jo7de% )atra *s. State of :est "engal 2019 Cr.&.J. 2728 as relie/ -2on 4, t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ are of no +el2 to t+e a((-se/ 2ersons as /istin1-is+a4le on fa(ts an/ (ir(-0stan(es of t+e instant (ase. In Sha3%hu Nath 0ehra *s. State of A,3er AI+ 18<; SC 404 it +as 4een +el/ t+at se(tion 10= la,s /o'n t+e 1eneral r-le t+at in a (ri0inal (ase t+e 4-r/en of 2roof is on t+e 2rose(-tion an/ se(tion 10= is (ertainl, not inten/e/ to relie3e it of t+at /-t,. <n t+e (ontrar,) it is /esi1ne/ to 0eet (ertain e>(e2tional (ases in '+i(+ it 'o-l/ 4e i02ossi4le) or at an, rate it is 2ro2ortionatel, /iffi(-lt) for t+e 2rose(-tion to esta4lis+ fa(ts '+i(+ are Aes2e(iall,K 'it+in t+e 7no'le/1e of t+e a((-se/ an/ '+i(+ +e (o-l/ 2ro3e 'it+o-t /iffi(-lt, an/ in(on3enien(e. T+e 'or/ Aes2e(iall,K stresses t+at. It 0eans fa(ts t+at are 2re-e0inentl, or e>(e2tionall, 'it+in +is
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

7no'le/1e. It 'as f-rt+er +el/ t+at t+is se(tion (annot 4e -se/ to -n/er0ine t+e 'ell-esta4lis+e/ r-le of la' t+at) sa3e in a 3er, e>(e2tional (lass of a (ase) t+e 4-r/en is on t+e 2rose(-tion an/ ne3er s+ifts. In 2ali +a3 *s. State of 'i3achal )radesh 518796 2 SCC >0> 59JJ6 it +as also 4een +el/ t+at t+e 4-r/en of 2ro3in1 t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ is -2on t+e 2rose(-tion an/ -nless it relie3es itself of t+at 4-r/en) t+e (o-rts (annot re(or/ a fin/in1 of t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/. T+ere are (ertain (ases in '+i(+ stat-tor, 2res-02tion arises re1ar/in1 t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/) 4-t t+e 4-r/en e3en in t+ose (ases is -2on t+e 2rose(-tion to 2ro3e t+e e>isten(e of fa(ts '+i(+ +a3e to 4e 2resent 4efore t+e 2res-02tion (an 4e /ra'n. <n(e t+ose fa(ts are s+o'n 4, t+e 2rose(-tion to e>ist) t+e (o-rt (an raise t+e stat-tor, 2res-02tion an/ it 'o-l/) in s-(+ an e3ent) 4e for t+e a((-se/ to re4-t t+e 2res-02tion. T+e on-s e3en in s-(+ (ases -2on t+e a((-se/ is not as +ea3, as is nor0all, -2on t+e 2rose(-tion to 2ro3e t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/. In ?ogendra 0orar,i *s. State of #u,arat 518>06 2 SCC 21> 59JJ6 t+e $onE4le Co-rt 'as /ealin1 'it+ t+e ri1+t of 2ri3ate /efen(e an/ t+e 4-r/en of t+e a((-se/ -n/er se(tion 10; of 3i/en(e 6(t. In Shan4arlal #7arasilal *s. State of 0aharashtra 518>16 2 SCC 9< 59JJ6 it 'as +el/ t+at falsit, of 2lea ta7en 4, t+e a((-se/ (annot 2ro3e +is 1-ilt) t+o-1+ it 0a, 4e an a//itional (ir(-0stan(e a1ainst +i0. In Sharad "irdhichand Sarda *s. State of 0aharashtra 518>46 4 SCC 11; 59JJ6 and )adala *eera +edd7 *s. State of A.). 18>8 Supp 526 SCC 70; 59JJ6 t+e (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e 'as
Pa1e 74

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fo-n/ not s-ffi(ient (on(l-si3el, to esta4lis+ t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ an/ t+erefore) t+e a((-se/ 'ere a(@-itte/ on t+e 1ro-n/ t+at s-s2i(ion (annot ta7e t+e 2la(e of le1al 2roof. In Sha3nsahe% 0. 0ulttani *s. State of 2arnata4a 520016 2 SCC <77 59JJ6 t+e 2rose(-tion faile/ to 2ro3e t+e (+ar1e -n/er se(tion &02 I.P.C. an/ no (+ar1e -n/er se(tion &04-B I.P.C. 'as fra0e/ an/ +en(e it 'as +el/ t+at (on3i(tion -n/er se(tion &04-B 'it+o-t affor/in1 o22ort-nit, to t+e a((-se/ to enter on +is /efen(e an/ /is2ro3e t+e 2res-02tion -n/er se(tion 11&-B 3i/en(e 6(t 'o-l/ res-lt in fail-re of .-sti(e. In 2a,al Sen *s. State of Assa3 520026 2 SCC <<1 t+e 2rose(-tion stor, 'it+ re1ar/ to t+e in3ol3e0ent of t+e a((-se/ 'as fo-n/ /o-4tf-l an/ +en(e a22eal 'as allo'e/. In 0ousa3 Singha +o7 *s. State of :" 520096 12 SCC 977 t+e a22eal 'as allo'e/ inter a$ia on t+e 1ro-n/ t+at P.!.-2 * & 'ere (+an(e 'itnesses an/ t+eir 2resen(e at s'eet0eat stall (o-l/ not 4e 2ro3e/. In #affar "adshaha )athan *s. State of 0aharashtra 520046 10 SCC <>8 it 'as +el/ t+at t+e 4-r/en on a((-se/ is 0-(+ li1+ter an/ +e +as onl, to 2ro3e reasona4le 2ro4a4ilit,. In ).0ani *s. State of T.N. 5200;6 9 SCC 1;1 t+e fa(ts of t+e (ase 'ere /ifferent. It 'as not a (ase '+ere 4ot+ +-s4an/ an/ 'ife 'ere last seen to1et+er insi/e a roo0 an/ as 2er 2rose(-tion (ase t+e (+il/ren '+o +a3e 4een 'at(+in1 T.:. 'ere as7e/ to 1o o-t 4, t+e /e(ease/ an/ t+en s+e 4olte/ t+e roo0 fro0 insi/e an/ t+en on seein1 s0o7e (o0in1 fro0 t+e roo0 t+e, r-s+e/ to'ar/s t+e sa0e an/ 4ro7e o2en t+e /oor. In t+at (onte>t it 'as +el/ t+at se(tion 10= of 3i/en(e 6(t (annot 4e
Pa1e 7;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

sai/ to +a3e an, a22li(ation. In *i4ra3 Jeet Singh =s. State of )un,a% 5200;6 12 SCC 90; it +as 4een +el/ t+at '+en t+e 2rose(-tion (ase +as 4een 2ro3e/ t+e 4-r/en in re1ar/ to s-(+ fa(ts '+i(+ 'as 'it+in t+e s2e(ial 7no'le/1e of t+e a((-se/ 0a, 4e s+ifte/ to t+e a((-se/ for e>2lainin1 t+e sa0e. It 'as f-rt+er +el/ t+at s-s2i(ion) +o'e3er) 1ra3e 0a, 4e) 41< (annot t+e 4e a s-4stit-te for 2roof. In t+e Su%ra3ania3 *s. State of T.N. 520086 14 SCC a((-se/ 'as a(@-itte/ 4e(a-se 2rose(-tion +a/ s-22resse/ (ertain fa(ts an/ t+e a((-se/ 'as a(@-itte/ 4, t+e trial (o-rt a1ainst '+i(+ a22eal 'as file/ an/ t+en +e 'as (on3i(te/ -n/er se(tion &02 I.P.C. 4-t a(@-ittal -n/er se(tion 4?86 I.P.C. an/ se(tion 4 "o'r, Pro+i4ition 6(t 'as affir0e/ 4, t+e $onE4le $i1+ Co-rt an/ in t+at (onte>t t+e $onE4le S-2re0e Co-rt allo'e/ t+e a22eal an/ a((-se/ 'as a(@-itte/. In "a%u *s. State of 2erala 520106 8 SCC 1>8 t+e a((-se/ 'as a(@-itte/ 4, t+e trial (o-rt 4-t (on3i(te/ 4, t+e $onE4le $i1+ Co-rt an/ t+en t+e $onE4le S-2re0e Co-rt +el/ t+at t+e trial (o-rtEs .-/10ent 'as 'ell reasone/ as t+e (+ain of (ir(-0stan(es 'ere fo-n/ not (o02lete. In 2al7an 2u3ar #ogoi *s. Ashutosh Agnihotri 520116 2 SCC <92 t+e fa(ts 'ere entirel, /ifferent. T+at 'as t+e (ase -n/er Re2resentation of Peo2le 6(t an/ +en(e la' lai/ /o'n in /ifferent 4ran(+ of la' is not a22li(a4le. T+e fa(ts of #o=ind +a,u A #o=ind *s. State 520126 4 SCC 722 are also entirel, /ifferent. In t+at (ase) t+e a22ellant +a/ a22roa(+e/ t+e 2oli(e an/ t+en it 'as +el/ t+at it is @-ite -n4elie3a4le t+at +e 'o-l/ in/-l1e in (o00ittin1 s-(+ a +eino-s (ri0e an/ t+e
Pa1e 7=

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state0ent of P.!.-1 i02li(atin1 t+e a((-se/ /i/ not ins2ire (onfi/en(e an/ s-ffere/ fro0 i02ro4a4ilities an/ 'as not fo-n/ free fro0 s-s2i(ion an/ +is state0ent 'as also not (orro4orati3e 4, ot+er 'itnesses. In +ishipal *s. State of (ttara4hand 2019 Cr.&.J. 1<94 it 'as fo-n/ t+at t+e 2rose(-tion (o-l/ not 2ro3e 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t t+at t+e /e(ease/ /ie/ /-e to 2oisonin1 alt+o-1+ it 'as also lai/ /o'n t+at 4-r/en to 2ro3e t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t is on t+e 2rose(-tion an/ it is onl, '+en t+is 4-r/en is /is(+ar1e/ t+en t+e a((-se/ (o-l/ 2ro3e an, fa(t 'it+in +is s2e(ial 7no'le/1e -n/er se(tion 10= of 3i/en(e 6(t. In Jo7de% )atra *s. State of :est "engal 2019 Cr.&.J. 2728 it 'as +el/ t+at '+en t+e 2rose(-tion +as not 4een a4le to 2ro3e its (ase 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t t+at t+e /e(ease/ /ie/ /-e to 2oisonin1) t+e (o-rts 4elo' (o-l/ not +a3e +el/ t+e a22ellant 1-ilt, onl, 4e(a-se t+e, +a3e not 4een a4le to e>2lain -n/er '+at (ir(-0stan(es t+e /e(ease/ /ie/. In 0ani Su%rat Jain *s. +a,a +a3 *ohra 518>06 1 SCC 1 it 'as +el/ t+at 2re(e/ents are la'Es /e3i(e to +ol/ t+e 2resent 2risoner of t+e 2ast an/ 0-st 4in/ onl, if s@-arel, (o3ere/. In A%ha7 Singh Chautala *s. C"I 520116 7 SCC 141) it +as 4een +el/ t+at lon1 stan/in1 2re(e/ent s+o-l/ not 4e /ist-r4e/. LStare decisis et non quieta movere' % it 'o-l/ 4e 4etter to stan/ 4, t+at /e(ision an/ not to /ist-r4 it. It 'ill 4e see0l, to refer to so0e i02ortant /e(isions in res2e(t of t+e la' relatin1 to e3i/en(e to 4e a//-(e/ -n/er se(tion 10= of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t. In +adhe7 &al and others *s. 13peror AI+
Pa1e 77

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189> All. 2<2 it 'as +el/ 4, t+e $onB4le 9-sti(e 6llso2 t+at an a((-se/ 2erson is re@-ire/ to e>2lain t+e (ir(-0stan(es '+i(+ a22ear a1ainst +i0 in t+e e3i/en(e an/ if +e (annot or 'ill not /o so) +e 0-st ta7e t+e (onse@-en(es. If +e (+ooses to ta7e -2 t+e 2osition t+at +e relies -2on t+e te(+ni(alit, t+at t+e '+ole 4-r/en of 2roof 'as -2on t+e 2rose(-tion an/ ref-ses to sa, an,t+in1 a4o-t t+e 0atter) +e (an +ar/l, 4e s-r2rise/ if +e is (on3i(te/ -2on t+e e3i/en(e 2ro/-(e/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion) if t+at 2ro3es (ir(-0stan(es fro0 '+i(+ +is 1-ilt (an 4e inferre/. In 2rishan 2u3ar *s. (nion of India 518;06 1 SC+ 4<2 it 'as +el/ t+at it is not t+e la' of t+is (o-ntr, t+at t+e 2rose(-tion +as to eli0inate all 2ossi4le /efen(es or (ir(-0stan(es '+i(+ 0a, e>onerate +i0. If t+ese fa(ts are 'it+in t+e 7no'le/1e of a((-se/ t+en +e +as to 2ro3e t+e0. <f (o-rse) t+e 2rose(-tion +as to esta4lis+ a prima !acie (ase in t+e first instan(e. It is not eno-1+ to esta4lis+ fa(ts '+i(+ 1i3e rise to a s-s2i(ion an/ t+en 4, reason of se(tion 10= of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t to t+ro' t+e on-s on +i0 to 2ro3e +is inno(en(e. In Collector of Custo3s = /. "hoor3all 5187262 SCC <44 it 'as +el/ AProse(-tion/or t+e "e2art0ent is not re@-ire/ to 2ro3e its (ase 'it+ 0at+e0ati(al 2re(ision to a /e0onstra4le /e1reeM for) in all +-0an affairs a4sol-te (ertaint, is a 0,t+ an/ as Professor Brett feli(ito-sl, 2-ts it- Aall e>a(tness is a fa7eK. l "ora/o of a4sol-te 2roof 4ein1 -nattaina4le t+e la' a((e2ts for it) 2ro4a4ilit, as a 'or7in1 s-4stit-te in t+is 'or7-a-/a, 'orl/. T+e la' /oes not re@-ire t+e 2rose(-tion to 2ro3e t+e i02ossi4le. 6ll t+at it re@-ires is t+e esta4lis+0ent
Pa1e 78

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of s-(+ a /e1ree of 2ro4a4ilit, t+at a 2r-/ent 0an 0a,) on its 4asis) 4elie3e in t+e e>isten(e of a fa(t in iss-e. T+-s) le1al 2roof is not ne(essaril, 2erfe(t 2roofM often it is not+in1 0ore t+an a 2r-/ent 0anBs esti0ate as to t+e 2ro4a4ilities of t+e (ase. T+e ot+er) (ar/inal 2rin(i2le +a3in1 an i02ortant 4earin1 on t+e in(i/en(e of 4-r/en of 2roof is t+at s-ffi(ien(, an/ t+e 'ei1+t of t+e e3i/en(e is to 4e (onsi/ere/- to -se t+e 'or/s of #or/ 5ansfiel/- in "atch *s. Archer 517746 1) (o'2-=& at 2a1e =; Baccording to the proof -hich it -as in the po-er of one side to pro=e and in the po-er of the other to ha=e contradicted.C Sin(e it is e>(ee/in1l, /iffi(-lt) if not a4sol-tel, i02ossi4le) for t+e 2rose(-tion to 2ro3e fa(ts '+i(+ are es2e(iall, 'it+in t+e 7no'le/1e of t+e o22onent or t+e a((-se/) it is not o4li1e/ to 2ro3e t+e0 as 2art of +is 2ri0ar, 4-r/en......K. T+e sa0e 3ie' +as 4een reiterate/ in 0oh33ad A3ir 2asa% A A%u 0u,ahid *s. State of 0aharashtra 520126 8 SCC!1. $ol0es 9. in #reer *s. (.S. 24< (S+ <<8 re0ar7e/ Aa 2res-02tion -2on a 0atter of fa(t) '+en it is not 0erel, a /is1-ise for so0e ot+er 2rin(i2le) 0eans t+at (o00on e>2erien(e s+o's t+e fa(t to 4e so 1enerall, tr-e t+at (o-rts 0a, noti(e t+e tr-t+.K In State of :est "engal *s. 0ir

0oha33ad (3ar 520006 > SCC 9>2) it 'as o4ser3e/- AT+e 2ristine r-le t+at t+e 4-r/en of 2roof is on t+e 2rose(-tion to 2ro3e t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ s+o-l/ not 4e ta7en as a fossiliFe/ /o(trine alt+o-1+ it a/0its no 2ro(ess of intelli1ent
Pa1e 7?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

reasonin1. T+e /o(trine of 2res-02tion is not alien to t+e a4o3e r-le) nor 'o-l/ it i02air t+e te02er of t+e r-le. <n t+e ot+er +an/) if t+e tra/itional r-le relatin1 to 4-r/en of 2roof of t+e 2rose(-tion is allo'e/ to 4e 'ra22e/ in 2e/anti( (o3era1e) t+e offen/ers in serio-s offen(es 'o-l/ 4e t+e 0a.or 4enefi(iaries an/ so(iet, 'o-l/ 4e (as-alt,.K T+e o4ser3ations 0a/e in T. Shan4ar )rasad *s. State of A.). 2004 Cr.&.J. >>4 are 3er, rele3ant) '+i(+ are e>(er2te/ +erein 4elo'AProof of fa(t /e2en/s -2on t+e /e1ree of 2ro4a4ilit, of its +a3in1 e>iste/. T+e stan/ar/ re@-ire/ for sear(+in1 t+e s-22osition is t+at if a 2r-/ent 0an a(tin1 in an, i02ortant 0atter (on(ernin1 +i0. 8let(+er 5o-lton #.9. in 'a-4ins *s. )o-ells Tiller7 Steel Coal Co. &td. 1811516 2" 8>> o4ser3e/ as follo'sAProof 0at+e0ati(al /oes not 0ean 2roof 4e(a-se to ri1i/ is

/e0onstration)

t+at

i02ossi4leM it 0-st 0ean s-(+ e3i/en(e as 'o-l/ in/-(e a reasona4le 0an to (o0e to a 2arti(-lar (on(l-sion.K T+e sai/ o4ser3ation +as stoo/ t+e test of ti0e an/ (an no' 4e follo'e/ as t+e stan/ar/ of 2roof. In rea(+in1 t+e (on(l-sion t+e (o-rt (an -se t+e 2ro(ess of inferen(es to 4e /ra'n fro0 fa(ts 2ro/-(e/ or 2ro3e/. S-(+ inferen(es are a7in to 2res-02tion in la'. #a' 1i3es a4sol-te /is(retion to t+e (o-rt to 2res-0e t+e e>isten(e of an, fa(t '+i(+ it t+in7s li7el, to +a3e +a22ene/. In t+at 2ro(ess t+e (o-rt 0a, +a3e re1ar/ to t+e (o00on (o-rse of nat-ral e3ents) +-0an (on/-(t) 2-4li( or 2ri3ate
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4-siness 3is-a-3is t+e fa(ts of t+e 2arti(-lar (ase. T+e /is(retion is (learl, en3isa1e/ in se(tion 114 of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t. Pres-02tion is an inferen(e of a (ertain fa(t /ra'n fro0 ot+er 2ro3e/ fa(ts. !+ile inferrin1 t+e e>isten(e of a fa(t fro0 anot+er) t+e (o-rt is onl, a22l,in1 a 2ro(ess of intelli1ent reasonin1 '+i(+ t+e 0in/ of a 2r-/ent 0in/ 'o-l/ /o -n/er si0ilar (ir(-0stan(es. Pres-02tion is not t+e final (on(l-sion to 4e /ra'n fro0 ot+er fa(ts. B-t it (o-l/ as 'ell 4e final if it re0ains -n/ist-r4e/ later. Pres-02tion in la' of e3i/en(e is a r-le in/i(atin1 t+e sta1e of s+iftin1 t+e 4-r/en of 2roof. 8ro0 a (ertain fa(t or fa(ts t+e (o-rt (an /ra' an inferen(e an/ t+at 'o-l/ re0ain -ntil s-(+ inferen(e is eit+er /is2ro3e/ or /is2elle/. 8or t+e 2-r2ose of rea(+in1 one (on(l-sion t+e (o-rt (an rel, on a fa(t-al 2res-02tion. %nless t+e 2res-02tion is /is2ro3e/ or /is2elle/ or re4-tte/ t+e (o-rt (an treat t+e 2res-02tion as tanta0o-ntin1 to 2roof. $o'e3er) as a (a-tion of 2r-/en(e 'e +a3e to o4ser3e t+at it 0a, 4e -nsafe to -se t+at 2res-02tion to /ra' ,et anot+er /is(retionar, 2res-02tion -nless t+ere is a stat-tor, (o02-lsion. T+is Co-rt +as in/i(ate/ so in Suresh "udhar3al 2alani = State of 0aharashtra 5188>576 SCC 9976 A6 2res-02tion (an 4e /ra'n onl, fro0 fa(ts an/ not fro0 ot+er 2res-02tions 4, a 2ro(ess of 2ro4a4le an/ lo1i(al reasonin1K. In Achara )ara3%ath )radeepan and others *s. State of 2erala 2007 516 Cri3es <4 5SC6 it 'as +el/ t+at if a 2erson is last seen 'it+ t+e /e(ease/) +e 0-st offer an e>2lanation as to +o' an/ '+en +e
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2arte/ (o02an,. Se(tion 10= la,s /o'n t+e r-le t+at '+en t+e a((-se/ /oes not t+ro' an, li1+t -2on fa(ts '+i(+ are s2e(iall, 'it+in +is 7no'le/1e an/ '+i(+ (o-l/ not s-22ort an, t+eor, or +,2ot+esis (o02ati4le 'it+ +is inno(en(e t+e (o-rt (an (onsi/er +is fail-re to a//-(e an, e>2lanation as an a//itional lin7 '+i(+ (o02letes t+e (+ain. T+e 2rin(i2le +as 4een s-((in(tl, state/ in +e Naina 0oha33ad AI+ 18;0 0adras 21>. In 0urli /har *s. State of +a,asthan AI+ 200< SC 294< )rithi )al Singh and others *s. State of )un,a% 520126 1 SCC 10 after rel,in1 on t+e la' as 2ro2o-n/e/ in State of :est "engal *s. 0ir 0oha33ad (3ar 520006 > SCC 9>2 Sha3%hu Nath 0ehra *s. State of A,3er AI+ 18<; SC 404 Sucha Singh *s. State of )un,a% 520016 4 SCC 97< and Sahade=an *s. State 520096 1 SCC <94) it +as 4een +el/ t+at se(tion 10= 3i/en(e 6(t /oes not relie3e t+e 2rose(-tion of its 4-r/en to 2ro3e t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t. Se(tion 10= a22lies to (ases '+ere 2rose(-tion +as s-((ee/e/ in 2ro3in1 fa(ts fro0 '+i(+ a reasona4le inferen(e (an 4e /ra'n re1ar/in1 t+e e>isten(e of (ertain ot+er fa(ts) -nless t+e a((-se/ 4, 3irt-e of s2e(ial 7no'le/1e re1ar/in1 s-(+ fa(ts) faile/ to offer an, e>2lanation '+i(+ 0i1+t /ri3e t+e (o-rt to /ra' a /ifferent inferen(e. Se(tion 10= of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t is /esi1ne/ to 0eet (ertain e>(e2tional (ases in '+i(+ it 'o-l/ 4e i02ossi4le for t+e 2rose(-tion to esta4lis+ (ertain fa(ts '+i(+ are 2arti(-larl, 'it+in t+e 7no'le/1e of t+e a((-se/. In Sandeep *s. State of (.). 520126 ; SCC 107) it +as 4een +el/
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t+at 4-r/en of 2roof re1ar/in1 fa(ts s2e(iall, 'it+in a((-se/Bs 7no'le/1e lies on +i0. In "a%u *s. "a%u 2009 SCC 5Crl.6 1<;8 and in A3ar Singh 0an Singh Sur7a=anshi *s. State of 0aharashtra 520076 1< SCC 4<< it 'as +el/ t+at '+ere +-s4an/ an/ 'ife 'ere li3in1 to1et+er an/ at t+e ti0e of /eat+ t+e, 'ere alone in t+e roo0) it 'as for t+e +-s4an/ to e>2lain as to +o' t+e /e(ease/ 0et +er /eat+. In Tulsi +a3 Sahadu Sur7a=anshi *s. State of 0aharashtra 520126 10 SCC 979) it +as 4een +el/ t+at a fa(t ot+er'ise /o-4tf-l 0a, 4e inferre/ fro0 (ertain ot+er 2ro3e/ fa(ts. !+en inferrin1 t+e e>isten(e of a fa(t fro0 ot+er set of 2ro3e/ fa(ts) t+e (o-rt e>er(ises a 2ro(ess of reasonin1 an/ rea(+es a lo1i(al (on(l-sion as to t+e 0ost 2ro4a4le 2osition. T+e a4o3e 2osition is stren1t+ene/ in 3ie' of se(tion 114 of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t '+i(+ e02o'ers t+e (o-rt to 2res-0e t+e e>isten(e of an, fa(t '+i(+ it t+in7s is li7el, to +a3e +a22ene/. In t+at 2ro(ess) t+e (o-rts s+all +a3e re1ar/ to t+e (o00on (o-rse of nat-ral e3ents) +-0an (on/-(t et(. in a//ition to t+e fa(ts of t+e (ase. In t+ese (ir(-0stan(es) t+e 2rin(i2les e04o/ie/ in se(tion 10= of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t (an

also 4e -tiliFe/. Se(tion 10= +o'e3er) is not inten/e/ to relie3e t+e 2rose(-tion of its 4-r/en to 2ro3e t+e 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4ts) 4-t it 'o-l/ a22l, to (ases '+ere t+e 2rose(-tion +as s-((ee/e/ in 2ro3in1 fa(ts fro0 '+i(+ a reasona4le inferen(e (an 4e /ra'n re1ar/in1 t+e e>isten(e of (ertain ot+er fa(ts) -nless t+e a((-se/ 4, 3irt-e of +is s2e(ial 7no'le/1e re1ar/in1 s-(+ fa(ts) +as offere/ an e>2lanation
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'+i(+ 0i1+t /ri3e t+e (o-rt to /ra' a /ifferent inferen(e. In "a%u A "ala Su%ra3ania3 . others *s. State of T.N. 520196 > SCC ;0 it 'as o4ser3e/ as -n/er:ABesi/es it is not (onten/e/ 4, 6-1 Ba4- t+at +e 'as not 2resent in t+e +o-se '+en t+e in(i/ent o((-rre/. To t+is fa(t sit-ation) se(tion 10= of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t is attra(te/. 6s to +o' t+e /e(ease/ re(ei3e/ in.-ries to +er +ea/ an/ +o' s+e /ie/ 0-st 4e 'it+in t+e e>(l-si3e 2ersonal 7no'le/1e of 6-1 Ba4-. It 'as for +i0 to e>2lain +o' t+e /eat+ o((-rre/. $e +as not 1i3en an, 2la-si4le e>2lanation for t+e /eat+ of t+e /e(ease/ in s-(+ s-s2i(io-s (ir(-0stan(es in t+e +o-se in '+i(+ +e resi/e/ 'it+ +er an/ '+en +e 'as a/0itte/l, 2resent in t+e +o-se at t+e 0aterial ti0e. T+is (ir(-0stan(e 0-st 4e 7e2t in 0in/ '+ile /ealin1 'it+ t+is (ase. !e are not -n0in/f-l of t+e fa(t t+at t+is 'o-l/ not relie3e t+e 2rose(-tion of its 4-r/en of 2ro3in1 its (ase. B-t) it 'o-l/ a22l, to t+e (ase '+ere t+e 2rose(-tion +as s-((ee/e/ in 2ro3in1 fa(ts fro0 '+i(+ a reasona4le inferen(e (an 4e /ra'n re1ar/in1 t+e e>isten(e of (ertain ot+er fa(ts) -nless) t+e a((-se/ 4, 3irt-e of s2e(ial 7no'le/1e re1ar/in1 s-(+ fa(ts) +as offere/ an e>2lanation '+i(+ 0i1+t /ri3e t+e (o-rt to /ra' a /ifferent inferen(e. In t+is (ase) t+e la' as en-n(iate/ in T-lsi Ra0Bs (ase as referre/ to supra +as 4een relie/ -2on. In Tri3u4h 0aroti 2ir4an *s. State of 0aharashtra 2007 SC Cri3inal +ulings 9>4) it 'as +el/ 4, t+eir #or/s+i2s of t+e $onB4le S-2re0e Co-rt t+at if an offen(e ta7es 2la(e insi/e t+e
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2ri3a(, of t+e +o-se an/ in s-(+ (ir(-0stan(es '+ere t+e assailants +a3e all t+e o22ort-nities to 2lan an/ (o00it t+e offen(e at t+e ti0e an/ in (ir(-0stan(es of t+eir (+oi(e) it 'ill 4e e>tre0el, /iffi(-lt for t+e 2rose(-tion to lea/ e3i/en(e to esta4lis+ t+e 1-ilt of a((-se/ if stri(t 2rin(i2le of (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(es is insiste/ -2on 4, t+e (o-rts. It 'as f-rt+er +el/ t+at '+en /eat+ +a/ o((-rre/ in t+e (-sto/, of t+e a((-se/) +e is -n/er an o4li1ation to 1i3e a 2la-si4le e>2lanation for t+e (a-se of /eat+ of t+e /e(ease/ in +is state0ent -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. an/ 0ere /enial of t+e 2rose(-tion (ase (o-2le/ 'it+ a4sen(e of an, e>2lanation 'ill 4e in(onsistent 'it+ t+e inno(en(e of t+e a((-se/ 4-t (onsistent 'it+ t+e +,2ot+esis t+at t+e a((-se/ is a 2ri0e a((-se/ in t+e (o00ission of 0-r/er. T+e sa0e 3ie' 'as ta7en in 0ohi%ur +eh3an *s. State of Assa3 520026 ; SCC 71< A3it A A33u > SCC *s. 89 State State of of 0aharashtra 520096

+a,asthan *s 2ashi +a3 AI+ 2007 SC 144 and Santosh 2u3ar Singh *s. State through C.".I. 520106 8 SCC 747 5)ri7adarshini 0attooJs Case6. In +a,endra )rahlad +ao :asni4 *s. State of 0aharashtra 2012 5776 ACC 1<9 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at on(e t+e 2rose(-tion 2ro3e/ t+at a((-se/ an/ 3i(ti0 'ere seen to1et+er) it 'as for t+e a((-se/ to e>2lain t+e (ir(-0stan(es. In its latest .-/10ent in +a=irala &aI3aiah *s. State of Andhra )radesh 520196 8 SCC 2>9) it +as re(entl, 4een r-le/ t+at '+ere t+e a((-se/ +as 4een seen 'it+ t+e /e(ease/ 3i(ti0 (last seen t+eor,)) it 4e(o0es t+e /-t, of t+e a((-se/ to
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e>2lain t+e (ir(-0stan(es -n/er '+i(+ t+e /eat+ of t+e 3i(ti0 +as o((-rre/. (&ide Ni4a +a3 *s. State of '.). 518726 2 SCC >0 #anesh &al *s. State of 0aharashtra 518826 9 SCC 10; and )onnusa37 *s. State of T.N. 5200>6 < SCC <>76. T+-s t+e @-intessen(e of (ase la's in a t+-04-nail-s7et(+ is t+at t+e la' /oes not en.oin a /-t, on t+e 2rose(-tion to lea/ e3i/en(e of s-(+ (+ara(ter '+i(+ is al0ost i02ossi4le to 4e le/ or at an, rate e>tre0el, /iffi(-lt to 4e le/. T+e /-t, of t+e 2rose(-tion is to lea/ s-(+ e3i/en(e '+i(+ it is (a2a4le of lea/in1) +a3in1 re1ar/ to t+e fa(ts an/ (ir(-0stan(es of t+e (ase. !+ere an offen(e li7e 0-r/er is (o00itte/ in se(re(, insi/e a +o-se) t+e initial 4-r/en to esta4lis+ t+e (ase 'o-l/) -n/o-4te/l,) 4e -2on t+e 2rose(-tion) 4-t t+e nat-re an/ a0o-nt of e3i/en(e to 4e le/ 4, it to esta4lis+ t+e (+ar1e (annot 4e of t+e sa0e /e1ree as is re@-ire/ in ot+er (ases of (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e. T+e 4-r/en 'o-l/ 4e of a (o02arati3el, li1+ter (+ara(ter. In 3ie' of se(tion 10= of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t) t+ere 'ill 4e a (orres2on/in1 4-r/en on t+e in0ates of t+e +o-se to 1i3e a (o1ent e>2lanation as to +o' t+e (ri0e 'as (o00itte/. T+e in0ates of t+e +o-se (annot 1et a'a, 4, si02l, 7ee2in1 @-iet an/ offerin1 no e>2lanation on t+e s-22ose/ 2re0ise t+at t+e 4-r/en to esta4lis+ its (ase lies entirel, -2on t+e 2rose(-tion an/ t+ere is no /-t, at all on an a((-se/ to offer an, e>2lanation. P.!.-10 B+arti 5an/al +as re(o-nte/ t+at on 1=.0;.2008 at a4o-t 0=:00 6.5. s+e rea(+e/ as -s-al at 8lat No. #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar an/ ran1 t+e
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(all-4ell of t+e +o-se 4-t no res2onse (a0e fro0 insi/e. 6fter 2ressin1 t+e (all-4ell se(on/ ti0e) s+e 'ent -2-stairs to ta7e 0o22in1 4-(7et. T+ereafter) s+e 2-t +er +an/ on t+e o-ter 1rill/0es+ /oor 4-t it /i/ not o2en. S-4se@-entl,) s+e a1ain 2resse/ t+e (all-4ell an/ t+en "r. N-2-r Tal'ar after o2enin1 t+e 'oo/en /oor (a0e near t+e 1rill /oor/0es+ /oor sit-ate/ in t+e 2assa1e an/ en@-ire/ a4o-t t+e '+erea4o-ts of $e0ra. to '+i(+ s+e re2lie/ t+at s+e +a/ no i/ea of +i0 an/ t+en "r. N-2-r Tal'ar tol/ +er t+at $e0ra. 0i1+t +a3e 1one to fet(+ 0il7 fro0 5ot+er-"air, after lo(7in1 t+e 0i//le 1rill/0es+ /oor fro0 o-tsi/e an/ s+e (o-l/ 'ait -ntil +e ret-rne/. T+ere-2on) s+e as7e/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar to 1i3e +er 7e,s so t+at s+e 0a, (o0e insi/e t+e +o-se after -nlo(7in1 t+e sa0e an/ t+en "r. N-2-r Tal'ar tol/ +er to 1o to t+e 1ro-n/ le3el an/ s+e 'o-l/ 4e t+ro'in1 7e,s to +er fro0 4al(on,. 6((or/in1l,) '+en s+e (a0e /o'n t+e stairs an/ rea(+e/ t+e 1ro-n/ le3el) "r. N-2-r Tal'ar t+re' 7e,s fro0 4al(on, an/ tol/ +er t+at t+e /oor is not lo(7e/ an/ onl, lat(+e/ fro0 o-tsi/e an/ t+en s+e (a0e 4a(7 an/ o2ene/ t+e lat(+ of t+e 0es+ /oor of t+e 2assa1e an/ (a0e insi/e t+e +o-se. T+ereafter) "r. N-2-r Tal'ar tol/ +er ADekho Hemraj Kya karke gaya hai” (Look here, what has been done by Hemraj). !+en 0ai/ S0t. B+arti 'ent in 6ar-s+iBs roo0 s+e sa' t+at /ea/ 4o/, of 6ar-s+i 'as l,in1 on t+e 4e/ an/ (o3ere/ 'it+ a '+ite 4e/ s+eet an/ +er t+roat 'as slit. 5r. 5ir +as (riti(iFe/ t+e e3i/en(e of 5rs. B+arti 5an/al on t+e f-l(r-0 t+at s+e 'as t+oro-1+l, t-tore/ 4efore ste22in1 into t+e 'itness 4o> an/ s+e +as a/0itte/ t+is fa(t in +er
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(ross-e>a0ination an/ t+erefore) no relian(e (an 4e 2la(e/ -2on +er testi0on,. $er testi0on, +as also 4een ani0a/3erte/ on t+e 2re0ise t+at s+e +as a/0itte/ in +er (ross-e>a0ination t+at for t+e first ti0e in t+e (o-rt s+e +as /e2ose/ t+at t+ereafter s+e (a0e at t+e 1ate an/ 2la(e/ +er +an/ on t+e o-ter 0es+ /oor an/ t+en it o2ene/ an/ s+e +as not 1i3en s-(+ state0ent to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er an/ t+-s s+e +as 0a/e i02ro3e0ents '+ile 1i3in1 state0ent in t+e (o-rt '+i(+ is not+in1 4-t an aftert+o-1+t as a res-lt of t-torin1. 5r. 5ir +as (o-nte/ -2on Anil )ra4ash Shu4la *s. Ar=ind Shu4la 520076 8 SCC <19 in s-22ort of +is ar1-0ents 4-t I fin/ 0,self -na4le to (o-ntenan(e 'it+ t+e s-40ission of t+e learne/ (o-nsel. In t+e sai/ (ase t+e or/er of a(@-ittal 'as re(or/e/ 4, t+e $onE4le $i1+ Co-rt of 6lla+a4a/ a1ainst '+i(+ a22eals 'ere file/ 4, t+e (o02lainant an/ t+e State Co3ern0ent. T+e $onE4le S-2re0e Co-rt 'as 2lease/ to +ol/ t+at P.!.-1 6nil Pra7as+ 'as not a nat-ral 'itness) +e +a/ ani0osit, a1ainst t+e a((-se/ 6r3in/ S+-7la) +is 2resen(e at t+e s(ene of o((-rren(e 'as 4, a s+eer (+an(e an/ t+e /e(ease/ 6t-l Pra7as+ +a/ state/ 4efore t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er 20 /a,s after t+e in(i/ent t+at +e +a/ 4een t-tore/ to 1i3e an in(orre(t state0ent 4efore t+e 5a1istrate an/ t+e 5a1istrate 'as neit+er (ite/ as 'itness in t+e (+ar1e-s+eet nor 2ro/-(e/ in t+e (o-rt an/ +en(e /,in1 /e(laration 'as ri1+tl, /is4elie3e/ 4, t+e $onE4le $i1+ Co-rt. It is 'ell settle/ la' t+at in an a22eal a1ainst t+e or/er of a(@-ittal) t+e a22ellate (o-rt nor0all, /oes not /ist-r4 t+e fin/in1s of a(@-ittal -nless t+e
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.-/10ent of a(@-ittal is 2er3erse as t+e a(@-ittal stren1t+ens t+e 2res-02tion of inno(en(e of t+e a((-se/ (&ide Narendra Singh *s. State of 0.). 520046 10 SCC ;886. In State of #oa *s. San,a7 Tha4ran and other 520076 2 SCC 5Crl.6 1;2 it +as 4een +el/ t+at a22ellate (o-rt (an re3ie' t+e e3i/en(e an/ interfere 'it+ t+e or/er of a(@-ittal onl, if t+e a22roa(+ of t+e lo'er (o-rt is 3itiate/ 4, so0e 0anifest ille1alit, or t+e /e(ision is 2er3erse an/ t+e (o-rt +as (o00itte/ 0anifest error of la' an/ i1nore/ t+e 0aterial e3i/en(e on re(or/. In t+at (ase) t+e la' as lai/ /o'n in Chandrappa and others *s. State of 2arnata4a 2007 5<>6 ACC 402 5SC6 'as relie/ on. T+e sa0e 3ie' +as 4een reiterate/ in "a%u *s. State of 2erala 520106 8 SCC 1>8. In t+e (ase in +an/ 5rs. B+arti 5an/al +as no'+ere state/ t+at 4efore 1i3in1 state0ent to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er) s+e 'as t-tore/ 4, an,one. AT+e fa(ts an/ (ir(-0stan(es often 3ar, fro0 (ase to (ase) t+e (ri0e sit-ation an/ t+e 0,ria/ 2s,(+i( fa(tors) so(ial (on/itions an/ 2eo2leEs life-st,les 0a, fl-(t-ate) an/ so) r-les of 2r-/en(e rele3ant in one fa(t-sit-ation 0a, 4e ine2t in anot+er. !e (annot a((e2t t+e ar1-0ent t+at re1ar/less of t+e s2e(ifi( (ir(-0stan(es of a (ri0e an/ (ri0inal 0ilie-) so0e stran/s of 2ro4ati3e reasonin1 '+i(+ a22eale/ to a Ben(+ in one re2orte/ /e(ision 0-st 0e(+ani(all, 4e e>ten/e/ to ot+er (asesK (#ide +afiG *s. State of (.). AI+ 18>1 SC <<86. In 'ar7ana Hinancial Corporation *s. 0/s Jagda3%a @il 0ills AI+ 2002 SC >94 Isla3ic Acade37 of 1ducation . another *s. State of
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

2arnata4a . others 520096 ; SCC ;87

).S.

Sathappan *s. Andhra "an4 &td. 520046 11 SCC ;72 0/s Mee Telefil3s &td. . another *s. (nion of India . others 200< 526 SCJ!121 +a3esh Chand /aga *s. +a3esh-ari "ai 200< 596 SCJ!1 it +as 4een +el/ t+at o4ser3ations of t+e (o-rts (o-l/ not 4e rea/ as 2ro3isions of stat-te. T+e o4ser3ations of t+e (o-rt are to 4e rea/ in t+e (onte>t in '+i(+ t+e, a22ear. 9-/1es inter2ret stat-tes an/ /o not inter2ret .-/10ents. In ". Sh7a3a +ao *s. (.T. of )ondicherr7 AI+ 18;7 SC 14>0 5Constitution "ench6 +.&. Jain 5/ead6 %7 &+s *s. /elhi /e=elop3ent Authorit7 520046 9 AC1 29< and State of +a,asthan *s. #anesh &al AI+ 200> SC ;80 it 'as +el/ t+at relian(e on a /e(ision 'it+o-t loo7in1 into t+e fa(t-al 4a(71ro-n/ of t+e (ase 4efore it) is (learl, i02er0issi4le. 6 /e(ision 'o-l/ 4e a 2re(e/ent on its o'n fa(ts. a(+ (ase 2resents its o'n feat-res. 6 /e(ision is an a-t+orit, for '+at it a(t-all, /e(i/es. !+at is of t+e essen(e in a /e(ision is ratio an/ not e3er, o4ser3ation fo-n/ t+erein nor '+at lo1i(all, follo's fro0 3ario-s o4ser3ations 0a/e in t+e .-/10ent. In 0/s A3ar Nath @3 )ra4ash *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 18>< SC 21> and (nion of India . others *s. Arul 0o$hi Iniarasu AI+ 2011 SC 2791 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at o4ser3ations of (o-rt are not to 4e rea/ as -(li/Bs T+eore0 or 2ro3isions of stat-te. <4ser3ations 0-st 4e rea/ in (onte>t t+e, are 0a/e. Blin/ relian(e on /e(ision 4, (o-rt is i02ro2er.

