STRATEGI INDUK PEMBANGUNAN PERTANIAN 2013‐2045

MEMBANGUN PERTANIAN‐BIOINDUSTRI BERKELANJUTAN Robert Manurung
Anggota Tim Perumus dan Tim Implementasi Strategi Induk Pembangunan Pertanian RI  

Sekolah Tinggi gg Penyuluhan y Pertanian ( (STPP) )  Medan  13 November 2013 

1

Isi Paparan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Latar Belakang Pertanian Masa Depan Landasan Konseptual SIPP Prinsip Dasar, Visi, Misi, Arah dan Sasaran SIPP Pertanian dan Lingkungan g g Berkelanjutan j Prinsip dan Interaksi Hayati dalam Menjaga Keberlanjutan Produktivitas Sistem Pertanian. Bioenergi dan Biomasa Biorefinery f y dan Bioindustri Sistem Pertanian‐Bioindustri Penutup
KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN
2

PERTANIAN MASA DEPAN: KONSEKUENSI DAN SOLUSI
TREN PERUBAHAN Energi fosil makin langka KONSEKUENSI DAN SOLUSI Transformasi ekonomi ke bioenergi

Kebutuhan pangan, pakan, energi dan Urgensi bioproduk, pola hidup sehat, serat dan pola konsumsi biokultura. Perubahan iklim global Kelangkaan lahan dan air Permintaan P i t terhadap t h d jjasa li lingkungan k hidup j meningkat g Petani marjinal Kemajuan iptek bioscience dan bioengineering Kapasitas adaptasi dan mitigasi Keniscayaan efisiensi & konservasi P t i ekologis Pertanian k l i dan d bioservices bi i Pluriculture: sistem biosiklus terpadu p Pengembangan bioekonomi

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

3

LANDASAN KONSEPTUAL : Strategi Berjenjang
1. Pembangunan g Ekonomi Nasional: Transformasi perekonomian dari fosil-based economy ke bio-based economy Paradigma Pertanian untuk Pembangunan: pertanian sebagai basis dan penggerak perekonomian nasional. 2. Pembangunan Pertanian: Pembangunan g Sistem Pertanian-Bioindustri Berkelanjutan

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

4

VISI PEMBANGUNAN PERTANIAN

“Terwujudnya sistem pertanian-bioindustri berkelanjutan yang menghasilkan beragam pangan sehat dan produk bernilai tambah tinggi dari sumberdaya hayati pertanian dan kelautan tropika”.

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

5

MISI PEMBANGUNAN PERTANIAN
Mengembangkan g g dan mewujudkan: j 1. Penataan ruang dan reforma agraria 2. Sistem pertanian tropika terpadu 3. Kegiatan ekonomi produksi, informasi dan teknologi 4. Pasca panen, agro-energi dan bioindustri berbasis perdesaan 5. Sistem pemasaran dan rantai nilai produk 6. Sistem pembiayaan pertanian 7. Sistem penelitian penelitian, inovasi dan sumberdaya manusia berkualitas 8. Infrastruktur pertanian dan perdesaan 9 Program legislasi 9. legislasi, regulasi dan manajemen yang imperatif
KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN
6

SASARAN
1. 2. 3. 4.

Pendapatan petani $ 7.500/kapita/tahun pada 2040 Penduduk desa terbebas dari kemiskinan pada 2030 Indonesia menjadi high income country PDB $ 20.000/kapita/tahun pada 2040 Kemandirian pangan nasional pada 2020, kedaulatan pangan nasional pada 2025 dan kedaulatan pangan g komunitas pada 2045 Kemandirian energi melalui penerapan sistem pertanian energi terpadu di seluruh desa pada 2035 Substitusi karbohidrat impor 100 % pada 2030 dan substitusi produk berbasis fosil 75% pada 2030 Sektor jasa ekosistem pertanian (agroservices) di seluruh desa pada 2040; Bioekonomi terpadu berkelanjutan di seluruh desa pada 2045 Angkatan kerja pertanian primer 7% pada 2045 dan PDB 3% pada 2045 Angkatan kerja bioindustri 18 % pada 2025 dan 12% pada 2045, serta PDB 24% pada 2025 dan 14% pada 2045
KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN
7

5.

6 6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

PRINSIP DASAR
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7. 8. 9 9.

Governansi y yang g baik Pembuatan kebijakan dan program yang baik Pembangunan inklusif berkelanjutan Paradigma pertanian untuk pembangunan Pembangunan pertanian berkelanjutan berbasis masyarakat, lingkungan alam, alam pelaku agribisnis Pembangunan pertanian berorientasi pengembangan usaha pertanian rakyat Berbasis sumberdaya lokal Lingkungan pemberdaya biobisnis sebagai infrastruktur publik Sistem pasar bersaing sehat dan berkeadilan
KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN
8

PRASYARAT

1.