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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

In Nar3ada "achao Aandolan *s. State of 0.). AI+ 2011 SC 18>8 59JJ6 and +a,esh-ar *s. State of 0aharashtra 2008 Cr.&.J. 9>1; 5"o3%a7!H"6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at /is2osal of

(ases 4, 4lin/l, 2la(in1 relian(e -2on a /e(ision is not 2ro2er. 6 little /ifferen(e in fa(ts or a//itional fa(ts 0a, 0a7e a lot of /ifferen(e to t+e 2re(e/ential 3al-e of a /e(ision. T+-s) t+e a4o3e (ase la' (ite/ 4, learne/ (o-nsel is of no +el2 to t+e a((-se/ 2ersons as 4ein1 4ase/ on /ifferent (onte>t-al fa(ts an/ (ir(-0stan(es an/ t+erefore) t+at (itation is an a(t of s-2erero1ation. <ne 0-st not for1et t+at P.!.-10 B+arti 5an/al is totall, illiterate an/ 4-(oli( la/, fro0 a lo'er-strata of t+e so(iet, an/ +ails fro0 5al/a "istri(t of !est Ben1al '+o (a0e to N.<.I.".6. to 2erfor0 0enial .o4 to s-stain +erself an/ fa0il, an/ t+erefore) if s+e +as state/ t+at s+e +as 1i3en +er state0ent on t+e 4asis of t-torin1) +er e3i/en(e (annot 4e /is(ar/e/ or re.e(te/. T+e a((-se/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar +as a/0itte/ in +er ans'ers to @-estion nos. 18) 1?) 22 an/ 2& -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at t+e e3i/en(e 1i3en 4, 5rs. B+arti 5an/al is (orre(t. $o'e3er) s+e +as ta7en 2lea t+at t+e e3i/en(e of 5rs. B+arti 5an/al to t+e effe(t t+at s+e +a/ 2-t +er +an/ on t+e o-ter 0es+ /oor is in(orre(t as s+e +as not state/ t+is fa(t to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er. In 0ohan &al and another *s. A,it Singh and another AI+ 187> SC 11>9 it +as 4een +el/ t+at -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. it is 2er0issi4le to a((e2t t+at 2art of t+e state0ent '+i(+ a((or/s 'it+ t+e e3i/en(e on re(or/ an/ to a(t -2on it. It 'as f-rt+er +el/ t+at '+ile (onsi/erin1
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

t+e state0ent of t+e a((-se/ -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. it is 2er0issi4le to re.e(t t+e e>(-l2ator, 2art of t+e state0ent if it is /is2ro3e/ 4, t+e e3i/en(e on re(or/ an/ to a(t -2on it. In :a3an *s. State of 0aharashtra 2011 Cr.&.J. 4>27 5SC6 it 'as +el/ t+at t+e testi0on, of a 'itness (annot 4e /is4elie3e/ 0erel, 4e(a-se of so0e o0ission in state0ent -n/er se(tion 1=1 Cr.P.C. an/ t+e e3i/en(e 4efore t+e (o-rt. In Ala3 #ir *s. State 5N.C.T.6 of /elhi AI+ 2009 SC 2>2 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at e3i/en(e of) ot+er'ise (re/it-'ort+, 'itness (annot 4e /is(ar/e/ 0erel, 4e(a-se it 'as not a3aila4le in state0ent -n/er se(tion 1=1 Cr.P.C. In Achara )ara3%ath )radeepan and others *s. State of 2erala 2007 516 Cri3es <4 5SC6 it 'as +el/ t+at it 'o-l/ 4e too 0-(+ to e>2e(t of an, 2erson to sa, e3er,t+in1 in +is state0ent 4efore t+e 2oli(e. To see a 2erson 4, fa(e is one t+in1 4-t to 7no' +i0 4, na0e is /ifferent. So0e i02ro3e0ents in t+e testi0on, of t+e 'itness (o-l/ not lea/ to re.e(tion t+ereof in its entiret,. In #o=ind and others *s. State of 0.). AI+ 1884 SC >2; it 'as +el/ t+at if t+e 'itness +a/ not 1i3en /etails of o((-rren(e in +er state0ent -n/er se(tions 1=1) 1=4 Cr.PC t+en it 'ill not 4e a 1ro-n/ to re.e(t +er e3i/en(e. In Jagdish Nara7an *s. State of (.). 188; JIC 9>> 5SC6 and &al Jit Singh *s. State of (.). 2001 S.C.Cr.+ 287 59JJ6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at o0issions in t+e state0ents 1i3en to 2oli(e if not 0aterial 'ill not a0o-nt to (ontra/i(tion to i02ea(+ t+e 3ersion. In State of (.). *s. +a3 S-arup 1887 JIC 1192 5/"6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at 0inor (ontra/i(tions are not to 4e 1i3en 0-(+ i02ortan(e.
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

In Sh7a3 Sunder *s. State of Chhattisgarh 520026 > SCC 98 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at '+ere an in(i/ent is narrate/ 4, t+e sa0e 2erson to t+e /ifferent 2ersons on /ifferent o((asions so0e /ifferen(e in t+e 0o/e of narratin1 t+e in(i/ent is 4o-n/ to arise. B-t s-(+ /ifferen(es /o not 0ilitate a1ainst t+e tr-st'ort+iness of t+e narration -nless t+e 3ariations (an 4e +el/ to 4e so a4nor0al or -nnat-ral as 'o-l/ not o((-r if t+e 'itness +as reall, 'itnesse/ '+at +e 'as narratin1. In &eela +a3 *s. State of 'ar7ana 2000 5406 ACC 94 5SC6 it 'as +el/ t+at A'+en an e,e-'itness is e>a0ine/ at len1t+) it is @-ite 2ossi4le for +i0 to 0a7e so0e /is(re2an(ies. No tr-e 'itness (an 2ossi4l, es(a2e fro0 0a7in1 so0e /is(re2ant /etail. Per+a2s an -ntr-e 'itness '+o is 'ell t-tore/ (an s-((essf-ll, 0a7e +is testi0on, totall, non/is(re2ant. B-t (o-rt s+o-l/ 4ear in 0in/ t+at it is onl, '+en t+e /is(re2an(ies in t+e e3i/en(e of a 'itness are so in(o02ati4le 'it+ t+e (re/i4ilit, of +is 3ersion t+at t+e (o-rt is .-stifie/ in .ettisonin1 +is e3i/en(eNN.K AIt is (o00on 2ra(ti(e in trial (o-rts to 0a7e o-t (ontra/i(tions fro0 t+e 2re3io-s state0ent of a 'itness for (onfrontin1 +i0 /-rin1 (ross-e>a0ination. 5erel, 4e(a-se t+ere is in(onsisten(, in e3i/en(e) it is not s-ffi(ient to i02air t+e (re/it of t+e 'itness. No /o-4t se(tion 1;; of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t 2ro3i/es s(o2e for i02ea(+in1 t+e (re/it of a 'itness 4, 2roof of an in(onsistent for0er state0ent) 4-t a rea/in1 of t+e se(tion 'o-l/ in/i(ate t+at all in(onsistent state0ents are not s-ffi(ient to i02ea(+ t+e (re/it of t+e 'itness.K In Su4h /e= ?ada= . others *s.
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

State of "ihar 2001 SCC 5Crl.6 141;

it 'as

o4ser3e/ t+at t+ere 'o-l/ +ar/l, 4e a 'itness '+ose e3i/en(e /oes not (ontain so0e a0o-nt of e>a11erations or e04ellis+0ents. So0eti0es t+ere is a /eli4erate atte02t to offer t+e e>a11erate/ e3i/en(e an/ so0eti0es t+e 'itnesses in t+eir o3er an>iet, to /o 4etter fro0 t+e 'itness 4o> /etail o-t an e>a11erate/ a((o-nt. 5inor 3ariations in 2rose(-tion e3i/en(e are of no 3al-e if t+e e3i/en(e in its entiret, a22ears to 4e tr-st'ort+,. In Sunil 2u3ar *s. State #o=ern3ent of N.C.T. of /elhi 2004 54>6 ACC 27 5SC6 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at sli1+t insi1nifi(ant o0issions (o-l/ neit+er 4e ter0e/ as i02ro3e0ent in state0ent or (ontra/i(tions. Testi0on, re(or/e/ in (o-rt after la2se of (onsi/era4le 2erio/ (annot 4e e>2e(te/ to 4e e>a(t an/ 2re(ise 0at+e0ati(al re2ro/-(tion of fa(ts. In (3ar /ara$ . others *s. Nihal Singh . others 18;< A:+ 4>8 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at t+e art of A>-4a04ooFlin1K a 'itness +as attaine/ t+e +i1+ /e1ree of 2erfe(tion. 8or t+ese reasons no i02ortan(e s+o-l/ 4e 1i3en to t+e so (alle/ a/0ission. In Jai Shree ?ada= *s. State of (.). 2004 A&J 9292 5SC6, it +as 4een +el/ '+en 'itness is s-4.e(te/ to len1t+, ar/-o-s (ross-e>a0ination o3er a len1t+, 2erio/ of ti0e) t+ere is al'a,s a 2ossi4ilit, of t+e 'itness (o00ittin1 0ista7es) '+i(+ (an 4e ter0e/ as o0issions) i02ro3e0ents an/ (ontra/i(tions an/ t+erefore) t+ose infir0ities 'ill +a3e to 4e a22re(iate/ in t+e 4a(71ro-n/ of 1ro-n/ realities '+i(+ 0a7es t+e 'itness (onf-se/ 4e(a-se of t+e fili4-sterin1 ta(ti(s of t+e (rossPa1e ?4

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

e>a0inin1 (o-nsel. In 0ata /een *s. State of (.). 1878 Allaha%ad Cri3inal +ulings 2 S@C 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at state0ents 1i3en to I.<. are s-22ose/ to 4e 4rief an/ t+e /etaile/ state0ents are 1i3en in t+e (o-rt. In M-inglee Ariel *s. State of 0.). AI+ 18<4 SC 1< 18;< SC 277 Nisar Ali *s. State of (.). AI+ Sohra% *s. State of 0.). AI+ 18<7 SC 9;; (gar Ahir *s. State of "ihar AI+ 1872 SC 2020 "hag-an Tana )atil *s. State of 0aharashtra 518746 9 SCC <9; "ala4a Singh *s. State of )un,a% 5187<6 4 SCC <11 S.#.). Co33ittee *s. 0.). /as Chela 5188>6 < SCC 1<7 2rishna 0ochi *s. State of "ihar 520026 ; SCC >1 Nathu Singh ?ada= *s. State of 0.). 520026 10 SCC 9;; Sucha Singh and others *s. State of )un,a% 520096 7 SCC ;49 Israr *s. State of (.). 2004 AI+ SC: ;81; Ja44i *s. State 520076 8 SCC <>8 2ul=inder Singh *s. State of )un,a% 520076 10 SCC 4<< #anesh *s. State of 2arnata4a 5200>6 17 SCC 1<2 /inesh Singh *s. State of (.). 200> SCCr+ 1201 /al%ir Singh *s. State of 'ar7ana AI+ 200> SC 29>8 Ja7a Seelan *s. State of T.N. 520086 12 SCC 27< )re3 Singh *s. State of 'ar7ana 520086 14 SCC 484 0ani *s. State 520086 12 SCC 2>> Ani3i +edd7 *en4ata +a3ana and others *s. ).). 'igh Court of A.). 200> 5;16 ACC 709 5SC6 and "alra,e *s. State of 0aharashtra 520106 ; SCC ;79) it +as 4een +el/ t+at t+e 0a>i0 '(a$sus in uno, !a$sus in omnibus” is not a22li(a4le in In/ia.

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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

In State of Andhra )radesh *s. 2anda #opaludu 200< 5<96 ACC 772 5SC6 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at e3er, /is(re2an(, in state0ent of 'itness (annot 4e treate/ as fatal. In ".2. Channappa *s. State of 2arnata4a 2007 526 Cri3es 1715SC6 sear(+in1 it +as 4een +el/ t+at in a (ross-e>a0ination) so0e len1t+,

i02ro3e0ents) (ontra/i(tions an/ o0issions are 4o-n/ to o((-r '+i(+ if not serio-s an/ 3ital 'o-l/ not 2er0it to /is(ar/ t+e s-4strat-0 of t+e 2rose(-tion (ase. In Indra )al Singh *s. State of (.). 2008 Cr.&.J. 842 5SC6 t+at 1i3in1 -n/-e i02ortan(e it +as 4een +el/ an/ a(@-ittin1

t+e a((-se/ on insi1nifi(ant (ontra/i(tions is not 2ro2er. In State of (.). *s. 2rishna 0aster 2010 Cr.&.J. 9>>8 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at /is(re2an(ies nor0all, e>ists. T+e, are /-e to errors of o4ser3ations) 0ental /is2osition) s+o(7 an/ +orror at t+e ti0e of in(i/ent. %nless t+e, 1o to t+e root of 0atter) s-(+ /is(re2an(ies /o not 0a7e e3i/en(e -nrelia4le. 8ollo'in1 t+e la' as e>2resse/ in State *s. Sar=anana 5200>6 17 SCC <>7 an/ Sunil 2u3ar Sa3%hu /a7al #upta *s. State of 0aharashtra 520106 19 SCC ;<7) it +as 4een +el/ in +a=i 2apur *s. State of +a,asthan AI+ 2012 SC 28>; t+at if 3ariation in state0ents of 'itnesses is not 0aterial to affe(t t+e 2rose(-tion (ase t+en it +as to 4e i1nore/. In Saha%uddin *s. State of Assa3 2019 5>06 ACC 1002 5SC6, it +as 4een r-le/ t+at e3er, 3ariation or i00aterial (ontra/i(tion (annot 2ro3i/e a/3anta1e to t+e a((-se/. It is a settle/ 2rin(i2le of
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la' t+at '+ile a22re(iatin1 t+e e3i/en(e) t+e (o-rt 0-st e>a0ine t+e e3i/en(e in its entiret, -2on rea/in1 t+e state0ent of a 'itness as a '+ole an/ if t+e (o-rt fin/s t+e state0ent to 4e tr-t+f-l an/ 'ort+, of (re/en(e) t+en e3er, 3ariation or /is(re2an(, 2arti(-larl, '+i(+ is i00aterial an/ /oes not affe(t t+e root of t+e (ase of t+e 2rose(-tion 'o-l/ 4e of no (onse@-en(es. In t+at (ase also) t+e la' as lai/ /o'n in State *s. Sar=anan 5200>6 17 SCC <>7 +as 4een follo'e/. In Sa3path 2u3ar *s. Inspector of )olice 2rishnagiri 520126 4 SCC 124 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at 0inor (ontra/i(tions are 4o-n/ to a22ear in state0ents of tr-t+f-l 'itnesses as 0e0or, so0eti0es 2la,s false an/ sense of o4ser3ation /iffers fro0 2erson to 2erson. "is(re2an(ies in testi0on, of 'itness (a-se/ 4, 0e0or, la2ses are a((e2ta4le. In t+at (ase) t+e la' as lai/ /o'n in Nara7an Chetra3 Chaudhar7 *s. State of 0aharashtra 520006 > SCC 4<7 an/ State of '.). *s. &e4hra, 520006 1 SCC 247 'as relie/ on. In #e7+ra.Es (ase) it 'as o4ser3e/ AT+e (ri0inal trial (annot 4e e@-ate/ 'it+ a 0o(7 s(ene fro0 a st-nt fil0 N.... T+e realities of life +a3e to 4e 7e2t in 0in/ '+ile a22re(iatin1 t+e e3i/en(e for arri3in1 at t+e tr-t+. T+e tra/itional /o10ati( +,2er-te(+ni(al a22roa(+ +as to 4e re2la(e/ 4, rational) realisti( an/ 1en-ine a22roa(+ for a/0inisterin1 .-sti(e in a (ri0inal trial. T+e Cri0inal 9-ris2r-/en(e (annot 4e (onsi/ere/ to 4e a %to2ian t+o-1+t 4-t +a3e to 4e (onsi/ere/ as 2art an/ 2ar(el of t+e +-0an (i3iliFation an/ realities of life. T+e (o-rts (annot i1nore t+e erosion in 3al-es of life '+i(+ are a
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(o00on feat-re of t+e 2resent s,ste0. S-(+ erosions (annot 4e 1i3en a 4on-s in fa3o-r of t+ose '+o are 1-ilt, of 2oll-tin1 so(iet, an/ t+e 0an7in/.K In +a3esh 'ari,an *s. State of (.). 520126 < SCC 777 and 2uria *s. State of +a,asthan 520126 10 SCC 499) it +as also 4een +el/ t+at it is /-t, of t+e (o-rt to -nra3el t+e tr-t+ -n/er all (ir(-0stan(es. %n/-e i02ortan(e s+o-l/ not 4e 1i3en to 0inor /is(re2an(ies '+i(+ /o not s+a7e t+e 4asi( 3ersion of t+e (ase. In Jagroop Singh *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 2012 SC 2;00 it +as 4een +el/ t+at o0issions an/ (ontra/i(tions in e3i/en(e of 'itness affe(t (re/i4ilit, of 'itness onl, if o0ission an/ (ontra/i(tion affe(t (ore of t+e 2rose(-tion (ase. In &al "ahadur *s. State 5N.C.T. of /elhi6 520196 4 SCC <<7 it +as 4een +el/ t+at 0ar1inal 3ariations in t+e state0ents of a 'itness (annot 4e /-44e/ as i02ro3e0ent as t+e sa0e 0a, 4e ela4oration of t+e state0ent 0a/e 4, t+e 'itness earlier. In 3ie' of t+e a4o3e le1al 2ro2ositions) t+e e3i/en(e of P.!.-10 '+o is (o02letel, /isintereste/ 'itness +a3in1 no ani0osit, or ran(o-r a1ainst t+e a((-se/) (annot 4e 4r-s+e/ asi/e as -n'ort+, of 4elief. %ne@-i3o(all,) '+ite /is(+ar1e 'as fo-n/ in t+e 3a1inal (a3it, of 5s. 6ar-s+i at t+e ti0e of 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination of +er /ea/ 4o/, 4, "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re an/ t+is fa(t +as not 4een 1ainsai/ 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons in t+eir state0ents -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. Presen(e of '+ite
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/is(+ar1e in t+e 3a1inal (a3it, of 5s. 6ar-s+i /enotes t+at s+e 'as en1a1e/ in se>-al inter(o-rse) al4eit) no s2er0atoFoa 'as fo-n/ in t+e 3a1inal s'a4. T+is fa(t 1ets stren1t+ene/ fro0 anot+er fa(t t+at t+e 2ri3ate 2arts of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'ere (leane/ 'it+ 'ater an/ t+erefore) t+e 4e/-s+eet 4elo' t+e 2el3i( re1ion 'as fo-n/ 'et an/ no 4iolo1i(al fl-i/ or se0en (o-l/ 4e /ete(te/ '+ile e>a0inin1 t+e 4e/-s+eet 0aterial >+i4it-;; 4, P.!.-= "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra) t+e Senior S(ientifi( <ffi(er Cra/e-I of C.8.S.#.) Ne' "el+i. "r. 5o+a2atra +as (learl, /e2ose/ t+at in t+e sai/ 0aterial e>a0ination an/ "N6 2rofilin1 >+i4it no -rine re2ort /ate/ (o-l/ 4e /ete(te/. $e +as 2ro3e/ +is 4iolo1i(al 1;.07.2010 as 4e/-s+eet >+i4it-7a-14 in '+i(+ it +as 4een >+i4it-;;) /i/ not

also 0entione/ t+at t+e /esi1nate/ (ir(-lar area of >+i4it-1(0aterial ,iel/ "N6 for anal,sis. If 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ (o-l/ not +a3e 4een fo-n/ en1a1e/ in se>-al inter(o-rse t+ere 'as no reason to 0a7e en/ea3o-r t+at fa(t-0 of se>-al inter(o-rse 4e not 0entione/ in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of 5s. 6ar-s+i. P.!.-7 D.D. Ca-ta0 +as /e2ose/ t+at +e is a(@-ainte/ 'it+ "r. S-s+il C+a-/+ar, of ,e Care

$os2ital) Se(tor-2=) N.<.I.".6. '+o on 1=.0;.2008 0a/e a tele2+one (all to +i0 an/ infor0e/ t+at t+e /a-1+ter of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar '+o +a22ens to 4e t+e 4rot+er of +is frien/ "r. "ines+ Tal'ar +as 4een 0-r/ere/ an/ t+e /ea/ 4o/, +as 4een sent for 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination an/ t+erefore) +e s+o-l/ +el2 +i0. $e +as also state/ t+at "r. S-s+il C+a-/+ar, +as also /esire/ t+at t+e fa(t of ra2e s+o-l/ not 4e 0entione/ in t+e 2ost0orte0
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

e>a0ination re2ort 4-t +e e>2resse/ +is ina4ilit, on t+is 2oint. P.!.- 17 "ee2a7 Dan/a) No/al <ffi(er) 6irtel) Ne' "el+i +as /e2ose/ t+at %ser I" "S# 0120;&1=&88 is in t+e na0e of 5rs. N-2-r Tal'ar) R/o #-&2) Se(tor-2;) N.<.I.".6. an/ its lan/ line tele2+one n-04er is 01204&1=&88. P.!.-1? "ee2a7) No/al <ffi(er) :o/afone 5o4ile Ser3i(es #t/.) Ne' "el+i +as /e2ose/ t+at 0o4ile no. ?8??;;;??? is in t+e na0e of D.D. Ca-ta0 of In3ertis Instit-te of St-/ies an/ 0o4ile no. ????1010?4 is in t+e na0e of "r. S-s+il C+a-/+ar,. P.!.-21 R.D. Sin1+) No/al <ffi(er) B+arti 6irtel #t/.) Ne' "el+i +as 2ro3e/ t+at 0o4ile nos. ??10;20=&0) ?871;;72&;) ?871=2;74=) ?8100&7?2= are in t+e na0e of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar. $e +as also 2ro3e/ t+at 0o4ile no. ?810&022?8 is in t+e na0e of "r. "ines+ Tal'ar. P.!.-22 5.N. :i.a,an) No/al <ffi(er) Tata Tele Ser3i(es #t/.) Ne' "el+i +as 2ro3e/ t+at 0o4ile no. ?21&;1;48; is re1istere/ in t+e na0e of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar. P.!.-1? +as /e2ose/ t+at as 2er >+i4it-7a-2; on 1=.0;.2008 a (all 'as 0a/e at 11:1;:0= +o-rs fro0 0o4ile no. ?810&022?8 to 0o4ile no. ????1010?4. "-ration of t+is (all 'as 10; se(on/s. $e +as also state/ t+at on 1=.0;.2008 a (all 'as 0a/e fro0 ????1010?4 to 0o4ile no. ?8??;;;??? at 11:;7:&= +o-rs an/ its /-ration 'as 144 se(on/s. <n t+e sa0e /ate a (all 'as 0a/e fro0 ????1010?4 to 0o4ile no. ?810&022?8 at 12:07:;= +o-rs an/ it laste/ for 18 se(on/s. <n t+e sa0e /ate a (all 'as 0a/e fro0 ????1010?4 to 0o4ile no. ?8??;;;??? at 12:08:44 +o-rs for 128 se(on/s. <n t+e sa0e /ate a (all 'as 0a/e fro0 ?810&022?8 to 0o4ile no. ????1010?4 at 1;:02:08
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+o-rs an/ its /-ration 'as &4 se(on/s. <n t+e sa0e /ate a (all 'as 0a/e fro0 ?810&022?8 to 0o4ile no. ????1010?4 at 1;:0=:00 +o-rs an/ its /-ration 'as 14 se(on/s. <n t+e sa0e /ate a (all 'as 0a/e fro0 0o4ile no. ?8??;;;??? to 0o4ile no. ????1010?4 at 18:;7:11 +o-rs an/ its /-ration 'as == se(on/s an/ at 18:;7:1; +o-rs an/ its /-ration 'as also == se(on/s. <n t+e sa0e /ate a (all 'as 0a/e fro0 0o4ile no. ????1010?4 to 0o4ile no. ?810&022?8 at 1?:2=:17 +o-rs an/ its /-ration 'as 40 se(on/s. T+-s) it 4e(o0es e3i/ent t+at "r. S-s+il C+a-/+ar,) "r. "ines+ Tal'ar an/ D.D. Ca-ta0 'ere in to-(+ 'it+ ea(+ ot+er on tele2+ones o3er t+is iss-e. Call-/etail re(or/s +a3e 4een /-l, 2ro3e/. Certifi(ate -n/er se(tion =;-B of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t +as also 4een 2ro3e/ 4, P.!.-1?. Re(entl,) in )rashant "harti *s. State 5N.C.T. @f /elhi6 520196 8 SCC 289 it +as 4een +el/ t+at e3i/en(e of 0o4ile 2+one (all-/etails is (on(l-si3e in nat-re for all intents an/ 2-r2oses. In t+at /e(ision t+e la' as lai/ /o'n in #a,ra, *s. State 5N.C.T. @f /elhi6 520126 1 SCC 5Cri.6 79 E 520116 10 SCC ;7< 'as relie/ on in '+i(+ it +as 4een +el/ t+at e>isten(e of e3en serio-s /is(re2an(, in oral e3i/en(e +as to ,iel/ to (on(l-si3e s(ientifi( e3i/en(e (Call "etail Re(or/s). In 200< 596 Cri3es >7 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at 2rint-o-ts ta7en fro0 (o02-ter/ser3er are a/0issi4le an/ t+e, are to 4e treate/ as a-t+enti(. It is 2ertinent to 0ention +ere t+at 4efore 1=.0;.2008 t+e, +a3e +ar/l, 0a/e tele2+one (alls to ea(+ ot+er an/ t+-s it is f-ll, esta4lis+e/ t+at t+e, 'ere in (onta(t 'it+ ea(+ ot+er re1ar/in1 non/is(los-re of fa(t-0 of se>-al inter(o-rse in t+e
Pa1e 101

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2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of 5s. 6ar-s+i. "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re +as also state/ t+at '+en +e 'as on 'a, to 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination roo0 t+en "r. "ines+ Tal'ar 1a3e +i0 a (ell-2+one an/ tol/ +i0 to tal7 'it+ "r. T.". "o1ra of 6.I.I.5.S. 6lt+o-1+) "r. "o+re +a/ onl, state/ t+at "r. T.". "o1ra +a/ tol/ +i0 t+at 4loo/ sa02les of t+e /e(ease/ 6ar-s+i 4e ta7en 4-t it a22ears t+at "r. "o1ra +a/ as7e/ +i0 not to 0ention in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort a4o-t t+e e3i/en(e of se>-al inter(o-rse an/ t+is fa(t +as 4een /eli4eratel, s-22resse/ 4, "r. "o+re. If "r. "o+re +as not 0entione/ in t+e

2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort t+at o2enin1 of 3a1inal (a3it, 'as 2ro0inent an/ t+e 3a1inal (anal 'as 3isi4leM t+at t+e 3a1inal orifi(e of 6ar-s+i 'as 'i/e an/ o2en an/ t+at 3a1inal (anal (o-l/ 4e seenM t+at t+e +,0en of t+e /e(ease/ 'as ol/) torn an/ +eale/ an/ t+ese fa(ts 'ere not state/ to t+e earlier in3esti1atin1 offi(ers on 18.0;.2008) 18.07.2008 an/ 0&.10.2008 t+en it (annot 4e sai/ t+at +is state0ent (annot 4e relie/ -2on. Sin(e @-estions re1ar/in1 s2e(ifi(all, t+e (on/ition 4, of 3a1ina earlier 'ere not as7e/ t+e in3esti1atin1

offi(ers an/ t+erefore) t+ere 'as no o((asion to tell a4o-t t+ese fa(ts to t+e0. In Jas-ant Singh *s. State of 'ar7ana 520006 4 SCC 4>4 it +as 4een +el/ t+at an o0ission in or/er to 4e si1nifi(ant 0-st /e2en/ -2on '+et+er t+e s2e(ifi( @-estion) t+e ans'er to '+i(+ 'as o0itte/) 'as 2-t to t+e 'itness. If t+e (on/ition of 3a1ina) 3a1inal orifi(e 'as not 0entione/ in 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort an/ it 'as also not 0entione/ t+at +,0en
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'as ol/) torn an/ +eale/ t+en it s+o's ne1li1en(e or /eli4erate a(t on t+e 2art of "r. "o+re '+o a22ears to +a3e s-22resse/ t+ese 0aterial fa(ts in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort onl, 4e(a-se +e 'as a22roa(+e/ 4, "r. T.". "o1ra an/ "r. "ines+ Tal'ar of +is 2rofessional fraternit, '+o re0aine/ in to-(+ 'it+ +i0 4efore 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination. 6 0an 0a, tell a lie 4-t t+e (ir(-0stan(es (an ne3er. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e a/0itte/ in t+eir 'ritten state0ents -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at on so0e o((asions "r. N-2-r Tal'ar re0o3e/ t+e 7e, fro0 5s. 6ar-s+iEs lo(7 an/ 7e2t t+e sa0e 'it+ +er. It is an a/0itte/ fa(t t+at t+e /oor of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 4e/-roo0 'as +a3in1 (li(7 s+-t a-to0ati( lo(7 an/ as s-(+ it (o-l/ +a3e 4een o2ene/ eit+er 4, t+e 2arents 'it+ t+e 7e, fro0 o-tsi/e or 4, 5s. 6ar-s+i fro0 insi/e. P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra +as /e2ose/ t+at '+en +e +a/ tal7e/ to "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar t+en +e +a/ tol/ +i0 t+at in t+e 2re(e/in1 ni1+t at a4o-t 11.&0 P.5. roo0 of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs /oor 'as lo(7e/ fro0 o-tsi/e an/ after ta7in1 t+e 7e, +e +a/ 1one to slee2. It is not t+e (ase of t+e a((-se/ t+at on t+at fatef-l ni1+t t+e 7e, of 4e/-roo0 'as 'it+ $e0ra. or t+at t+e, +a/ o2ene/ t+e /oor 'it+ t+e 7e, an/ t+erefore) it 4e(o0es (lear t+at t+e roo0 'as o2ene/ 4, 5s. 6ar-s+i +erself. It 'as not 2ossi4le eit+er for $e0ra. or an o-tsi/er to -nlo(7 t+e /oor 'it+o-t t+e 7e,. 5ere a4sen(e of s2er0atoFoa in t+e 3a1inal s'a4 (annot r-le o-t 2ossi4ilit, of se>-al inter(o-rse as +as 4een +el/ in )rithi Chand *s. State of 'i3achal )radesh 18>8 SCC 5Cri.6 20;. It is esta4lis+e/ t+at 2ri3ate 2arts of /e(ease/ 5s. 6ar-s+i 'ere (leane/ an/
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4e(a-se of t+at 4e/-s+eet 4elo' t+e 2el3i( re1ion 'as fo-n/ 'et an/ +en(e 2resen(e of s2er0atoFoa (an +ar/l, 4e seen or fo-n/. In /udh Nath )ande7 *s. State of (.). AI+ 18>1 SC 811 State of (.). *s. "a%u +a3 State of 520006 4 SCC <1< 0unshi )rasad *s. State of "ihar 2001 5496 ACC 1001 5SC6 'ar7ana *s. +a3 Singh AI+ 2002 SC ;20 it +as 4een +el/ t+at t+e (re/i4ilit, of /efen(e 'itnesses stan/s on t+e sa0e footin1 on '+i(+ 2rose(-tion 'itnesses stan/ an/ t+ere is no /istin(tion 4et'een t+e t'o. T+e /efen(e 'itnesses are entitle/ to e@-al treat0ent 'it+ t+e 'itnesses of 2rose(-tion. $o'e3er) t+e e3i/en(e of ".!.-& "r. %r0il S+ar0a an/ ".!.-4 R.D. S+ar0a /oes not ins2ire (onfi/en(e on t+is as2e(t. ".!.-& +as state/ in +er (rosse>a0ination t+at if 0ale +as -n/er1one o2eration of 3ase(to0, or/inaril, no s2er0atoFoa s+all 4e fo-n/ in +is /is(+ar1e. S+e +as also state/ t+at if t+ere is no s2er0atoFoa in a 0ale-/is(+ar1e t+en s2er0atoFoa 'ill not 4e seen. It is not to 4e

for1otten t+at 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ are /o(tors 4, 2rofession an/ t+erefore) t+e, 'ere in 2osition to /estro, t+e e3i/en(e of 2erfor0an(e of se>-al inter(o-rse. ".!.-& "r. %r0il S+ar0a is (o02letel, an intereste/ an/ 2artisan 'itness '+o +as a22eare/ in t+e (o-rt to /e2ose in fa3o-r of t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/ t+erefore) +er e3i/en(e (annot 4e relie/ -2on. S+e +as a/0itte/ in +er (rosse>a0ination t+at s+e +a/ 0et t+e a((-se/ 2ersons 8-10 ,ears 4a(7. S+e also 7no's "r. "ines+ Tal'ar 4e(a-se t+e, 4ot+ 'or7 in 62ollo $os2ital. S+e +as also a/0itte/ in +er (ross-e>a0ination t+at s+e +as
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not e>a0ine/ t+e '+ite /is(+ar1e of t+is (ase an/ 'it+o-t 0i(ros(o2i( e>a0ination it 'ill 4e /iffi(-lt to sa, as to '+et+er t+e '+ite /is(+ar1e in t+e 3a1ina is fro0 o-tso-r(e or not an/ if t+e /o(tor (on/-(tin1 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination +as 0entione/ a4o-t t+e 2resen(e of '+ite /is(+ar1e in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort t+en @-estion of e>a0ination 4, 0i(ros(o2e 'ill not arise an/ t+-s t+e e3i/en(e of ".!.-& (annot 4e 4elie3e/. ".!.-4 "r. R.D. S+ar0a +as also a/0itte/ t+at '+ite /is(+ar1e +as 4een s+o'n in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of 5s. 6ar-s+i. $is state0ent to t+e effe(t t+at if /-rin1 t+e 2ro(ess of settin1 in of ri1or 0ortis 3a1ina is (leane/ 'it+ (otton or soft (lot+ t+en in.-ries on e>ternal an/ internal 2art of 3a1ina 0a, (o0e (annot 4e 4elie3e/ at all. P.!.-&= "r. Nares+ Ra. +as 0entione/ in +is 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort t+at t+e 2enis of $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ s'ollen 4-t if +e +as state/ 4efore t+e (o-rt t+at t+e s'ellin1 'as 4e(a-se eit+er +e +a/ 4een 0-r/ere/ in t+e 0i/st of se>-al inter(o-rse or .-st 4efore +e 'as a4o-t to +a3e se>-al inter(o-rse is not+in1 4-t @-ite 2re2ostero-s an/ reall, a 0e/i(al 4las2+e0, as t+e reasons as(ri4e/ 4, +i0 are l-/i(ro-s. ".!.-4 "r. R.D. S+ar0a +as ri1+tl, 2ointe/ o-t in +is state0ent t+at in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of $e0ra.) "r. Nares+ Ra. +as 'ritten t+at e,es 'ere 2rotr-/in1 o-t) 4loo/ ooFin1 o-t of 0o-t+ an/ nostrils) sto0a(+ 'as /isten/e/ an/ t+ere 'as s'ellin1 in t+e 2enis '+i(+ are all si1ns of 2-trifi(ation an/ t+erefore) s'ellin1 in t+e 2enis an/ s(rot-0 'as an a((o-nt of 2-trifi(ation of t+e /ea/ 4o/, an/ not 4e(a-se of
Pa1e 10;

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se>-al inter(o-rse. Be t+at as it 0a,) t+e fa(t re0ains t+at t+e 2enis of $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ s'ollen at t+e ti0e of 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination of +is /ea/ 4o/,. "eat+ of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ +as ta7en 2la(e insi/e t+e flat of t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/ t+erefore) 0o/e an/ 0anner of (o00ittin1 t+e 0-r/er of t+e /e(ease/ are 'it+in t+e es2e(ial 7no'le/1e of t+e a((-se/ '+i(+ t+e, (o-l/ not e>2lain. T+e 2rose(-tion (annot 4e s-22ose/ to 1i3e e3i/en(e of t+at fa(t '+i(+ is i02ossi4le for it to 4e 1i3en 4e(a-se no e,e 'itness e>(e2t t+e a((-se/ 2ersons 'as 2resent at t+e ti0e of t+e 0-r/er of t+e /e(ease/ 2ersons. To re2eat at t+e (ost of re2etition) in all +-0an affairs a4sol-te (ertaint, is a 0,t+ an/ as )rofessor "rett feli(ito-sl, 2-ts itAall e>a(tness is a fa7eK. If 5r. 6.C.#. Da-l +as 0entione/ in +is (los-re re2ort t+at no 4loo/ of $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ on t+e 4e/-s+eet an/ 2illo' of 6ar-s+i) t+ere is no e3i/en(e to 2ro3e t+at $e0ra. 'as 0-r/ere/ in t+e roo0 of 6ar-s+i) s(ientifi( tests on "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar +a3e not (on(l-si3el, in/i(ate/ t+eir in3ol3e0ent in t+e (ri0e) t+e e>a(t se@-en(e of e3ents in t+e inter3enin1 ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 to =.00 6.5. in t+e 0ornin1 is not (lear) t+e offen(e +as ta7en 2la(e in an en(lose/ flat) +en(e) no e,e-'itnesses are a3aila4le an/ t+e (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e (olle(te/ /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of in3esti1ation +a3e (riti(al an/ s-4stantial 1a2s an/ t+ere is a4sen(e of (lear-(-t 0oti3e an/ non re(o3er, of an, 'ea2on of offen(e an/ t+eir lin7 eit+er to t+e ser3ants or to t+e 2arents) t+en on t+at 1ro-n/ no /ent is (reate/ on t+e (ase of

Pa1e 10=

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2rose(-tion. T+e (o-rt is not 4o-n/ 4, t+e sai/ o4ser3ations/fin/in1s of t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er 5r. Da-l. T+e learne/ S2e(ial 9-/i(ial 5a1istrate (C.B.I.)) C+aFia4a/ after /isa1reein1 'it+ t+e reasons for s-40ittin1 (los-re re2ort) s-00one/ t+e a((-se/ 2ersons to stan/ trial. T+at or/er +as finall, 4een affir0e/ 4, t+e $onE4le S-2re0e Co-rt an/ t+erefore) fro0 t+e sai/ fin/in1s of t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er no 4enefit (an 4e /eri3e/ 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons. P.!.-= "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra +as 0entione/ in +is re2ort >+i4it-7a-= t+at >+i4it-21 'as one 2illo' >+i4it-7+a-4; at 2a1e && it 'it+ 2rinte/ 0-lti (olo-re/ 2illo'-(o3er +a3in1 fe' faint 4ro'n stains. In +as 4een 'ritten t+at one 4loo/ staine/ 2illo' 'it+ 2illo'-(o3er 'as re(o3ere/ fro0 t+e roo0 of 5s. 6ar-s+i. "r. 5o+a2atra +as 0entione/ in +is re2ort >+i4it-7a-= at 2ara no. 8.12 I: t+at 2artial "N6 2rofiles 1enerate/ fro0 t+e so-r(e of >+i4its-4(4loo/ s(ra22in1s)) =-4 (1lass 4ottle)) ? (4loo/ s(ra22in1s) an/ 21 (2illo') are (onsistent 'it+ t+e "N6 2rofiles 1enerate/ fro0 t+e so-r(e of >+i4it-11 (4loo/ staine/ t+rea/s) an/ a02lifie/ lo(i. In >+i4it-24 (2ie(e of 'all +a3in1 i02ression of 2al0 2rint) at t+e >+i4it-7+a-17 on '+i(+ relian(e +as 4een 2la(e/ 4, t+e a((-se/) it +as 4een 0entione/ at 2a1e no. 11 (2a2er no. 1;4-6a/12) in ans'er to @-estion no. 2 t+at 2artial "N6 2rofiles 1enerate/ fro0 >+i4its-4 (4loo/ s(ra22in1s)) =-4 (1lass 4ottle)) ? (4loo/ s(ra22in1s) an/ 21 (2illo') are (onsistent 'it+ t+e "N6 2rofiles 1enerate/ fro0 t+e so-r(e of >+i4it-11 (4loo/ staine/ t+rea/s) an/ >+i4it-24 (2ie(e of 'all +a3in1 i02ression of 2al0
Pa1e 107

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2rint) at t+e a02lifie/ lo(i an/ t+-s it 4e(o0es a4-n/antl, (lear t+at $e0ra.Es "N6 +as 4een fo-n/ on t+e 2illo' 'it+ (o3er '+i(+ 'as re(o3ere/ fro0 t+e roo0 of 5s. 6ar-s+i as 2er letter /ate/ 04.0=.2008 >+i4it-7+a-4; of S.P. (C.B.I.). "r. 5.S. "a+i,a) alt+o-1+) +as not 0entione/ in +is re2ort >+i4it-7a-?& t+at +e ins2e(te/ t+e s(ene of (ri0e 4-t P.!.-&? 5r. 6.C.#. Da-l +as /e2ose/ t+at in t+e (ase /iar, /ate/ 0?.10.200? +e +as 0entione/ t+at s(ene of (ri0e 'as ins2e(te/ alon1 'it+ "r. 5.S. "a+i,a. If ins2e(tor 6r3in/ 9aitle, '+o a((o02anie/ "r "a+i,a +as not 4een 2ro/-(e/ t+en no a/3erse inferen(e (an 4e /ra'n. T+ere is no re@-ire0ent of la' to asso(iate 2-4li( 'itness at t+e ti0e of ins2e(tion of t+e (ri0e s(ene. I.<. 5r. Da-l also a((o02anie/ "r. "a+i,a at t+e ti0e of ins2e(tion of s(ene of (ri0e an/ t+erefore) 2l-ralit, of e3i/en(e 'as not re@-ire/. S-4ornation of 'itnesses +as 4een fro'ne/ -2on 4, t+e $onE4le S-2re0e Co-rt. "r. "a+i,a is a re2-te/ e>2ert of forensi( s(ien(e. $e is (re/ite/ to +a3e 1i3en re2orts in 3er, i02ortant (ases '+i(+ +e +as /etaile/ in +is e3i/en(e. $e is also t+e a-t+or of a 4oo7 ACri0e S(ene 5ana1e0entK. $e +as state/ on oat+ t+at on 0?.10.200? +e +a/ 3isite/ t+e s(ene of (ri0e alon1 'it+ t+e in3esti1atin1 tea0 an/ t+en +e +a/ 2re2are/ +is re2ort after +a3in1 /is(-ssion 'it+ t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er. T+ere is not+in1 to s-11est t+at s-(+ a 'itness +ol/in1 +i1+ 2ost an/ an e0inent e>2ert 'ill s-((-04 to t+e 2ress-re of C.B.I. to 1i3e +is re2ort >+i4it-7a-?& a1ainst t+e '+o0 no ani0osit, or a((-se/ 2ersons 'it+

2re.-/i(e +as 4een s+o'n. In 3ie' of t+e fin/in1s
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ret-rne/ in t+e 2re(e/in1 2ara1ra2+s t+e re2ort >+i4it-7a-?& of P.!.-&8 "r. 5.S. "a+i,a (annot 4e (asti1ate/ as 4ereft of lo1i( an/ rat+er t+e re2ort is (o02ati4le 'it+ t+e (ir(-0stan(es /elineate/ +erein a4o3e. T+-s) t+e 0oti3e of t+e (ri0e also stan/s 2ro3e/. 5in/ is) in/ee/) a 2e(-liar 2la(e an/ t+e 'or7in1 of +-0an 0in/ is often ins(r-ta4le. 5oti3e is t+e 0o3in1 2o'er '+i(+ i02els a(tion or a /efinite res-lt or to 2-t it /ifferentl, 0oti3e is t+at '+i(+ in(ites or sti0-lates a 2erson to /o an a(t (#ide C+an/ra )ra4ash Shahi *s. State of (.). 520006 < SCC 1<26. In State of 2arnata4a *s. /a=id +a$ario and others 520026 7 SCC 72> it +as 4een +el/ t+at '+ere a (re/i4le e3i/en(e e>ists on re(or/ to esta4lis+ 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/) it is not ne(essar, to fin/ o-t t+e 0oti3e of t+e (ri0e. In State of 0.). *s. /ig=i,a7 Singh AI+ 18>1 SC 1740 *inod 2u3ar *s. State of 0.). 2002 5446 ACC 884 5SC6 Tha33an 2u3ar *s. (.T. of Chandigarh 520096 ; SCC 9>0 State of '.). *s. Jeet Singh 518886 4 SCC 970 and Suresh Chand "ahri *s. State of "ihar AI+ 1884 SC 2420 it +as 4een +el/ t+at a4sen(e of 0oti3e 'o-l/ not in an, 0anner /esta4iliFe t+e 2rose(-tion (ase. In 0ani 2u3ar Thapa *s. State of Si44i3 520026 7 SCC 1<7 Sahade=an A Sagade=an *s. State 2009 SCC 5Crl.6 9>2) it +as 4een +el/ t+at if t+e (ir(-0stan(es are 2ro3e/ 4e,on/ /o-4t) t+en t+e a4sen(e of 0oti3e 'o-l/ not +a02er a (on3i(tion. In (,agar Singh *s. State of )un,a% 520076 19 SCC 80 it 'as +el/ Ait is tr-e t+at in a (ase relatin1 to (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e 0oti3e /oes ass-0e 1reat i02ortan(e 4-t to sa, t+at t+e a4sen(e of
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

0oti3e 'o-l/ /islo/1e t+e entire 2rose(-tion stor, is 2er+a2s 1i3in1 t+is one fa(tor an i02ortan(e '+i(+ is not /-e an/ (to -se t+e (li(+O) t+e 0oti3e is in t+e 0in/ of t+e a((-se/ an/ (an sel/o0 4e fat+o0e/ 'it+ an, /e1ree of a((-ra(,.K In 0oh33ad Adil *s. State 2008 Cr&J N@C 424 it 'as +el/ t+at 0oti3e if 2ro3e/ 0a7es t+e (ase stron1er 4-t its a4sen(e /oes not ren/er e3i/en(e -n'ort+, of a((e2tan(e. Proof of 0oti3e in a (ase 4ase/ on (ir(-0stantial '+en e3i/en(e is is of no an/ (onse@-en(e e3i/en(e stron1

(ir(-0stan(es s2ea7 lo-/l,) 4ol/l, an/ (learl,. T+ere 'o-l/ 4e a sin1le (ir(-0stan(e so stron1) 'ei1+t, an/ (on(l-si3e t+at -nless satisfa(toril, e>2laine/) 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/ (o-l/ 4e /ra'n fro0 it. In Jagdish *s. State of 0.). 2010 516 (.). Cri3inal +ulings 981 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at in a (ase of (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e 0oti3e /oes not +a3e e>tre0e si1nifi(an(e. In a4sen(e of 0oti3e) t+e (on3i(tion 4ase/ on (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e (an in 2rin(i2le 4e 0a/e. In )radeep *s. State 5N.C.T. of /elhi6 2011 Cr.&.J. 411< 5/"!/elhi6 it 'as +el/ t+at a4sen(e of 0oti3e in a (ase 4ase/ on (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e is of no (onse@-en(e) if (ir(-0stan(es relie/ -2on 4, t+e 2rose(-tion are 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t. In A,it Singh 'arna3 Singh #u,ral *s. State of 0aharashtra 2012 516 AC+ 84 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at 0oti3e is i02ortant in (ase of (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e 4-t it /oes not 0ean t+at if 2rose(-tion is -na4le to satisfa(toril, 2ro3e 0oti3e) its (ase 0-st fail. Co-rt (annot enter into t+e 0in/ of +-0an 4ein1. T+e sa0e 3ie' +as 4een ta7en in A3ita=a "anar,ee A
Pa1e 110

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"appa "anar,ee *s. State of :est "engal 2012 516 AC+ 90; 5SC6. In 0unish 0u%ar *s. State of 'ar7ana 520126 10 SCC 4;4 it 'as +el/ t+at e3i/en(e re1ar/in1 e>isten(e of 0oti3e '+i(+ o2erates in 0in/ of an assassin is 3er, often not 'it+in t+e rea(+ of ot+ers. 5oti3e 0a, not e3en 4e 7no'n to 3i(ti0. 5oti3e 0a, 4e 7no'n to assassin an/ none else 0a, 7no' '+at 1a3e 4irt+ to s-(+ e3il t+o-1+t in +is 0in/. Re(entl,) in Sanaullah 2han *s. State of "ihar 520196 9 SCC <2 it +as 4een +el/ t+at '+ere ot+er (ir(-0stan(es lea/ to t+e onl, +,2ot+esis t+at a((-se/ +as (o00itte/ t+e offen(e) (o-rt (annot a(@-it t+e a((-se/ of offen(e 0erel, 4e(a-se 0oti3e for (o00ittin1 offen(e +as not 4een esta4lis+e/. It is a 0atter of (o00on 7no'le/1e t+at 0an, a 0-r/ers +a3e 4een (o00itte/ 'it+o-t an, 7no'n or 2ro0inent 0oti3e. 5ere fa(t t+at 2rose(-tion +as faile/ to translate t+at 0ental /is2osition of t+e a((-se/ into e3i/en(e /oes not 0ean t+at no s-(+ 0ental (on/ition e>iste/ in t+e 0in/ of t+e assailant. Re(entl,) in *i=e4 2alra *s. State of +a,asthan 2019 5>26 ACC ;< it +as 4een o4ser3e/ t+at '+ere (+ain of ot+er (ir(-0stan(es is esta4lis+e/ 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t t+at it is t+e a((-se/ an/ a((-se/ alone '+o (o00itte/ t+e offen(e it (annot 4e +el/ in a4sen(e of 0oti3e t+at a((-se/ +as not (o00itte/ t+e offen(e. Pa2er no. 182-6a/2 to 182-6a/1& 'as /-l, 2re2are/ 4, "r. "a+i,a -n/er +is o'n si1nat-res an/ it +as 4een 2ro3e/ in a((or/an(e 'it+ t+e 2ro3isions of 3i/en(e 6(t an/ t+erefore) ri1+tl, it
Pa1e 111

'as 0ar7e/ as >+i4it-7a-?&. 6((or/in1l, o4.e(tions

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

re1ar/in1 0ar7in1 of o3err-le/.

>+i4it are not s-staine/ an/

It +as ne>t 4een (onten/e/ 4, 5r. 5ir t+at fi3e /ifferent 0-r/er 'ea2ons 3iF +a00er) s+ar2-e/1e/ 'ea2on) 7-7ri) 1olf (l-4 no. ; an/ s-r1i(al s(al2el s-rfa(e/ /-rin1 t+e in3esti1ationM fro0 1=.0;.2008 to <(to4er 200? t+e 1olf (l-4 'as ne3er in t+e s2e(tr-0 of t+e in3esti1atin1 a1en(iesM on t+e 4asis of t+e in(orre(t infor0ation s-22lie/ 4, 5r. 6.C.#. Da-l) "r. "a+i,a for t+e first ti0e intro/-(e/ 1olf (l-4 as one of t+e 0-r/er 'ea2onsM "r. "a+i,a 0entione/ in +is re2ort >+i4it-7a-?& t+at trian1-lar s+a2e/ +ea/ in.-r, s-11est t+at 'ea2on of assa-lt 0-st +a3e 4een a 1olf (l-4 4-t in +is e3i/en(e +e +as a/0itte/ t+at I.<. +a/ ne3er s+o'e/ +i0 an, 1olf (l-4M t+ere is also so0e 2ossi4ilit, of +o(7e, sti(7 to +a3e 4een -se/M t+e 1olf (l-4s 'ere ta7en in 2ossession 4, C.B.I. on &0.10.200? 4-t t+eir test i/entifi(ation 2ara/e is not a((or/an(e 'it+ la' an/ +en(e ina/0issi4leM in t+e e>a0ination re2ort it 'as fo-n/ t+at 4loo/ or ot+er 4iolo1i(al fl-i/s (o-l/ not 4e /ete(te/ on >+i4its-1 to 12 (12 1olf sti(7s)M ne1li1i4le a0o-nt of soil 'as fo-n/ sti(7in1 in t+e (a3it, of t+e n-04ers en1ra3e/ on 4otto0 2ortion of t+e +ea/ of t+e 1olf sti(7s (1olf (l-4s) 0ar7e/ >+i4it & * ; in (o02arison to t+e soil sti(7in1 in t+e (a3it, of t+e n-04ers en1ra3e/ on 4otto0 2ortion of t+e +ea/s of 1olf sti(7s (1olf (l-4s * iron 2-tter) 0ar7e/ >+i4its 1) 2) 4) =) 7) 8) ?) 10) 11 * 12M P.!.-1; 5r. %0es+ S+ar0a +as 4een /e(lare/ +ostile an/ +as state/ t+at in t+e C.B.I. <ffi(e on seein1 1olf (l-4s 4earin1 nos. 4 * ; +e +as not state/ t+at t+ese 3er, 1olf (l-4s +a/ 4een ta7en o-t
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4, +i0 fro0 t+e (ar an/ 7e2t in t+e ser3ant @-arter of #-&2M t+at '+en 1olf (l-4 4earin1 nos. 4 * ; 'ere s+o'n to +i0 +e +as state/ t+at +e (annot sa, '+et+er t+ese 'ere t+e 1olf sti(7s 4earin1 nos. 4 * ;M t+e test i/entifi(ation 0e0o 'as not e>2laine/ to +i0 in $in/i an/ sin(e 5r. Da-l +as 4eaten +i0 -2 an/ t+erefore) +e +a/ si1ne/ t+e 0e0o o-t of fearM t+at P.!.-1= 5r. #a>0an Sin1+ +as /e2ose/ t+at 5r. %0es+ S+ar0a too7 o-t t'o 1olf sti(7s fro0 4a1 an/ state/ to 5r. Da-l t+at t+ese 3er, t'o 1olf sti(7s 'ere 7e2t 4, +i0 in t+e ser3ant @-arterM t+at "r. "o+re for t+e first ti0e on 28.0;.2010 1a3e state0ent to t+e I.<. t+at 4l-nt in.-ries 'ere (a-se/ 4, a 1olf (l-4 an/ +e +as not state/ in +is 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort t+at in.-r, nos. 1 * & (an 4e (a-se/ 4, 1olf (l-4 an/ onl, 7-7ri 'as s+o'n to +i0 4, C.B.I.M "r. Nares+ Ra. ne3er o2ine/ t+at 4l-nt in.-ries (o-l/ 4e (a-se/ 4, 1olf (l-4 an/ for t+e first ti0e in t+e (o-rt +e state/ t+at in.-ries nos. = * 7 of $e0ra. (an 4e (a-se/ 4, a +ar/ o4.e(t li7e a 1olf sti(7M t+at +e +a/ not 1i3en state0ent to 5r. $.S. Sa(+an t+at in.-ries nos. &) = an/ 7 (an 4e (a-se/ 4, a s-r1i(al s(al2el or a 1olf (l-4 res2e(ti3el,M t+at 4ot+ "r. "o+re an/ "r. Nares+ Ra. +a/ o2ine/ as 0e04ers of t+e e>2ert (o00ittee t+at 4l-nt in.-ries (o-l/ 4e (a-se/ 4, 7-7riM "r. 5o+a2atra +as 0entione/ in +is re2ort >+i4it7+a-&7 t+e 1olf (l-4s e>a0ine/ 4, +i0 res-lte/ in no i/entifi(ation of 4loo/) no "N6) no 4iolo1i(al 0aterial on an, of t+e 1olf (l-4sM t+at a((or/in1 to re2ort >+i4it-7a-;& of 5r. ".D. Tan'ar >+i4it-& is t+e 'oo/en 1olf (l-4) t+e en1ra3in1 no. 4) >+i4it-; is t+e 1olf (l-4 'it+ >+i4it-= is t+e 1olf (l-4 'it+
Pa1e 11&

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t+e en1ra3in1 no. ; an/ t+-s 1olf (l-4 4earin1 en1ra3in1 no. ; ( >+i4it-=) 'as +a3in1 /irt '+ile it +as 4een t+e (ase of C.B.I. t+at 1olf (l-4 4earin1 en1ra3in1 no. ; ( >+i4it-=) 'as -se/ as a 0-r/er 'ea2onM t+at t+e state0ent of 5r. Da-l t+at in t+e inter3enin1 ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +ear/ so0e noise an/ t+en +e 'ent to t+e roo0 of $e0ra. an/ 2i(7e/ -2 one 1olf sti(7 an/ t+ereafter +e a1ain +ear/ noise (o0in1 fro0 +is /a-1+terEs roo0) '+ere-2on +e 2-s+e/ t+e /oor '+i(+ 'as a.ar an/ fo-n/ 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ in (o02ro0isin1 2osition an/ t+en +e 4l-/1eone/ 4ot+ of t+e0 to /eat+ 'it+ t+e 1olf (l-4 4-t is self(ontra/i(tor, as in +is (los-re re2ort 5r. Da-l +as +i0self .otte/ /o'n t+at t+e e>a(t se@-en(e of e3ents (in t+e inter3enin1 ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 00.08 0i/ ni1+t to =:00 6.5. in t+e 0ornin1) is not (learM no e3i/en(e +as e0er1e/ to s+o' t+e (lear role of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ "r. N-2-r tal'ar) in/i3i/-all, in t+e (o00ission of (ri0eM a 4oar/ of e>2erts (onstit-te/ /-rin1 earlier in3esti1ation tea0 +as 1i3en an o2inion t+at t+e 2ossi4ilit, of t+e ne(7s 4ein1 (-t 4, 7-7ri (annot 4e r-le/ o-t) alt+o-1+ /o(tors '+o +a3e (on/-(te/ 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination +a3e sai/ t+at (-t 'as /one 4, s-r1i(all, traine/ 2erson 'it+ a s0all s-r1i(al instr-0entM ".!.-4 "r. R.D. S+ar0a +as /e2ose/ t+at if an in.-r, is (a-se/ 4, t+e 1olf sti(7 t+en a /e2resse/ fra(t-re 'ill 4e (a-se/ an/ t+e 4one 'ill +a3e a /e2ressionM t+is (on(e2t is 4ase/ on #o(ar/Es Prin(i2le of >(+an1eM in 5s. 6ar-s+iEs or $e0ra.Es 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort) it is no'+ere 0entione/ t+at an, of t+e in.-ries (a-se/ /e2resse/
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fra(t-resM in $e0ra.Es 2ost0orte0 re2ort t+e in.-r, no. 7 +as 4een 0entione/ as +a3in1 /i0ension of 8 P 2 (0. '+i(+ (annot 4e (a-se/ 4, a 1olf sti(7 4e(a-se t+e 4one on t+e 4a(7 of t+e +ea/ is ro-n/ s+a2e/ an/ t+e s-rfa(e of t+e 1olf sti(7 is flat) t+erefore) if t+e 1olf sti(7 is -se/ in an, 0anner to (a-se in.-r, t+en area of t+e i02a(t s+all ne3er 4e 8 P 2 (0.M in 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort t+e in.-r, nos. 1 * & +a3e 4een 0entione/ onl, as fra(t-re 4-t /e2resse/ fra(t-re +as not 4een 0entione/M t+erefore) in.-r, no. 1 * & on t+e +ea/ of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as not (a-se/ 4, t+e 1olf (l-4M in 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of 5s. 6ar-s+i in.-r, nos. 1 * & +as 4een /es(ri4e/ 4, "r. "o+re as a line fra(t-re an/ t+erefore) t+e sai/ in.-r, nos. 1 * & (o-l/ not +a3e 4een (a-se/ 4, t+e 1olf (l-4 an/ t+-s t+eor, of 1olf (l-4 'as intro/-(e/ for t+e first ti0e in <(to4er 200?) alt+o-1+) set of 1olf (l-4s 'as a3aila4le 4-t no noti(e -n/er se(tion ?1 Cr.P.C. 'as e3er 1i3en to 2ro/-(e t+e sa0e nor "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as @-estione/ a4o-t t+e 1olf (l-4. It 'as f-rt+er s-40itte/ t+at T.I.P. of 1olf (l-4s 'as ne3er (on/-(te/ in t+e 2resen(e of 9-/i(ial 5a1istrateM t+at 1olf (l-4s 'ere 'ra22e/ 'it+ a (lot+ on t+e 0i//le 2ortion an/ +ea/s an/ +an/les of (l-4s 'ere e>2ose/ an/ not seale/ at all an/ t+erefore) 2ossi4ilit, of ta02erin1 or (leanin1 at t+e en/ of C.B.I. (annot 4e r-le/ o-t an/ e3en 5al7+ana Re1ister +as not 4een 2ro/-(e/ nor in(+ar1e 5al7+ana 'as 2ro/-(e/ to s+o' t+e 2ro2er (-sto/, of 1olf (l-4s an/ t+e entire (+ain of (-sto/, is fra-1+t 'it+ s-s2i(ion as it +as not 4een 2ro3e/ as to '+en 1olf (l-4s 'ere sent 4a(7 to C.8.S.#. or to
Pa1e 11;

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5r. ".D. Tan'ar an/ t+-s t+e stor, as /e2i(te/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion is a4sol-tel, a2o(r,2+al. It +as also 4een ar1-e/ 4, 5r. 5ir t+at t+e t+eor, 2ro2o-n/e/ 4, "r. "a+i,a t+at ne(7s of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 'ere slit 4, s-r1i(al s(al2el is also not 'ort+ relia4le in 3ie' of t+e fa(t t+at e>2ert (o00ittee in its re2ort >+i4it-7+a-17 /ate/ 0=.0?.2008 o2ine/ t+at 4ot+ t+e +ea/ an/ ne(7 in.-ries are 2ossi4le to +a3e 4een (a-se/ 4, 7-7riM "r. "o+re +as no '+ere state/ on 18.0;.2008) 18.07.2008 an/ 0&.10.2008 t+at in.-r, nos. 2 an/ 4 0a, 4e (a-se/ 4, s-r1i(all, s+ar2-e/1e/ 'ea2on an/ for t+e first ti0e +e +as state/ 4efore t+e in3esti1ation offi(er on &0.0?.200? an/ 28.0;.2010 t+at in.-r, nos. 2 an/ 4 'ere (a-se/ 4, s+ar2-e/1e/ s-r1i(al instr-0entM t+e e3i/en(e of "r. Nares+ Ra. t+at in.-r, no. & of $e0ra. 0a, 4e (a-se/ 4, s(al2el (annot 4e a((e2te/ as +e +as also not state/ to 5r. $.S. Sa(+an t+at t+e in.-ries no. &) = an/ 7 (an res2e(ti3el, 4e (a-se/ 4, s-r1i(al s(al2el an/ 1olf sti(7 an/ P.!.-&0 "r. "ines+ +as state/ in +is (rosse>a0ination t+at +e /oes not 7no' '+at 'as t+e s,lla4-s of B.".S. in t+e ,ear 1?8&M t+at state0ent of "r. C+an/ra B+-s+an Sin1+ 'as neit+er re(or/e/ nor +e 'as 2ro/-(e/ in t+e (o-rt an/ ".!.-2 "r. 60-l,a C+a//+a +as state/ in +is e3i/en(e t+at /entist /o not re(ei3e an, e0er1en(, 2atients '+o 'o-l/ re@-ire treat0ent 'it+ s(al2els an/ 0ostl, /entists 7ee2 s(al2els in t+eir (lini( an/ not at +o0e an/ a 2rost+o/ontist +ar/l, -ses a s(al2el an/ 0ost (o00onl, no. 1; 4la/e is -se/ in t+e s(al2elM t+e .o4 of ort+o/ontist (annot 4e 2erfor0e/ 4, a 2rost+o/ontist -nless +e +as 1ot t+e s2e(ialiFationM
Pa1e 11=

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t+e (-ttin1 e/1e of 4la/e no. 1; is 7.8 00.) nor0all, in in.-ries (a-se/ 4, s(al2els one is 4o-n/ to see slas+es an/ in.-ries on t+e ne(7s of t+e /e(ease/ /o not +a3e t+e 2attern of slas+es an/ rat+er t+e, are /ee2 '+i(+ (an 4e (a-se/ 4, +ea3, s+ar2-e/1e/ an/ (-r3e/ s+a2e/ 'ea2onM if s(al2el is -se/ in (-ttin1 t+e tra(+ea t+en t+e s(al2el (an 4rea7 4e(a-se it +as (artila1e) (-ttin1 of '+i(+ is not eas,M (aroti/ arter, of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as fo-n/ (-t an/ it 'as fo-n/ 3er, /ee2 an/ as s-(+ (-ttin1 'it+ s(al2el is 3er, /iffi(-ltM s-r1i(all, traine/ 2erson (annot (-t t+e ne(7 in one stro7e 'it+ a s0all instr-0ent an/ 4ot+ "r. "o+re an/ "r. Ra. +a3e no '+ere state/ in t+e (o-rt t+at (-ts on t+e ne(7s of t+e /e(ease/ 'ere s-r1i(al (-ts an/ as s-(+ -se of s-r1i(al s(al2el in (a-sin1 t+e ne(7 in.-ries of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ is not 2ro3e/. In s-22ort of +is ar1-0ents t+e learne/ (o-nsel +as 2la(e/ relian(e on State of '.). *s. Jai &al and others 518886 7 SCC 2>0 +a3esh Chandra Aggar-al *s. +egenc7 'ospital &i3ited and others 2010 516 A&J 740 5SC6 0adan #opal 2a44ad *s. Na=al /u%e7 and another 518826 9 SCC 204 0ohd. Mahid *s. State of T.N. 518886 ; SCC 120 0ani4 #a-ali *s. State of 0aharashtra Crl. Appeal No. 282 of 200; decided %7 'onL%le 'igh Court of "o3%a7 on 21.12.2012 +a34ishan 0ithan &al Shar3a *s. State of "o3%a7 AI+ 18<< SC 104 "udhsen *s. State of (.). 1870 526 SCC 12> 2anan *s. State of 2erala 518786 9 SCC 918 )anna ?ar *s. State of T.N. 520086 8 SCC 1<2 )ra%ir 0ondal *s. State of :est "engal 520106 1 SCC 9>;. T+ese
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ar1-0ents are 0ore (a2tio-s t+an s-4stantial an/ t+erefore) +a3e to 4e a((e2te/ to 4e re.e(te/ onl,. In t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of 5s. 6ar-s+i >+i4it-7a-& it +as 4een (learl, 0entione/ t+at in.-r, nos. 1 an/ & are la(erate/ 'o-n/s '+ile in.-r, nos. 2 an/ 4 are in(ise/ 'o-n/s. #i7e'ise) in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of $e0ra. >+i4it-7a-88 in.-r, no. 1 +as 4een s+o'n as a4rasion) in.-r, nos. 2) 4) ; as a4ra/e/ (ont-sions) in.-r, no. & +as 4een s+o'n as in(ise/ 'o-n/ an/ in.-r, nos. = an/ 7 +a3e 4een s+o'n as la(erate/ 'o-n/s. T+-s) in.-r, nos. 1 an/ & of 5s. 6ar-s+i are 2ossi4le to +a3e 4een (a-se/ 4, so0e 4l-nt o4.e(t an/ in.-r, nos. 2 an/ 4 are 2ossi4le to 4e (a-se/ 4, an, s+ar2-e/1e/ 'ea2on. #i7e'ise) in.-r, nos. 1) 2) 4 an/ ; of $e0ra. are 2ossi4le to 4e (a-se/ 4, /ra11in1) in.-r, nos. = an/ 7 are 2ossi4le to 4e (a-se/ 4, a 4l-nt o4.e(t li7e 1olf sti(7 an/ in.-r, no. & is 2ossi4le to +a3e 4een infli(te/ 4, a s+ar2-e/1e/ 'ea2on. It is re1rette/ t+at 4ot+ "r. "o+re an/ "r. Ra. 4, +a3e '+i(+ not 0entione/ T+is in 'as in t+e 2ost0orte0 to 4e e>a0ination re2orts as to '+i(+ in.-r, 'as (a-se/ 'ea2on. re@-ire/ t+e s2e(ifi(all, 0entione/ 2ost0orte0

e>a0ination re2orts 4-t alas t+e, +a3e not /one so for t+e reasons 4est 7no'n to t+e0. "r. "o+re +as state/ at 2a1e no. & of +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at sin(e on 18.07.2008 t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er +a/ not as7e/ a4o-t t+e 'ea2ons for (a-sin1 in.-ries of 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ t+erefore) +e +a/ not tol/ +i0. $e +as f-rt+er /e2ose/ t+at in.-r, no. 1 an/ & 0a, 4e (a-se/ 4, 4l-nt o4.e(t an/ in.-ries no. 2 an/ 4 0a, 4e (a-se/ 4, s+ar2-e/1e/ 'ea2on an/ on

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28.0;.2010 +e +a/ 1i3en state0ent to I.<. t+at in.-r, no. 1 an/ & 0a, 4e (a-se/ 4, 1olf sti(7 an/ in.-r, no. 2 an/ 4 0a, 4e (a-se/ 4, s0all s-r1i(all, s+ar2 'ea2on. Sin(e t+e earlier in3esti1atin1 offi(ers +a/ not es2e(iall, as7e/ +i0 a4o-t t+e 'ea2ons '+i(+ 'ere 2ossi4l, -se/ an/ t+erefore) +e (o-l/ not tell a4o-t t+e0 to 2re3io-s in3esti1atin1 offi(ers. P.!.-&= "r. Nares+ Ra. +as also /e2ose/ t+at in.-r, nos. 1) 2) 4 an/ ; are 2ossi4le to +a3e 4een (a-se/ 4, /ra11in1 on +ar/ s-rfa(e) in.-r, no. & 0a, 4e (a-se/ 4, s+ar2-e/1e/ 'ea2on li7e s(al2el an/ in.-r, nos. = an/ 7 0a, 4e (a-se/ 4, 4l-nt o4.e(t li7e 1olf sti(7. If "r. Ra. +as not state/ on 2;.07.2008 to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er 5r. Sa(+an t+at in.-r, nos. &) = an/ 7 +a3e 4een (a-se/ 4, s-r1i(al s(al2el an/ 1olf sti(7 res2e(ti3el, t+en on t+at 1ro-n/ +is testi0on, (annot 4e /is4elie3e/. In State of '.). *s. 0anohar Tha4ur 188> 5976 ACC 428 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at e3en if so0e /etails are 0issin1 in state0ent to I.<. t+en it (annot 4e 1ro-n/ to re.e(t t+e testi0on, of t+e 'itness. If 1olf sti(7 an/ s-r1i(al s(al2el 'ere not sent to "r. "o+re an/ "r. Ra. t+en on a((o-nt of t+is fail-re or o0ission it (annot 4e sai/ t+at a4o3e in.-ries of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 'ere not (a-se/ 4, 1olf sti(7 an/ s(al2el. In State of (.). *s. Asho4 2u3ar Sri=asta=a AI+ 1882 SC >40 it 'as +el/ t+at 2rose(-tion is not re@-ire/ to 0eet an, an/ e3er, +,2ot+esis 2-t for'ar/ 4, t+e a((-se/. It is i02ortant to 0ention t+at 0-r/ers of 4ot+ t+e /e(eases 'ere (o00itte/ 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/ at t+at ti0e no t+ir/ 2erson 'as 2resent t+ere an/ t+erefore) it is 'it+in t+eir es2e(ial 7no'le/1e
Pa1e 11?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

as to 'it+ '+i(+ 'ea2ons t+e in.-ries 'ere infli(te/ -2on t+e /e(ease/ 2ersons. T+e (o-rt is not 4o-n/ 4, t+e o2inions of t+e /o(tors) 4e(a-se after all 0e/i(al e3i/en(e is 4asi(all, o2inionati3e an/ is of a/3isor, (+ara(ter. T+e o2inion of a /o(tor (annot 4e treate/ as 1os2el tr-t+ an/ last 'or/. ".!.-4 "r. R.D. S+ar0a +as a/0itte/ in +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at if t+e ne(7 of an, 2erson is slit 'it+ intent to 7ill +i0 it 'ill not 4e ne(essar, to (-t t+e ne(7 la,er 4, la,er. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at if t+e siFe of in.-r, on t+e +ea/ is si0ilar to t+e /i0ensions of t+e 1olf sti(7 t+en t+is in.-r, +as 4een (a-se/ 4, 1olf sti(7 or not /e2en/s on /e2resse/ fra(t-res 4-t +e +a/ not seen t+e in.-ries of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/. $e +as f-rt+er state/ t+at t+e in.-r, as s+o'n in 2+oto 0aterial >+i4it-& a4o3e t+e e,e-4ro' is in <:<I" for0 an/ t+e ot+er in.-r, 4elo' e,e-4ro' is trian1-lar an/ ooFin1 of 4loo/ is not seen. 6 s2e(ifi( s-11estion +as 4een 1i3en 4efore t+is 'itness t+at s0all (-t is not 2ossi4le 4, 7-7ri an/ onl, (+o22e/ 'o-n/ 'ill 4e infli(te/ 4, 7-7ri. T+e e3i/en(e of "r. S+ar0a is not relia4le 4e(a-se +e +as /is2la,e/ in +is 'e4site t+at Ala',ers (an +a3e o-r ser3i(es for t+eir (lients for 4etter inter2retation of s(ientifi( e3i/en(e a1ainst or for t+eir (lients........K T+-s it 4e(o0es (lear t+at +e 1i3es re2ort in fa3o-r of t+e 2erson fro0 '+o0 +e (+ar1es fees irres2e(ti3e of t+e 0erit of t+e (ase. $o'e3er) loo7in1 to t+e nat-re an/ /i0ension of in.-r, nos. 1 an/ & of 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ in.-r, nos. = an/ 7 of $e0ra. it is 2ossi4le t+at t+ese in.-ries 0a, +a3e 4een (a-se/ 4, so0e 4l-nt o4.e(t li7e 1olf sti(7 an/ in.-r, nos. 2 * 4 of 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ in.-r, no. & of $e0ra. are
Pa1e 120

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2ossi4le to 4e (a-se/ 4, an, s+ar2-e/1e/ 'ea2on li7e s(al2el an/ in.-r, nos. 1) 2) 4 an/ ; of $e0ra. are 2ossi4le to 4e (a-se/ 4, /ra11in1. "ra11in1 0ar7s /e2en/ on t+e 0anner in '+i(+ t+e /e(ease/ 'as (arrie/. T+ere (an 4e no (-t an/ /rie/ for0-la t+at /ra11in1 0ar7s 'ill (o0e on a 2arti(-lar 2art of t+e 4o/,. P.!.-2= "ee2a7 D-0ar Tan'ar) Senior

S(ientifi( <ffi(er) Cra/e-1) C.8.S.#.) Ne' "el+i +as /e2ose/ t+at on 10.11.200? one 2ar(el 'as sent 4, 4iolo1, /i3ision to +is /i3ision an/ its seal 'as inta(t. T+is 2ar(el 'as o2ene/ on 1;.04.2010 an/ 12 1olf sti(7s 'ere fo-n/ '+i(+ 'ere 0ar7e/ as >+i4it-1 to 12. $e +as f-rt+er state/ t+at +e +as e>a0ine/ t+e 1olf sti(7s in ter0s of letter /ate/ &0.10.200? an/ 22.0=.2010 of S.P.) C.B.I.) "e+ra/-n) Ca02 <ffi(e) Ne' "el+i an/ 2re2are/ re2ort /ate/ 1&.07.2010 0ar7e/ as >+i4it-7a-;& an/ /ia1ra0s (olle(ti3el, >+i4it-7a-;4. $e +as f-rt+er /e2ose/ >+i4it- ; is ?= (0.) len1t+ of

t+at len1t+ of sti(7

+ea/ on frontal si/e is 8 (0.) ;.2 (0.) 7.; (0. an/ 2.; (0. an/ on 4a(7 si/e it is 7.; (0. an/ &.00 (0. T+ere is a 0ar1in on 4a(7 si/e '+ose 4rea/t+ is 0.;0 (0. Tra(in1 0eas-re0ent of +ea/ of >+i4it-; on frontal si/e is ;.2 (0. an/ 8.00 (0. an/ on 4a(7 si/e 7.; (0. an/ &.4 (0. $e +as also state/ t+at t+ere is a 0ar1in on 4a(7 si/e '+ose 4rea/t+ is 0.;0 (0. #i7e'ise) len1t+ of sti(7 >+i4it-& is 104 (0. len1t+ of +ea/ on frontal si/e is 8 (0.) 2.; (0.) ;.; (0. an/ 2.; (0. Tra(in1 0eas-re0ent of +ea/ of a >+i4it-& 'as 8 (0. an/ &.4 (0. In t+e re2ort 1olf sti(7 '+i(+ 4ears t+e en1ra3e/
Pa1e 121

>+i4it-7a-;& it +as 4een 0entione/ t+at >+i4it-; is

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

'ritin1s/0ar7in1s A4CP <: RSIL C<#8 P6D P# 02K an/ t+e sti(7 4ears t+e 2rinte/ 'ritin1s ACP 6CTI<N P#%S PR CISI<N CR6P$IT BG C<#8 P6D 5I" 8# PK. It +as also 4een 'ritten in t+e sai/ re2ort t+at 1olf sti(7s (1olf (l-4 an/ iron 2-tter) 0ar7e/ >+i4its- 1 to 12 re3eal t+at ne1li1i4le a0o-nt of soil 'as fo-n/ sti(7in1 in t+e (a3it, of t+e n-04ers en1ra3e/ on 4otto0 2ortion of t+e +ea/ of t+e 1olf sti(7s (1olf (l-4s) 0ar7e/ >+i4it & * ; in (o02arison to t+e soil sti(7in1 in t+e (a3it, of t+e nos. en1ra3e/ on 4otto0 2ortion of t+e +ea/s of 1olf sti(7s (1olf (l-4s an/ iron 2-tter) 0ar7e/ 5s. 6ar-s+i re1ion 8 >+i4its- 1) 2) 4) =) 7) 8) ?) 10) 11 an/ 12. In t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort of >+i4it-7a-& ante-0orte0 in.-r, no. & (0. P 2 (0. In t+e 2ost0orte0 +as 4een s+o'n as la(erate/ 'o-n/ on left 2arietal e>a0ination re2ort of $e0ra. >+i4it-7a-88 ante-

0orte0 in.-r, no. 7 +as 4een s+o'n as la(erate/ 'o-n/ 8 (0. P 2 (0. into 4one /ee2 on t+e o((i2ital re1ion 1 (0. 4elo' in.-r, no. =. 0eas-re0ent of frontal +ea/ of sti(7 T+-s t+e >+i4it-;

tallies 'it+ t+e 0eas-re0ents of ante-0orte0 in.-r, no. & of 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ in.-r, no. 7 of $e0ra.. In 3ie' of t+is (lin(+in1 s(ientifi( e3i/en(e) it is (on(l-si3el, 2ro3e/ t+at la(erate/ 'o-n/s of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 'ere (a-se/ 4, 1olf sti(7. T+e in(ise/ 'o-n/s of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ are of sa0e 2attern an/ (annot 4e (a-se/ 4, 7-7ri an/ rat+er 2ossi4le to +a3e 4een (a-se/ 4, a s0all s+ar2-e/1e/ instr-0ent li7e s(al2el. In 3ie' of a4o3e fin/in1s it (an safel, 4e (on(l-/e/ t+at in.-ries as 0entione/ a4o3e 'ere (a-se/ 4, 1olf (l-4 an/ s(al2el. ".!.-2 "r. 60-l,a C+a//+a +as also a/0itte/ t+at for oral
Pa1e 122

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s-r1er, 1; no. 4la/e is re@-ire/ 4, /entist an/ /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of st-/, -se of t+is 4la/e is ta-1+t. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at if a2art fro0 1-0 t+is 4la/e is -se/ on ot+er 2art of t+e 4o/, t+en t+at 2art 'ill 4e (-t. P.!.-&0 "r. "ines+ D-0ar +as state/ in +is e3i/en(e t+at for /isse(tion s(issors) for(e2s) nee/les an/ s(al2el are -se/ 4, B.".S. st-/ents. It is to 4e note/ t+at 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ are /entists 4, 2rofession an/ t+erefore) 7ee2in1 s(al2el at +o0e an/ -se t+ereof (annot 4e r-le/ o-t. It is also si1nifi(ant to note t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +as a/0itte/ in +is 'ritten state0ent -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at +e 'as t+e 0e04er of Colf Cl-4) N.<.I.".6. 5oreo3er) t+e 1olf sti(7s 'ere 2ro/-(e/ 4, +i0) '+i(+ 'ere in +is 2ossession. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at 4efore +is (ar 'as sent for ser3i(in1 t'o 1olf sti(7s 'ere ta7en o-t fro0 t+e (ar 4, +is /ri3er 5r. %0es+ S+ar0a an/ 'ere 7e2t in t+e roo0 of $e0ra.. <ne s-(+ sti(7 (o-l/ 4e seen in t+e 2+oto1ra2+ no.-21 of "-?8. T+e ot+er sti(7 'as fo-n/ fro0 loft '+ile (leanin1 t+e flat. P.!.-&? 5r. 6.C.#. Da-l +as /e2ose/ t+at 5r. 6.a, C+a//+a +as sent an e-0ail to +i0 inti0atin1 t+erein t+at one 1olf sti(7 'as re(o3ere/ 4, +i0 an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar fro0 t+e atti( o22osite to t+e roo0 of 5s. 6ar-s+i /-rin1 (leanin1 of t+e flat. P.!.-&1 5r. $ari Sin1+ +as state/ t+at on 18.0=.2008 +e +as seiFe/ fi3e arti(les t+ro-1+ seiF-re 0e0o >+i4it-7a-=0 in '+i(+ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar an/ +er relati3e 5r. 6.a, C+a//+a +a/ a22en/e/ t+eir si1nat-res. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e state/ in t+eir e>a0ination -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at 5r. 6.a, C+a//+a +as not sent an, e-0ail on t+eir 4e+alf '+i(+ (annot 4e
Pa1e 12&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

4elie3e/ in t+e fa(e of t+e state0ent 1i3en 4, P.!.-&?. P.!.-&1 5r. $ari Sin1+ +as state/ t+at 5r. 6.a, C+a//+a is a relati3e of Tal'ars. 5r. 6.a, C+a//+a +as not 4een 2ro/-(e/ to re4-t t+e e3i/en(e of P.!.-&1 an/ P.!.-&?. 5r. 5ir 'it+ +is s-asi3e reasonin1 +as lai/ (riti(is0 t+at test i/entifi(ation of 1olf (l-4 +as not 4een 0a/e in t+e 2resen(e of a 5a1istrate an/ t+erefore) test i/entifi(ation 2ro(ee/in1s (on/-(te/ 4, 5r. 6.C.#. Da-l (arr, no si1nifi(an(e in t+e e,e of la'. It 'as also s-40itte/ t+at 1olf (l-4s 'ere 'ra22e/ 'it+ a (lot+ on t+e 0i//le 2ortion an/ +ea/s an/ +an/les of (l-4s 'ere e>2ose/ an/ not seale/ at all an/ t+erefore) 2ossi4ilit, of te02erin1 or (leanin1 at t+e en/ of C.B.I. (annot 4e r-le/ o-t. T+ese ar1-0ents are 0ore fa(titio-s t+an 1en-ine an/ +ar/l, (arr, an, (on3i(tion an/ t+erefore) (annot 4e a((e2te/ 7ee2in1 in 3ie' t+e fa(ts an/ (ir(-0stan(es of t+e (ase. P.!.-&2 Ri(++2al Sin1+ +as state/ t+at on t+e /ire(tion of 5r. Da-l +e +a/ ta7en 12 1olf (l-4s an/ t+eir (ase on &0.10.200? fro0 "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ seiF-re 0e0o 6r3in/ 9aitel,. In >+i4it7a-=1 'as 2re2are/ 4, +is (o02anion ins2e(tor >+i4it-7a-=1 it +as s2e(ifi(all, 4een 0entione/ t+at all t+e 1olf (l-4s an/ (ase +a3e 4een seale/ se2aratel, 'it+ a (lot+ an/ sealin1 'a>. P.!.-&2 +as state/ at 2a1e no. & of +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at all t+e 1olf sti(7s 'ere 'ra22e/ 'it+ a (lot+ in t+e 0i//le 2ortion an/ it 'as seale/ an/ t+erefore) t+is ar1-0ent is fo-n/ to 4e (o02letel, falla(io-s t+at 1olf (l-4s 'ere not seale/. If t+e test i/entifi(ation 'as not (on/-(te/ in t+e 2resen(e of a 5a1istrate t+en it 'ill not affe(t
Pa1e 124

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t+e 2rose(-tion (ase. In 0aha%ir *s. State of /elhi AI+ 200> SC 2949 after follo'in1 t+e la' as lai/ /o'n in 0atru *s. State of (.). 518716 2 SCC 7< an/ Santo4h Singh *s. I$har 'ussain 518796 2 SCC 40; it 'as +el/ t+at test i/entifi(ation 2ara/e /oes not (onstit-te

s-4stanti3e e3i/en(e. Test i/entifi(ation (an onl, 4e -se/ as (orro4orati3e of state0ent in (o-rt. It 'as f-rt+er +el/ t+at t+e test i/entifi(ation 2ara/e 4elon1s to sta1e of in3esti1ation. T.I. Para/es are essentiall, 1o3erne/ 4, se(tion 1=2 Cr.P.C. 8ail-re to +ol/ sa0e 'o-l/ not 0a7e ina/0issi4le e3i/en(e of i/entifi(ation in (o-rt. In a22ro2riate (ases it 0a, a((e2t t+e e3i/en(e of i/entifi(ation e3en 'it+o-t insistin1 on (orro4oration. T+e sa0e 3ie' 'as earlier ta7en in 2anta )rasad *s. /elhi Ad3inistration AI+ 18<> SC 9<0 *ai4untana Chandrappa and others *s. State of A.). AI+ 18;0 SC 1940 "udh Sen *s. State of (.). AI+ 1870 SC 1921 and +a3esh-ar Singh *s. State of J . 2 AI+ 1872 SC 102. In 188> SCJ 9<4 it 'as +el/ t+at T.I. 2ara/e is onl, (orro4orati3e e3i/en(e an/ s-4stanti3e e3i/en(e is state0ent of 'itness 0a/e in t+e (o-rt. T+e 2-r2ose of T.I. 2ara/e is to test t+e o4ser3ation) 1ras2) 0e0or,) (a2a(it, to re(a2it-late '+at +e +as seen earlier. In Jadunath Singh *s. State of (.). AI+ 1871 SC 9;9 it 'as +el/ t+at a4sen(e of test i/entifi(ation is not al'a,s fatal. It a22ears 2ro2er to 0ention +ere t+at 1olf (l-4s 'ere not t+e stolen 2ro2ert, for '+i(+ test i/entifi(ation 0-st +a3e 4een essential. T+e, 'ere also not re(o3ere/ 4, t+e 2oli(e an/ e3en no 8.I.R. re1ar/in1 t+eir t+eft) +eist an/ /a(oit, 'as lo/1e/.
Pa1e 12;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

In State of Assa3 *s. (pendra Nath +a,4hona 187< Cr.&.J. 9<4 it 'as +el/ t+at i/entifi(ation of 'as+er-0anEs 0ar7 on t+e (lot+es fo-n/ on t+e /ea/ 4o/, 4, t+e 'as+er-0an 'as not ne(essar,. In 0ulla and others *s. State of (.). AI+ 2010 SC 842 it +as 4een +el/ t+at fail-re to +ol/ 2ara/e /oes not ren/er e3i/en(e of i/entifi(ation in (o-rt ina/0issi4le. $o'e3er) e3i/en(e relatin1 to i/entifi(ation 0a/e for first ti0e in (o-rt s+o-l/ not for0 4asis of (on3i(tion an/ (an onl, 4e -se/ as (orro4orati3e e3i/en(e. In Sheo Shan4ar Singh *s. State of Jhar4hand 2011 Cr.&.J. 2198 it +as 4een +el/ t+at fail-re to +ol/ test i/entifi(ation 2ara/e /oes not 'ea7en i/entifi(ation in t+e (o-rt. In Sh7a3 #hosh *s. State of :est "engal 2012 AI+ SC: 41;2 it 'as +el/ t+at Cr.P.C. /oes not o4li1e t+e in3esti1atin1 a1en(, to ne(essaril, +ol/ t+e test i/entifi(ation 2ara/e '+i(+ +as 4een follo'e/ in +a=i 2apur *s. State of +a,asthan AI+ 2012 SC 28>;. In 2un,u3an A (nni *s. State of 2erala 2019 526 Allaha%ad Cri3inal +ulings 1924 5SC6 to +ol/ T.I.P. is not it +as 4een +el/ t+at fail-re fatal to t+e 2rose(-tion.