2.

3. 4.

Politik pembangunan dan kebijakan publik yang menjiwai p pertanian-bioindustri Pengambilan keputusan berbasis inovasi, sains dan rekayasa y hayati y Sistem konektivitas, logistik dan rantai nilai yang efisien Sumber Su be daya insani sa (S (SDI) ) be berkualitas ua tas da dan a amanah a a

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

9

RENCANA PEMBELAJARAN LAPANG 2013‐2014

Pengembangan kawasan mandiri pangan, pola hidup sehat, bioproduk, biokultura, dsb Kawasan hortikultura eksotis dan nilai tambah tinggi gg Kawasan integrasi ternak-tanaman, biosiklus terpadu Pengembangan keberlanjutan governansi tanaman keras dan sertifikasi produk ekspor unggulan Pengembangan e ge ba ga kawasan a asa pa pangan ga te terpadu padu be berbasis bas s efisiensi dan konservasi sumberdaya alam Pengembangan lingkungan g g bioservices, , jasa j g g hidup p
KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN
10

Pertanian dan Lingkungan Berkelanjutan

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

11

Sustainability

is define as

the use of the environment and resources to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
Brundtland Report: Our common future - WCED 1987

Environmental sustainability is define as
the maintenance of the global ecosystem or of ‘natural capital’ both as a ‘source’ of inputs and as a ‘sink’ for waste.
Goodland, 1995.

Ecosystems are
ecological g systems, y , interdependent p communities of living g things g that recycle matter while energy flows through in a given area, their physical surroundings (environments).
James Trefil and Robert M. Hazen: The Sciences: An Integrated Approach - 2007

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

12

Jasa-jasa Ekosistem untuk Kesejahteraan

Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 13 KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

“Life must be regarded, at the deepest level, as a matter as much of energy transformation as of genetic replication”
(Wicken 1987)

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

14

The flow of energy from the sun through the Earth’s ecosystem and the recycle y of matter by y ecosystem y

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

15

Prinsip p dan Interaksi Hayati y dalam menjaga j g Keberlanjutan Produktivitas Sistem Pertanian.

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

16

Biological Principles and Interaction in Sustaining Long-Term Agricultural Productivity (Richard R. HarwoodHarwood Michigan State University)

Biological Bi l i l structure is i the th way in i which hi h organisms i - plants l t and d animals i l – that are purposefully managed for economic output are arranged with respect p to each other and to other biota in their environment.

• The productivity, stability, and effects on the environment of an agricultural system are related to that diversity: its amount, its type, and most importantly its organization - how it is structured. • Because agricultural systems are managed by people, their structure is guided by an underlying human philosophy or view of the world world.
KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN
17

Paradigm for sustainable agricultural development translates into an increased focus on :
• the interrelatedness of all parts of a farming system, including the farmer and farm family, • the importance of the many biological balances in the system, • the need to maximize desired biological relationships in the system and to minimize use of materials and practices that disrupt those relationships, • the need for p parallel development p within countries of a broad range g of farming biological structuring, depending on the production environment, the resources a farmer has, and emerging market opportunities.

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

18

Biomasa i d bioenergi dan bi i

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

19

Permintaan Energi g
Tahun BBM J t kL Juta Batu bara Gas J t ton Juta t BCF LPG Juta J t ton 3.2 6.0 6.7 7.4 8.3 Listrik GWh Biomassa Biofuel J t ton Juta t Ribu Rib kL 0.307 0.799 2.227 7.272 12.972

2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

52 67 93 118 148

33 48 66 81 92

625 1074 1814 2773 3692

162.1 239.7 389.7 614.6 937.4

111 110 117 107 76

Ucok WR S Siagian, Pusat Kebijakan Keenergian ITB

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

20

Bioenergy Technologies

 Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004) 21 KEMENTERIANBoyle, PERTANIAN

Mobile Biodiesel processing System :
Centrifugal contactor-separator contactor separator (CCS)

Light out

Heavy out

Light in

Heavy in

(patented in Indonesia –ITB and Europe ) KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN
22

Sumber Biomassa (Lipid)
Jarak pagar (lipida:  1‐2 ton/ha/thn) Kepoh (lipida :  2 ‐ 4 ton/ha/thn) 

Karet (lipida : 0.02 – 0.04 ton/ha/thn)

Sawit (lipida:  4 ‐ 6 ton/ha/thn)