64sen(e of T.I.P. 0a7es no /ifferen(e to t+e 2rose(-tion (ase. T+e sa0e 3ie' 'as iterate/ earlier in *i,a7 A Chinee *s. State of 0.). 520106 > SCC 181. P.!.-1; %0es+ S+ar0a 'as t+e /ri3er of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ still +e is t+e satellite of Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ 4e(a-se of alle1ian(e +e t-rne/ +ostile an/ to resile/ t+e fro0 +is state0ent 1i3en in3esti1atin1 "r. +as offi(er.
Pa1e 12=

2re3io-s

Ne3ert+eless) +e +as a/0itte/ t+at & to 4 0ont+s

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

2rior to t+is o((-rren(e +e +a/ 7e2t t'o 1olf sti(7s) 0o22in1 (lot+ an/ 4-(7et in t+e ser3ant @-arter of flat no. #-&2 after ta7in1 t+e0 o-t fro0 Santro (ar '+i(+ 'as sent for ser3i(in1. !+en t+is 'itness 'as /e(lare/ +ostile an/ t+e learne/ 2rose(-tor 'as 2er0itte/ to (ross-e>a0ine +i0 an/ /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of (ross-e>a0ination +e 'as s+o'n 1olf (l-4 nos. 4 an/ ; t+en +e a/0itte/ t+at t+ese sti(7s 'ere 7e2t 4, +i0 in t+e roo0 of $e0ra.. In i/entifi(ation 0e0o >+i4it-7a-18 it +as 4een 'ritten t+at t+e (ontents of t+e 0e0o +a3e 4een e>2laine/ in $in/i to 5r. %0es+ S+ar0a in 2resen(e of t+e in/e2en/ent 'itness 4-t +e +as falsel, /e2ose/ t+at it 'as not e>2laine/ to +i0 in $in/i. $e +as 1i3en false state0ent t+at on t+at /a, +e 'as +a3in1 2ains in ear an/ t+erefore) (o-l/ not 2ro2erl, listen. $is state0ent t+at on t+at /a, +e +a/ 3isite/ a /o(tor of .N.T. for treat0ent of +is ear is also fo-n/ to 4e false 4e(a-se t+e 2res(ri2tion of t+e /o(tor '+i(+ +e +a/ s+o'n in t+e (o-rt 'as of 20.10.200? '+ile t+e i/entifi(ation 2ro(ee/in1s 'ere (on/-(te/ on 02.08.2010. $e +as f-rt+er state/ t+at +e /oes not re0e04er as to '+et+er +e +a/ 3isite/ .N.T. S2e(ialist on 02.08.2010. $e +as a/0itte/ t+at at t+e ti0e of 2re2aration of i/entifi(ation 0e0o +e +a/ not tol/ 5r. Da-l t+at +e is s-fferin1 fro0 ear 2ain an/ is +ar/ of +earin1. $e +as fei1ne/ i1noran(e t+at t+e i/entifi(ation 2ro(ee/in1s 'ere (on/-(te/ in t+e 2resen(e of 'itness #a>0an Sin1+. It is 'ell-settle/ la' t+at t+e e3i/en(e of a +ostile 'itness /oes not 1et effa(e/ an/ +is state0ent to t+e e>tent of s-22ortin1 t+e 2rose(-tion (ase (an 4e relie/ -2on. In So3a "hai *s. State of #u,arat
Pa1e 127

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

AI+ 187< SC 14<9 State of (.). *s. +a3esh )rasad 0isra 5188;6 10 SCC 9;0 Sath7a Nara7an *s. State 2019 5>06 ACC 19> 5SC6 +a3esh 'ari,an *s. State of (.). 520126 < SCC 777 2001 #ura Singh *s. State of +a,asthan AI+ SC 990 ".S. Shinde *s. State of

0aharashtra 520026 7 SCC <49 #agan 2ano,ia *s. State of )un,a% 5200;6 19 SCC <1; Sar=esh Narain Shu4la *s. /aroga Singh 520076 19 SCC 9;0 "hag-an Singh *s. State of 'ar7ana 5187;6 1 SCC 9>8 +a%indra 2u3ar /e7 *s. State of @rissa 5187;6 4 SCC 299 S7ad A4%ar *s. State of 2arnata4a 518>06 1 SCC 90 2hu,,i A Surendra Ti-ari *s. State of 0.). 518816 9 SCC ;27 59JJ6 T. Shan4ar )rasad *s. State of A.). 2004 Crl. J. >>4D 520046 9 SCC 7<9 0uniappan *s. State of T.N. 520106 8 SCC <;7 +a,endra . others *s. State of (.). 2008 526 JIC 9<; 5SC!9JJ6 )ara3 Jeet Singh A )a33a *s. State of (ttra4hand 52010610 SCC 498 'i3anshu A Chintu *s. State 5N.C.T. of /elhi6 520116 2 SCC 9; +a3 2rushna *s. State of 0aharashtra 2007 5<>6 ACC ;04 5SC6 "ha,,u A 2aran Singh *s. State of 0.). 520126 4 SCC 927 #udu +a3 *s. State of '.). 2019 516 SCC+ 4; 0. Sar=ana A 2./. Sar=ana *s. State of 2arnata4a 2012 Cr.&.J. 9>77 #o=ind +a,u A #o=ind *s. State 520126 4 SCC 722 ?o3esh "hai )ran Shan4er "hatt *s. State of #u,arat 520116 ; SCC 919 2oli &a4h3a%hai Chana%hai *s. State of #u,arat Judg3ent Toda7 1888 586 SC 199 )rithi *s. State of 'ar7ana 2011 5726 ACC 99> Sidharth *ashistha A 0anu Shar3a
Pa1e 128

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

*s. State 5N.C.T. of /elhi6 2010 5;86 ACC >99 5SC6 +adha 0ohan Singh A &al Sahe% . others *s. State of (.). 5200;6 2 SCC 4<0 59JJ6 State of +a,asthan *s. "ha-ani . others AI+ 2009 SC 4290 59JJ6 Su%%a Singh *s. State 520086 ; SCC 4;2 +a3appa 'alappa )u,ar . others *s. State of 2arnata4a 520086 1 SCC 5Crl.6 2<0 State ACC of 894 S-a3i )rasad *s. State of 0.). Jodh +a, Singh *s. 5<>6 ACC *s. ;14 /elhi +a,asthan 5SC6 2007 Sat 520086 2 SCC 5Crl.6 9<4

#urpreet Singh *s. State of 'ar7ana 2002 54<6 )aul Ad3inistration AI+ 187; SC 284 "hag-an

/ass *s. State 5N.C.T.6 of /elhi AI+ 2011 SC 1>;9 'aradhan /as *s. State of :est "engal 2019 516 AC+ 11;2 5SC6 an/ &ahu 2a3la4ar )atil . others *s. State of 0aharashtra 520196 ; SCC 417 it +as 4een +el/ t+at (o-rts are entitle/ to rel, -2on s-(+ 2ortion of e3i/en(e of 2rose(-tion 'itness '+o +as 4een 2er0itte/ to 4e (rosse>a0ine/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion) as s-22orts t+e 2rose(-tion (ase. P.!.-1= #a>0an Sin1+ '+o is @-ite /isintereste/ 'itness +as also state/ t+at %0es+ S+ar0a +a/ ta7en o-t 1olf sti(7s no. 4 an/ ; alt+o-1+ +e +as state/ t+at t+ese sti(7s 'ere ta7en o-t fro0 4a1. T+e fa(t re0ains t+at 1olf sti(7s no. 4 an/ ; 'ere ta7en o-t 4, %0es+ S+ar0a. It is also i02ortant to 0ention +ere t+at t+e a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +as not ta7en 2lea t+at 1olf sti(7s /o not 4elon1 to +i0. It is t+e (ontention of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ t+at 5al7+ana (1o/o'n) Re1ister +as not 4een 2ro/-(e/ nor in(+ar1e 5al7+ana 'as
Pa1e 12?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

2ro/-(e/ to s+o' t+e 2ro2er (-sto/, of 1olf (l-4s an/ t+e entire (+ain of (-sto/, is fra-1+t 'it+ s-s2i(ion as it +as not 4een 2ro3e/ as to '+en 1olf (l-4s 'ere sent 4a(7 to C.8.S.#. or to 5r. ".D. Tan'ar. "ilatin1 +is ar1-0ent it 'as s-40itte/ t+at re2ort /ate/ 07.01.2010 >+i4it-7+a-&7 re3eals t+at 1olf (l-4s 'ere re(ei3e/ in t+e 4iolo1, /i3ision of C.8.S.#. #a4 on &0.10.200? an/ t+e, 'ere e>a0ine/ 4, "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra an/ ret-rne/ to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er on 07.01.2010 4-t >+i4it-7a-;& /ate/ 1&.07.2010 of ".D. Tan'ar (2+,si(s /i3ision) it +as 4een s+o'n t+at t+e 1olf-(l-4s 'ere re(ei3e/ fro0 4iolo1, /i3ision on 10.11.200? 4-t t+e, 'ere o2ene/ on 1;.04.2010 an/ ret-rne/ to for'ar/in1 a-t+orit, on 1&.07.2010 an/ t+erefore) if t+e 4iolo1, /i3ision ret-rne/ t+e >+i4its on 07.01.2010 to t+e >+i4its for'ar/in1 a-t+orit, t+en +o' t+e sa0e

'it+o-t an, for'ar/in1 letter 2ro3in1 (+ain of (-sto/, 'ere sent a1ain to t+e 2+,si(s /i3ision an/ no e3i/en(e +as 4een a//-(e/ to s+o' as to '+en t+e for'ar/in1 a-t+orit, after 07.01.2010 re-sent t+e arti(les to t+e 2+,si(s /i3ision of C.8.S.#. an/ in t+e (ir(-0stan(es it 'as i02erati3e to 2ro/-(e 5al7+ana Re1ister an/ also to e>a0ine offi(er-in(+ar1e) 5al7+ana) C.B.I. '+i(+ +as not 4een /one an/ t+erefore (+ain of (-sto/, of 1olf-(l-4s is not 2ro3e/. I a0 -na4le to s-4s(ri4e to t+e (ontention of t+e learne/ (o-nsel. T+e 1olf-(l-4s 'ere seiFe/ t+ro-1+ 2ro/-(tion-(-0-seiF-re 0e0o >+i4it-7a-=1 on &0.10.200? an/ on t+e sa0e /ate t+ese 1olf(l-4s 'ere sent to C.8.S.#. 4, t+e for'ar/in1 a-t+orit, as is e3i/ent fro0 2er-sal of >+i4it7+a-&7. In t+is re2ort it +as also 4een 0entione/ at
Pa1e 1&0

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

2ara 8.& t+at re1ar/in1 @-er, no. 2 t+e re2ort in ori1inal fro0 2+,si(s /i3ision of t+is la4orator, s+all 4e s-40itte/ after (o02letion of t+e e>a0inations in t+e 2+,si(s /i3ision of t+is la4orator,. T+is s+o's t+at in t+e 0eanti0e "r. 5o+a2arta for'ar/e/ t+e >+i4its to t+e 2+,si(s /i3ision an/ t+at is t+e reason t+at P.!.-2= ".D. Tan'ar +as 0entione/ at 2a1e no. 2 of +is re2ort >+i4it-7a-;& t+at one seale/ 2ar(el 'as re(ei3e/ fro0 4iolo1, /i3ision on 10.11.200? an/ it 'as seale/ 4, t+e seals of 4iolo1, /i3ision an/ t+e seals on 2ar(el 'ere fo-n/ inta(t. P.!.-2= +as also testifie/ t+is fa(t 4, statin1 on oat+ a4o-t t+is fa(t. $e +as also state/ t+at t+is 2ar(el 'as o2ene/ on 1;.04.2010 an/ re2ort of e>a0ination 'as 1i3en on 1&.07.2010. In t+e re2ort /ate/ 07.01.2010 >+i4it-7+a-&7 it +as 4een 0entione/ at t+e 4otto0 t+at t+e re0nants of t+e >+i4its 'it+ ori1inal 2a(7in1 +a3e 4een seale/ in t'o 2ar(els an/ +an/e/ o3er to t+e for'ar/in1 a-t+orit,. P.!.-= "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra +as not 4een (ross-e>a0ine/ as to '+et+er onl, +is re2ort 'as
for'ar/e/ 4, t+e /ire(tor or '+et+er alon1 'it+ t+is re2ort t+e >+i4its 'ere also sent. P.!.-2= ".D. Tan'ar +as state/ t+at one seale/ 2ar(el 'as re(ei3e/ fro0 4iolo1, /i3ision on 10.11.200? an/ it 'as seale/ 4, t+e seals of 4iolo1, /i3ision an/ t+e seals on 2ar(el 'ere fo-n/ inta(t an/ as s-(+ in t+e (ir(-0stan(es t+ere 'as no nee/ to 2ro/-(e t+e 5al7+ana Re1ister or to e>a0ine offi(er-in-(+ar1e 5al7+ana) C.B.I. an/ ta02erin1 of 1olf-(l-4s is not 2ro3e/. T+erefore) t+e

ar1-0ent

of

learne/

(o-nsel

is

fo-n/

i02-issant. T+e a((-se/ (annot ta7e an, 4enefit
Pa1e 1&1

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

fro0 t+e (ase la's (ite/ 4, t+eir learne/ (o-nsel '+i(+ are 4ase/ on /ifferent (onte>t-al fa(ts) settin1s an/ (ir(-0stan(es. T+e ne>t s-40ission of 5r. 5ir is t+at t+e 2rose(-tion +as 0a/e a f-tile atte02t to 4olster its (ase 4, alle1in1 t+at t+e internet ro-ter installe/ at t+e 2la(e of (ri0e s+o'e/ start an/ sto2 a(ti3it, t+ro-1+o-t t+e '+ole ni1+t s-11estin1 t+at t+e a((-se/ 2ersons 'ere a'a7e 4-t fro0 t+e e3i/en(e on re(or/ t+is fa(t is also not 2ro3e/ an/ e3i/en(e 1i3en in t+is res2e(t 4, P.!.-17 "ee2a7 Dan/a) P.!.-18 B+-2en/er Sin1+ 6'as,a an/ t+e /o(-0ents >+i4it-7a-1?) 7a-20) 7a-21 an/ 7a-22

relie/ -2on 4, t+e 2rose(-tion are not relia4le 4e(a-se P.!.-17 "ee2a7 Dan/a +as state/ in +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at +e /oes not 7no' '+et+er t+ere 'as a 0o/e0 or a 'i-fiM +e 'as ne3er ta7en to t+e 2la(e '+ere t+e 0o/e0 'as installe/M +e /oes not 7no' t+at +is (o02an, +a/ installe/ t+e 0o/e0 alon1 'it+ '+i(+ a 'ireless ro-ter 'as also installe/M +e /oes not 7no' t+at if t+e la2to2 or /es7to2 (o02-ter are s'it(+e/ off t+en also t+ere 'ill 4e /ata transfer 4et'een t+e ro-ter/0o/e0 an/ I.S.P. '+i(+ are s'it(+e/ onM +e (annot sa, '+et+er t+e lo1 2ro3i/e/ to +i0 'as a /etaile/ one or notM +e +as +i0self a/0itte/ t+at t+e 3ie' of te(+ni(al tea0 'as o4taine/ a((or/in1 to '+i(+ t+ere 'ere fo-r 0ain reasons for start an/ sto2 a(ti3it, of internet(i) 2+,si(al (losin1 of /ialer (ii) 2+,si(al (losin1 of 0o/e0/ro-ter (iii) 2o'er re(,(lin1 of 0o/e0 an/ (i3) net'or7 fail-res an/ no 0e04er of te(+ni(al tea0 'as e>a0ine/ an/ t+erefore +is e3i/en(e is not+in1 4-t on dit. 5oreo3er) t+is 'itness +as also
Pa1e 1&2

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

a/0itte/ t+at e3en fro0 02:04:&; +o-rs till 10:1=:1? +o-rs on 1=.0;.2008 t+e -sa1e 2attern 'as si0ilar an/ start/sto2 a(ti3it, 'as also seen fro0 02:04:&; +o-rs (in t+e ni1+t) to 1&:11:44 +o-rs on 1=.0;.2008 an/ t+-s) 2+,si(al o2eration 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons is not esta4lis+e/M +e +as f-rt+er ar1-e/ t+at P.!.-18 +as also state/ in +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at +e ne3er 'ent to #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar to 0a7e 2+,si(al ins2e(tionM t+e ro-ter) 0o/e0) ro-ter lo1 or 0o/e0 lo1) la2to2 lo1 or t+e /es7to2 lo1 'ere ne3er sent to +i0M +e (annot sa, '+et+er t+e lo1s s-22lie/ to +i0 'ere (o02lete or notM if t+e ro-ter or 0o/e0 is s'it(+e/ on t+en lo1 to t+at e>tent s+all also 4e a3aila4le an/ -2on e>a0ination of ro-ter lo1 it (an 4e sai/ '+en t+e ro-ter 'as s'it(+e/ on an/ s'it(+e/ off an/ +e +a/ 'ritten to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er t+at (o02-ter internet a(ti3it, lo1) 0o/e0 an/ ro-ter lo1 an/ /etaile/ lo1 of I.S.P. 4e 2ro3i/e/ to +i0 4-t not 0a/e a3aila4le '+i(+ 'ere essential for (o02lete anal,sis of t+ese lo1s an/ if t+e in3esti1ator +a/ sent t+e aforesai/ /etails t+en 4etter anal,sis (o-l/ +a3e 4een /one. T+ese ar1-0ents are s2e(io-s an/ +en(e (annot 4e a((e2te/. T+e state0ents of t+e a((-se/ -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at t+e, 'ent to slee2 at a4o-t 11.&0 P.5. on 1;.0;.2008 are fo-n/ to 4e false. P.!.-17 "ee2a7 Dan/a +as (learl, /e2ose/ t+at -ser I" "S#0120;&1=&88 is re1istere/ in t+e na0e of N-2-r Tal'ar R/o #-&2) Se(tor-2; N.<.I.".6. an/ its lan/-line tele2+one no. is 01204&1=&88 an/ +e +a/ s-22lie/ t+e lo1s of a4o3e 0entione/ 4roa/ 4an/ fro0 01.0;.2008 to 1=.0;.2008 t+ro-1+ e-0ail to 5r. Neela4+ Dis+ore S.P.) C.B.I.) "e+ra/-n. $e +as
Pa1e 1&&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

f-rt+er state/ t+at as 2er ele(troni( re(or/ internet a(ti3it, starte/ on t+e sai/ "S# I" on 1;.0;.2008 at 2&:00:;0 +o-rs an/ it laste/ -2 to 02:04:&0 +o-rs on 1=.0;.2008 an/ t+ereafter a1ain it starte/ on 1=.0;.2008 at 02:04:&; +o-rs an/ it (ontin-e/ -2 to 0&:02:1= +o-rs an/ a1ain it starte/ at 0&:28:&= +o-rs an/ laste/ 0&:&4:07 +o-rs an/ t+en it a1ain starte/ at 0&:41:01 +o-rs an/ re0aine/ a(ti3e -2 to 0&:4&:&2 +o-rs an/ t+en starte/ at 0=:01:;1 +o-rs an/ sto22e/ at 0=:04:;; +o-rs. $e +as f-rt+er state/ t+at a((or/in1 to ite0iFe/ 4ill internet of 118&; 7ilo-4,tes 'as -se/ on 1;.0;.2008 at 2&:00:;0 +o-rs an/ t+en on 1=.0;.2008 internet 4= 7ilo-4,tes 'as -se/ at 02:04:&; +o-rs an/ t+en a1ain on 1=.0;.2008 at 0=:01:;1 +o-rs & 7ilo-4,tes internet 'as -se/. $e +as f-rt+er state/ t+at +e +as so-1+t o2inion fro0 te(+ni(al tea0 a4o-t t+e start an/ sto2 a(ti3it, of internet an/ t+e te(+ni(al tea0 +as o2ine/ t+at sto2 an/ start a(ti3it, 0a, 4e /-e to (i) 2+,si(al (losin1 of /ialer (ii) 2+,si(al (losin1 of 0o/e0/ro-ter (iii) 2o'er re(,(lin1 of 0o/e0 an/ (i3) net'or7 fail-res. Not+in1 +as 4een s-11este/ 4efore t+is 'itness t+at start an/ sto2 a(ti3it, 'as /-e to net'or7 fail-res in t+at ni1+t. T+is 'itness +as also state/ t+at t+e aforesai/ /ata 'as o4taine/ 4, IT an/ Te(+ni(al Tea0 fro0 ser3er '+i(+ is 4ein1 2reser3e/ for t+ree ,ears. If t+is 'itness +as state/ t+at +e /oes not 7no' '+et+er t+ere 'as a 0o/e0 or a 'i-fiM +e 'as ne3er ta7en to t+e 2la(e '+ere t+e 0o/e0 'as installe/M +e /oes not 7no' t+at +is (o02an, +a/ installe/ t+e 0o/e0 alon1 'it+ '+i(+ a 'ireless ro-ter 'as also installe/M +e /oes not 7no' t+at if t+e la2to2 or /es7to2 (o02-ter are
Pa1e 1&4

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

s'it(+e/ off t+en also t+ere 'ill 4e /ata transfer 4et'een t+e ro-ter/0o/e0 an/ I.S.P. '+i(+ are s'it(+e/ on an/ +e (annot sa, '+et+er t+e lo1 2ro3i/e/ to +i0 'as a /etaile/ one or not t+en on t+at 1ro-n/ it (annot 4e sai/ t+at in t+e ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 t+e internet 'as not -se/ at t+e ti0es as /is(lose/ 4, t+is 'itness in +is e>a0ination-in-(+ief 4e(a-se start an/ sto2 a(ti3it, is not 2ossi4le 'it+o-t t+e 2+,si(al inter3ention an/ t+e /ata -se/ is not 2ossi4le 'it+o-t s-rfin1 on internet an/ +en(e in t+e (ir(-0stan(es if an, 0e04er of te(+ni(al tea0 +as not 4een e>a0ine/) it 'ill +a3e no i02a(t. P.!.-18 B+-2en/er Sin1+ 6'as,a) S(ientist-C of C. .R.T.-In "e2art0ent of Infor0ation Te(+nolo1,) Co3t. of In/ia +as also /e2ose/ t+at lo1s of "S# 5o/e0 No. 0120;&1=&88 'ere sent for anal,sis 4, S.P.) C.B.I.) "e+ra/-n an/ t+en +e an/ 5r. 6nil Sa1ar) "ire(tor) C RT-In +a3e anal,Fe/ t+e lo1s an/ t+en re2ort/letter >+i4it-7a-2& 'as 2re2are/ an/ si1ne/ 4, 5r. 6nil Sa1ar. In >+i4it-

7a-2& it +as 4een 0entione/ t+at ti0e 1a2s 4et'een t'o sessions /e2i(ts ina(ti3it, or no internet (onne(tion esta4lis+0ent 4et'een t+e CP (C-sto0er Pre0ises (Internet Ser3i(e @-i20ent) /e3i(e an/ t+e ISP Pro3i/er)M #on1er ti0e 1a2s

in/i(ates t+at a) -ser +as (ons(io-sl, /is(onne(te/ t+e (onne(tion) 4) t+ere is net'or7 /isr-2tion s-(+ as -na3aila4ilit, of tele(o0 (arrier an/ -na3aila4ilit, of ser3i(es at ISP en/. T+is is t+e 2erio/ '+en no internet (onne(tion is esta4lis+e/ 4, t+e CP /e3i(eM retrie3al of na0es/i/entities of sites 3isite/ 4, t+e -ser an//or /o'nloa/e/ 2a(7et /etails /-rin1
Pa1e 1&;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

a 2arti(-lar session (an 4e esta4lis+e/ 4, t+e res2e(ti3e lo1s an/ 2a(7et (a2t-re 0aintaine/ 4, t+e ISP. Bot+ t+e te(+nolo1ies (o0e -n/er real-ti0e 0onitorin1 (ate1or,. #o1s an//or 2a(7et /etails are onl, a3aila4le '+en it is 4ein1 (a2t-re/ /-rin1 t+e session in real-ti0e. It is neit+er a3aila4le nor (an 4e re1enerate/ as t+e session e>2ires or after t+e session is ter0inate/. If P.!.-18 +as state/ in +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at +e ne3er 'ent to #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar to 0a7e 2+,si(al ins2e(tionM t+e ro-ter) 0o/e0) ro-ter lo1 or 0o/e0 lo1) la2to2 lo1 or t+e /es7to2 lo1 'ere ne3er sent to +i0M +e (annot sa, '+et+er t+e lo1s s-22lie/ to +i0 'ere (o02lete or notM if t+e ro-ter or 0o/e0 is s'it(+e/ on t+en lo1 to t+at e>tent s+all also 4e a3aila4le an/ -2on e>a0ination of ro-ter lo1 it (an 4e sai/ '+en t+e ro-ter 'as s'it(+e/ on an/ s'it(+e/ off an/ +e +a/ 'ritten to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er t+at (o02-ter internet a(ti3it, lo1) 0o/e0 an/ ro-ter lo1 an/ /etaile/ lo1 of ISP 4e 2ro3i/e/ to +i0 4-t not 0a/e a3aila4le '+i(+ 'ere ne(essar, for (o02lete anal,sis/in3esti1ation of t+ese lo1s t+en on t+at 1ro-n/ it (annot 4e +el/ t+at t+e internet 'as not -se/ in t+e ni1+t of 1=.0;.2008 an/ no start an/ sto2 a(ti3it, of ro-ter is 2ossi4le 'it+o-t +-0an inter3ention. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e a/0itte/ in t+eir state0ents -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at at a4o-t 11.00 P.5. in t+e ni1+t "r. N-2-r Tal'ar 'ent in t+e 6ar-s+iEs roo0 to s'it(+ on t+e internet ro-ter an/ t+en "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar starte/ 'or7in1 on internet on +is la2to2 an/ t+e, 'ent to slee2 aro-n/ 11.&0 P.5. It is 3er, i02ortant to 0ention +ere t+at none of t+e a((-se/ +as state/ in t+eir
Pa1e 1&=

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

/etaile/ 'ritten state0ents -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. as to '+en t+e ro-ter 'ere s'it(+e/ off. 3en in oral e>a0ination -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+e, +a3e not state/ t+at '+en t+e ro-ter 'as s'it(+e/ off. In t+at 3er, ni1+t t+e ro-ter or la2to2 'ere in t+eir 2ossession an/ t+e, +a3e es2e(ial 7no'le/1e a4o-t t+e 0o/e) 0anner an/ f-n(tionin1 of t+e ro-ter an/ t+erefore) it 'as for t+e0 to e>2lain -n/er se(tion 10= of 3i/en(e 6(t to satisf, t+e (o-rt re1ar/in1 t+e start an/ sto2 a(ti3it, of internet ro-ter. In +attan Singh *s. State of '.). 518876 4 SCC 1;1 it 'as +el/ t+at t+e e>a0ination of a((-se/ -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. is not a 0ere for0alit,. 6ns'ers 1i3en 4, t+e a((-se/ to t+e @-estions 2-t to +i0 /-rin1 s-(+ e>a0ination +a3e a 2ra(ti(al -tilit, for (ri0inal (o-rts. 62art fro0 affor/in1 an o22ort-nit, to t+e /elin@-ent to e>2lain in(ri0inatin1 (ir(-0stan(es a1ainst +i0) t+e, 'o-l/ +el2 t+e (o-rt in a22re(iatin1 t+e entire e3i/en(e a//-(e/ in t+e (o-rt /-rin1 trial. In t+is 3ie' of t+e 0atter) it is esta4lis+e/ t+at in t+e ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 internet 'as -se/ t+ro-1+o-t t+e '+ole ni1+t inter0ittentl, an/ t+e a((-se/ 'ere a'a7en. It s+o-l/ 4e 4orne in 0in/ t+at 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ are a(@-ainte/ 'it+ t+e internet f-n(tionin1 an/ t+erefore) t+e, 0a, +a3e (ontin-e/ 'it+ t+e start an/ sto2 a(ti3it, of internet ro-ter till 1&:11:44 +o-rs on 1=.0;.2008 'it+ intent to (onf-se an/ (a0o-fla1e t+e in3esti1atin1 a1en(, as also to (reate e3i/en(e in t+eir fa3o-r. T+e ne>t s-40ission of learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ is t+at t+e 2resen(e of P.!.-4 San.a, C+a-+an at t+e 2la(e of o((-rren(e in t+e 0ornin1
Pa1e 1&7

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

of 1=.0;.2008 +as not 4een 2ro3e/ an/ t+erefore) +is state0ent t+at +e +a/ seen 4loo/ stains on t+e stairs as 'ell as on t+e railin1 is not (re/i4le an/ +en(e +is e3i/en(e (arries no 'ei1+t. It 'as also s-40itte/ t+at t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er 5r. 5.S. P+art,al +as a/0itte/ in +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at +e +a/ 1aine/ 7no'le/1e fro0 so0e 'itness t+at San.a, C+a-+an 'as also 2resent at t+e (ri0e s(ene an/ t+erefore) +is state0ent 'as re(or/e/ 4-t on t+is as2e(t +e /oes not 'ant to 2er-se t+e (ase /iar,. It 'as f-rt+er a//e/ t+at e3i/en(e of P.!.-1& "r. Ra.i3 D-0ar :ars+ne,) P.!.-14 "r. Ro+it Do(+ar) P.!.-7 D.D. Ca-ta0) P.!.-10 B+arti 5an/al an/ P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra are (ontra/i(tor, as so0e of t+e 'itnesses +a3e state/ t+at t+e, +a/ seen t+e 4loo/ stains on t+e stairs an/ railin1 '+ile ot+ers +a3e /enie/ t+is fa(t an/ t+erefore) in 3ie' of t+e 0a//enin1 (ontra/i(tions) t+e entire 'ar2 an/ 'oof of t+e 2rose(-tion stor, is ren/ere/ 4rittle. I /o not a1ree 'it+ t+e s-40issions of t+e learne/ (o-nsel. P.!.-4 San.a, C+a-+an is an offi(er of Pro3in(ial Ci3il Ser3i(e an/ no ani0-s 'it+ t+is 'itness +as 4een esta4lis+e/ 4, t+e a((-se/. $e is also (o02letel, /isintereste/ 'itness an/ t+erefore) +is e3i/en(e (annot 4e 3ie'e/ 'it+ a lens tin1e/ 'it+ s-s2i(ion. $e 'as 2oste/ as 6//itional >e(-ti3e 5a1istrate as 'ell as a staff offi(er in t+e offi(e of "istri(t 5a1istrate) Ca-ta04-/+ Na1ar on t+e rele3ant /ate. $e +as (ate1ori(all, state/ on oat+ t+at '+en on 1=.0;.2008) '+en +e 'as ret-rnin1 to +is resi/en(e after 0ornin1 'al7s an/ (a0e near t+e (-r3e of se(tor-2; N.<.I.".6. t+en
Pa1e 1&8

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

sa' t+e 2resen(e of 2oli(e an/ 1o3ern0ent 3e+i(les t+ere an/ t+o-1+t t+at t+ere is so0e 2ro4le0 of la' an/ or/er an/ t+erefore) +e 'ent insi/e se(tor-2; '+ere +e 1aine/ 7no'le/1e t+at a 0-r/er +as 4een (o00itte/ in flat no. #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar an/ t+erefore) +e rea(+e/ t+ere at a4o-t 7.&0-7.40 6.5. an/ 'ent insi/e t+e roo0 of 5s. 6ar-s+i '+ere s+e 'as fo-n/ /ea/ an/ +er /ea/ 4o/, 'as (o3ere/ 'it+ a '+ite s+eet) +er tro-ser 'as .-st 4elo' t+e 'aist. $e +as f-rt+er state/ t+at so0e 2oli(e 2ersonnel 'ere seen on t+e stairs an/ t+erefore) +e also (li04e/ 2-& ste2s an/ +a/ seen 4loo/ stains on t+e stairs as 'ell as t+e railin1 an/ t+en +e (a0e 4a(7 t+in7in1 t+at (ri0e s(ene 0a, 4e /ist-r4e/. $e +as also state/ t+at +e +a/ 2er(ei3e/ t+at in t+e -2stairs t+ere 'ere 4loo/ stains 4-t not in t+e /o'n stairs. $e +as stoo/ t+e test of 1r-elin1 (rosse>a0ination an/ not+in1 (o-l/ 4e eli(ite/ to /o-4t +is 2resen(e at t+e (ri0e s(ene in t+e 0ornin1 of 1=.0;.2008 an/ /is(re/it +is testi0on,. $e +as also state/ t+at +e re0aine/ t+ere at t+e 2la(e of o((-rren(e for a4o-t an +o-r. $is e3i/en(e (annot 4e (asti1ate/ t+at sta/i-0 in se(tor 2; N.<.I.".6. is a4o-t 28 70. a'a, fro0 +is resi/en(e an/ it is not 2ossi4le to (o0e for 0ornin1 'al7s after (o3erin1 s-(+ a lon1 /istan(e. $e +as assi1ne/ reasons for ta7in1 0ornin1 'al7s in t+e N.<.I.".6. Sta/i-0 4, statin1 t+at /-rin1 t+ose /a,s Creater N.<.I.".6. 'as not /e3elo2e/ an/ 7ee2in1 in 3ie' t+e nat-re of +is .o4) it 'as not safe for +i0 to +a3e 0ornin1 'al7s t+ere. P.!.-1& "r. Ra.i3 D-0ar :ars+ne, +as also testifie/ t+at on re(ei3in1 a 0essa1e a4o-t t+e
Pa1e 1&?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

0-r/er of 5s. 6ar-s+i +e 'ent t+ere at a4o-t ?.00 6.5. 4-t 4, 0ista7e +e (li04e/ -2 to t+e terra(e /oor '+ere in t+e /oor an/ lo(7 +e fo-n/ 4loo/ stains an/ t+en +e lo(ate/ t+e flat of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ (a0e insi/e '+ere "r. Ro+it Do(+ar an/ +is 'ife 0et +i0 to '+o0 +e tol/ a4o-t t+e 2resen(e of 4loo/ stains on /oor an/ lo(7 of t+e terra(e. T+ere-2on) +e (a0e 'it+ "r. Ro+it Do(+ar near t+e terra(e /oor an/ s+o'e/ +i0 4loo/ stains. $e +as f-rt+er state/ t+at on 0in-te o4ser3ation 4loo/ stains 'ere seen in t+e stairs. 5ean'+ile) a 2oli(e0an also (a0e t+ere an/ +e 'as also s+o'n t+e 4loo/ stains on t+e stairs. T+ereafter) 4ot+ of t+e0 (a0e insi/e t+e flat an/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar (a0e o-t of t+e flat an/ 'ent to'ar/s t+e stairs 4-t i00e/iatel, (a0e 4a(7. It is to 4e note/ t+at +e +as 4een t+e (ollea1-e of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar in ITS "ental Colle1e N.<.I.".6. an/ 4ot+ of t+e0 'ere in t+e sa0e fa(-lt,. T+-s) t+ere is no reason to /o-4t on t+e testi0on, of t+is 'itness) 2arti(-larl, '+en +e 'as t+e (ollea1-e of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar. P.!.-14 "r. Ro+it Do(+ar 'as also t+e

(ollea1-e of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar in ITS "ental Colle1e) N.<.I.".6. an/ sin(e 2007 +e 'as a(@-ainte/ 'it+ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar) +e +as /e2ose/ t+at on 1=.0;.2008 at a4o-t 8.00-8.1; 6.5. +e re(ei3e/ a tele2+one (all fro0 one frien/ '+o infor0e/ +i0 a4o-t t+e 0-r/er of 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ t+en +e alon1 'it+ +is 'ife "r. Preeti Do(+ar 'ent to t+e +o-se of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar '+ere a lar1e n-04er of 2ersons 'ere 2resent t+ere. 6fter a4o-t 4;-=0 0in-tes "r. Ra.i3 D-0ar :ars+ne, (a0e t+ere an/ tol/ +i0 t+at 4, 0ista7e +e +a/ 1one -2 to t+e terra(e /oor an/
Pa1e 140

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+a/ 'itnesse/ 4loo/ stains on +an/le of terra(e /oor an/ floor an/ t+en +e 'ent -2 'it+ +i0 an/ fo-n/ foot 2rints of re/ (olo-r '+i(+ a22ear to +a3e 4een (leane/ an/ 4loo/ stains on t+e +an/le of terra(e /oor. $e +as also state/ t+at 4, t+at ti0e so0e 2ersons also (a0e t+ere an/ one of t+e0 'as a 2oli(e0an) '+o 'as also s+o'n t+e 4loo/ stains. "es2ite in(isi3e (ross-e>a0ination not+in1 fa3o-ra4le (o-l/ 4e e>tra(te/ fro0 t+is 'itness an/ t+erefore) t+ere is no reason to /is4elie3e +is testi0on,. If (ertain fa(ts on tri3ial an/ non si1nifi(ant 0atters +a3e not 4een state/ to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er(s) 4, P.!.-1& * 14 in t+eir state0ents -n/er se(tion 1=1 Cr.P.C. t+en 4, /int of t+at t+eir testi0on, (annot 4e /is(ar/e/. It is also i02ortant to 0ention t+at 4ot+ P.!.-1& an/ P.!.-14 +a3e 1i3en t+eir state0ents -n/er se(tion 1=4 Cr.P.C. 4efore t+e learne/ 5etro2olitan 5a1istrate) Ne' "el+i on 1;.12.2010 #ide 7a-17. In Sh7a3 Sunder >+i4it-7a-1= an/ *s. State of

Chhattisgarh 520026 > SCC 98 it +as 4een +el/ t+at '+en an in(i/ent is narrate/ 4, t+e sa0e 2erson to /ifferent 2ersons on /ifferent o((asions so0e /ifferen(e in t+e 0o/e of narratin1 t+e in(i/ent is 4o-n/ to arise 4-t s-(+ /ifferen(es /o not 0ilitate a1ainst t+e tr-st'ort+iness of t+e narration -nless t+e 3ariations (an 4e +el/ to 4e so a4nor0al or -nnat-ral as 'o-l/ not o((-r if t+e 'itness +a/ reall, 'itnesse/ '+at +e 'as narratin1. )"*cathedra, if "r. Ro+it Do(+ar +as state/ 4efore t+is (o-rt t+at +e +a/ seen 4loo/ stains onl, on +an/le of terra(e /oor an/ floor an/ +as state/ 4efore t+e 5etro2olitan 5a1istrate t+at 4loo/ stains
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on t+e /oor) +an/le an/ floor 'ere seen t+en onl, on t+at 1ro-n/ +is testi0on, (annot 4e +el/ to 4e -nrelia4le. Possi4ilit, of (leanin1 t+e 4loo/ stains on stairs an/ railin1 4, t+e a((-se/ after (o00ission of t+e (ri0e in t+e ni1+t (annot 4e r-le/ o-t as t+e, +a/ eno-1+ ti0e an/ o22ort-nit, to /o so. P.!.-7 D.D. Ca-ta0 +as also state/ t+at on 17.0;.2008 '+en +e 'ent to t+e flat of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar alon1'it+ "r. S-s+il C+a-/+ar, t+en "r. "ines+ Tal'ar 0et t+e0 t+ere an/ t+ereafter too7 t+e0 t+e to t+e roo0s of 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ $e0ra. an/ t+e stairs lea/in1 to terra(e an/ s+o'e/ 4loo/ stains on stairs) railin1) lo(7) lat(+ an/ /oor of terra(e an/ t+en on t+e re@-est of "r. "ines+ Tal'ar +e tele2+one/ S.P. Cit, 5r. 5a+es+ 5is+ra an/ tol/ +i0 a4o-t t+e 4loo/ stains an/ for o2enin1 t+e terra(e lo(7. <n t+is 2art of state0ent) t+is 'itness +as not 4een (ross-e>a0ine/ at all an/ t+erefore) +is testi0on, on t+is as2e(t 1oes -n(+allen1e/. In "al 2rishna *s. State 1877 Crl. J. 410 State of (.). *s. Nahar Singh 188> Cr.&.J. 200; 5SC6 and State of (.). *s. Anil Singh 18>8 SCC 5Crl.6 4> it +as 4een +el/ t+at '+ere a 'itness +a/ not 4een s2e(ifi(all, (ross-e>a0ine/ on a 2arti(-lar @-estion) t+e (o-rt (annot 2res-0e so0et+in1 a/3erse to t+e 'itness in relation to t+at @-estion -nless +is attention is s2e(ifi(all, /ra'n to it. In &aI3i "ai 5deceased6 through &+s and others *s. "hag-ant "u=a 5deceased6 through &+s and others 520196 4 SCC 87 it +as 4een +el/ t+at if a 2art, inten/s to i02ea(+ a 'itness) +e 0-st 2ro3i/e a/e@-ate o22ort-nit, to t+e 'itness in t+e 'itness 4o> to 1i3e a f-ll an/ 2ro2er e>2lanation. In
Pa1e 142

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t+at (ase t+e la' as 1i3en in 2he3 Chand *s. State of '.). AI+ 1884 SC 22; State of (.). *s. Nahar Singh 5188>6 9 SCC <;1 +a,ender )ershad *s. /arshana /e=i 520016 7 SCC ;8 and Sunil 2u3ar *s. State of +a,asthan 5200<6 8 SCC 2>9 'as relie/ on. It is t+e (ontention of 5r. 5ir t+at if t+ere (o-l/ +a3e 4een 4loo/ stains on stair an/ railin1 t+en (ertainl, t+e sa0e 0-st +a3e 4een seen 4, P.!.-10 B+arti 5an/al '+en s+e +a/ 1one -2 t+e stairs after 2ressin1 t+e (all-4ell on t+e se(on/ o((asion 4-t s+e +as also no'+ere state/ t+at 4loo/ stains 'ere seen 4, +er an/ as s-(+ t+e e3i/en(e of San.a, C+a-+an) "r. Ra.i3 D-0ar :ars+ne,) "r. Ro+it Do(+ar an/ D.D. Ca-ta0 t+at t+e, +a/ seen t+e 4loo/ stains 2ro3es to 4e false. T+is ar1-0ent +as no le1s to stan/. T+is 'itness +as also not 4een (ross-e>a0ine/ on t+e 2oint as to '+et+er s+e +a/ seen an, 4loo/ stains '+en 1oin1 -2 t+e stairs. T+e in3esti1atin1 offi(ers +a3e also not s2e(ifi(all, @-estione/ t+is 'itness of +a3in1 seen an, 4loo/ stains on stairs or not. $a/ s+e 4een @-estione/ on t+is 2oint an/ s+e 0i1+t +a3e re2lie/ t+at s+e +a/ not seen an, 4loo/ stains on t+e stairs t+en t+e 0atter 'o-l/ +a3e 4een ot+er'ise. 6s s-(+ in t+e (ir(-0stan(es t+e e3i/en(e of P.!.-4) 7) 1& * 14 is not /is(re/ite/. In f-rt+eran(e of +is ar1-0ents it 'as also 2ointe/ o-t 4, t+e learne/ (o-nsel t+at P.!.-&4 "atara0 Na-noria) S.$.<. of Poli(e Station) Se(tor-20 +as also state/ t+at '+en +e 'ent t+ro-1+ t+e stairs to t+e roof-/oor) +e fo-n/ 4loo/ 0ar7s on t+e lo(7 of t+e terra(e /oor 4-t no 4loo/ stains on stairs) railin1 an/ roof near t+e /oor an/
Pa1e 14&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

re/ (olo-re/ foot 2rints an/ t+-s +is e3i/en(e (ontra/i(ts t+e (lai0 of P.!.-4) 1& an/ 14. #i7e'ise) P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra t+e t+en S.P.) Cit, +as also state/ 4efore t+is (o-rt t+at lo(7 of t+e terra(e /oor 'as +a3in1 4loo/ 0ar7s 4-t t+e stairs /i/ not 4ear an, 4loo/ 0ar7s. T+-s) +is testi0on, /e0olis+es t+e (lai0 of P.!.-4) 1& an/ 14. It 'as also s-40itte/ 4, t+e learne/ (o-nsel t+at P.!.-1 Consta4le C+-nni #al Ca-ta0 too +as state/ t+at on 1=.0;.2008 +e 'ent -2 t+e stairs to t+e roof /oor) e>a0ine/ t+e /oor) t+e lat(+ an/ t+e lo(7 4-t /i/ not o4ser3e an, 4loo/ stains on stairs or railin1 nor an, 4loo/ staine/ foot 2rints as (lai0e/ 4, P.!.-4) 1& * 14. It 'as also s-40itte/ t+at P.!.-12 P-nis+ Rai Tan/on +as also state/ t+at +e +a/ 1one -2 t+e stairs t'o ti0es on 1=.0;.2008 4-t +e also /i/ not o4ser3e an, 4loo/ stains on stairs an/ railin1 an/ ".!.-; :i7as Set+i +as also state/ t+at '+en +e 'ent to t+e stairs -2 to'ar/s t+e roof +e +a/ not seen 4loo/ stains at an, 2la(e an/ S.I. S-nita Rana 1a3e +er state0ent to t+e assistin1 in3esti1atin1 offi(er Pan7a. Bansal t+at on 1=.0;.2008 t+ere 'as no 4loo/ stains on t+e stairs at all an/ t+-s in 3ie' of t+e in+erent (ontra/i(tions as 2ointe/ o-t a4o3e no relian(e (an 4e 2la(e/ on t+e e3i/en(e of t+ese 'itnesses. I fin/ it /iffi(-lt to a((e/e to t+e ar1-0ents of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/. 6s alrea/, state/ a4o3e P.!.-4 San.a, C+a-+an) P.!.-1& "r. Ra.i3 D-0ar :ars+ne, an/ P.!.-14 "r. Ro+it Do(+ar +a3e (ate1ori(all, state/ t+at t+e, +a/ seen t+e 4loo/ stains on t+e stairs) lo(7) +an/le an/ /oor of t+e terra(e. P.!.-4 +as also state/ t+at +e +a/ seen
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4loo/ stains on railin1. P.!.-1& * 14 '+o are 0e/i(al 2rofessionals +a3e state/ t+at on 0eti(-lo-s e>a0ination it 'as fo-n/ t+at 4loo/ stains 'ere 3isi4le an/ t+erefore) in 3ie' of t+is e3i/en(e it is 2ro3e/ t+at 4loo/ stains 'ere t+ere on stairs an/ railin1) lo(7) +an/le an/ /oor of terra(e. P.!.-1 Consta4le C+-nni #al re0aine/ 4-s, in ta7in1 fin1er-2rints fro0 3ario-s 2la(es. $e +as no'+ere s2e(ifi(all, state/ t+at +e +a/ not seen t+e 4loo/ stains. $e +as si02l, state/ at 2a1e no. 8 of +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at +e /oes not re0e04er t+at '+en +e (li04e/ t+e stairs an/ +a/ 1one to t+e roof t+ere 'ere t'o /oors or not a(ross t+e stairs. P.!.-12 P-nit Rai Tan/on 'as +as state/ t+at '+en +e 'ent insi/e flat no. #-&2 an/ (a0e to 7no' a4o-t t+e o((-rren(e t+en +e (a0e 4a(7 fro0 t+ere an/ infor0e/ t+e se(-rit, 2ersonnel a4o-t t+e in(i/ent an/ '+en at a4o-t 4.00 P.5. %0es+ S+ar0a t+e /ri3er of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar as7e/ +i0 to 2ro3i/e t+e 7e, of +is terra(e /oor t+en +e +a/ 1one -2 t+e stairs to o2en t+e lo(7 of +is terra(e /oor an/ a1ain at a4o-t 4.&0 P.5. +e a1ain 'ent -2 t+e stairs to o2en t+e lo(7 of t+e terra(e /oor. $e +as not 4een (ross-e>a0ine/ s2e(ifi(all, as to '+en +e +a/ 1one -2 t+e stairs t'o ti0es on 1=.0;.2008 '+et+er +e +a/ seen an, 4loo/ stains on stairs) railin1) lo(7) +an/le an/ terra(e /oor of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar. P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra an/ P.!.- &4 S.I. "atara0 Na-noria +a3e also state/ t+at t+e, +a/ seen 4loo/ stains on t+e lo(7 of t+e terra(e /oor of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar. If P.!.-2? +as state/ t+at t+ere 'ere no 4loo/ stains on t+e terra(e t+en it (annot 4e sai/ t+at t+ere 'ere no 4loo/ stains on t+e stairs.
Pa1e 14;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

P.!.-&4 +as state/ at 2a1e no. ? of +is (rosse>a0ination t+at +e /oes not re0e04er '+et+er S.P. Cit, +a/ tol/ Consta4le C+-nni #al to ta7e t+e 2+oto1ra2+s of 4loo/ stains on t+e -2stairs. Sin(e 4loo/ stains a22eare/ to +a3e 4een (leane/ an/ t+erefore) t+is 'itness 0a, not +a3e noti(e/ 0in-tel, t+e faint 4loo/stains on t+e stairs an/ as s-(+ no i02ortan(e (an 4e atta(+e/ to t+e o0ission on t+is as2e(t on 2art of P.!.-2?. P.!.-&4 +as also not 4een s2e(ifi(all, as7e/ '+et+er +e +a/ seen 4loo/ stains on t+e -2stairs or not an/ +e +as no'+ere state/ t+at +e +a/ not seen 4loo/stains on t+e stairs. T+e ne>t s-40ission of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ is t+at t+eor, of t+e 2rose(-tion t+at $e0ra. 'as ta7en in a 4e/-s+eet to t+e terra(e t+ro-1+ t+e stairs an/ +is 4o/, 'as /ra11e/ on t+e roof is not 2ro3e/ an/ t+e /-00, test (arrie/ is not a/0issi4le -n/er se(tion 4; of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t an/ t+e e3i/en(e 1i3en 4, P.!.-2= "ee2a7 D-0ar Tan'ar) P.!.-27 "r. Ra.en/ra Sin1+) P.!.-&8 "r. 5.S. "a+i,a an/ P.!.-&? 6.C.#. Da-l in t+is res2e(t is of no si1nifi(an(e. I a1ree 'it+ t+e (ontention of t+e learne/ (o-nsel to t+e e>tent t+at /-00, test is not a/0issi4le -n/er se(tion 4; of t+e 3i/en(e 6(t 4e(a-se P.!.-27 "r. Ra.en/ra Sin1+ +as a/0itte/ at 2a1e no. 4 of +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at +e (annot tell '+et+er t+e /-00, test is (on(l-si3e or not. $o'e3er) t+e fa(t re0ains t+at (ri0e s(ene 'as reena(te/ an/ /-00, test 'as (on/-(te/. It is also 2ossi4le t+at after 4l-/1eonin1 $e0ra. 'it+ 1olf sti(7 +e 'as (arrie/ in a 4e/ s+eet 4, 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ to t+e terra(e '+en +e 'as in a state of
Pa1e 14=

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

(on(-ssion an/ t+ereafter on t+e terra(e +is t+roat 'as slit an/ 4o/, 'as /ra11e/. T+e /ra11in1 0ar7s (o-l/ 4e easil, seen in t+e 2+oto1ra2+s 0aterial >+i4it-14) 17 an/ 18. P.!.-&= "r. Nares+ Ra. +as /e2ose/ t+at ante-0orte0 in.-r, nos. 1 2) 4 an/ ; of $e0ra. 0a, o((-r /-e to /ra11in1 on a +ar/ s-rfa(e. It is 'ell settle/ la' t+at t+ere is no set 2attern of in.-ries (a-se/ 4, /ra11in1. It /e2en/s +o' t+e 4o/, 'as l-11e/ a4o-t. %n/er Se(tion 10= 3i/en(e 6(t it 'as in(-04ent -2on t+e a((-se/ to esta4lis+ as to +o' t+e 4o/, of $e0ra. 'as ta7en to t+e roof 4, '+o0 an/ '+o +a/ lo(7e/ t+e terra(e /oor fro0 insi/e 4-t t+e, +a3e 0isera4l, faile/ to esta4lis+ t+e sa0e. It is not e>2e(te/ of t+e 2rose(-tion to lea/ e3i/en(e on t+e 2oint '+i(+ is e>(l-si3el, 'it+in t+e 7no'le/1e an/ /o0ain of t+e a((-se/. T+-s) t+e ar1-0ent of t+e learne/ (o-nsel is /e3oi/ of an, 0erit. It +as ne>t 4een ar1-e/ 'it+ 2ers2i(a(it, 4, t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ t+at fro0 t+e e3i/en(e of P.!.-1; %0es+ S+ar0a it is 2ro3e/ t+at one /oor of $e0ra.Es roo0 o2enin1 to'ar/s t+e 2assa1e re0aine/ (lose/ as in front of t+is /oor refri1erator 'as 7e2t to 4lo(7 t+e o2enin1 of t+e /oor an/ P.!.-&? 6.C.#. Da-l +as a/0itte/ t+at t+e 'oo/en /oor 'as +a3in1 an a-to0ati( (li(7 s+-t lo(7 an/ t+erefore) t+e state0ent of B+arti 5an/al t+at flat 'as lo(7e/ fro0 insi/e (annot 4e 4elie3e/. It 'as also ar1-e/ t+at 5rs. S+as+i "e3i +as 1i3en +er state0ent to I.<. $ari Sin1+ t+at '+ene3er s+e 'ent to /eli3er irone/ (lot+es o-ter0ost iron 0es+ /oor 'as fo-n/ .a00e/. I /o not a1ree 'it+ t+is s-40ission 4e(a-se P.!.-10 B+arti 5an/al +as
Pa1e 147

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asse3erate/ t+at '+en s+e +a/ 2la(e/ +er +an/ on o-ter 0es+ /oor it /i/ not o2en an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar +a/ tol/ +er t+at 2er+a2s $e0ra. 0i1+t +a3e 1one to fet(+ 0il7 after lo(7in1 t+e 0i//le 1rill/0es+ /oor fro0 o-tsi/e an/ '+en s+e (a0e a1ain fro0 1ro-n/ le3el an/ 2la(e/ +er +an/ on t+e 0es+ /oor it 1ot o2ene/. T+ere is no 3ali/ reason to /is4elie3e t+e state0ent of B+arti 5an/al an/ it is 2ro3e/ t+at '+en B+arti 5an/al +a/ rea(+e/ at flat no. #-&2 it 'as lat(+e/ fro0 insi/e an/ 2-r2osel, s+e 'as tol/ to 1o to t+e 1ro-n/ le3el so t+at in t+e 0eanti0e "r. N-2-r Tal'ar 0a, o2en t+e lat(+ of t+e /oor fro0 insi/e '+i(+ -lti0atel, s+e /i/ so. P.!.-1; is a traitor '+o after ta7in1 oat+ +as /eli4eratel, 4a(7 tra(7e/. $e +as in3ente/ a ne' stor, t+at o-ter 0es+ /oor o2ene/ 'it+ so-n/ /-e to 4ein1 .a00e/. 5rs. S+as+i "e3i +as neit+er 4een 2ro/-(e/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion nor 4, t+e /efen(e an/ t+erefore) +er state0ent -n/er se(tion 1=1 Cr.P.C. (annot 4e loo7e/ into as +el/ in 5o+/. 6n7oos :s. P.P. $i1+ Co-rt of 6.P. 200? 6IR SC! 71&2. Be t+at as it 0a,) it is a02l, 2ro3e/ t+at '+en B+arti 5an/al +a/ 2la(e/ +er +an/ on t+e o-ter 0es+ /oor) it /i/ not o2en an/ '+en s+e (a0e 4a(7 fro0 1ro-n/ le3el it 1ot o2ene/ '+en s+e 2la(e/ +er +an/ on it '+i(+ (learl, s-11ests t+at o-ter 0es+/oor 'as lat(+e/ fro0 insi/e at t+e ti0e of arri3al of 5rs. B+arti 5an/al. T+e terra(e /oor 'as also lo(7e/ fro0 insi/e an/ t+erefore entr, of t+ir/ 2erson is (o02letel, r-le/ o-t. It +as ne>t 4een ar1-e/ 4, t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ t+at t+e e3i/en(e 2roffere/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar after (o00ittin1
Pa1e 148

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t+e 0-r/er (ons-0e/ neat '+is7e, 'it+o-t 2o-rin1 it into a t-04ler (an +ar/l, 4e 4elie3e/ an/ t+e e3i/en(e 1i3en in t+is res2e(t 4, fin1er-2rints lifter (onsta4le C+-nni #al Ca-ta0) P.!.-& 60ar "e3 Sa+) P.!.-= B.D. 5o+a2atra) P.!.-24 S-res+ D-0ar Sin1la an/ P.!.-2; S.P.R. Prasa/ is not (re/i4le. In f-rt+eran(e of +is ar1-0ents it 'as s-40itte/ con brio t+at P.!.-1 +as state/ t+at +e +a/ ta7en fin1er2rints fro0 t+e '+is7, 4ottle an/ t+e 2late an/ +e +a/ a22lie/ 4la(7 2o'/er an/ '+en t+e fin1er-2rints /e3elo2e/ ta2e 'as a22lie/ on t+atM a4o-t 1;-20 10s. of 2o'/er 'as -se/ an/ +e /oes not re0e04er '+et+er +e +a/ 1i3en t+e state0ent to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er t+at '+is7, 4ottle fro0 '+i(+ +e +a/ ta7en t+e fin1er-2rints +a/ a re/ (olo-r 0ar7 an/ t+e 4ottle 'as al0ost of re/ (olo-rM +e /oes not re0e04er t+at on 2?.0&.2010 +e +a/ 1i3en state0ent to t+e ins2e(tor 6r3in/ 9aitle, t+at +e +a/ -se/ t+e 2o'/er to ta7e (+an(e-2rints fro0 t+e 4ottle an/ +a/ seen an, 4loo/ on t+e sa0eM t+at in t+e re2ort >+i4it-7+a-1 of P.!.-& 60ar "e3 Sa+ it +as 4een 0entione/ t+at t+e lifte/ (+an(e-2rints 0ar7e/ as S-7 '+ile in Q-1 an/ Q-10 are /ifferent fro0 s2e(i0en 10 /i1it fin1er-2rint sli2s 0ar7e/ as S-1 to >+i4it-7+a-& it +as 4een state/ t+at (+an(e-2rints /ete(te/ fro0 t+e 'ine 4ottle 0ar7e/ as Q-&) Q-; an/ Q-= are /ifferent fro0 s2e(i0en 10 /i1it fin1er-2rints 0ar7e/ as S-1 to S-7 (S-1 * S-2 are of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar * "r. N-2-r Tal'ar res2e(ti3el,)M /ete(te/ on P.!.-= "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra +as 0entione/ in +is re2ort >+i4it-7a-= t+at 4loo/ 'as

>+i4it-= / (Ballantine s(ot(+ 4ottle)

an/ 0i>e/ 2artial "N6 2rofile 'as 1enerate/ fro0 it
Pa1e 14?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

'+i(+ is (onsistent 'it+ 4ot+ t+e sets of "N6 2rofile 1enerate/ fro0 t+e so-r(e of >+i4its of 2ar(el-1 an/ 2ar(el-24 at t+e a02lifie/ lo(i an/ +e +as also /e2ose/ t+at fro0 >+i4it-= / 2artial 2rofile of 0ale an/ 2artial 2rofile of fe0ale "N6 'as 1enerate/ 4-t in (ross-e>a0ination +e +as state/ t+at st-/, of 1= 0ar7ers is -n/erta7en an/ +e +as ta7en onl, t+ose 2ea7s '+i(+ +e +a/ (onsi/ere/ as (orre(tM 1enot,2e 2lots +a3e not 4een 2la(e/ on re(or/ in t+e (o-rtM in t+e 1enot,2e ta4le +e +as onl, s+o'n t+e (orre(t 2ea7s '+i(+ 'ere sele(te/ 4, +i0M if 0-lti2le 2ea7s are seen in t+e 1enot,2e t+en no o2inion (an 4e 1i3enM for one 0an) in one lo(i) 0a>i0-0 t'o 2ea7s 'ill a22earM if in one lo(i 0ore t+an t'o 2ea7s a22ear) t+en t+e sa0e is (alle/ as 0-lti2le 2ea7sM '+en a 0i>e/ 2rofile is o4taine/ no o2inion is 1i3en a4o-t t+e sa0eM if -2on o4ser3in1 ? lo(i sa0e tan/e0 re2eats are seen t+en in t+at (ase it (annot 4e (on(l-/e/ t+at 4ot+ are fro0 t+e sa0e so-r(e an/ if t+e so-r(e is not 7no'n an/ -2on (o02arison/o4ser3ation of ? lo(i) sa0e tan/e0 re2eats are seen) t+en t+e i/entit, (annot 4e esta4lis+e/) +o'e3er) at si0ilar o4ser3ation of 1; lo(i i/entit, is esta4lis+e/ an/ t+-s it is not 2ro3e/ t+at Ballantine s(ot(+ 4ottle +a/ "N6 of 6ar-s+i * $e0ra.. It 'as f-rt+er s-40itte/ t+at P.!.-2; S.P.R. Prasa/ in +is re2ort >+i4it-7a-;1 /ate/ 0=.11.2008 +as 0entione/ t+at alias >+i4it-8 (Ballantine s(ot(+ 4ottle) /i/ not ,iel/ an, "N6 for anal,sis) alias >+i4it-P ("N6 Sa02le sai/ to 4e e>tra(te/ fro0 >+i4it-= /) ,iel/e/ 0ale "N6 2rofileM t+e "N6 2rofiles fro0 t+e so-r(es of >+i4it-! ("N6 sa02le sai/ to 4e e>tra(te/ fro0 t+e 4loo/staine/ 2al0
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

2rint fo-n/ on t+e 'all of t+e roof/terra(e) 0ar7e/ as 24)) fro0 t+e 2illo' >+i4it-P ("N6 sa02le sai/ to 4e e>tra(te/ >+i4it-= / 4ottle) an/ >+i4it-L20 (one (o3er) 2-r2le (olo-re/ (lot+) are a 0ale

ori1in an/ i/enti(alM t+e "N6 2rofile of t+e so-r(es of >+i4it-% (4ro7en +air (o04) arti(le sai/ to 4e of $e0ra.)) (olo-re/ >+i4it-R (t'o raFors) arti(les sai/ to 4e of >+i4it-L&0 (one 4e/ (o3er 0-lti s-s2e(te/ s2ots of 4loo/) are 'it+ $e0ra.) an/

0at(+in1 'it+ t+e "N6 2rofiles of t+e so-r(es of >+i4it-! ("N6 sa02le sai/ to 4e e>tra(te/ fro0 t+e 4loo/staine/ 2al0 2rint fo-n/ on t+e 'all of t+e roof/terra(e) 0ar7e/ as 24) an/ >+i4it-P ("N6 >+i4it-= / sa02le sai/ to 4e e>tra(te/ fro0 t+e

4ottle)) as s+o'n in t+e en(lose/ ta4le 7 4-t in +is e3i/en(e +e +as state/ t+at t+e sa02les fro0 >+i4it-8 (Ballantine s(ot(+ 4ottle) 'ere ta7en fro0 its 0o-t+M P.!.-24 S-res+ D-0ar Sin1la +as 0entione/ in +is re2ort /ate/ 17.0=.2008 7+a-&= t+at 4loo/ on 4-t >+i4it-

>+i4it-=/ is of +-0an ori1in

>+i4it-=/ 1a3e no rea(tion for 4loo/ 1ro-2s 6)

B) 6B * < an/ as s-(+ in 3ie' of t+is e3i/en(e it is not esta4lis+e/ t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar (ons-0e/ t+e neat li@-or an/ t+e 4loo/ of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ an/ "N6 1ot e04osse/ on t+e sai/ 4ottle an/ P.!.-& 60ar "e3 S+a+ +as state/ t+at o-t of fi3e (+an(e2rints Q-& to Q-7 fo-n/ on t+e 4ottle t+ree 2rints i.e. Q-&) Q-; an/ Q-= 'ere fit for (o02arison an/ '+en t+e, 'ere (o02are/ 'it+ t+e fin1er 2rints of t+e a((-se/ no 0at(+ res-lte/M '+ile "r. 5o+a2atra +as state/ t+at "N6 2rofile fo-n/ fro0 t+e 4ottle 'as a 0i>e/ 2artial 2rofile of 0ale an/ fe0ale ori1in '+i(+ 'ere (onsistent 'it+ t+e 2rofile 1enerate/ fro0 t+e
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

4loo/ staine/ 2al0 2rints an/

>+i4its li7e 4e/-

s+eet) 0attress an/ 2illo'-(o3er (olle(te/ fro0 5s. 6ar-s+iEs roo0 4-t P.!.-2; S.P.R. Prasa/ on anal,sis of e>tra(ts 1enerate/ 4, "r. 5o+a2atra fro0 t+e sai/ 4ottle fo-n/ "N6 2rofile of onl, 0ale '+i(+ 0at(+e/ 'it+ t+e 2rofile of t+e 4loo/ staine/ 2al02rint an/ ot+er 2rofiles 4elon1in1 to /e(ease/ $e0ra.. If "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ (ons-0e/ neat li@-or fro0 its 0o-t+ t+en in t+at e3ent-alit, t+e sali3a an/ "N6 of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 0-st +a3e (o0e in (onta(t 'it+ t+e 0o-t+ of t+e 4ottle 4-t no "N6 (o-l/ 4e fo-n/ on it an/ t+erefore) t+is (ir(-0stan(e as relie/ -2on 4, t+e 2rose(-tion is lia4le to 4e /is4elie3e/. T+e aforesai/ ar1-0ents /o not a22eal to t+e reason an/ t+erefore) lia4le to 4e re.e(te/. In T+o1orani H D. "a0,anti :s. State of <rissa an/ ot+ers 2004 Cr.#.9. 400& an/ +aghu%ir /esai *s. State 2007 Cr.&.J. >28 it 'as +el/ t+at "N6 test is (lin(+in1 2ie(e of e3i/en(e. "N6 testin1 (an 0a7e a 3irt-all, 2ositi3e i/entifi(ation '+en t'o sa02les are 0at(+e/. It e>onerates inno(ent an/ +el2s to (on3i(t t+e 1-ilt,. In S3t. 2a3ti /e=i *s. )oshi +a3 AI+ 2001 SC 222; it +as 4een +el/ t+at t+e res-lt of 1en-ine "N6 test is sai/ to 4e s(ientifi(all, a((-rate. In San,a7 A 2a4a *s. NCT of /elhi 2001 Cr&J 1290 5SC6 it 'as +el/ t+at fail-re of 2rose(-tion to 2ro3e t+e ori1in of 4loo/ on (lot+es 'o-l/ not e>ten/ an, 4enefit to t+e a((-se/. In Sunil Clifford /aniel *s. State of )un,a% 2019 5>06 ACC 1888 5SC6 it 'as +el/ t+at if (lassifi(ation of 4loo/ +as not 4een /eter0ine/ 4e(a-se of la2se of ti0e) no a/3anta1e (an 4e (onferre/ on t+e a((-se/ to ena4le +i0 to (lai0 an,
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

4enefit an/ t+e re2ort of /isinte1ration of 4loo/ (annot 4e ter0e/ as 0issin1 lin7. Rel,in1 on )ra%hu "a%a,i Na=ie *s. State of "o3%a7 AI+ 18<; SC <1 +agha= )rapanna Tripathi *s. State of (.). AI+ 18;9 SC 74 an/ t+e State of +a,asthan *s. Te, +a, AI+ 1888 SC 177; it 'as +el/ in #ura Singh *s. State of +a,asthan AI+ 2001 SC 990 t+at a fail-re 4, t+e serolo1ist to /ete(t t+e ori1in of t+e 4loo/ /-e to /isinte1ration of t+e ser-0 /oes not 0ean t+at t+e 4loo/ st-(7 on t+e a>e 'o-l/ not +a3e 4een +-0an 4loo/ at all. So0eti0es) it is 2ossi4le eit+er 4e(a-se t+e stain is too ins-ffi(ient or /-e to +ae0atolo1i(al (+an1es an/ 2las0ati( (o1-lation) t+at a serolo1ist 0a, fail to /ete(t t+e ori1in of t+e 4loo/. In 2esha= &al *s. State of 0.). 520026 9 SCC 2<4 it +as 4een +el/ t+at non-as(ertaina4ilit, of t+e 4loo/ 1ro-2 (annot 4e 0a/e a 4asis to /is(ar/ t+e e3i/en(e of t+e 'itnesses '+o ot+er'ise ins2ire/ t+e (onfi/en(e of t+e (o-rt. In 'ira &al )ande7 *s. State of (.). 520126 < SCC 21; it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at fa(t t+at Serolo1i(al re2ort 'as not 2ro/-(e/ alt+o-1+ 4loo/ staine/ eart+ 'as (olle(te/ an/ t+at in3esti1ation (o00en(e/ onl, on ne>t /a, of in(i/ent) are /efe(ts in in3esti1ation '+i(+ are not of a s-(+ nat-re as to (ast /o-4t on t+e 2rose(-tion stor,. In +a3a Nathan *s. State of T.N. AI+ 187> SC 1204 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at t+e 0ere fa(t t+at t+e i/entit, of t+e a((-se/ (o-l/ not 4e esta4lis+e/ on t+e 4asis of n-04er of fin1er 2rints o4taine/ /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of in3esti1ation (annot 4e sai/ to 4e eno-1+ to .-stif, +is a(@-ittal '+en t+ere 'as o3er'+el0in1 e3i/en(e a1ainst +i0 to esta4lis+ +is
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

1-ilt. In State of 2arnata4a *s. 0.N. +a3 /as 520026 7 SCC ;98 it 'as +el/ t+at fail-re to sen/ 0-r/er 'ea2on for fin1er 2rints 0a, not 4e fatal 7ee2in1 in 3ie' t+e fa(t t+at it 'as soa7e/ in t+e 4loo/ or t+at t+ere 'as ot+er e3i/en(e (onne(tin1 t+e a((-se/. It is /o-4tf-l '+et+er 4loo/ soa7e/ (+o22er) if anal,se/ 4, a fin1er-2rint e>2ert (o-l/ +a3e an, (l-es as to fin1er-2rints. Be t+at as it 0a,) e3en t+e if it is (onsi/ere/ (ase. In as a la2se in t+e A in3esti1ation) t+at 'ill not (ast a (lo-/ of /o-4t on 2rose(-tion 0usheer 2han "adshah 2han . others *s. State of 0.). AI+ 2010 SC 7;2 it +as 4een +el/ t+at e3i/en(e of fin1er 2rint e>2ert is not s-4stanti3e e3i/en(e. S-(+ e3i/en(e (an onl, 4e -se/ to (orro4orate so0e ite0s of s-4stanti3e e3i/en(e '+i(+ are ot+er'ise on re(or/. In State of 0aharashtra *s. Anil 200; Cr.&.J. 5N@C6 2>> 5"o36 an/ "aso )rasad *s. State of "ihar 5200;6 19 SCC ;< it +as 4een +el/ t+at -nless it is esta4lis+e/ in t+e (ross-e>a0ination t+at t+e o2inion 1i3en 4, t+e e>2ert is in(orre(t) t+e sai/ e3i/en(e (annot 4e /is(ar/e/ on s+o'in1 0inor /is(re2an(ies s-(+ as non-2ro/-(tion of t+e ori1inal 'or7-4oo7. ".!.-7 "r. 6n/rei Se0i7+o/s7ii +as state/ at 2a1e no. & of +is e>a0ination-in-(+ief t+at Cenot,2e 2lots in 2a2er no. 4=4-7+a/2 to 4=47+a/8 are 3ersion of final (on(l-sion /o(-0ents. T+is 2a2er (o-l/ not 2er0it +i0 to /eter0ine t+e +ei1+t of 0an, 2ea7s) t+e 0or2+olo1, of 0an, 2ea7s an/ 4e(a-se of t+is +e (annot tell '+et+er so0e 2ea7s (o-l/ 4e PCR artifa(t or real 2ea7s an/ t+is +as a 2rofo-n/ i02li(ation to /eter0ine t+e 2ossi4le n-04er of (ontri4-tors to t+e 4iolo1i(al
Pa1e 1;4

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

sa02le. $e +as f-rt+er state/ t+at sin(e t+e (o02lete ra' /atas +a3e not 4een s-22lie/ to +i0 an/ t+erefore) +e is not in 2osition eit+er to (on(-r 'it+ or /isa1ree 'it+ t+e re2ort 1i3en 4, "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra. $o'e3er) e3en 'it+o-t ra' /ata +e /isa1rees 'it+ t+e re2ort of "r. 5o+a2atra on t'o 2oints- (I) "r. 5o+a2atra +as not (al(-late/ t+e R5P (Ran/o0 5at(+ Pro4a4ilit,)) '+i(+ /oes not allo' t+e (o-rt to for0 an o2inion as to t+e stren1t+ of "N6 e3i/en(e an/ (ii) "r. 5o+a2atra +as /e2ose/ t+at +e /oes not inter2ret a 0i>e/ 2rofile an/ t+erefore) +is (a2a4ilit, is @-estione/ an/ +is state0ent 0a, lea/ to 0is(arria1e of .-sti(e. In (ross-e>a0ination +e +as a/0itte/ t+at t+e (o2, of t+e re2ort >+i4it-7a-= 'as sent to +i0 an/ in >+i4it-7a-= ta4les of 1enot,2e 2lots +a3e 4een 1i3en. $e +as state/ t+at sa02les of 1enot,2e 2lots '+i(+ +a3e 4een atta(+e/ 'it+ +is re2ort are +a3in1 11 0ar7ers an/ t+e sa02les of 1enot,2e 2lots '+i(+ +a3e 4een 2ro/-(e/ 4, "r. 5o+a2atra are +a3in1 1= 0ar7ers an/ +e 7no's t+at in In/ia t+e e>2erts -se 65P 8# STR 1= #o(i 4ase an/ Cene 5a22er I" Soft'are. It is (orre(t to sa, t+at t+e +ei1+t of t+e in/i3i/-al 2ea7 of t+e 1enerate/ 1enot,2e 2lot (an 4e seen 4, t+e e>a0iner fro0 t+e s,ste0 itself an/ (an 4e /o(-0ente/ 4, t+e e>2ert if it is 'it+in a((e2ta4le li0it. It is also (orre(t to sa, t+at t+e in/i3i/-al allels (an 4e anal,se/ in t+e s,ste0 'it+ res2e(t to its +ei1+t) siFe) an/ all ot+er 2ara0eters. It is also (orre(t to sa, t+at t+e +ei1+t of t+e 2ea7s) 0or2+olo1, of 2ea7s (an 4e 3ie'e/ in a 4etter 0anner fro0 t+e s,ste0 itself 4, /oin1 Foo0. $o'e3er) t+e +ei1+t of t+e 2ea7s (an 4e 4est
Pa1e 1;;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

.-/1e/ or esti0ate/ 4, t+e ta4-lar (+art '+i(+ 1i3es t+e e>a(t 3al-e. It is (orre(t t+at "r. 5o+a2atra +as re(or/e/ t+e allels '+i(+ +e +as i/entifie/ in t+e ta4-lar (+art 1i3en in >+i4it-7a-=. $e /oes not 7no' as to '+et+er t+ere are an, 1-i/elines or r-les t+at t+e 2rinto-ts of 4lan7 1enot,2e 2lots 'it+o-t an, allels 2ea7 are to 4e 7e2t. $e a1rees t+at 1enot,2e 2lots (ontain infor0ation 'it+ referen(e to so0e allels) all /,es) 3er, ro-1+ esti0ate/ 1eneral esti0ate of 2ea7 +ei1+ts) 3er, ro-1+ esti0ate/1eneral esti0ate of 2ea7 +ei1+ts ratio) so0e /ata 2oints an/ so0e file na0es. It is (orre(t to sa, t+at 0an, sa02les (an 4e 0a/e to r-n to1et+er in t+e "N6 7it after one an/ anot+er 4-t t+e inter3al 0-st 4e of at least &0 se(on/s 4et'een t+e sa02les. It is also (orre(t to sa, t+at "r. 5o+a2atra +as 0a/e inter-se (o02arison of t+e "N6 in t+e sa02les re(ei3e/ 4, +i0. It is also (orre(t to sa, t+at "r. 5o+a2atra +as not 1i3en i/entit, of t+e so-r(e of "N6. It is tr-e t+at t+e #CN "N6 res-lts +a3e 4een t+e s-4.e(t of a/3erse o4ser3ations 4, t+e (o-rts /-e to 2ossi4ilit, of (onta0ination. T+-s t+e /efen(e 'itness +as a/0itte/ t+e e3i/en(e an/ re2ort of "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra 'it+ 0inor tit-4its +ere an/ t+ere. "r. 5o+a2atra +as state/ at 2a1e no. 1? of +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at N6B# 1-i/elines are follo'e/ an/ re(or/ of e3er, 2ro(ess is 0aintaine/ an/ ele(tro2+ore1ra0 is in +is re(or/. $e +as also state/ at 2a1e no. 8 of +is (rosse>a0ination t+at "N6 is e>tra(te/ fro0 t+e sa02le an/ t+ereafter 2-rifi(ation is /one an/ t+en a02lifi(ation an/ 1enot,2in1 is /one an/ t+en
Pa1e 1;=

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

res-lts are o4taine/. $e +as also 0entione/ t+e 0et+o/ of test in +is 'or7 s+eet 'it+ '+i(+ +e +as (o0e to /e2ose in t+e (o-rt. $e +as also state/ at 2a1e no. 2& of +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at 1enot,2e 2lots are 1enerate/ fro0 a-to0ati( 0a(+ine6-to0ati( Ceneti( 6nal,Fer. $e +as also state/ at 2a1e no. 2= of +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at la4 2ro(e/-re +as 4een 0entione/ in +is re2ort >+i4it7a-10 an/ ot+er re2orts an/ e3en if t+ere is a (onta0inate in "N6 res-lt 'ill 4e t+e sa0e an/ onl, (+an1e 'ill 4e in t+e 1ra2+. $e +as also state/ t+at +e +as e>tra(te/ ele(tro2+ore1ra0 of 2ositi3e (ontrol. T+-s) t+ere a22ears no reason to /is(ar/ t+e re2ort an/ e3i/en(e of "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra. P.!.-24 S-res+ D-0ar Sin1la +as e>a0ine/ a 2ortion of (lot+ 2ie(e /es(ri4e/ as 2illo'-(o3er ( >+i4it-2=) an/ a 2ortion of 4loo/ staine/ t+rea/s /es(ri4e/ as 7-7ri 'it+ s+eat+ ( >+i4it-27) an/ >+i4it-2= 'as fo-n/ to 4e of +-0an-in-ori1in 4-t >+i4it-2= 1a3e no rea(tion for 4loo/ 1ro-2s 6) B) 6B * < an/ +-0an 4loo/ (o-l/ not 4e /ete(te/ on >+i4it-27. $e +as 2ro3e/ +is e>a0ination re2ort as >+i4it-7a-4?. In t+e (ross-e>a0ination +e +as state/ t+at in t+e >+i4it-7a-27 +-0an 4loo/ 'as not fo-n/ an/ 4loo/ of (o00on ani0als li7e (o') s+ee2) 1oat) (o(7) /o1 an/ B-ffalo 'as also not fo-n/. T+is e3i/en(e 2ro3es t+at 7-7ri 'as not -se/ for +o0i(i/e. $e +as also state/ t+at +is la4 follo's N6B# 1-i/elines. P.!.-2; S.P.R. Prasa/) Senior Te(+ni(al >a0iner) C.".8.".) $,/era4a/ +as 2ro3e/ e>a0ination re2ort as >+i4it-7a-;1. $e +as also 2ro3e/ (larifi(ator, letter /ate/ 24.0&.2011 as >+i4it-7a-;2 in '+i(+ it +as 4een 0entione/ t+at
Pa1e 1;7

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

t+ere are t,2o1ra2+i(al errors in t+e /es(ri2tion of t+e >+i4its-L14 an/ L20 an/ t+erefore t+e /es(ri2tion of A >+i4it-L14 s+all 4e rea/ as Aone 2illo'-(o3er (2-r2le (olo-re/ (lot+) G-204) C-110K instea/ of 2illo' 'it+ 2illo'-(o3er (Bl-e an/ !+ite Colo-re/)K an/ t+e /es(ri2tion of A >+i4it-L20K s+all 4e rea/ as A2illo' 'it+ 2illo'-(o3er (Bl-e an/ !+ite Colo-re/) G-204) C-114K instea/ of Aone 2illo'-(o3er (2-r2le (olo-re/ (lot+)K. $e +as 1i3en (o1ent reasons for t+is !au" pas. $e +as state/ on oat+ t+at 4efore 1i3en in2-ts ele(tro2+ore1ra0s of an/ >+i4itG204 C#-14 fro0 '+i(+ "N6 2rofile 'as re(ei3e/ >+i4it-G204 C#10 fro0 '+i(+ "N6 2rofile 'as not re(ei3e/ 'ere (+e(7e/. It is to 4e note/ t+at no "N6 'as fo-n/ in t+e 2illo'-(o3er of Dris+na 4, C.8.S.#.) Ne' "el+i an/ C.".8.".) $,/era4a/ an/ 4ot+ +a3e fo-n/ "N6 of $e0ra. in t+e 2illo'-(o3er of $e0ra.. T+is iss-e 'as raise/ 4efore t+e $onE4le $i1+ Co-rt) 6lla+a4a/ 4, t+e a((-se/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar in Cri0inal Re3ision No. 1127 of 2011 "r. N-2-r Tal'ar :s. C.B.I. * anot+er an/ after +earin1 4ot+ t+e si/es it 'as a/.-/i(ate/ on 18.0&.2011 4, t+e $onE4le $i1+ Co-rt t+at t+e o4.e(tions raise/ 4, t+e a((-se/ are 4aseless an/ it 'as (lear t+at "N6 of $e0ra. 'as not fo-n/ on Dris+naEs 2illo'-(o3er. T+e 0atter 'as a1ain a1itate/ 4efore t+e $onE4le $i1+ Co-rt in Petition No. &;&0& of 2012 an/ it 'as +el/ 4, t+e $onE4le $i1+ Co-rt t+at t+e (larifi(ator, letter of C.".8.".) $,/era4a/ +as 0entione/ as to +o' t+e error +as (re2t in. It is also 2ertinent to 0ention +ere t+at ori1inal /es(ri2tion of t+e >+i4its are +a3in1 2ro2er ta1s of C.8.S.#. an/ C.".8.". an/ f-ll >+i4its +a3e 4een 0entione/ in
Pa1e 1;8

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

t+e ta1s an/ si1ne/ 4, t+e (on(erne/ e>2erts. 6ll t+e ta1s +a3e 4een e>+i4ite/ 'it+ en3elo2es an/ 0aterial >+i4its i.e. 2illo'-(o3er an/ 2illo' 'it+ (o3er. In 3ie' of t+is (lin(+in1 s(ientifi( e3i/en(e t+e ar1-0ents a/3an(e/ on 4e+alf of t+e a((-se/ +a3e 1ot no for(e. It 'as ne>t (onten/e/ 4, t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ t+at in a (ase 4ase/ on (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e if (+ain of e3ents 2oints o-t to onl, +,2ot+esis t+at t+e a((-se/ are 1-ilt, an/ t+en (on3i(tion (an 4e re(or/e/ ot+er'ise not 4-t in t+e instant (ase alternati3e +,2ot+esis is 2ro3e/ fro0 t+e e3i/en(e on re(or/ in as 0-(+ as '+en "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as arreste/ not+in1 'as /is(o3ere/ on +is 2ointin1 o-t alt+o-1+ +e 'as ta7en in 2oli(e (-sto/, re0an/ for se3eral /a,sM no in(ri0inatin1 e3i/en(e in(l-/in1 0-r/er 'ea2on 'as fo-n/ fro0 +i0M a n-04er of a((-se/ Ra.es+ 'it+ Tal'ar) 2oli(e t+e no >+i4its 'ere (olle(te/ an/ 1ot (ri0eM 2ol,1ra2+ test an/ 'as e>a0ine/ 4-t ,iel/e/ no e3i/en(e to (onne(t t+e 2s,(+olo1i(al assess0ent tests (on/-(te/ -2on "r. in(ri0inatin1 'ere a ne3er frien/ 0aterial fo-n/M of on o4taine/M 'ea2ons of offen(e as intro/-(e/ 4, N.<.I.".6. /-rin1 'as in3esti1atin1 5a1istrate Dris+na (C.B.I.)) $e0ra.

arreste/ an/ or/er 'as 2asse/ 4, S2e(ial 9-/i(ial C+aFia4a/ 11.0=.2008 1rantin1 2er0ission to C.B.I. to (on/-(t #ie "ete(tor Test) Brain 5a22in1 Test an/ Nar(o 6nal,ses Test at 8.S.#. Ban1lore an/ t+e aforesai/ tests in/i(ate/ t+at Dris+na +a/ re3eale/ (r-(ial infor0ation lea/in1 to t+e /o-4le 0-r/ers an/ +is (o02li(it, is fo-n/M as 2er a22li(ation /ate/ 14.0=.2008 of C.B.I.
Pa1e 1;?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

not onl, Dris+na 4-t ot+er 2ersons 'ere also in3ol3e/M t+at '+en Dris+na 'as arreste/ an/ ta7en on re0an/ t+en +e 1a3e a 3ol-ntar, /is(los-re state0ent (onfessin1 t+e /o-4le 0-r/ers 4, 7-7riM Dris+na also /is(lose/ t+at 0-r/ers 'ere (o00itte/ 4, +i0 an/ a((o02li(es Ra.7-0ar an/ :i.a, 5an/alM in t+e a22li(ation /ate/ 17.0=.2008 of C.B.I. it 'as a1ain state/ t+at Dris+na +a/ a/0itte/ to +a3e (o00itte/ t+e /o-4le 0-r/ers an/ t+en +is (-sto/, re0an/ 'as 1rante/ till 2&.0=.2008 4, S2e(ial 9-/i(ial 5a1istrate (C.B.I.)) C+aFia4a/ an/ it 'as o4ser3e/ 4, t+e learne/ 5a1istrate t+at on 2er-sal of (ase /iar, an/ /is(los-re 0e0o it is re3eale/ t+at a((-se/ Dris+na +as (onfesse/ +is 1-ilt t+at on 14.0;.2008 $e0ra. +as tol/ +i0 to 1et a 7-7ri an/ a((or/in1l, +e +a/ 1one 'it+ 7-7ri to $e0ra. an/ in t+e ni1+t of 1;.0;.2008 at aro-n/ of 12.00 <EClo(7 +e +a/ 1one to 0eet $e0ra. at #-&2 an/ (an 1et re(o3ere/ t+e 0o4ile 2+one of 5s. 6ar-s+iM on 14.0=.2008 a 7-7ri alon1'it+ s+eat+ an/ 2-r2le (olo-r 2illo'-(o3er 'ere re(o3ere/ fro0 +is roo0M on 18.0=.2008 t+e (lot+es of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar '+i(+ t+e, 'ere 'earin1 in t+e ni1+t inter3enin1 1;/1=.0;.2008 'ere seiFe/ 4-t on s(ientifi( e>a0ination an/ "N6 anal,sis t+e, ,iel/e/ 4loo/ an/ "N6 of 5s. 6ar-s+i aloneM Ra.7-0ar 'as arreste/ on 27.0=.2008 an/ /-rin1 (-sto/, re0an/ +e also 0a/e a /is(los-re state0ent a/0ittin1 +is in3ol3e0ent alon1'it+ Dris+na an/ ot+ers '+i(+ stan/s 2ro3e/ file/ fro0 4, t+e :i.a, a22li(ation D-0ar t+e /ate/ t+en 28.0=.2008

in3esti1atin1 offi(erM :i.a, 5an/al 'as arreste/ on 11.07.2008 an/ +e also /is(lose/ +is (o02li(it,
Pa1e 1=0

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

alon1'it+ Dris+na an/ Ra.7-0arM t+at on 11.07.2008 an a22li(ation 'as 1i3en 4, C.B.I. 4efore t+e learne/ S2e(ial 9-/i(ial 5a1istrate (C.B.I.)) C+aFia4a/ -n/er se(tion 1=? Cr.P.C. 0entionin1 t+erein t+at e3i/en(e a1ainst "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar is ins-ffi(ient an/ (onse@-entl, +e 'as release/ fro0 .ailM "r. S-nil "o+re an/ "r. Nares+ Ra. o2ine/ t+at ante0orte0 in.-ries on t+e +ea/s of 4ot+ /e(ease/ are 2ossi4le to +a3e 4een (a-se/ 4, 7-7riM P.!.-&7 :i.a, D-0ar +as state/ in +is e3i/en(e t+at in Brain 5a22in1 Test) Nar(o 6nal,sis Test an/ Pol,1ra2+ Test of Dris+na +is (o02li(it, in /o-4le 0-r/ers +as 4een fo-n/M Dris+na) Ra.7-0ar an/ :i.a, 5an/al 'ere in3ol3e/ in t+e (ri0eM :i.a, D-0ar +as also state/ t+at D.D. Ca-ta0 +as state/ 4efore +i0 t+at +e +a/ fo-n/ t+at on t+e 4e/ of $e0ra. at least t+ree 2ersons 0-st +a3e 4een seate/ as t+ere 'ere /e2ressions in t+e 4e/ an/ in t+e t'o 1lasses s-4stan(e li7e al(o+ol 'as seen an/ it see0e/ t+at toilet of $e0ra. +a/ not 4een fl-s+e/ an/ 0ore t+an one 2erson +a/ -rinate/ in t+e toiletM t+at P.!.-&; 5.S. P+art,al +as also a/0itte/ in +is (rosse>a0ination t+at t+e a4o3e t+ree 2ersons +a/ (onfesse/ to +a3e (o00itte/ 0-r/ers) +o'e3er t+e, 'ere not (oo2eratin1 an/ 1i3in1 0islea/in1 infor0ationM t+at so-n/ test 'as (arrie/ on 10.0=.2008 an/ it 'as fo-n/ t+at a((-se/ slee2in1 in t+eir 4e/-roo0 'it+ air-(on/itioner s'it(+e/ on (annot +ear o2enin1 an/ (losin1/4oltin1 of entr,e>it /oorM t+at on 1;.0;.2008 at a4o-t 1=:;8:14 +o-rs a (all 'as 0a/e fro0 tele2+one n-04er 0120=47?8?= to 0o4ile n-04er ?21&;1;48; an/ on t+e sa0e /ate anot+er (all 'as 0a/e fro0 t+e
Pa1e 1=1

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

sai/ lan/-line n-04er to t+e sai/ 0o4ile n-04er at 17:&7:&& +o-rs 4, Dris+na to $e0ra. fro0 N.<.I.".6. Clini( of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ at t+at ti0e "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as in +is $a-F D+as Clini( an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar 'as in 8ortis $os2ital) Se(tor-=2) N.<.I.".6. '+i(+ is 2ro3e/ fro0 t+e C.".R. of 0o4ile n-04er ?810178071 in t+e na0e of "r. N-2-r Tal'ar an/ as s-(+ as it is 2ro3e/ t+at all t+e erst'+ile a((-se/ 2ersons 'ere in (onta(t 'it+ ea(+ ot+er. #i7e a /ro'nin1 0an (at(+in1 at t+e stra') 'il/ s-11estions +a3e 4een t+ro'n t+at t+ere 'as a 2ossi4ilit, of t+e 0-r/er of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ +a3in1 4een (o00itte/ 4, t+ese t+ree erst'+ile a((-se/ an/ :i.a, an/ t+-s alternati3e stan/s +,2ot+esis an/ of e"* (o00ission of /o-4le 0-r/ers 4, Dris+na) Ra.7-0ar 5an/al 2ro3e/ conse uenti, t+e a((-se/ /eser3e to 4e a(@-itte/. I /o not fin/ an, s-4stan(e in t+e aforesai/ s-40issions. T+e 2-r2ose of in3esti1ation is to fin/ o-t t+e real (-l2rits an/ in t+at 2ro(ess e3en s-s2e(te/ 2ersons are arreste/ 4, t+e in3esti1atin1 a1en(ies for interro1ation 4-t '+en t+eir (-l2a4ilit, an/ (o02li(it, in t+e (o00ission of t+e offen(e is not esta4lis+e/) t+en t+e, are let off an/ t+erefore) if Dris+na) Ra.7-0ar an/ :i.a, 5an/al 'ere arreste/ 4, C.B.I. /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of in3esti1ation 4-t no prima*!acie e3i/en(e s-rfa(e/ a1ainst t+e0 t+en t+e, 'ere ri1+tl, not 2ro(ee/e/ a1ainst. Re(o3er, of 7-7ri 'as not 0a/e on t+e 4asis of 2ointin1 o-t 4, t+e a((-se/ Dris+na. 3en t+is 7-7ri 'as not re(o3ere/ fro0 +is roo0 on t+e 4asis of +is /is(los-re state0ent an/ rat+er fro0 t+e 2er-sal of >+i4it-7a-?2) it 'ill re3eal t+at C.B.I. tea0 alon1
Pa1e 1=2

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

'it+ forensi( e>2erts fro0 C.8.S.#.) Ne' "el+i ins2e(te/ t+e roo0 of Dris+na T+a/arai in t+e 2resen(e of +is 4rot+er-in-la' B+i0 Ba+a/-r T+a2a an/ t+en 7-7ri alon1 'it+ s+eat+ 'as re(o3ere/. P.!.-&7 :i.a, D-0ar) a @-on/a0 S.S.P. of C.B.I. +as state/ at 2a1e no. 2 of +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at alt+o-1+ Dris+na (onfesse/ 4efore +i0 4-t +e +a/ (+an1e/ +is 3ersion an/ t+erefore) +e (o-l/ not rea(+ at t+e (on(l-sion t+at +e +as 2er2etrate/ t+e (ri0e. T+is 'itness +as 'ron1l, /e2ose/ t+at on t+e 4asis of /is(los-re state0ent 0a/e 4, Dris+na 7-7ri 'as re(o3ere/ fro0 +is roo0 4e(a-se in >+i4it7a-?2 it +as no '+ere 4een 'ritten t+at on t+e 4asis of /is(los-re state0ent re(o3er, of 7-7ri 'as 0a/e on 14.0=.2008. If) '+ile 0o3in1 a22li(ations for 1rantin1 2oli(e (-sto/, re0an/ of t+ese t+ree erst'+ile a((-se/ it 'as 0entione/ t+at t+ese 2ersons are in3ol3e/ in t+e (ri0e t+en it (annot 4e +el/ t+at) in fa(t) t+ese 2ersons 'ere t+e 2er2etrators of t+e (ri0e 4e(a-se) in 2ra(ti(e) t+e in3esti1atin1 a1en(, '+en 0o3es a22li(ation for 2oli(e (-sto/, re0an/ of an a((-se/ t+en all-o-t efforts are 0a/e to (on3in(e t+e (on(erne/ .-/i(ial 0a1istrate re1ar/in1 t+e (o02li(it, of t+e a((-se/ so t+at (-sto/, re0an/ 0a, 4e 1rante/ an/ t+erefore) if t+e learne/ S2e(ial 9-/i(ial 5a1istrate (C.B.I.)) C+aFia4a/ +as 0a/e (ertain o4ser3ations for 1rant of 2oli(e (-sto/, re0an/ on t+e 4asis of a3er0ents 0a/e in t+e a22li(ations) t+en 4, t+at o4ser3ation t+is (o-rt is not 4o-n/ to infer t+at t+e s-s2e(ts 'ere a(t-all, in3ol3e/ in t+e (ri0e. It is also 2ertinent to 0ention +ere t+at in3esti1ation at t+at sta1e 'as at 2reli0inar, sta1e an/ all t+e
Pa1e 1=&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

(-0-lati3e e3i/en(e an/ (ir(-0stan(es +a/ not s-rfa(e/ 4, t+en an/ +en(e) for t+ese reasons no i02ortan(e (an 4e atta(+e/ to t+e a22li(ations for 1rant of re0an/ an/ t+e or/ers 2asse/ 4, t+e S2e(ial 9-/i(ial 5a1istrate (C.B.I.)) C+aFia4a/ t+ereon. In S3t. Sel=i and others *s. State of 2arnata4a AI+ 2010 SC 1874 59JJ6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at t+e res-lts of Brain 5a22in1) Nar(o 6nal,sis an/ Pol,1ra2+ Tests (annot 4e a/0itte/ in e3i/en(e an/ t+e res-lts o4taine/ fro0 s-(+ tests (annot 4e (ate1oriFe/ as 0aterial e3i/en(e an/ e3en '+en t+e s-4.e(t +as 1i3en (onsent to -n/er1o an, of t+ese tests) t+e test res-lts 4, t+e0sel3es (annot 4e a/0itte/ as e3i/en(e 4e(a-se t+e s-4.e(t /oes not e>er(ise (ons(io-s (ontrol o3er t+e res2onses /-rin1 t+e a/0inistration of tests an/ t+erefore) in 3ie' of t+e la' settle/ 4, t+e $onE4le S-2re0e Co-rt) if t+e erst'+ile a((-se/ 2ersons +a/ 1i3en an, in(-l2ator, state0ents /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of t+ese tests t+en t+e, are of no le1al si1nifi(an(e. If on 1;.0;.2008 at a4o-t 1=:;8:14 +o-rs an/ 17:&7:&& +o-rs tele2+one (alls 'ere 0a/e 4, Dris+na to $e0ra. fro0 N.<.I.".6. Clini( of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ at t+at ti0e "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as in +is $a-F D+as Clini( an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar 'as in 8ortis $os2ital) Se(tor-=2) N.<.I.".6. t+en it (annot 4e sai/ t+at t+e, 'ere 2lannin1 to (o00it an, (ri0e. <ne s+o-l/ not lose si1+t of t+e fa(t t+at $e0ra. 'as also 0-r/ere/ in t+e inter3enin1 ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 an/ t+erefore) (ons2ira(, 4et'een $e0ra. an/ Dris+na (annot 4e /e/-(e/ 4, an, stret(+ of i0a1ination. T+ere is no e3i/en(e t+at Ra.7-0ar an/ :i.a, 5an/al 'ere in (onta(t eit+er
Pa1e 1=4

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

'it+ $e0ra. or Dris+na. T+e e3i/en(e of D.D. Ca-ta0 t+at on e>a0ination of t+e roo0 of $e0ra. it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at t+ree 2ersons 0i1+t +a3e 4een sittin1 in t+e 4e/ as t+ere 'ere /e2ressions on t+e 4e/ an/ in t+e t'o 1lasses s-4stan(e li7e al(o+ol 'as seen an/ it see0e/ t+at toilet of $e0ra. +a/ not 4een fl-s+e/ an/ 0ore t+an one 2erson +a/ -rinate/ in t+e toilet +ar/l, ins2ires (onfi/en(e as t+is state0ent is 4ase/ on s-r0ises) (on.e(t-res an/ s2e(-lations. It is not 2ossi4le at all t+at in t+e 0i/ni1+t aro-n/ 12.00 <EClo(7 Dris+na) Ra.7-0ar an/ :i.a, 5an/al 'ill (o0e to t+e roo0 of $e0ra. an/ +a3e li@-or /rin7s. If it 'as so) fo-r 1lasses 0i1+t +a3e 4een fo-n/ t+ere 4-t D.D. Ca-ta0 +as state/ 4efore t+e I.<. t+at in onl, t'o 1lasses s-4stan(e li7e al(o+ol 'as seen '+i(+ +as not 4een (onfir0e/ 4, an, ot+er e3i/en(e. T+e 2rose(-tion stor, an/ its e3i/en(e 'ill not re(ei3e a .er7 an/ .olt 4e(a-se t+e erst'+ile a((-se/ 'ere not (+ar1es+eete/ or 2-t on trial as t+e .er7 an/ .olt is not s-(+ as to -2set an/ tilt t+e 2rose(-tion 3ersion a1ainst t+e a((-se/ an/ (reate an, reasona4le /o-4t in re1ar/ to t+eir (o02li(it, in t+e 1+astl, (ri0e. Sin(e t+e o((-rren(e is no(t-rnal insi/e t+e flat an/ t+e (ri0e (a0e into li1+t in 2-4li( /o0ain in t+e 0ornin1 of 1=.0;.2008 an/ t+erefore) it is 2ossi4le in all +-0an 2ro4a4ilit, t+at 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 0a, +a3e (reate/ e3i/en(e of s-(+ a nat-re '+i(+ 0a, (onf-se t+e in3esti1ators. T+e a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +as a/0itte/ at 2a1e no. 2 of +is 'ritten state0ent -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at +e an/ +is 'ife +a3e 4een 4ro-1+t -2 in a 3er, li4eral at0os2+ere 'it+ 0o/ern o-tloo7 an/ at 2a1e & +e
Pa1e 1=;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

+as state/ t+at +e ta7es al(o+ol at 2arties. $o'e3er) at 2a1e no. 4 of +is 'ritten state0ent +e +as state/ t+at '+is7, 4ottle s+o-l/ +a3e 4een or/inaril, in t+e (a4inet. T+is ans'er itself s-11ests t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar is fon/ of li@-or an/ +e -se/ to ta7e li@-or in +is flat as +e +i0self +as a/0itte/ t+at '+is7, 4ottle 0-st +a3e 4een in t+e (a4inet an/ not in t+e /inin1 ta4le an/ t+erefore) t+ere is e3er, 2ossi4ilit, t+at '+is7, 'as ta7en 4, t+e a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar. It is also 2ossi4le t+at '+is7, 4ottle 0i1+t +a3e 4een lifte/ after 'earin1 1lo3es. It is also 2ossi4le t+at S-la 'ine 0a, +a3e also 4een ta7en 4, t+e a((-se/ '+en +e 'as e>tre0el, an/ intensel, in tension after (o00ittin1 t+e (ri0e or it 'as 2artl, 0a/e e02t, to s+o' t+at $e0ra. an/ +is frien/s +a/ (ons-0e/ t+e li@-or. It is not t+e (ase of t+e a((-se/ t+at $e0ra. -se/ to ta7e 'ine or li@-or. If 'ea2ons of offen(e i.e. +a00er) 7nife an/ s(al2el +a3e not 4een re(o3ere/ t+en /-e to t+at) t+e (ase of 2rose(-tion is not affe(te/. In (3ar 0oh33ad *s. State of +a,asthan 200> 5;06 ACC 28< 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at non re(o3er, of in(ri0inatin1 0aterial/'ea2ons of offen(e fro0 t+e a((-se/ '+en (annot 4e a 1ro-n/ to e>onerate t+e0 e,e 'itnesses e>a0ine/ 4, t+e t+e

2rose(-tion are fo-n/ to 4e tr-st'ort+,. In t+is (ase) t+e la' as lai/ /o'n in 2rishna3ochi and others *s. State of "ihar 520026 ; SCC >1 'as follo'e/. In "a%a /een A "a%ai *s. State of (.). 2012 57>6 ACC ;;0 5/" A&&6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at non re(o3er, of 'ea2on of offen(e is not a 1ro-n/ for a(@-ittal of t+e a((-se/ '+en t+ere is a (lin(+in1 an/ relia4le e3i/en(e. In t+at (ase t+e la' as
Pa1e 1==

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

e>2o-n/e/ in State of +a,asthan *s. Ar,un Singh 2012 5776 ACC 70> 5SC6 +as 4een follo'e/. It is to 4e note/ t+at +ea/ an/ ne(7 in.-ries of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 2ersons /o not a22ear to +a3e 4een (a-se/ 4, +a00er an/ 7nife res2e(ti3el, an/ t+erefore) @-estion of t+eir re(o3er, /oes not arise. Colf sti(7s 'ere 2ro/-(e/ 4, "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +i0self. T+e siFe of S(al2el is .-st li7e a 2en an/ (an easil, 4e (on(eale/ or /estro,e/ at an, ti0e after t+e (o00ission of t+e /o-4le 0-r/ers in t+e ni1+t an/ 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ +a/ s-ffi(ient ti0e an/ o22ort-nit, to /estro, or (on(eal t+e s(al2el an/ ot+er in(ri0inatin1 e3i/en(e '+i(+ 'as a1ainst t+e0. In 3ie' of t+e /is(-ssion 0a/e a4o3e) t+e ar1-0ents a/3an(e/ on 4e+alf of t+e a((-se/ 2ale into insi1nifi(an(e. T+e ne>t (ontention of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ is t+at fro0 t+e e3i/en(e it is not 2ro3e/ t+at t+e (ri0e s(ene 'as /resse/ -2 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/ insin-ation t+at to,s +a3in1 no 4loo/ stains 'ere 7e2t on t+e 4e/ after t+e (o00ission of t+e 0-r/erM t+at t+e 4e/-s+eet 'as not +a3in1 (reasesM t+at /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. 'as (o3ere/ 'it+ a (ooler 2anelM t+at t+e a((-se/ 2ersons (+an1e/ t+eir (lot+es '+i(+ t+e, 'ere 'earin1 in t+e ni1+t of t+e o((-rren(e an/ fres+ (lot+es 'ere 'orn 4efore t+e onset of t+e /a'n are not+in1 4-t a 2a(7 of lies an/ +a3e 4een (on(o(te/ as a (o(7 an/ 4-ll stor, 4-t t+ese alle1ations are not 2ro3e/ 4, t+e e3i/en(e in 3ie' of fa(t t+at on 2er-sal of 2+oto1ra2+s 2a2er no. ;=0-7a-/&1) ;=07a/&7an/ ;=0-7a/&? '+i(+ 'ere ta7en fro0 t+e /i1ital (a0era ('+i(+ 'as 1i3en to 5s. 6ar-s+i as
Pa1e 1=7

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

4irt+ /a, 1ift) in t+e e3enin1 of 1;.0;.2008 it 'ill re3eal t+at to,s) 2illo' +a3e also 4een s+o'n in t+ose 2+oto1ra2+s '+i(+ 'ere ta7en in t+e e3enin1 an/ an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar 'as also 'earin1 t+e sa0e 1o'n '+i(+ s+e 'as fo-n/ 'earin1 in t+e 0ornin1 an/ t+erefore) t+e alle1ations are 2ro3e/ to 4e -tterl, false an/ t+e 2rose(-tion stor, (olla2ses li7e 2a(7 of (ar/s. I a0 not 1oin1 to 4e l-re/ 4, attra(ti3e in1enio-s an/ /e>tero-s /efen(e ta7en 4, t+e learne/ (o-nsel in as 0-(+ as fro0 t+e 2er-sal of a4o3e 2+oto1ra2+s as 'ell as 2+oto1ra2+s 0aterial >+i4its-7a-1) 7a-2) 7a-&) 7a-4) 7a-; it 'ill re3eal t+at in t+e 2+oto1ra2+s '+i(+ are alle1e/ to +a3e 4een ta7en in t+e e3enin1 of 1;.0;.2008 t+e 4e/-s+eet is of /ifferent (olo-r +a3in1 stri2s of 0-lti2le s+a/es '+ile in 0aterial >+i4its-1 to ;) 0-lti-(olo-re/ 2rinte/ 4e/-s+eet is (learl, seen '+i(+ is all to1et+er /ifferent fro0 t+e 4e/-s+eet seen in 2+oto1ra2+s 2a2er no. ;=0-7a/&1) 7a/&7 an/ ;=0-7a/&?. In a//ition to ;=0in t+at

2+oto1ra2+ 2a2er no. ;=0-7a/&1) ;=0-7a/&7 an/ ;=0-7a/&? one to, +as 4een s+o'n .-st near t+e +ea/ rest '+ile in 0aterial >+i4its-1 an/ 2 t+at to, +as 4een s+o'n near t+e le1s of 5s. 6ar-s+iM li7e'ise in t+e 4e/-s+eet as s+o'n 2+oto1ra2+s 2a2er no. ;=0-7a/&1) ;=0-7a/&7 an/ ;=0-7a/&? (reases are (learl, 3isi4le '+ile in t+e 2+oto1ra2+s 0aterial >+i4its-1 to ; no s-(+ (reases are 3isi4le at all. 5oreo3er) t+e 4e/-s+eet as s+o'n in 2+oto1ra2+s 2a2er no. ;=0-7a/&1) ;=0-7a/&7 an/ ;=0-7a/&? a22ears to 4e (o02arati3el, ne' t+an 0-lti (olo-re/ 2rinte/ 4e/-s+eet as s+o'n in 0aterial >+i4its- 1 to ; '+i(+ a22ears to 4e fa/e/
Pa1e 1=8

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

as a res-lt of -se sin(e lon1 4a(7. In 2+oto1ra2+s 2a2er no. ;=0-7a/&1) ;=0-7a/&7 an/ ;=0-7a/&? no 2illo' of t+e set of 4e/-s+eet +as 4een s+o'n '+ile in 2+oto1ra2+ 0aterial 4e/-s+eet +as 4een >+i4it-1 one a//itional an/ s+o'n. In t+e 0aterial s0all 2illo' of t+e set of t+e 0-lti-(olo-re/ 2rinte/ >+i4its-1 to ; s(+ool 4a1 +as 4een s+o'n near t+e /ea/ 4o/, of 5s. 6ar-s+i '+ile t+is 4a1 is not 3isi4le in t+e 2+oto1ra2+s 2a2er no. ;=0-7a/&1) ;=0-7a/&7 an/ ;=0-7a/&?. No 4loo/ stains are also 3isi4le in t+is 4a1. %2on t+e (o02arison of 2+oto1ra2+s ta7en 4, t+e /i1ital (a0era in t+e e3enin1 of 1;.0;.2008 'it+ t+e 2+oto1ra2+s 0aterial >+i4it- 1 to ; it (learl, s+o's t+at t+e 4e/-s+eet 'as (+an1e/ an/ t+is in all 2ro4a4ilit, 0-st +a3e 4een /one 4, t+e a((-se/. It is also 2ossi4le t+at 4efore 1oin1 to slee2 "r. N-2-r Tal'ar 0i1+t +a3e (+an1e/ +er 1o'n '+i(+ s+e 'as 'earin1 at t+e ti0e of ta7in1 2i> fro0 /i1ital (a0era. 6s state/ +erein 4efore) 4ein1 0ot+er of t+e (+il/ it is not 2ossi4le t+at on seein1 +er (+il/ /ea/ s+e 'o-l/ not +a3e +-11e/ +er. "-rin1 +-11in1 (ertainl,) t+e 1o'n of "r. N-2-r Tal'ar 0-st +a3e also 4een 4loo/ staine/ 4-t no 4loo/ 'as fo-n/) '+i(+ (learl, s+o's t+at s+e +a/ (+an1e/ +er 1o'n or ot+er ni1+t-1ar0ent) '+i(+ s+e 'as 'earin1 in t+e ni1+t. So is t+e (ase 'it+ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar. P.!.-14 "r. Ro+it Do(+ar +as state/ t+at '+en on 1=.0;.2008 +e +a/ 1one in flat no. #-&2 t+en +e +a/ seen t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as in re/ (olo-re/ T-S+irt an/ +alf 2ant an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar 'as in '+ite s-it or 1o'n 4-t t+e (lot+es of 4ot+ 'ere not staine/ 'it+ 4loo/. P.!.-= "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra +as state/ t+at in t+e +alf 2ant) T-s+irt
Pa1e 1=?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

an/ 1o'n 4loo/ stains 'ere faint '+i(+ 0a, 4e eit+er t+at t+ere 'ere li1+t 4loo/ satins or 4loo/ 'as (leane/. !+en t+e 4loo/ s2latters (an 1o -2to t+e 'all 4e+in/ t+e +ea/-rest of t+e 4e/ t+en it is not 2ossi4le t+at t+ere 'ill 4e no 4loo/ s2latters on t+e to,s) s(+ool 4a1 an/ t+e 4oo7 AT+e t+ree 0ista7es of 0, lifeK '+i(+ 'ere 7e2t on t+e 4e/ itself. 3en if t+e 4e/ is -se/ for a 0o0ent t+e t+e (reases a22ear in 4e/-s+eet. It a 0atter of (o00on 7no'le/1e t+at if one is atta(7e/ '+ile l,in1 on t+e 4e/ +e/s+e 'ill not re0ain stati( an/ resist t+e atta(7 an/ in t+at 2ro(ess (reases are 4o-n/ to o((-r in t+e 4e/-s+eet. 6n o-tsi/er 7iller after (o00ittin1 t+e (ri0e 'ill not 'aste +is ti0e in /ressin1--2 t+e 4e/-s+eet) arran1in1 to,s an/ 2illo' in 2ro2er or/er in t+e 4e/-s+eet) (o3erin1 t+e /ea/ 4o/, of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'it+ a flannel 4lan7et an/ (leanin1 2ri3ate 2arts of 5s. 6ar-s+i as +is to2 2riorit, 'ill 4e to es(a2e a'a, i00e/iatel, after (o00ission of t+e 0-r/er an/ t+-s /ressin1--2 of t+e 4e/-s+eet an/ 2la(in1 to,s an/ 2illo' is 2ossi4le to 4e /one 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons onl,. Si0ilarl,) no o-tsi/er assassin 'ill 4ot+er to ta7e a'a, t+e 4o/, of $e0ra. to t+e terra(e an/ later on /ra1 it to t+e (orner of t+e terra(e an/ 2la(e (ooler 2anel o3er t+e /ea/ 4o/, an/ also a 4e/-s+eet on t+e 0es+ 1rill '+i(+ 'as 4et'een t+e roofs in s-(+ a 'a, t+at no4o/, (o-l/ 4e a4le to see t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. an/ t+ereafter 'ill (o0e insi/e t+e flat an/ lo(7 t+e terra(e /oor fro0 insi/e an/ t+en 'ill lea3e t+e flat. In all +-0an 2ro4a4ilit, t+ese a(ti3ities are 2ossi4le to 4e /one 4, t+e a((-se/ an/ no4o/, else. It is also not 2ossi4le t+at '+en t+e 3i(ti0s 'ere
Pa1e 170

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

atta(7e/ t+e, 'o-l/ not +a3e s(ree(+e/ or ,el2e/. $a/ 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ 4een 0-r/ere/ 4, an o-tsi/er t+en +earin1 of t+e s(ree(+es of 3i(ti0s 0a, +a3e (ertainl, a'a7ene/ t+e a((-se/ 2ersons e3en if t+e, (o-l/ 4e in /ee2 sl-04er in t+e a/.oinin1 roo0 an/ t+e air-(on/itioner of t+eir roo0 'as on as so-n/ tra3els 'it+ 0ore intensit, in t+e ni1+t. If t+e (ooler 2anel +as not 4een ta7en into 2ossession 4, S.I. "ata Ra0 Na-naria an/ +e +as not /ire(te/ (onsta4le C+-nni #al Ca-ta0 to ta7e 2+oto1ra2+s an/ fin1er-2rints of 2anel t+en it is 0erel, a ne1li1en(e on t+e 2art of 5r. Na-naria 4-t it is 'ell settle/ la' t+at on a((o-nt of ne1li1en(e or /efe(ti3e in3esti1ation of I.<. t+e 2rose(-tion (ase (annot 4e t+ro'n a'a, or /-44e/ as -ntr-e an/ t+e a((-se/ (annot ta7e a/3anta1e of t+e sa0e as +as 4een +el/ in '.N. +ish%ud *s. State of /elhi AI+ 18<< SC 18; 59JJ6 2arnel Singh *s. State of 0.). 5188<6 < SCC <1> +a3 "ihari ?ada= *s. State of "ihar 5188>6 4 SCC <17 )aras ?ada= *s. State of "ihar AI+ 1888 SC ;44 A3ar Singh *s. "al-inder Singh AI+ 2009 SC 11;4 /hana, Singh A Shera and others *s. State of )un,a% 520046 9 SCC ;<4 Surendra )as-an *s. State of Jhar4hand AI+ 2004 SC 742 +a3 "ali *s. State of (.). 520046 10 SCC <8> Mahira 'a%i%ullah '. She4h *s. State of #u,arat 5200;6 9 SCC 974 +a4esh 2u3ar *s. State of 'ar7ana 520086 9 SCC 5Cr.6 1249 Sheo Shan4ar Singh *s. State of Jhar4hand 2011 Cr.&.J. 2198 5SC6 2ashi Nath 0andal *s. State of :est "engal AI+ 2012 SC 9194 #anga Singh *s. State of 0.). 520196 7 SCC 27>
Pa1e 171

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

'e3a *s. State 2019 516 AC+ ;70 5SC6 Saha%uddin *s. State of Assa3 2019 5>06 ACC 1002 5SC6. T+-s) t+e ar1-0ents of t+e learne/ (o-nsel /o not +ol/ an, 'ater. T+e ne>t (ontention of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ is t+at t+e alle1ations t+at 2ri3ate 2arts of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'ere (leane/ after +er 0-r/er are 2re2ostero-s an/ t+is t+eor, +as 4een in1enio-sl, in3ente/ 4, P.!.-; "r. S-nil D-0ar "o+re '+ile 1i3in1 state0ent in t+e (o-rt t+at 3a1inal orifi(e of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as 2ro0inent) 3a1inal (anal 'as 3isi4le '+i(+ 0eans t+at so0e4o/, +a/ interfere/ 2+,si(all, 'it+ +er 2ri3ate 2arts eit+er .-st 4efore t+e settin1 in of ri1or 0ortis or /-rin1 t+e 2+ase of ri1or 0ortis 4-t t+is 2ie(e of e3i/en(e (annot 4e a((e2te/ 4e(a-se "r. "o+re +as no '+ere 0entione/ t+ese fa(ts in t+e 2ost0orte0 re2ort an/ rat+er it 'as 'ritten in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort t+at on e>a0ination of 2ri3ate 2arts- Eno a4nor0alit, /ete(te/E an/ +e +as also not 1i3en state0ent re1ar/in1 t+e 3a1inal stat-s to Poli(e Ins2e(tor 6nil Sa0ania nor to 5r. :i.a, D-0ar t+e t+en S.P.) C.B.I.) nor to Ins2e(tor 5.S. P+art,al) nor to an, 0e04er of t+e 6.I.I.5.S (o00ittee an/ 0a/e i02ro3e0ents onl, on &0.0?.200? '+en +is =t+ state0ent 'as re(or/e/ 4, 6.C.#. Da-l an/ if 2ri3ate 2arts 0a, +a3e 4een (leane/ t+en (ertainl, S.I. Ba(++- Sin1+) '+o +el/ in@-est on t+e /ea/ 4o/, of 5s. 6ar-s+i 0-st +a3e 0entione/ t+is fa(t t+at 4e/s+eet 'as fo-n/ 'et an/ e3en S.I. "atara0 Na-neria) S.P. Cit, 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra an/ Consta4le Pa'an D-0ar +a3e not state/ in t+eir testi0on, t+at t+e 4e/-s+eet of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as
Pa1e 172

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+a3in1 an, e3i/en(e of 'as+in1 an/ it 'as 'et an/ t+-s t+e e3i/en(e of "r. "o+re stan/s 4elie/. T+is ar1-0ent +as also no s-4stan(e. In t+e 2+oto1ra2+ 0aterial >+i4it-1 so0e stain is 3isi4le on ri1+t-si/e .-st 4esi/e t+e 2el3i( 2ortion of 5s. 6ar-s+i in t+e 4e/-s+eet. T+e 4e/-s+eet 'as seiFe/ an/ seale/ 4, S.I. "atara0 Na-naria. It 'as e>a0ine/ 4, P.!.-= "r. B.D. 5o+a2atra in t+e li1+t of t+e @-estionnaire anne>e/ 'it+ t+e letter /ate/ 0?.04.2010 of S.P.) C.B.I.) "e+ra/-n. In t+e e>a0ination re2ort-Da-14 it +as 4een 0entione/ t+at in 0-lti-(olo-re/ 4e/-s+eet >+i4it-1 i.e. 2rinte/ +a3in1 re//is+ 4ro'n >+i4it-1

stains at 0an, 2la(es -rine) se0en (o-l/ not 4e /ete(te/ an/ /esi1nate/ (ir(-lar area of /i/ not ,iel/ "N6 for anal,sis. In t+e fa(e of t+is (lin(+in1 an/ relia4le s(ientifi( e3i/en(e it is 2ro3e/ to t+e +ilt t+at t+e 2ri3ate 2arts of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'ere (leane/ 'it+ 'ater an/ t+atEs '+, in t+e /esi1nate/ (ir(-lar area of t+e 4e/-s+eet neit+er -rine nor se0en 'as fo-n/. If (onsta4le Pa'an D-0ar) S.I. Ba(++- Sin1+) S.I. "atara0 Na-neria an/ S.P. (Cit,) 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra +a3e not state/ t+at t+e 4e/s+eet 'as fo-n/ 'et an/ in t+e in@-est re2ort S.I. Ba(++- Sin1+ +as not 0entione/ t+at t+e 4e/-s+eet of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as fo-n/ 'et t+an no i02ortan(e (an 4e attri4-te/ to t+is o0ission. Sin(e Ins2e(tor 6nil Sa0ania) S.P.) C.B.I.) 5r. :i.a, D-0ar) Ins2e(tor 5.S. P+art,al +a3e not s2e(ifi(all, @-estione/ "r. "o+re a4o3e t+e 3a1inal stat-s of t+e /e(ease/ 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ t+erefore) +e (o-l/ not tell t+e0 a4o-t t+e sa0e an/ '+en 5r. Da-l re(or/e/ +is state0ent on &0.0?.200? an/ +e 'as as7e/ s2e(ifi(all, to tell a4o-t t+e 3a1inal stat-s an/ t+en +e 1a3e

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state0ent re1ar/in1 t+e 3a1inal stat-s of 5s. 6ar-s+i. It 'as not e>2e(te/ of "r. "o+re to tell t+e ot+er 0e04ers of t+e e>2ert (o00ittee a4o-t t+e 3a1inal stat-s of 5s. 6ar-s+i. In 3ie' of t+e /is(-ssion t+e ar1-0ents of t+e learne/ (o-nsel (annot 4e a((e2te/. T+e ne>t (ontention of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ is t+at) in fa(t) 8.I.R. 'as /i(tate/ to "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar at +is flat 4, 2oli(e 2ersonnel an/ +e +a/ ne3er 1one to t+e 2oli(e station Se(tor-20 to lo/1e t+e 8.I.R. an/ it +as falsel, 4een /e2ose/ 4, P.!.-&4 "atara0 Na-neria t+at 8.I.R. 'as lo/1e/ 4, "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar at 2oli(e station itself 4-t '+en +e 'as (ross-e>a0ine/ on t+is as2e(t it 'as state/ 4, +i0 t+at +is state0ents 'ere re(or/e/ 4, C.B.I. offi(ers 2-& ti0es an/ +e +a/ 1one t+ro-1+ t+e sa0e an/ a/0itte/ t+e0 to 4e (orre(t 4-t in +is state0ents it +as not 4een 'ritten t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ lo/1e/ t+e (o02laint at t+e 2oli(e station itself an/ +e (annot f-rnis+ an, reason for t+e sa0e. It 'as f-rt+er s-40itte/ t+at t+is 'itness +as a/0itte/ t+at +e +as not re(or/e/ t+e state0ent of C.". 'riter (onsta4le Ra.2al Sin1+ an/ +e +a/ not seen "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar in t+e 2oli(e station on 1=.0;.2008 an/ +e +a/ 1i3en state0ent on 24.10.2008 to t+e C.B.I. Ins2e(tor 5.S. P+art,al t+at on 1=.0;.2008 at aro-n/ 7.00 6.5. +e +a/ re(ei3e/ a tele2+one (all 2ro4a4l, fro0 2oli(e (ontrol-roo0 or fro0 t+e resi/en(e of S.S.P. an/ i00e/iatel, t+ereafter re(ei3e/ a (all fro0 5.D. 5is+ra) S.P. (Cit,) '+o infor0e/ +i0 t+at in 8lat No. #-&2) Se(tor-2;) a la/, +a/ 4een 0-r/ere/ an/ +e 'as /ire(te/ to rea(+ t+ere i00e/iatel, an/ +e +as
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f-rt+er state/ t+at +e +a/ tol/ t+e C.B.I. offi(ers t+at -2on re(ei3in1 infor0ation fro0 t+e 2oli(e station +e +a/ i00e/iatel, r-s+e/ to 8lat No. #-&2 4-t +e /oes not 7no' '+, t+e C.B.I. offi(ers +a/ not re(or/e/ t+is state0ent an/ +e +a/ not as7e/ t+e0 to re(or/ +is state0ent to t+e effe(t t+at +e +a/ 1one to 8lat No. #-&2 after re(ei3in1 infor0ation fro0 t+e 2oli(e stationM it +as not (o0e in +is 7no'le/1e t+at on 1=.0;.2008 at 0=.;; 6.5. "r. "ines+ Tal'ar +a/ 0a/e a tele2+one (all to 2oli(e (ontrol-roo0 re1ar/in1 t+e 0-r/er of 5s. 6ar-s+iM P.!.-&; 5.S. P+art,al +as a/0itte/ in +is (rosse>a0ination t+at S.I. "atara0 Na-neria +a/ not 1i3en a state0ent to +i0 t+at on 1=.0;.2008 at aro-n/ 07.10 6.5. "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ lo/1e/ t+e (o02laint at t+e 2oli(e station itselfM P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra +a/ also a/0itte/ in +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at +e +a/ re(ei3e/ an infor0ation fro0 (it, (ontrol-roo0 at a4o-t 07.00 6.5. t+at at #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar one 1irl +a/ 4een 0-r/ere/ an/ t+is infor0ation 'as 1i3en to t+e 2oli(e (ontrol-roo0 4, t+e -n(le of t+e 1irlM +e +a/ rea(+e/ at #-&2 at a4o-t 07.&0 6.5. an/ till t+e ti0e +e re0aine/ t+ere at t+e (ri0e s(ene 8.I.R. 'as not lo/1e/ an/ +e +a/ as7e/ t+e a((-se/ 2ersons to 1et t+e 8.I.R. lo/1e/ an/ +a/ instr-(te/ S.I. "atara0 Na-neria t+at '+ate3er t+e a((-se/ 'rite +e 0-st lo/1e t+e 8.I.R. on t+at 4asis an/ '+en +e +a/ rea(+e/ at #-&2 "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as 'ritin1 t+e (o02laint an/ t+-s it is a02l, 2ro3e/ t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ not 1one to t+e 2oli(e station to lo/1e t+e 8.I.R. an/ rat+er 8.I.R. 'as /i(tate/ to +i0 at t+e flat itself an/ a((or/in1l, in t+e C.". >+i4itPa1e 17;

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7a-77 arri3al of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar in t+e 2oli(e station +as 'ron1l, 4een 0entione/ 4, (onsta4le Ra.2al Sin1+ an/ as s-(+ t+e alle1ation of lo/1in1 false 8.I.R. an/ 0is/ire(tin1 N.<.I.".6. 2oli(e is not 2ro3e/. T+is ar1-0ent is too ten-o-s. P.!.-&4 S.I. "atara0 Na-neria +as state/ at 2a1e no. = of +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at in t+e 0ornin1 of 1=.0;.2008 +e 'as at +is resi/en(e '+i(+ is in t+e 2re0ises of t+e 2oli(e station an/ +e 'as infor0e/ 4, Consta4le Ra.2al Sin1+ re1ar/in1 t+e o((-rren(e an/ t+en after 1;-20 0in-tes +e +a/ rea(+e/ at t+e (ri0e s(ene. 6lt+o-1+ +e +as a/0itte/ t+at on t+at /ate +e +a/ not seen "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar in t+e 2oli(e station 4-t it s+o-l/ 4e 4orne in 0in/ t+at re2ort 'as lo/1e/ at 07.10 6.5. an/ at t+at ti0e +e 'as not in t+e offi(e of t+e 2oli(e station an/ rat+er +e 'as at +is resi/en(e an/ t+erefore in t+e fa(tsit-ation it is (onsta4le Ra.2al Sin1+ '+o 'o-l/ +a3e 4een t+e 4est 'itness to tell '+et+er "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ (o0e to t+e 2oli(e station to lo/1e t+e 8.I.R. T+e 1en-ineness of (o02laint >+i4it-7a-?; +as 4een a/0itte/ 4, 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ an/ t+erefore itEs for0al 2roof is not re@-ire/ an/ (an 4e rea/ into e3i/en(e as +el/ in SadiG *s. State 18>1 Cr.&.J. Cr.&.J. 978 4>7 5Allaha%ad 5"o3%a7 State H"6 Shai4h Harid A 'ussain Sa% *s. State of 0aharashtra 18>4 H"6 and "oraiah She4har *s. 2009 Cr.&.J. 1091

52arnata4a H"6. P.!.-&4 +as 2ro3e/ t+e 2+oto(o2, of C.". No. 12 /ate/ 1=.0;.2008 as >+i4it-7a-77 in '+i(+ it +as 4een s+o'n t+at at 07.10 6.5. "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar (a0e to t+e 2oli(e station an/ +an/e/ o3er a (o02laint on t+e 4asis of '+i(+ (ase
Pa1e 17=

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(ri0e n-04er =?; of 2008 -n/er se(tion &02 I.P.C. 'as re1istere/ a1ainst $e0ra.. T+e s(ri4e of C.". Consta4le Ra.2al Sin1+ +as not 4een e>a0ine/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion. No 2ra,er 'as e3er 0a/e 4, t+e a((-se/ to s-00on (onsta4le Ra.2al in /efen(e to e>a0ine +i0 to 2ro3e a4o-t t+e (orre(tness of t+e entr, 0a/e in t+e sai/ C.". In Jafar Ali *s. State of (.). 2004 54>6 ACC ><4 it +as 4een +el/ 4, t+e "i3ision Ben(+ of t+e $onE4le $i1+ Co-rt of 6lla+a4a/ t+at entr, in C.". is 0a/e 4, 2oli(e offi(ial in /is(+ar1e of offi(ial /-ties an/ t+erefore) t+ere is no reason to /is4elie3e t+e entr, so 0a/e. T+e (o-rt 0a, 2res-0e -n/er se(tion 114-(e) of 3i/en(e 6(t t+at .-/i(ial an/ offi(ial a(ts +a3e 4een re1-larl, 2erfor0e/. T+e le1al 0a>i0 omnia praesumuntur rite it dowee probetur in contrarium so$enniter esse acta i.e.) all t+e a(ts are 2res-0e/ to +a3e 4een /one ri1+tl, an/ re1-larl,) a22lies. It is trite in la' t+at '+en t+ere is a fi1+t 4et'een o(-lar an/ /o(-0entar, e3i/en(e) it is t+e /o(-0entar, e3i/en(e '+i(+ 'ill 2re3ail an/ t+erefore) t+e e3i/en(e of P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra t+at '+en at a4o-t 7.&0 6.5. +e rea(+e/ at 8lat No. #-&2) "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as 'ritin1 t+e (o02laint an/ +e +a/ instr-(te/ S.I. "atara0 Na-neria to lo/1e t+e 8.I.R. on t+at 4asis an/ till t+e ti0e +e re0aine/ t+ere 8.I.R. +a/ not 4een lo/1e/ is 2ro3e/ to 4e false an/ t+is state0ent a22ears to +a3e 4een 1i3en -n/er so0e 0is(on(e2tion or loss of 0e0or, /-e to 2assa1e of ti0e. <s(ar !il/e +as a2tl, re0ar7e/ t+at 0e0or, is t+e 'ea7est (o02anion of a +-0an 4ein1. If S.I. "atara0 Na-neria +a/ not state/ 4efore t+e C.B.I. <ffi(ers
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t+at on 1=.0;.2008 at a4o-t 07.10 6.5. "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ (o0e to t+e 2oli(e station to lo/1e t+e 8.I.R. t+en /-e to t+at it (annot 4e sai/ t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ not 1one to t+e 2oli(e station to lo/1e t+e 8.I.R. It +as no '+ere 4een s-11este/ 4efore P.!.-&4 t+at false entr, in C.". 0a, +a3e 4een re(or/e/ 4, Consta4le Ra.2al Sin1+. 6ss-0in1 arguendo t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ not 1one to t+e 2oli(e station to lo/1e t+e 8.I.R. e3en t+en it is 2ro3e/ t+at +e 1a3e false infor0ation to t+e 2oli(e t+at 0-r/er of 6ar-s+i +as 4een (o00itte/ 4, $e0ra. 7no'in1 t+at 0-r/ers of 5s. 6ar-s+i as 'ell as $e0ra. 'ere (o00itte/ 4, +i0 an/ +is 'ife "r. N-2-r Tal'ar. T+-s t+e ar1-0ents on t+is (o-nt also fail. T+e ne>t (ontention of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ is t+at P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra +as /e2ose/ t+at '+en on 17.0;.2008 +e +a/ seen t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. t+en at t+at ti0e 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 'ere not 2resent in t+e flat an/ onl, "r. "ines+ Tal'ar) "r. "-rrani an/ so0e ot+er 2ersons 'ere 2resentM "r. "ines+ Tal'ar an/ "r. "-rrani i/entifie/ t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. an/ after so0e ti0e "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar also arri3e/ t+ere 4-t +e a22eare/ 1r-/1in1 to i/entif, t+e /ea/ 4o/, an/ '+en 2eo2le '+o +a/ asse04le/ t+ere i/entifie/ t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. t+en "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar also i/entifie/ t+e /ea/ 4o/, 4-t t+is fa(t 'as not state/ 4efore I.<. 5r. :i.a, D-0ar. #i7e'ise P.!.-&& S.I. Ba(++- Sin1+ +as /e2ose/ t+at /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. 'as not i/entifie/ 4, "r. "ines+ Tal'ar an/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar '+o +a/ rea(+e/ t+ere laterM P.!.-&4 S.I. "atara0 Na-neria +as /e2ose/ t+at on
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0=.0=.2008 +e +a/ state/ to I.<. 5r. R.S. D-ril t+at on 17.0;.2008 '+en "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ rea(+e/ +e +a/ e>2resse/ +is ina4ilit, to re(o1niFe t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. 4-t +e (annot sa, +o' 5r. D-ril +as 0entione/ in +is state0ent t+at on t+at /a, +e +a/ not 0et "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar at all an/ I.<. 5r. Da-l +as a/0itte/ t+at S.I. "atara0 Na-neria +a/ state/ 4efore 5r. D-ril t+at on 17.0;.2008 t+at +e +a/ not 0et "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar at all an/ t+-s it is 2ro3e/ fro0 t+e a4o3e e3i/en(e t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ not ref-se/ to i/entif, t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra.. I /onEt fin/ an, for(e in t+is ar1-0ent. It is 2ro3e/ fro0 e3i/en(e on re(or/ t+at terra(e /oor 'as lo(7e/ fro0 insi/e 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons after ta7in1 a'a, t+e 4o/, of $e0ra. in t+e terra(e an/ as s-(+ t+e, 'ere 7no'in1 'ell t+at /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. is l,in1 in t+e terra(e. P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra +as state/ at 2a1e no.2 of +is e>a0ination-in-(+ief t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as as7e/ 4, +i0 to 2ro3i/e t+e 7e, of terra(e /oor 4-t +e +a/ state/ t+at it is not tra(ea4le. $e +as also state/ t+at '+en +e 'ent to t+e terra(e +e +a/ fo-n/ "r. "ines+ Tal'ar) "r. "-rrani an/ so0e ot+er 2ersons t+ere an/ t+e, +a/ tol/ +i0 t+at t+e /ea/ 4o/, 'as of $e0ra. an/ after so0e ti0e "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar also rea(+e/ t+ere an/ '+en +e en@-ire/ fro0 +i0 a4o-t t+e /ea/ 4o/, t+en +e see0e/ rel-(tant to i/entif, t+e /ea/ 4o/, an/ '+en ot+er 2ersons 2resent t+ere state/ t+at t+e /ea/ 4o/, 'as of $e0ra. t+en "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar also i/entifie/ t+e /ea/ 4o/,. P.!.-&& S.I. Ba(++- Sin1+ +as also state/ t+at "r. "ines+ Tal'ar +a/ /e(line/ to i/entif, t+e /ea/ 4o/, an/ after so0e ti0e "r.
Pa1e 17?

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Ra.es+ Tal'ar +as also (a0e t+ere an/ +e too /i/ not i/entif, t+e /ea/ 4o/, 4-t t+ereafter "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar state/ t+at t+e /ea/ 4o/, 0a, 4e of $e0ra.. P.!.-&4 S.I. "atara0 Na-neria +as also state/ t+at '+en +e en@-ire/ fro0 "r. "ines+ Tal'ar a4o-t t+e /ea/ 4o/, t+en +e fei1ne/ +is i1noran(e an/ 0ean'+ile "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar also (a0e t+ere an/ +e 'as as7e/ to i/entif, t+e /ea/ 4o/, 4-t +e also /e(line/ to i/entif, it. $e +as also state/ t+at Ra0 Prasa/) R-/ra #al +a/ also (o0e t+ere an/ t+e, i/entifie/ t+e /ea/ 4o/, to 4e of $e0ra.) t+e ser3ant of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar. $e +as also state/ t+at a 0e0o >+i4it-7a-82 re1ar/in1 4rea7in1 o2en of t+e lo(7 'as 2re2are/ 4-t "r. "ines+ Tal'ar +a/ ref-se/ to si1n in t+is 0e0o. 8ro0 t+e 2er-sal of >+i4it-7a-82 it 'ill trans2ire t+at a note 'as a22en/e/ to t+at effe(t 4elo' t+e 0e0o t+at "r. "ines+ Tal'ar ref-se/ to 2-t +is si1nat-res. If all t+e a4o3e 'itnesses +a/ not state/ 4efore t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ /e(line/ to i/entif, t+e /ea/ 4o/, of $e0ra. t+en t+e o0ission a4o-t 0in-te /etails 'ill not (reate an, /ent in t+e (ase of t+e 2rose(-tion. In a 2let+ora of (ases '+i(+ +a3e 4een all-/e/ to supra in t+e 2re(e/in1 2ara1ra2+s an/ in State of )un,a% *s. :assan Singh AI+ 18>1 SC ;87 an/ State of Andhra )radesh *s. 2anda #opaludu 200< 5<96 ACC 772 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at +-0an 0e0or, is a2t to 4l-r 'it+ t+e 2assa1e of ti0e an/ +en(e 0inor o0issions re1ar/in1 (ollateral an/ s-4si/iar, fa(ts '+i(+ /o not affe(t t+e s-4strat-0 of t+e (ase 'ill not affe(t t+e (re/i4ilit, of t+e 'itnesses. 6s alrea/, state/ it /e2en/s
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'+et+er t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er +a/ s2e(ifi(all, as7e/ a 2arti(-lar @-estion fro0 t+e 'itness an/ if not as7e/ t+en it is not ne(essar, t+at t+e 'itness 'ill tell t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er on +is o'n. T+e state0ents 1i3en to t+e in3esti1atin1 offi(er are s-22ose/ to 4rief an/ /etaile/ state0ents are al'a,s 1i3en in t+e (o-rt. P.!.-7 D.D. Ca-ta0 +as also /e2ose/ t+at t+e '+en t+e 2oli(e +a/ en@-ire/ fro0 "r. "ines+ Tal'ar a4o-t t+e i/entit, of t+e /ea/ 4o/, t+en +e +a/ also fei1ne/ +is i1noran(e. T+-s) t+e ar1-0ents of t+e learne/ (o-nsel are 4ereft of reasons. T+e ne>t s-40ission of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ is t+at fro0 t+e e3i/en(e a//-(e/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion it is not 2ro3e/ t+at t+e a((-se/ 2ersons (a-se/ /estr-(tion of e3i/en(e of t+e (o00ission of t+e t'in 0-r/ers in as 0-(+ as t+e floor of 6ar-s+i 'as (leane/ on 1=.0;.2008 'it+ t+e 2er0ission of t+e 2oli(e 2ersonnel 2resent t+ereM t+e o-ter-0ost 1rill /oor 'as -na-t+oriFe/ an/ t+erefore 1ot re0o3e/ after 0an, 0ont+s of t+e o((-rren(e an/ t+ere 'as no 2ro+i4itor, or/ers restrainin1 t+e a((-se/ fro0 re0o3in1 t+e 1rill /oor an/ t+e a2art0ent 'as 1ot 2ainte/ a ,ear an/ +alf after t+e o((-rren(e. It 'as f-rt+er s-40itte/ t+at P.!.-1; %0es+ S+ar0a +as /e2ose/ t+at +e +a/ (leane/ t+e floor of 6ar-s+iEs roo0 after see7in1 2er0ission fro0 t+e 2oli(e offi(ers an/ at t+at ti0e 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 'ere a'a, at (re0atori-0 to 2erfor0 t+e last rites of 6ar-s+iM ".!.-; :i7as Set+i +as also /e2ose/ t+at +e +a/ so-1+t 2er0ission fro0 t+e 2oli(e offi(ers an/ one la/, 2oli(e offi(ial for (leanin1 '+i(+ t+e, +a/ a((or/e/M P.!.-12
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P-nis+ Rai Tan/on +as state/ t+at t+e o-ter-0ost 1rill /oor 'as not a 2art of t+e +o-se ori1inall, an/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ 1ot it se2aratel, installe/ later an/ on 1=.0;.2008 (leanin1 'as /one in t+e 2resen(e of 2oli(e offi(ialsM P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra +as state/ t+at on t+e 2illo' t+ere 'as a lot of 4loo/ '+i(+ +a/ see2e/ /o'n onto t+e floor an/ 4esi/es t+at area 4loo/ 'as not fo-n/ an,'+ere in t+e roo0 of 6ar-s+i in(l-/in1 +er looM P.!.-&? 6.C.#. Da-l +as a/0itte/ t+at state0ent of S.I. S-nita Rana 'as re(or/e/ 4, assistin1 in3esti1atin1 offi(er 5-7es+ S+ar0a an/ s+e +as state/ to +i0 t+at 2-& la/ies alon1 'it+ one 0ale 2erson 'ere (leanin1 t+e /ra'in1 roo0 an/ t+-s /estr-(tion of e3i/en(e of t+e (o00ission of t+e 0-r/ers is not 2ro3e/ at all. T+ese ar1-0ents are also lia4le to 4e tras+e/. No 2er0ission 'as so-1+t 4, t+e a((-se/ fro0 t+e C.B.I. 4efore re0o3in1 t+e o-ter-0ost 1rill /oor an/ 2aintin1 of 2artition 'all 7no'in1 it 'ell t+at in3esti1ation is 1oin1 on an/ t+-s 3ital 2ie(e of e3i/en(e 'as /estro,e/. P.!.-1; an/ ".!.-; 4ot+ are +i1+l, intereste/ an/ 2artisan 'itnesses 4ein1 2ai/ e02lo,ees of t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/ t+erefore t+eir e3i/en(e 1i3en on t+e as2e(t of (leanin1 of t+e floor 'it+ t+e 2er0ission of t+e 2oli(e (annot 4e 4elie3e/. ".!.-; +as 4een (on3i(te/ -n/er se(tions =& an/ =8 of Co2, Ri1+t 6(t 4, 6.C.5.5.) Ro+ini Co-rts) Ne' "el+i. S.I. S-nita Rana +as not 4een 2ro/-(e/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion an/ t+erefore s+e s+o-l/ +a3e 4een 1ot e>a0ine/ as /efen(e 'itness 4-t t+at 'as not /one /es2ite o22ort-nit, 1i3en to t+e a((-se/ to file list of 'itnesses (ontainin1 t+e na0es of t+e 'itnesses
Pa1e 182

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'+i(+ are 2ro2ose/ to 4e e>a0ine/ in /efen(e 4-t +er na0e 'as not in(l-/e/ in t+e list of 'itnesses an/ t+erefore) t+e state0ent 1i3en 4, S-nita Rana -n/er se(tion 1=1 Cr.P.C. to assistin1 in3esti1atin1 offi(er 5-7es+ S+ar0a) 4ein1 not s-4stanti3e 2ie(e of e3i/en(e (annot 4e loo7e/ into as t+e state0ent -n/er se(tion 1=1 Cr.P.C. (an 4e -se/ for t+e 2-r2ose of (ontra/i(tions onl,. 8ro0 t+e oral an/ /o(-0entar, e3i/en(e it is 2ro3e/ t+at 4loo/ s2latters 'ere fo-n/ on t+e 'all 4e+in/ t+e +ea/rest of t+e 4e/ as 'ell as on t+e frontal si/e of t+e /oor of 6ar-s+iEs roo0. T+e 4loo/ s2latters are (learl, 3isi4le in t+e 2+oto1ra2+ 0aterial >+i4it-4 an/ 2+oto1ra2+ nos. 2?) &1) &2) &&) &4) &; an/ &= of "-?8. P.!.-1 (onsta4le C+-nni #al Ca-ta0 +as state/ on oat+ t+at +e +a/ seen 4loo/ s2latters on t+e 'all 4e+in/ t+e 4a(7 of t+e 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 4e/. P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra +as also state/ in +is e>a0ination-in-(+ief t+at t+ere 'ere so0e to,s 7e2t on t+e 4e/ 4-t 'it+o-t 4loo/ stains an/ 4loo/ s2latters 'ere in t+e 'all 4e+in/ t+e +ea/-rest of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 4e/ as 'ell as on t+e frontal si/e of t+e /oor of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs roo0. S.I. Ba(++- Sin1+ an/ S.I. "atara0 Na-neria +a3e also state/ t+at t+ere 'ere 4loo/ s2latters 4e+in/ t+e 'all of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 4e/. T+ose la/ies '+o +a/ instr-(te/ %0es+ S+ar0a an/ :i7as Set+i to (lean t+e floor +a3e neit+er 4een na0e/ 4, %nes+ S+ar0a an/ :i7as Set+i nor +a3e t+e, 4een 2ro/-(e/ in t+e (o-rt. #i7e'ise) P.!.-1; an/ ".!.-; +a3e not /is(lose/ t+e na0es of t+e 2oli(e offi(ers '+o +a/ 2er0itte/ to (lean t+e floor. <43io-sl,) t+ese t'o 'itnesses (o-l/ not (lean t+e floor 'it+o-t t+e ta(it
Pa1e 18&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

a22ro3al of t+e a((-se/ 2ersons. P.!.-2& D-s-0 +as /e2ose/ on 12.11.2012 t+at a4o-t fo-r ,ears a1o '+en in t+e s-00er season s+e 'as 1oin1 to +er resi/en(e sit-ate/ in Sa/ar2-r :illa1e t+en s+e +a/ fo-n/ a 0o4ile set in a 2ar7 an/ after =-7 /a,s of t+is re(o3er,)+er 4rot+er Ra04+ool (a0e to +er resi/en(e an/ t+en +er son +a/ 1i3en t+is 0o4ile set to Ra04+ool an/ after a4o-4t one an/ +alf ,ear "el+i Poli(e (a0e in "as+a+ara :illa1e an/ arreste/
+er 4rot+er Ra04+ool. S+e an/ +er +-s4an/ 'ere also arreste/ 4, t+e 2oli(e an/ 0o4ile set 'as

seiFe/ an/ after interro1ation t+e, 'ere release/. P.!.-&2 an/ C.". Ri(++2al Sin1+ +a/ state/ t+at on 1&.0?.200? +e +as ta7en one (ell-2+one 'it+ SI5 No. 7 /ate/ 1&.0?.200? fro0 5r. C+an/ra0 $ea/ Consta4le) Cri0e Bran(+) "el+i Poli(e) S-n #i1+t Colon,) Ne' "el+i an/ seiF-re 0e0o >+i4it-7a-=& 'as 2re2are/ 4, +is (o02anion S.I. Gatis+ C+an/ra. $e +as f-rt+er state/ t+at n-04er of SI5 'as ?=&?02?&0= an/ I.5. .I. no. of t+is 0o4ile set 'as &;4;=8012881114. P.!.-&? +as state/ t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar +a/ tol/ +i0 t+at t+e 4oo7 ET+ree 0ista7es of 0, lifeE 'as in t+e 4e/ of 5s. 6ar-s+i at t+e ti0e of +er 0-r/er an/ (ar/4oar/ 4o> of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 0o4ile 'as 'it+ +i0 an/ t+is 4oo7 an/ (ar/-4oar/ 4o> 'ere +an/e/ o3er to ins2e(tor 6r3in/ 9aitle, '+o +as 2re2are/ In 2ro/-(tion-(-0-seiF-re 0e0o >+i4it-7a-?7.

>+i4it-7a-?7 it +as 4een 'ritten t+at in t+e (ar/4oar/ 4o> I.5. .I. No. &;4;=8012881114 of No7ia N-72 0o4ile 'as fo-n/ 2rinte/ an/ it 'as state/ 4, "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar t+at t+is 'as t+e 2a(7a1in1 of 0o4ile 2+one of +ere /a-1+ter an/ t+e sa0e
Pa1e 184

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

0o4ile-set 'as fo-n/ 4, D-s-0. P.!.-&? +as /e2ose/ t+at t+e (ell-2+one '+ose I.5. .I. no. 'as 2rinte/ in t+e (ar/-4oar/ 4o> 'as -se/ 4, 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ a((or/in1l, it is 2ro3e/ t+at 0o4ile-set of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as t+ro'n in t+e 2ar7 to (on(eal an/ /estro, t+e e3i/en(e. $e +as also state/ at 2a1e no. ? of +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at 0o4ile-set of $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ a(ti3e in P-n.a4 (ir(le as 'as infor0e/ to +i0 4, T6T6 Tele(o0. ".!.-4 +as a/0itte/ in +is (ross-e>a0ination t+at in t+e s+o2 of +is fat+er 0o4ile-sets are 4ein1 sol/ an/ 0o4ile-set of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as 2re-2ai/ an/ -se/ to 1et it re(+ar1e/ at t+e instan(e of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar. $e +as also a/0itte/ t+at +is fat+erEs sister li3es in P-n.a4. 6 s2e(ifi( s-11estion +as 4een t+ro'n 4efore t+is 'itness t+at /ata of 0o4iles of 5s. 6ar-s+i an/ $e0ra. 'ere /elete/ 4, +i0 an/ 0o4ile-set of $e0ra. 0-st +a3e 4een 1ot sent to 2-n.a4. In Do/ali P-ran C+an/ra Rao :s. P.P. 6n/+ra Pra/es+ 6IR 1?7; SC 1?2; (&99)) it 'as +el/ t+at t+e follo'in1 in1re/ients are to 4e 2ro3e/ 4, 2rose(-tion:-T+at an offen(e +as 4een (o00itte/M 1) T+at t+e a((-se/ 7ne' or +a/ reason to 4elie3e t+e (o00ission of s-(+ offen(eM 2) T+at 'it+ s-(+ 7no'le/1e or 4elief +e a) Ca-se/ an, e3i/en(e of t+e (o00ission of t+at offen(e to /isa22ear) or 4) Ca3e an, infor0ation res2e(tin1 t+at offen(e '+i(+ +e t+en 7ne' or 4elie3e/ to 4e falseM &) T+at +e /i/ so as aforesai/) 'it+ t+e intention of s(reenin1 t+e offen/er fro0 le1al 2-nis+0ent.

Pa1e 18;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

T+e sa0e 3ie' +as 4een ta7en in )al=inder 2aur *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 18<2 SC 9<4 :attan Singh *s. State of )un,a% 2004 54>6 ACC ;77 an/ "udhan Singh *s. State of "ihar 200; 5<<6 ACC <<0. 8ro0 t+e e3i/en(e it is 2ro3e/ t+at t+e a((-se/ 2ersons /is2ose/ off//estro,e/ t+e s(al2el) 4loo/ staine/ (lot+es 'orn 4, t+e0 /-rin1 t+e (o00ission of t+e offen(e) /resse/--2 t+e s(ene of (ri0e) (leane/ 2ri3ate 2arts of 5s. 6ar-s+i) (o3ere/ t+e /ea/ 4o/, of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'it+ a flannel 4lan7et an/ t+at of $e0ra. 'it+ a (ooler 2anel) 2la(e/ a 4e/-s+eet on 1rill /i3i/in1 t'o roofs) lo(7e/ t+e /oor of terra(e) (on(eale/ or /estro,e/ t+e 7e, of t+e terra(e /oor '+i(+ +as not 4een fo-n/ till ,et) 'i2e/ t+e 4loo/ stains on stairs) se(retl, +i/ t+e 0-r/er 'ea2on- one 1olf sti(7 in t+e loft) (leane/ t+e t'o 1olf sti(7s) (on(eale/ an/ t+re' a'a, t+e 0o4ile sets of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/) 7no'in1 'ell t+at 0-r/ers of 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ +a3e 4een (o00itte/. 6ll t+ese t+in1s 'ere /one 4, t+e a((-se/ 'it+ t+e intention to s(reen t+e0sel3es fro0 le1al 2-nis+0ent. 6s s-(+ (+ar1e -n/er se(tion 201 I.P.C. is f-ll, 2ro3e/ a1ainst t+e a((-se/ 2ersons. T+e ne>t (ontention of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ is t+at t+e alle1ation t+at 7e, to t+e lo(7 of terra(e /oor 'as not 0a/e a3aila4le on 1=.0;.2008 an/ it 'as (on(eale/ 4, t+e a((-se/ is not 4orne o-t fro0 t+e e3i/en(e on re(or/ 4e(a-se t+e 7e, alon1 'it+ 4-n(+ of 7e,s al'a,s -se/ to 4e in t+e 2ossession of $e0ra. an/ t+erefore @-estion of 2ro/-(in1 t+e 7e, 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons to t+e
Pa1e 18=

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

2oli(e /oes not arise an/ as s-(+ t+eir (on/-(t (annot 4e /-44e/ as e3asi3e. T+is ar1-0ent also +as no le1s to stan/. P.!.-1& "r. Ra.i3 D-0ar :ars+ne, +as state/ at 2a1e no. & of +is (rosse>a0ination t+at in +is 2resen(e t+e 7e, of terra(e /oor 'as as7e/ for 4-t it 'as not tra(ea4le. P.!.-14 "r. Ro+it Do(+ar +as also /e2ose/ t+at a 2oli(e0an +a/ as7e/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar to 0a7e a3aila4le t+e 7e, of terra(e /oor 4-t "r. Tal'ar 'ent insi/e t+e flat an/ /i/ not (o0e o-t for (onsi/era4le ti0e. P.!.-2? +as also state/ at 2a1e no. 2 of +is e>a0ination-in-(+ief t+at terra(e /oor 'as fo-n/ lo(7e/ an/ +e +a/ as7e/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar to 2ro3i/e t+e 7e, an/ t+en "r. Tal'ar +a/ tol/ +i0 t+at t+e 7e, is not tra(ea4le an/ t+en +e +a/ /ire(te/ 6.S.P./C.<. 5r. 67+iles+ an/ S.$.<. t+at t+e lo(7 'ill not 4e 4ro7en an/ in (ase t+e 7e, is not a3aila4le t+en it 'ill 4e 4etter to ta7e o-t t+e lo(7 alon1 'it+ t+e lat(+. P.!.-&& S.I. Ba(++- Sin1+ +as also state/ t+at on 17.0;.2008 S.$.<. 5r. Na-neria +a/ as7e/ "r. "ines+ Tal'ar to o2en t+e lo(7 of t+e terra(e /oor 4-t +e +a/ state/ t+at t+e 7e, is not tra(ea4le an/ t+ereafter lo(7 'as 1ot 4ro7en 4, "r. "ines+ Tal'ar. P.!.-&4 S.I. "atara0 Na-neria +as also state/ t+at +e trie/ to 1o to t+e roof t+ro-1+ t+e stairs 4-t t+e terra(e /oor 'as fo-n/ lo(7e/ an/ +e as7e/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar to 0a7e a3aila4le t+e 7e, of t+e lo(7 4-t "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar res2on/e/ t+at t+e 7e, is not a3aila4le an/ +e s+o-l/ not 'aste +is ti0e in 4rea7in1 o2en t+e lo(7 ot+er'ise $e0ra. 'ill flee a'a, an/ t+-s in 3ie' of t+is e3i/en(e t+e ar1-0ent of t+e learne/ (o-nsel is fo-n/ to 4e /a02 s@-i4.
Pa1e 187

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

T+e 2en-lti0ate s-40ission of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ is t+at "r. "o+re +as 0entione/ in +is re2ort t+at t+e ti0e of t+e /eat+ of 5s. 6ar-s+i is 1 to 11/2 /a,s fro0 t+e ti0e of (on/-(tin1 t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination 4-t in t+e (o-rt +e +as state/ t+at ti0e of /eat+ 'as 12-18 +o-rs fro0 t+e ti0e of (on/-(tin1 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination an/ one /a, is of onl, 12 +o-rs fro0 '+i(+ it is 2ro3e/ t+at "r. "o+re la(7s e>2ertise an/ +is e3i/en(e (annot 4e a((e2te/. It 'as f-rt+er s-40itte/ t+at ".!.-4 "r. R.D. S+ar0a +as (learl, state/ t+at t+e /eat+ of 5s. 6ar-s+i (o-l/ +a3e 4een (a-se/ a4o-t 8-10 +o-rs fro0 t+e ti0e of (on/-(tin1 t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination 4e(a-se in s-00er 0ont+s t+e ri1or 0ortis starts 3er, @-i(7l, an/ after a 2erio/ of fo-r +o-rs fro0 (ons-02tion of foo/) se0i-/i1este/ foo/ (an 4e seen an/ in ne>t t'o +o-rs it (o02letel, 1ets /i1este/ an/ sin(e in t+e sto0a(+ of 5s. 6ar-s+i se0i-/i1est foo/ 'as fo-n/ an/ as s-(+ +er /eat+ +a/ ta7en 2la(e 4-= +o-rs after +a3in1 (ons-0e t+e /inner an/ t+erefore t+e entire e3i/en(e of "r. "o+re is fo-n/ to 4e -n4elie3a4le an/ fra-1+t 'it+ s-s2i(ion. I a1ree 'it+ t+is (ontention to t+e e>tent t+at "r. "o+re +as in(orre(tl, 0entione/ in +is re2ort t+at t+e ti0e of /eat+ of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as 1 to 11/2 /a,s fro0 t+e ti0e of (on/-(tin1 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination an/ one /a, is of onl, 12 +o-rs. T+is (o-rt fails to -n/erstan/ as to '+, t+is 1entle0an +as state/ t+at on /a, is of onl, 12 +o-rs. $o'e3er) t+e re0ainin1 2art of +is e3i/en(e (annot 4e 4r-s+e/ asi/e on t+at 1ro-n/. In Sha4ila A%dul #affar 2han 5S3t.6 *s. *asant +aghunath
Pa1e 188

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

/ho%le and others 520096 7 SCC 748

it +as

4een +el/ t+at falsit, of a 2arti(-lar 0aterial 'o-l/ not 4e 3itiate t+e entire testi0on, of t+e 'itness (on(erne/. In s-(+ a (ase it is t+e /-t, of t+e (o-rt to se2arate 1rain fro0 (+aff an/ onl, '+en t+at is not feasi4le) t+e (o-rt (an /is(ar/ t+e e3i/en(e in toto. P.!.-; "r. "o+re +as e>2laine/ t+e reasons as to +o' +e +a/ 'ritten in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort t+at /eat+ of 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as 1 to 11/2 /a,s fro0 t+e ti0e of (on/-(tin1 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination. !+en +e 'as @-estione/ 4, t+e (o-rt itself as to +o' t+is ti0e 'as 'ritten 4, +i0 t+en +e state/ t+at t+e /e(ease/ +a/ /ie/ a4o-t 12 <EClo(7 in t+e ni1+t an/ +e +a/ (on/-(te/ 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination at a4o-t 12 oE(lo(7 in t+e noon an/ '+en +e 'as 1oin1 to (o02lete t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort t+en 0e/ia 2ersons (a0e t+ere an/ t+erefore t+e ti0e of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs /eat+ as 1 to 11/2 /a,s 'as 'ritten /o'n in +aste. It is 'ort+'+ile to 0ention +ere t+at 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e not ta7en t+e 2lea t+at /eat+ of 5s. 6ar-s+i /i/ not ta7e 2la(e in t+e 0i/-ni1+t an/ t+erefore if an, 4l-n/er +as 4een (o00itte/ 4, "r. "o+re '+ile re(or/in1 t+e ti0e of /eat+ of 5s. 6ar-s+i in t+e 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination re2ort t+en no 4enefit (an 4e /eri3e/ 4, t+e a((-se/. It is also i02ortant to 0ention +ere t+at e>a(t ti0e of /eat+ (annot 4e state/ 'it+ 0at+e0ati(al a((-ra(, 4, an, /o(tor (on/-(tin1 2ost0orte0 e>a0ination an/ t+ere (an 4e 3ariation of & to 4 +o-rs on eit+er si/e of /eat+. In Jag3ohan and others *s. State of (.). 200< 5<96 ACC 907 5/"6 it 'as +el/ t+at sto0a(+ (ontents of t+e /e(ease/ not 0a7es t+e 2rose(-tion (ase /o-4tf-l.
Pa1e 18?

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

State of (.). *s. Sar=a Jeet . others 200< 526 Allaha%ad Cri3inal +ulings 14>0 5/"6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at sto0a(+ (ontents (annot 4e /eter0inati3e of ti0e of /eat+. In t+at (ase t+e la' as e>2osite/ in +a3 "ali *s. State of (.). 2004 5486 ACC 4<9 5SC6 Anil Shar3a *s. State of Jhar4hand AI+ 2004 SC 2284 ).). *en4aih *s. State of A.). AI+ 18>< SC 171< and Nihal Singh . others *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 18;< SC 2; +as 4een follo'e/. In Ra0 BaliEs (ase) it 'as +el/ t+at t+e 0e/i(al e3i/en(e is not ,et so 2erfe(t as to 4e a4le to tell t+e 2re(ise ti0e of /eat+ of t+e /e(ease/ in a (o02-terise/ 0at+e0ati(al 0anner on t+e 4asis of sto0a(+ (ontents. T+e ti0e ta7en nor0all, for /i1estin1 foo/) 'o-l/ also /e2en/ -2on t+e @-alit, an/ @-antit, of foo/ as 'ell) 4esi/es ot+ers. T+e ti0e also 3aries a((or/in1 to /i1esti3e (a2a(it,. T+e 2ro(ess of /i1estion is not -nifor0 an/ 3aries fro0 in/i3i/-al to in/i3i/-al an/ t+e +ealt+ of a 2erson at a 2arti(-lar ti0e an/ so 0an, ot+er 3ar,in1 fa(tors. T+e terminus ad uem of t+e learne/ (o-nsel

for t+e a((-se/ is t+at on (-0-lati3e a22re(iation of t+e e3i/en(e as 4ro-1+t on re(or/ t+e 2rose(-tion +as 0isera4l, faile/ to 2ro3e t+e (+ar1es a1ainst t+e a((-se/ 2ersons an/ rat+er fro0 t+e e3i/en(e it is 2ro3e/ t+at t+e 0-r/ers 'ere (o00itte/ 4, so0e ot+er 2erson(s) '+o +a/ 3isite/ $e0ra. in t+e inter3enin1 ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 '+i(+ is (learl, in/i(ate/ 4, t+e 4loo/ fo-n/ on S-la 'ine 4ottle) Din1fis+er 4eer 4ottle an/ S2rite 2lasti( 4ottle seiFe/ fro0 t+e roo0 of $e0ra. an/ t+e (+ain of (ir(-0stan(es +as not 4een (on(atenate/ an/
Pa1e 1?0

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

+en(e a((-se/ /eser3e to 4e a(@-itte/ of t+e tr-02e/ -2 (+ar1es. I fin/ 0,self (o02letel, in /isa1ree0ent 'it+ t+e sai/ (ontention of t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/. <f (o-rse) t+ere is no /ire(t e3i/en(e in t+is (ase 4-t as /is(-sse/ a4o3e it is (lear t+at t+e 2rose(-tion +as 2la(e/ a (lin(+in1 'ealt+ of (ir(-0stan(es fro0 '+i(+ t+e 1-ilt of 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ +as 4een 0a/e o-t to t+e e>tent +-0an instr-0ents (an a22re+en/. Re(on/ite 2ossi4ilit, of alternati3e +,2ot+esis as 2-t for'ar/ 4, t+e a((-se/ (annot 4e a((e2te/. In 2he3 2aran *s. State of (.). AI+ 1874 SC 1<;7 59JJ6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at neit+er 0ere 2ossi4ilities nor re0ote 2ossi4ilities reasona4le nor (an) 0ere /o-4ts '+i(+ are to not t+e 'it+o-t /an1er

a/0inistration of .-sti(e) 4e t+e fo-n/ation of t+e a(@-ittal of an a((-se/ 2erson) if t+ere is ot+er'ise fairl, (re/i4le testi0on,. 8ro0 t+e e3i/en(e as ten/ere/ 4, t+e 2rose(-tion in for0 of oral an/ /o(-0entar, e3i/en(e t+is (o-rt rea(+es to t+e irresisti4le an/ i02e((a4le (on(l-sion t+at onl, t+e a((-se/ 2ersons are res2onsi4le for (o00ittin1 t+is 1+astl, (ri0e as t+e follo'in1 (ir(-0stan(es -nerrin1l, 2oint to'ar/s t+e +,2ot+esis of 1-ilt of t+e a((-se/1)T+at irrefra1a4l, in t+e fatef-l ni1+t of

1;/1=.0;.2008 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 'ere last seen 'it+ 4ot+ t+e /e(ease/ in 8lat No. #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar at a4o-t ?.&0 P.5. 4, %0es+ S+ar0a) t+e /ri3er of "r. Ra.es+ Tal'arM

Pa1e 1?1

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

2)-

T+at in t+e 0ornin1 of 1=.0;.2008 at a4o-t =.00 6.5. 5s. 6ar-s+i 'as fo-n/ 0-r/ere/ in +er 4e/-roo0 '+i(+ 'as a/.a(ent to t+e 4e/roo0 of t+e a((-se/ an/ t+ere 'as onl, 2artition 'all 4et'een t'o 4e/-roo0sM

&)-

T+at t+e /ea/ 4o/, of t+e ser3ant $e0ra. 'as fo-n/ l,in1 in t+e 2ool of 4loo/ on t+e terra(e of flat no. #-&2) 9al3a,- :i+ar on 17.0;.2008 an/ t+e /oor of terra(e 'as fo-n/ lo(7e/ fro0 insi/eM

4)-

T+at t+ere is a (lose 2ro>i0it, 4et'een t+e 2oint of ti0e '+en 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ an/ t+e /e(ease/ 2ersons 'ere last seen to1et+er ali3e an/ t+e /e(ease/ 'ere 0-r/ere/ in t+e inter3enin1 ni1+t of 1;/1=.0;.2008 an/ as s-(+ t+e ti0e is so s0all t+at 2ossi4ilit, of an, ot+er 2erson(s) ot+er t+an t+e a((-se/ 4ein1 t+e a-t+ors of t+e (ri0e 4e(o0es i02ossi4leM

;)-

T+at t+e /oor of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 4e/-roo0 'as fitte/ 'it+ a-to0ati( (li(7-s+-t lo(7. P.!.-2? 5a+es+ D-0ar 5is+ra t+e t+en S.P. (Cit,)) N.<.I.".6. +as /e2ose/ t+at '+en +e tal7e/ to "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar on 1=.0;.2008 in t+e 0ornin1) +e +a/ tol/ +i0 t+at in t+e 2re(e/in1 ni1+t at a4o-t 11.&0 P.5. +e +a/ 1one to slee2 'it+ t+e 7e, after lo(7in1 t+e /oor of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 4e/-roo0 fro0 o-tsi/e. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e a/0itte/ t+at /oor of 5s. 6ar-s+iEs 4e/-roo0 'as +a3in1 a-to0ati(-(li(7s+-t lo(7 li7e t+at of a +otel) '+i(+ (o-l/ not 4e o2ene/ fro0 o-tsi/e 'it+o-t 7e, 4-t (o-l/ 4e o2ene/ fro0 insi/e 'it+o-t 7e,. No e>2lanation +as 4een offere/ 4, t+e a((-se/ as to +o' t+e
Pa1e 1?2

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

lo(7 of 5s. 6ar-s+iBs roo0 'as o2ene/ an/ 4, '+o0M

=)-

T+at t+e internet re0aine/ a(ti3e in t+e ni1+t of t+e 1or, in(i/ent s-11estin1 t+at at least one of t+e a((-se/ re0aine/ a'a7eM

7)-

T+at

t+ere

is

not+in1

to

s+o'

t+at

an

o-tsi/er(s) (a0e insi/e t+e +o-se in t+e sai/ ni1+t after ?.&0 P.5.M 8)T+at t+ere 'as no /isr-2tion in t+e s-22l, of ele(tri(it, in t+at ni1+tM ?)T+at no 2erson 'as seen loiterin1 near t+e flats in s-s2i(io-s (ir(-0stan(es in t+at ni1+tM 10)- T+at t+ere is no e3i/en(e of for(i4le entr, of an, o-tsi/er(s) in t+e flat in t+e ni1+t of o((-rren(eM 11)- T+at t+ere is no e3i/en(e of an, lar(eno-s a(t in t+e flatM 12)T+at in t+e 0ornin1 of 1=t+ 0a, 2008 '+en t+e 0ai/ (a0e to flat for t+e 2-r2ose of (leanin1 an/ 0o2in1 a false 2rete>t 'as 0a/e 4, "r. N-2-r Tal'ar t+at /oor 0i1+t +a3e 4een lo(7e/ fro0 o-tsi/e 4, t+e ser3ant $e0ra. alt+o-1+ it 'as not lo(7e/ or lat(+e/ fro0 o-tsi/eM 1&)- T+at t+e +o-se 0ai/ B+arti 5an/al +as no '+ere state/ t+at '+en s+e (a0e insi/e t+e flat 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 'ere fo-n/ 'ee2in1M 14)- T+at fro0 t+e testi0on, of B+arti 5an/al it is 0anifestl, (lear t+at '+en s+e rea(+e/ t+e flat an/ tal7e/ to "r. N-2-r Tal'ar t+en at t+at
Pa1e 1?&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

ti0e s+e +a/ not (o02laine/ a4o-t t+e 0-r/er of +er /a-1+ter an/ rat+er s+e tol/ t+e 0ai/ /eli4eratel, t+at $e0ra. 0i1+t +a3e 1one to fet(+ 0il7 fro0 5ot+er /air, after lo(7in1 t+e 'oo/en /oor fro0 o-tsi/e. T+is la(7 of s2ontaneit, is rele3ant -n/er se(tion 8 of t+e 3i/en(e 6(tM 1;)- T+at t+e (lot+es of 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 'ere not fo-n/ soa7e/ 'it+ t+e 4loo/. It is +i1+l, -nnat-ral t+at 2arents of /e(ease/ 5s. 6ar-s+i 'ill not (lin1 to an/ +-1 +er on seein1 +er 0-r/ere/M 1=)- T+at no o-tsi/er(s) 'ill /are to ta7e $e0ra. to t+e terra(e in se3erel, in.-re/ (on/ition an/ t+ereafter sear(+ o-t a lo(7 to 4e 2la(e/ in t+e /oor of t+e terra(eM 17)- T+at it is not 2ossi4le t+at an o-tsi/er(s) after (o00ittin1 t+e 0-r/ers 'ill 0-ster (o-ra1e to ta7e S(ot(+ '+is7, 7no'in1 t+at t+e 2arents of t+e /e(ease/ 5s. 6ar-s+i are in t+e near4, roo0 an/ +is to2 2riorit, 'ill 4e to r-n a'a, fro0 t+e (ri0e s(ene i00e/iatel,M 18)- T+at no o-tsi/er(s) 'ill 4ot+er to ta7e t+e 4o/, of $e0ra. to t+e terra(e. 5oreo3er) a sin1le 2erson (annot ta7e t+e 4o/, to t+e terra(eM 1?)- T+at t+e /oor of t+e terra(e 'as ne3er lo(7e/ 2rior to t+e o((-rren(e 4-t it 'as fo-n/ lo(7e/ in t+e 0ornin1 of 1=.0;.2008 an/ t+e a((-se/ /i/ not 1i3e t+e 7e, of t+e lo(7 to t+e 2oli(e /es2ite 4ein1 as7e/ to 1i3e t+e sa0eM

Pa1e 1?4

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

20)- T+at t+e a((-se/ +a3e ta7en 2lea in t+e state0ents -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. t+at a4o-t 8-10 /a,s 4efore t+e o((-rren(e 2aintin1 of (l-ster +a/ starte/ an/ t+e na33ies -se/ to ta7e 'ater fro0 'ater tan7 2la(e/ on t+e terra(e of t+e flat an/ t+en $e0ra. +a/ starte/ lo(7in1 t+e /oor of t+e terra(e an/ t+e 7e, of t+at lo(7 re0aine/ 'it+ +i0. If it 'as so t+en it 'as not easil, 2ossi4le for an o-tsi/er to fin/ o-t t+e 7e, of t+e lo(7 of terra(e /oorM 21)- T+at if an o-tsi/er(s) 0a, +a3e (o00itte/ t+e (ri0e in @-estion after lo(7in1 t+e /oor of terra(e an/ +a/ 1one o-t of t+e flat t+en t+e o-ter 0ost 0es+ /oor or 0i//le 0es+ /oor 0-st +a3e 4een fo-n/ lat(+e/ fro0 o-tsi/eM 22)- T+at t+e 0oti3e of (o00ission of t+e (ri0e +as 4een esta4lis+e/M 2&)- T+at it is not 2ossi4le t+at after (o00ission of t+e (ri0e an o-tsi/er(s) 'ill /ress--2 t+e (ri0e s(eneM 24)- T+at 1olf-(l-4 no. ; 'as t+ro'n in t+e loft after (o00ission of t+e (ri0e an/ t+e sa0e 'as 2ro/-(e/ after 0an, 0ont+s 4, t+e a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'arM 2;)- T+at 2attern of +ea/ an/ ne(7 in.-ries of 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 2ersons are al0ost si0ilar in nat-re an/ (an 4e (a-se/ 4, 1olf-(l-4 an/ s(al2el res2e(ti3el,M 2=)- T+at t+e a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar 'as a 0e04er of t+e Colf-Cl-4) N.<.I.".6. an/ 1olf(l-4s 'ere 2ro/-(e/ 4, +i0 4efore t+e C.B.I.
Pa1e 1?;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

an/ s(al2el is -se/ 4, t+e /entists an/ 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ are /entists 4, 2rofessionM T+e 0anner in '+i(+ t+e 0-r/ers 'ere (o00itte/ is not t+e +an/i'or7 of sin1le a((-se/ an/ rat+er t+e 0-r/ers 'ere (o00itte/ an/ e3i/en(e /estro,e/ 4, 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ in f-rt+eran(e of t+eir (o00on intention '+i(+ is a22arent fro0 t+e fa(ts an/ (ir(-0stan(es as /is(-sse/ a4o3e. In "arendra 2u3ar #hosh *s. 2ing 13peror AI+ 182< )C 1 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at in (ri0e as 'ell as in life) +e also ser3es '+o 0erel, stan/s an/ 'aits. In +ishi /e= )ande7 *s. State of (.). AI+ 18<< SC 991 59JJ6 it 'as +el/ t+at it is not ne(essar, to a//-(e /ire(t e3i/en(e of t+e (o00on intention. In/ee/) in 0an, (ases it 0a, 4e i02ossi4le to /o so. T+e (o00on intention 0a, 4e inferre/ fro0 s-rro-n/in1 (ir(-0stan(es an/ (on/-(t of t+e 2arties. In &aI3an *s. State of 0aharashtra AI+ 1874 SC 1>09 59JJ6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at intention to 7ill (an 4e inferre/ fro0 t+e n-04er an/ nat-re of t+e in.-ries (a-se/ to t+e /e(ease/. In 'arshad Singh )ahel-an Singh Tha4ore *s. State of #u,arat 5187;6 4 SCC ;40 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at (on.oint (o02li(it, is t+e ine3ita4le inferen(e '+en a 1or, 1ro-2 ani0ate/ 4, let+al intent a((o02lis+ t+eir 2-r2ose (-0-lati3el,. Se(tion &4 I.P.C. silen(es fi>in1 s-(+ (onstr-(ti3e a refine/ lia4ilit, 2lea of (on(l-si3el,

e>tri(ation. #or/ S-0nerBs Classi( #e1al S+ort $an/ for (onstr-(ti3e (ri0inal lia4ilit,) e>2resse/ in t+e 5iltoni( :erse Bthe7 also ser=e -ho onl7 stand and -aitC a !ortiori e04ra(es (ases of (o00on intent instantl, for0e/) tri11erin1 a 2l-ralit, of
Pa1e 1?=

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

2ersons into an a/3ent-re in (ri0inalit,) so0e +ittin1) so0e 0issin1) so0e s2littin1 +ostile +ea/s) so0e s2ittin1 /ro2s of 4loo/. C-ilt 1oes 'it+ (o00-nit, of intent (o-2le/ 'it+ 2arti(i2ator, 2resen(e or o2eration. No finer .-risti( ni(eties (an 4e 2resse/ into ser3i(e to n-llif, or .ettison t+e 2lain 2-niti3e 2-r2ose of t+e 2enal (o/e. In 2rishna . others *s. State 520096 7 SCC <; it +as 4een +el/ t+at a(ts of all a((-se/ nee/ not 4e t+e sa0e or i/enti(all, si0ilar. T+e, 0-st 4e a(t-ate/ 4, one an/ t+e sa0e (o00on intention. T+e reason '+, all are /ee0e/ 1-ilt, in s-(+ (ases is t+at t+e 2resen(e of a((o02li(e 1i3es en(o-ra1e0ent) s-22ort an/ 2rote(tion to t+e 2erson a(t-all, (o00ittin1 t+e a(t. T+e 2ro3ision e04o/ies t+e (o00on sense 2rin(i2le t+at if t'o or 0ore 2ersons intentionall, /o a t+in1 .ointl,) it is .-st t+e sa0e as if ea(+ of t+e0 +a/ /one it in/i3i/-all,. In Surendra Chauhan *s. State of 0.). 520006 4 SCC 110 it +as 4een +el/ t+at to a22l, se(tion &4) a2art fro0 t+e fa(t t+at t+ere s+o-l/ 4e t'o or 0ore a((-se/) t'o fa(tors 0-st 4e esta4lis+e/J(i)(o00on intention an/ (ii) 2arti(i2ation of t+e a((-se/ in t+e (o00ission of an offen(e. If a (o00on intention is 2ro3e/ 4-t no o3ert a(t is attri4-te/ to t+e in/i3i/-al a((-se/ se(tion &4 'ill 4e attra(te/ as essentiall, it in3ol3es a 3i(ario-s lia4ilit, 4-t if t+e 2arti(i2ation of t+e a((-se/ in t+e (ri0e is 2ro3e/ an/ a (o00on intention is a4sent) se(tion &4 (annot 4e in3o7e/. %n/er se(tion &4 a 2erson 0-st 4e 2+,si(all, 2resent at t+e a(t-al (o00ission of t+e (ri0e for t+e 2-r2ose of fa(ilitatin1 or 2ro0otin1 an offen(e. S-(+ 2resen(e of t+ose '+o in one 'a, or t+e ot+er
Pa1e 1?7

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

fa(ilitate t+e e>e(-tion of (o00on /esi1n is itself tanta0o-nt to a(t-al 2arti(i2ation in t+e (ri0inal a(t. No /ire(t e3i/en(e of (o00on intention is ne(essar,. 8or t+e 2-r2ose of (o00on intention e3en t+e 2arti(i2ation in (o00ission of offen(e nee/ not 4e 2ro3e/ in all (ases. T+e (o00on intention (an /e3elo2 e3en /-rin1 t+e (o-rse of an o((-rren(e. In Jana4 Singh *s. State of (.). 2004 Cr.&.J. 2<99 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at se(tion &4 I.P.C. is a22li(a4le e3en if no in.-r, is (a-se/ 4, a 2arti(-lar a((-se/. In &allan +ai *s. State of "ihar 520096 1 SCC 2;> rel,in1 -2on t+e /i(t-0 lai/ /o'n in "arendra 2u3ar #hosh *s. 2ing 13peror AI+ 182< )C 1 and 0ohan Singh *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 18;9 SC 174 it 'as +el/ t+at essen(e of se(tion &4 is si0-ltaneo-s (onsens-s of t+e 0in/ of 2ersons 2arti(i2atin1 in t+e (ri0inal a(tion to 4rin1 a4o-t a 2arti(-lar res-lt. It +as 4een state/ t+at s-(+ (onsens-s (an 4e /e3elo2e/ on t+e s2ot 4-t in an, (ase) s-(+ a (onsens-s 0-st 4e 2resent in t+e (o00ission of t+e (ri0e itself. In t+at (ase t+e la' as lai/ /o'n in Asho4 2u3ar *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 1877 SC 108 an/ 0ah%oo% Shah *s. 13peror AI+ 184< )C 11> 'as follo'e/. In 'ar%ans 2aur . others *s. State of 'ar7ana 200< 526 SCJ!<42D 5200<6 8 SCC 18< it +as 4een +el/ t+at if t'o or 0ore 2ersons intentionall, /o an a(t .ointl, 2osition of la' is .-st t+e sa0e as if ea(+ of t+e0 +as /one it in/i3i/-all, 4, +i0self. In Shree 2antiah +a3a77a 0unipalli *s. State of "o3%a7 AI+ 18<< SC 2>7 Tu4ara3 #anpat )andare *s. State of AI+ 1874 SC <14 Surendra
Pa1e 1?8

0aharashtra

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

Chandran *s. State of 0.). 2000 SCC 5Crl.6 772 Suresh and others *s. State of (.). 2001 SCC 5Crl.6 ;01 +a,u )andurang 0ahale *s. State of 0aharashtra 520046 2 AC1 941 "ishna *s. State of :est "engal 5200<6 12 SCC ;<7 Surinder Singh A Chhinda *s. State of )un,a% 200; 596 AC+ 274< 5SC6 it 'as +el/ t+at for a22li(ation of se(tion &4 (o00on intention no o3ert a(t of t+e a((-se/ is ne(essar,. In "al-ant Singh *s. State of )un,a% 520086 2 SCC 5Crl.6 204) it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at '+en 0an, 2ersons 1o to1et+er ar0e/ 'it+ /ea/l, 'ea2ons an/ fatal in.-ries are (a-se/ to t+e /e(ease/) all of t+e0 are e@-all, lia4le in 3ie' of se(tion &4 I.P.C. In 'ari +a3 *s. State of (.). 2004 596 Allaha%ad Cri3inal +ulings 20;1 5SC6 and Anil Shar3a *s. State of Jhar4hand 2004 596 Allaha%ad Cri3inal +ulings 228< 5SC6 A3it Singh "hi4a3 Singh Tha4ur *s. State of 0aharashtra 520076 2 SCC 910 and Cha3an *s. State of (ttaranchal AI+ 2008 SC 109; it +as 4een +el/ t+at se(tion &4 I.P.C. is a22li(a4le e3en if no in.-r, +as 4een (a-se/ 4, t+e 2arti(-lar a((-se/ +i0self. 8or a22l,in1 se(tion &4 I.P.C. it is not ne(essar, to s+o' so0e o3ert a(t on t+e 2art of t+e a((-se/. In t+ese (ases t+e la' as lai/ /o'n in :illie 5:illia36 Slane7 *s. State of 0.). AI+ 18<; SC 11; /hanna *s. State of 0.). AI+ 188; SC 247> and Ch. )ulla +edd7 *s. State of Andhra )radesh AI+ 1889 SC 1>88 -as relied on. In )ara3 Jit Singh A 0ithu Singh *s. State of )un,a% 200> 516 AC+ 10>2 5SC6 and Se-a +a3 . others *s. State of (.). 200> SCCr+ ;18 it 'as a1ain +el/ t+at '+en
Pa1e 1??

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

se3eral 'o-n/s 'ere fo-n/ on t+e 4o/, of t+e /e(ease/ an/ t+ere is no e3i/en(e as to '+i(+ in.-r, 'as (a-se/ 4, '+i(+ a((-se/) se(tion &4 I.P.C. is a22li(a4le e3en if no in.-r, +as 4een (a-se/ 4, t+e 2arti(-lar a((-se/. It 'as f-rt+er +el/ t+at for a22l,in1 se(tion &4 I.P.C. it is not ne(essar, to s+o' so0e o3ert a(t 4, t+e a((-se/. 6s it ori1inall, stoo/ se(tion &4 'as in t+e follo'in1 ter0s:A!+en a (ri0inal a(t is /one 4, se3eral 2ersons) ea(+ of s-(+ 2ersons is lia4le for t+at a(t in t+e sa0e 0anner as if t+e a(t 'as /one 4, +i0 alone.K In 1870) it 'as a0en/e/ 4, insertion of t+e 'or/s- Ain f-rt+eran(e of t+e (o00on intention of allK) after t+e 'or/ I2ersonsB an/ 4efore t+e 'or/ Iea(+B) so as to 0a7e t+e o4.e(t of se(tion &4 (learK. T+is 2osition 'as note/ in 0ah%oo% Shah *s. 13peror AI+ 184< )C 11>. In 0ohan Singh *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 18;9 SC 174 an/ +a3 /e= 2ahar *s. State of "ihar 2008 516 JIC 740 5SC6 it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at 2rose(-tion is not re@-ire/ to a//-(e /ire(t e3i/en(e as re1ar/s for0ation of (o00on intention. It 0-st 4e inferre/ fro0 s-rro-n/in1 (ir(-0stan(es. !+en a (o00on intention is 2ro3e/ ea(+ of t+e 2ersons s+o'in1 t+e (o00on intention is (onstr-(ti3el, lia4le for t+e (ri0inal a(t /one 4, one of t+e0. In +ohtas *s. State of +a,asthan 5200;6 12 SCC ;4 it +as 4een +el/ t+at (o00on intention to (o00it a (ri0e (an 4e 1at+ere/ fro0 t+e totalit, of t+e (ir(-0stan(es. In I3tia$ *s. State of (.). 2007 526 Cri3es 1<8 5SC) it +as 4een +el/ t+at (o00on intention 0a, /e3elo2 on t+e s2ot a0on1 t+e a((-se/ an/ a 2re-(on(ert in sense of /istin(t
Pa1e 200

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

2re3io-s 2lan is not ne(essar, to attra(t se(tion &4 I.P.C. In t+at (ase t+e la' as en-n(iate/ in State of (.). *s. Ifti4har 2han . others 518796 1 SCC <12 'as follo'e/. In +a3 Tahal *s. State of (.). 518726 1 SCC 19; an/ State of +a,asthan *s. Sho%ha +a3 2019 5>16 ACC 4;; 5SC6 it 'as +el/ t+at a state of 0in/ of an a((-se/ (an 4e inferre/ o4.e(ti3el, fro0 +is (on/-(t /is2la,e/ in t+e (o-rse of (o00ission of (ri0e an/ also fro0 2rior an/ s-4se@-ent atten/ant (ir(-0stan(es. T+e sa0e 2rin(i2le of la' +as 4een lai/ /o'n in +a3a S-a37 A77angar and others *s. State of T.N. 5187;6 9 SCC 778 Nadodi Ja7a +a3an . others *s. State of T.N. 518826 9 SCC 1;1 Suresh *s. State of (.). 2001 5426 ACC 770 5SC6 +a3esh Singh *s. State of A.). 520046 11 SCC 90< and Sar=anan and others *s. State of )ondicherr7 520046 19 SCC 29>. In 'ari +a3 *s. State of (.). 520046 > SCC 14; it 'as o4ser3e/ t+at e>isten(e of /ire(t 2roof of (o00on intention is sel/o0 a3aila4le an/ t+erefore) s-(+ intention (an onl, 4e inferre/ fro0 t+e (ir(-0stan(es a22earin1 fro0 t+e 2ro3e/ fa(ts of t+e (ase an/ t+e 2ro3e/ (ir(-0stan(es. In /harni /har *s. State of (.). 520106 7 SCC 7<8 it +as 4een +el/ t+at it is not 0an/ator, for t+e 2rose(-tion to 4rin1 /ire(t e3i/en(e of (o00on intention on re(or/. It is also not ne(essar, for t+e 2rose(-tion to esta4lis+ t+at t+ere 'as 2re-0eetin1 of 0in/s an/ 2lannin1 4efore (ri0e 'as (o00itte/. Se(tion &4 in3ol3es 3i(ario-s lia4ilit, an/ t+erefore) if intention is 2ro3e/ 4-t no o3ert a(t is (o00itte/) t+e se(tion (an still 4e in3o7e/. Re(entl, in #oudappa and others =
Pa1e 201

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

State of 2arnata4a 520196 9 SCC ;7<) it +as 4een +el/ t+at or/inaril, e3er, 0an is res2onsi4le (ri0inall, onl, for a (ri0inal a(t /one 4, +i0. No 0an (an 4e +el/ res2onsi4le for an in/e2en/ent a(t an/ 'ron1 (o00itte/ 4, ot+er. $o'e3er) Se(tion &4 0a7es an e>(e2tion to t+is 2rin(i2le. It la,s a 2rin(i2le of .oint lia4ilit, in /oin1 of a (ri0inal a(t. ssen(e of t+at lia4ilit, is to 4e fo-n/ in e>isten(e of (o00on intention) ani0atin1 a((-se/ lea/in1 to /oin1 of a (ri0inal a(t in f-rt+eran(e of s-(+ intention. It /eals 'it+ /oin1 of se2arate a(ts) si0ilar or a/3erse 4, se3eral 2ersons) if all are /one in f-rt+eran(e of (o00on intention. In s-(+ sit-ation ea(+ 2erson is lia4le for t+e res-lt of t+at) as if +e +a/ /one t+at a(t +i0self. Co00on intention is to 4e 1at+ere/ fro0 t+e 0anner in '+i(+ t+e (ri0e +as 4een (o00itte/) (on/-(t of a((-se/ soon 4efore an/ after o((-rren(e) t+e /eter0ination an/ (on(ern 'it+ '+i(+ (ri0e 'as (o00itte/) 'ea2on (arrie/ 4, t+e a((-se/ an/ fro0 nat-re of in.-r, (a-se/ 4, one or so0e of t+e0. T+erefore) for arri3in1 at a (on(l-sion '+et+er t+e a((-se/ +a/ t+e (o00on intention to (o00it an offen(e of '+i(+ t+e, (o-l/ 4e (on3i(te/) t+e totalit, of t+e (ir(-0stan(es 0-st 4e ta7en into (onsi/eration. %n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e /enie/ in(ri0inatin1 (ir(-0stan(es a22earin1 a1ainst t+e0. In Joseph *s. State of 2erala AI+ 2000 SC 1;0> 59JJ6 *asa Chandra She4har +ao *s. )onna Sat7anara7ana AI+ 2000 SC 219> #eetha *s. State of 2arnata4a AI+ 2000 SC 947< an/ Afta% Ah3ad Ansari *s. State of (ttaranchal 520106 2 SCC <>9 it +as 4een +el/
Pa1e 202

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t+at 4l-nt an/ o-tri1+t /enial of e3er,one an/ all in(ri0inatin1 (ir(-0stan(es 4, t+e a((-se/ 2ro3i/es 0issin1 lin7s to (onne(t +i0 'it+ /eat+ an/ t+e (a-se for /eat+ of t+e 3i(ti0. In Santosh 2u3ar Singh *s. State through C"I 520106 8 SCC 747 5)ri7adarshini 0attooJs case6 it +as a1ain 4een +el/ t+at if in (ase of (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e false 2lea is ta7en 4, t+e a((-se/ t+en it 'ill 4e anot+er lin7 in t+e (+ain of (ir(-0stan(es. In Sahade=an A Sagade=an *s. State 2009 SCC 5Crl.6 9>2 it +as 4een +el/ t+at false state0ents 0a/e 4, t+e a((-se/ to 2rose(-tion 'itness (o-l/ 4e ta7en as a (ir(-0stan(e a1ainst t+e a((-se/. In Anthon7 /Jsou$a and others *s. State of 2arnata4a 2009 54;6 ACC 91> it +as 4een +el/ 4, a Ben(+ of $onB4le t+ree 9-/1es t+at false ans'ers to t+e @-estions in t+e state0ent -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. (o-l/ 4e treate/ as 0issin1 lin7 in t+e (+ain. In t+at (ase) t+e la' as 2ro2o-n/e/ in S-apna )atra *s. State of :est "engal 5188868 SCC 242 State of 0aharashtra *s.

Suresh 2000 5406 ACC 224 5SC6 an/ 2uldeep Singh *s. State of +a,asthan 2000 5416 ACC 4> 5SC!9JJ6 +as 4een follo'e/. In Surendra Chauhan *s. State of 0.). 520006 4 SCC 110 and +a,esh #o=ind Jagesha *s. State of 0aharashtra 518886 > SCC 42> it +as 4een +el/ t+at '+en e>2lanation of t+e a((-se/ -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. is in(onsistent 'it+ t+e (on/-(t an/ a22ears to 4e 2al2a4l, false) it (annot 4e a((e2te/. In )udhu +a,a *s. State 2012 5786 ACC ;42 5SC6 it +as 4een +el/ t+at it is o4li1ator, on 2art of a((-se/ to
Pa1e 20&

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

f-rnis+ e>2lanation in

+is e>a0ination -n/er

se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. S-(+ e>2lanation to 4e ta7en note of 4, t+e (o-rt to /e(i/e '+et+er (+ain of (ir(-0stan(es is (o02lete or not. In 0unish 0u%ar *s. State of 'ar7ana 520126 10 SCC 4;4 it +as 4een +el/ t+at it is o4li1ator, on t+e 2art of t+e a((-se/ '+ile 4ein1 e>a0ine/ -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. to f-rnis+ so0e e>2lanation 'it+ res2e(t to in(ri0inatin1 (ir(-0stan(es asso(iate/ 'it+ +i0. Co-rt 0-st ta7e note of s-(+ e>2lanation e3en in a (ase of (ir(-0stantial e3i/en(e so as to /e(i/e '+et+er (+ain of (ir(-0stan(es is (o02lete. In /r. Sunil Clifford /aniel *s. State of )un,a% 2012 Cr.&.J. 4;<7 5SC6 an/ Neel 2u3ar A Anil 2u3ar *s. State of 'ar7ana 2012 526 AC+ 1744 5SC6 it +as a1ain 4een +el/ t+at fail-re of a((-se/ to e>2lain in(-l2atin1 (ir(-0stan(es a22earin1 a1ainst +i0 or 1i3in1 false ans'er in e>a0ination -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. 2ro3i/es 0issin1 lin7 in (+ain of (ir(-0stan(es. In 0unna 2u3ar (padh7a7a A 0unna (padha7a7a *s. State of A.). AI+ 2012 SC 2470 Jagroop Singh *s. State of )un,a% AI+ 2012 SC 2;00 An,u Chaudhar7 *s. State of (.). 520196 ; SCC 9>4 an/ in 'ari *adan "a%u "hai )atel *s. State of #u,arat 520196 7 SCC 4< it +as 4een +el/ t+at fail-re to offer a22ro2riate e>2lanation or a false ans'er (an 4e (o-nte/ as 2ro3i/in1 0issin1 lin7 for 4-il/in1 (+ain of (ir(-0stan(es.

Pa1e 204

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

In *ishnu )rasad Sinha *s. State of Assa3 2007 Cr.&.J. 114< 5SC6 N.*. Su%%arao *s. State 2019 516 SCCr+ 10 it +as 4een +el/ t+at state0ent -n/er se(tion &1& Cr.P.C. (an 4e rele3ant (onsi/eration for t+e (o-rts to e>a0ine 2arti(-larl, '+en t+e 2rose(-tion +as 4een a4le to esta4lis+ t+e (+ain of e3i/en(e. No' is t+e ti0e to sa, o0e1a in t+is (ase. To 2erorate) it is 2ro3e/ 4e,on/ reasona4le /o-4t t+at t+e a((-se/ are t+e 2er2etrators of t+e (ri0e in @-estion. T+e 2arents are t+e 4est 2rote(tors of t+eir o'n (+il/ren- t+at is t+e or/er of +-0an nat-re 4-t t+ere +a3e 4een frea7s in t+e +istor, of 0an7in/ '+en t+e fat+er an/ 0ot+er 4e(a0e t+e 7iller of t+eir o'n 2ro1en,. T+e, +a3e e>tir2ate/ t+eir o'n /a-1+ter '+o +a/ +ar/l, seen 14 s-00ers of +er life an/ t+e ser3ant 'it+o-t (o02-n(tion fro0 terrestrial terrain in 4rea(+ of Co00an/0ent LThou shall not 4illL an/ in.-n(tion of $ol, Q-ran- BTa4e not life -hich #od has 3ade sacredC. T+e, are also fo-n/ 1-ilt, of se(retin1 an/ o4literatin1 t+e e3i/en(e of t+e (o00ission of t+e 0-r/ers to s(reen t+e0sel3es fro0 le1al 2-nis+0ent. In a//ition to t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar is also fo-n/ 1-ilt, of f-rnis+in1 false infor0ation to t+e 2oli(e re1ar/in1 t+e 0-r/er of +is /a-1+ter 4, $e0ra..

^ /keksZ j{k~fr jf{kr% *

i.e. if 'e 2rote(t A"+ar0aK)

"+ar0a 'ill 2rote(t -s. If 'e 2rote(t A#a'K) la' 'ill 2rote(t -s. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e flo-te/ t+e fero(io-s 2enal la' of t+e lan/ an/ t+erefore) lia4le to 4e (on3i(te/ -n/er se(tions &02 r/' &4) 201 r/' &4 I.P.C. In a//ition to t+at "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar is also lia4le to 4e (on3i(te/ -n/er se(tion 20& I.P.C. T+e,
Pa1e 20;

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

are on 4ail. T+eir 4ail is (an(elle/ an/ s-reties are /is(+ar1e/. #et 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ 4e ta7en into (-sto/, an/ sent to .ail. 8ile 4e 2-t -2on 2=.11.201& for +earin1 on senten(e. T+e a((-se/ s+all 4e 2ro/-(e/ in t+e (o-rt on t+e ne>t /ate. "ate/:

5S.&al6 6//l. Sessions 9-/1e/ S2e(ial 9-/1e 6nti-Corr-2tion) (C.B.I.)) C+aFia4a/.

9-/10ent si1ne/) /ate/ an/ 2rono-n(e/ in t+e o2en (o-rt to/a,. "ate/: 5S.&al6 6//l. Sessions 9-/1e/ S2e(ial 9-/1e 6nti-Corr-2tion) (C.B.I.)) C+aFia4a/.

2;.11.2019 8ile 2-t -2 to/a,. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ +a3e 4een 2ro/-(e/ in (o-rt fro0 .ail. $ear/ t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ an/ t+e learne/ Senior P-4li( Prose(-tor on @-ant-0 of senten(e an/ 2er-se/ t+e re(or/s. It +as 0ost (o00iseratin1l, 4een s-40itte/ 4, t+e learne/ (o-nsel for t+e a((-se/ t+at in 3ie' of t+e fin/in1s 1i3en in res2e(t of 1ra3e an/ s-//en 2ro3o(ation) /estr-(tion of e3i/en(e an/ f-rnis+in1 false infor0ation to t+e 2oli(e t+e (ase /oes not fall -n/er t+e (ate1or, of Irarest of rare (aseB an/ t+erefore) lenit, 0a, 4e s+o'n '+ile a'ar/in1 t+e 2-nis+0ent. Per (ontra it 'as s-40itte/ 4, t+e learne/ Senior P-4li( Prose(-tor t+at t+e 0anner in '+i(+ t+e a((-se/ (o00itte/ t+e 0-r/er (alls for e>tre0e 2enalt,. I +a3e (onsi/ere/ t+e s-40issions of 4ot+ t+e si/es. In State of Darnata7a :s. Dris+na22a (2000) 4 SCC 7; (&99) it 'as +el/ AT+e (o-rts are e>2e(te/ to 2ro2erl, o2erate t+e senten(in1 s,ste0 an/ to i02ose s-(+ senten(es for a 2ro3e/ offen(e) '+i(+
Pa1e 20=

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

0a, ser3e as a /eterrent for t+e (o00ission of li7e offen(es 4, ot+ers.K T+o0as Ree/ Po'ell on(e sai/) A9-/1es +a3e 2referen(es for so(ial 2oli(ies as ,o- an/ I. T+e, for0 t+eir .-/10ent after t+e 3ar,in1 fas+ions in '+i(+ ,o- an/ I for0 o-rs. T+e, +a3e +an/s) or1ans) /i0ensions) senses) affe(tions) 2assions. T+e, are 'ar0e/ 4, t+e sa0e 'inter an/ s-00er an/ 4, t+e sa0e i/eas as a la,0an is.K 9-sti(e 9o+n Clar7e +as also state/) AI +a3e ne3er 7no'n an, .-/1es N.. '+o /is(+ar1e/ t+eir .-/i(ial /-ties in an at0os2+ere of 2-re) -na/-lterate/ reason. 6lasR !e are all t+e (o00on 1ro't+ of t+e 5ot+er- art+ e3en t+ose of -s '+o 'ear t+e lon1 ro4es.K In S-r.it Sin1+ :s. Na+ara Ra0 an/ ot+ers (2004)= SCC ;1&S6IR 2004 SC 4122 it 'as +el/ AT+e la' re1-lates so(ial interests) ar4itrates (onfli(tin1 (lai0s an/ /e0an/s. Se(-rit, of 2ersons an/ 2ro2ert, of t+e 2eo2le is an essential f-n(tion of t+e State. It (o-l/ 4e a(+ie3e/ t+ro-1+ instr-0entalit, of (ri0inal la'. %n/o-4te/l, t+ere is a (ross-(-lt-ral (onfli(t '+ere li3in1 la' 0-st fin/ ans'er to ne' (+allen1es an/ t+e (o-rts are re@-ire/ to 0o-l/ t+e senten(in1 s,ste0 to 0eet t+e (+allen1es. T+e (onta1ion of la'lessness 'o-l/ -n/er0ine so(ial or/er an/ la, it in r-ins. Prote(tion of so(iet, an/ sta02in1 o-t (ri0inal 2ro(li3it, 0-st 4e t+e o4.e(t of la' '+i(+ 0-st 4e a(+ie3e/ 4, i02osin1 a22ro2riate senten(e. T+erefore) la's as a (orner stone of t+e e/ifi(e of Ior/erB s+o-l/ 0eet t+e (+allen1es (onfrontin1 t+e so(iet,. In o2eratin1 t+e senten(in1 s,ste0) la' s+o-l/ a/o2t t+e (orre(ti3e 0a(+iner, or t+e /eterren(e 4ase/ on fa(t-al 0atri>. T+erefore) -n/-e s,02at+, to i02ose ina/e@-ate senten(e 'o-l/ /o 0ore +ar0 to t+e .-sti(e s,ste0 to -n/er0ine t+e 2-4li( s,ste0 in t+e effi(a(, of la' an/ so(iet, (o-l/ not lon1 en/-re -n/er s-(+ serio-s t+reats. It is) t+erefore) t+e /-t, of e3er, (o-rt to a'ar/ 2ro2er senten(e +a3in1 re1ar/ to t+e nat-re of t+e offen(e an/ t+e 0anner in '+i(+ it 'as e>e(-te/ or (o00itte/) et(.K In State of 5.P. :s. Salee0 H C+a0ar- an/ ot+ers 200; (;) SC9 =&; it 'as +el/ t+at -n/-e
Pa1e 207

Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

s,02at+, to i02ose ina/e@-ate senten(e 'o-l/ /o 0ore +ar0 to t+e .-/i(ial s,ste0 to -n/er0ine 2-4li( (onfi/en(e. It is t+e /-t, of e3er, (o-rt to a'ar/ 2ro2er senten(e. I02osition of senten(e 'it+o-t (onsi/erin1 its effe(t on t+e so(ial or/er 'ill 4e a f-tile e>er(ise. If a/e@-ate senten(e is not a'ar/e/ (o-rt 'ill 4e failin1 in its /-t,. In C. 5-nia22an * ot+ers :s. State of T.N. (2010) ? SCC ;=7 it 'as +el/ t+at /eat+ senten(e (an 4e 1i3en in rarest of rarest (ase if t+e (olle(ti3e (ons(ien(e of a (o00-nit, is so s+o(7e/ t+at /eat+ 2enalt, is t+e onl, alternati3e. T+e rarest of t+e rare (ase (o0es '+en a (on3i(t 'o-l/ 4e a 0ena(e an/ t+reat to t+e +ar0onio-s an/ 2ea(ef-l e>isten(e of t+e so(iet,. In State of Ra.ast+an :s. :ino/ D-0ar (2012) = SCC 770 it +as 4een o4ser3e/ t+at 2-nis+0ent s+o-l/ al'a,s 4e 2ro2ortionate/ (o00ens-rate to t+e 1ra3it, of t+e offen(e. Reli1ion) ra(e) (aste) e(ono0i( or so(ial stat-s of t+e a((-se/ or 3i(ti0 are not t+e rele3ant fa(tors for /eter0inin1 t+e @-ant-0 of 2-nis+0ent. T+e (o-rt +as to /e(i/e t+e 2-nis+0ent after (onsi/erin1 all a11ra3atin1 an/ 0iti1atin1 fa(tors an/ t+e (ir(-0stan(es in '+i(+ t+e (ri0e +as 4een (o00itte/.NNNN T+e (o-rt 0-st e>er(ise its /is(retion in i02osin1 t+e 2-nis+0ent o4.e(ti3el, (onsi/erin1 t+e fa(ts an/ (ir(-0stan(es of t+e (ase. In State of %.P. :s. San.a, D-0ar (2012) 8 SCC ;&7 it 'as +el/ t+at t+e s-r3i3al of an or/erl, so(iet, /e0an/s t+e e>tin(ti3e of t+e life of a 2erson '+o is 2ro3e/ to 4e a 0ena(e to so(ial or/er an/ se(-rit,.NNNNN T+e (o-rts s+o-l/ i02ose a 2-nis+0ent 4efittin1 to t+e (ri0e so t+at t+e (o-rts are a4le to a((-ratel, refle(t 2-4li( a4+orren(e of t+e (ri0e. It is t+e nat-re an/ 1ra3it, of t+e (ri0e an/ not t+e (ri0inal) '+i(+ are 1er0ane for (onsi/eration of a22ro2riate 2-nis+0ent in a (ri0inal trial. I02osition of senten(e 'it+o-t (onsi/erin1 its effe(t on so(ial or/er in 0an, (ases 0a, 4e in realit,) a f-tile e>er(ise. <f late in S+an7er Dis+anrao D+a/e :s. State of 5a+aras+tra (201&) ; SCC ;4= it +as 4een +el/ t+at
Pa1e 208

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for i02osin1 /eat+ senten(e- Cri0e Test) Cri0inal Test an/ R-R Test (Rarest of Rare Test) 0-st 4e a22lie/ an/ not t+e 4alan(in1 test i.e. 4alan(in1 of a11ra3atin1 an/ 0iti1atin1 (ir(-0stan(es. R-R test 0-st 4e 4ase/ on 2er(e2tion of so(iet, an/ 0-st not 4e 9-/1e-(entri(. Dee2in1 in 3ie' t+e entire fa(ts an/ (ir(-0stan(es) I a0 of t+e 3ie' t+at 4ot+ t+e a((-se/ are not 0ena(e to t+e or/erl, so(iet, t+is is not a fit (ase for infli(tin1 /eat+ 2enalt, -n/er se(tion &02 rea/ 'it+ se(tion &4 I.P.C. an/) t+erefore) it a22ears .-st an/ 2ro2er to senten(e t+e a((-se/ to ri1o-res i02rison0ent for life -n/er se(tion &02 rea/ 'it+ se(tion &4 I.P.C. 'it+ a fine of Rs.10)000/- ea(+) to ; ,ears ri1o-res i02rison0ent 'it+ a fine of Rs.;)000/-ea(+ -n/er se(tion 201 rea/ 'it+ se(tion &4 I.P.C. It also a22ears e>2e/ient in t+e interest of .-sti(e to senten(e t+e a((-se/ a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar -n/er se(tion 20& I.P.C. to si02le i02rison0ent of one ,ear 'it+ a fine of Rs. 2)000/-. @+/1+ T+e a((-se/ "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar an/ "r. N-2-r Tal'ar are (on3i(te/ -n/er se(tions &02 rea/ 'it+ se(tion &4 an/ se(tion 201 rea/ 'it+ se(tion &4 I.P.C. "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar is also (on3i(te/ -n/er se(tion 20& I.P.C. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ are senten(e/ to ri1o-res i02rison0ent for life -n/er se(tion &02 rea/ 'it+ se(tion &4 IPC 'it+ a fine of Rs.10)000/ea(+ an/ in /efa-lt of 2a,0ent of fine to -n/er1o si> 0ont+s si02le i02rison0ent an/ to fi3e ,ears ri1oro-s i02rison0ent -n/er se(tion 201 rea/ 'it+ se(tion &4 I.P.C. 'it+ a fine of Rs.;)000/-ea(+ an/ in /efa-lt of 2a,0ent of fine to -n/er1o si02le i02rison0ent of t+ree 0ont+s. "r. Ra.es+ Tal'ar is also senten(e/ to one ,ear si02le i02rison0ent -n/er se(tion 20& I.P.C. 'it+ a fine of Rs.2)000/- an/ in /efa-lt of 2a,0ent of fine to -n/er1o si02le i02rison0ent of one 0ont+. 6ll t+e senten(es s+all r-n (on(-rrentl,. <ne (o2, ea(+ of t+e .-/10ent 4e 2ro3i/e/ free of (ost to t+e a((-se/ i00e/iatel,. Bot+ t+e a((-se/ s+all 4e sent to .ail -n/er a
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Sessions Trial No. 477 of 2012

'arrant to ser3e o-t t+e senten(e as i02ose/ -2on t+e0. 5aterial >+i4its s+all 4e /is2ose/ off as 2er r-les) after e>2ir, of t+e 2erio/ of li0itation for filin1 t+e a22eal) if no a22eal is file/. T+e a((-se/ s+all 4e sent to "istri(t 9ail -n/er 'arrant of (on3i(tion. T+e (o2, of t+e .-/1e0ent s+o-l/ 4e sent to t+e "istri(t 5a1istrate) C+aFia4a/ in ter0s of se(tion &=; Cr.P.C. "ate/: 2=.11.201& 5S.&al6 6//l. Sessions 9-/1e/ S2e(ial 9-/1e 6nti-Corr-2tion) (C.B.I.)) C+aFia4a/. 9-/10ent si1ne/) /ate/ an/ 2rono-n(e/ in o2en (o-rt to/a,. "ate/: 2=.11.201& 5S.&al6 6//l. Sessions 9-/1e/ S2e(ial 9-/1e 6nti-Corr-2tion) (C.B.I.)) C+aFia4a/.

Pa1e 210

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