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

23

Sumber biomassa (pati) 
Singkong (Pati:  20 ‐ 40 ton/ha/thn) Rumput gajah (Gula dan pati: 30 ton/ha/thn

Sorgum (Gula dan pati:  20 ‐ 40  ton/ha/thn)

Tebu (Gula : 10 ton/ha/thn)

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

24

US Grows its Gas
TODAY & BUSINESS AS USUAL 30 million hectares soy NEXT DECADE & FUTURE 30 million hectares switchgrass
Switchgrass 1 to 3x protein productivity + 5 to 10 x mass productivity of soybeans

animal protein feed

oils

animal protein feed

oils

Cellulose C ll l hydrolyzed into 30 billion gallons ethanol
25

http://thayer.dartmouth.edu/thayer/rbaef/.

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

Oil and p protein p production by y microalgae g
High productivity

Oil content: 20-60% 20,000-50,000 liter/ha/year oil Palm oil: 6,000 liter/ha/year

René Wijffels - Wageningen UR KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

Oil and p protein p production by y microalgae g Why algae?

High productivity

Oil content: 20-60% 20,000-50,000 20,000 50,000 liter/ha/year oil Palm oil: 6,000 liter/ha/year Grow on seawater Use of residual nutrients (CO2, N, P) Co-products have value (e.g. starch, proteins)

No ‘competing p g claims’

René Wijffels - Wageningen UR
27

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

To replace all transport fuels in Europe*

400 million illi m3 lipids li id needed d d 9.25 million ha surface area Equivalent to surface area of Portugal 400 million tons of proteins produced 40 times the amount of soy protein imported in Europe

*Wijffels & Barbosa (2010) An outlook on microalgal biofuels 799 biofuels. Science. 379: 796 796-799.

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

28

Sistem produksi PPO, Etanol dan Biodisel terpadu
Plant oil plantation Lipid extraction and purification

Pure  Plant Oil

Biomass  waste

compost Pressed cake
Continuous esterification Combustion

Composting

Biodiesel

leafs stalks
Plant Starch field

Pyrolysis

minerals

heats
Starch St h extraction, t ti fermentation and distillation

Ethanol
Sumber : RM _SPIN KNAW Project

biogas
Biodigester

minerals

waste
29

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

Functionalised chemicals can be made from Biomass without major enthalpy differences, but not from naphtha-J J.P.M. (J (Johan) ) Sanders .

Enthalpy

CxHzN CxHy
naphtha

CxHzN

amine
CxHzOy(OCHz)v

CxHy

lignin
CxHyOz

oil / fat
CxHzOyN Sv

CxHzO Oil / gas Petrochemical way
one raw material

protein
CxHzOy

Biomass

carbohydrate

chemicals
many products

Biorefinary way
many raw materials

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

30

Sistem Pertanian‐Biondustri Berkelanjutan

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

31

Konsep Holistik Pertanian Berkelanjutan

(hhtp://www.unesco.or/education)

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

32

Agricultural trends over the past 40 years.
Total global cereal production; . Total global use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer and area of global irrigated land

Trends in the nitrogen-fertilization g efficiency of crop production

Diminishing returns of fertilizer application imply that further applications may not be as effective at increasing yields.

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

33

Manusia vs Teknologi ?

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

34

Biorefinery dan Bioindustri

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

35

Model analog carta alir bioproduk dari bahan baku biomassa

T. Werpy, G. Petersen, Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

36

SISTEM PERTANIAN-BIOINDUSTRI

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

37

PIRAMIDA NILAI TAMBAH HASIL OLAHAN BIOMASA
TERTINGGI: OBAT-OBATAN , PANGAN DAN PAKAN TERRENDAH: BAHAN KIMIA DAN ENERGI

NILAI TAMBAH KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

VOLUM ME
38

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

BACK39

Analogi g Biorefinery f y
Fuels and Energy Fuels and Energy -Bioethanol Bioethanol -Biodiesel -Biogas -Hydrogen Crude oil Biomass Bulk chemicals -Bulk -Fine chemicals -Biopolymers Chemicals

Chemicals

Refinery

Biorefinery
Source: h.j.heeres, rug

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

40

Pengembangan Bioindustri dengan Penerapan Konsep Biorefinery
Proses Primer Proses Sekunder
Konversi Protein

Pengolahan Lanjut j

Produk/ Penggunaa n
Pupuk
Asam Amino/ Pakan Damar/ Bahan Perekat Senyawa Fenolik Platform Kimia

( 70 0 – 90 % )

Biomassa

Konversi Lignin

Konversi Selulosa dan Hemiselulosa

( 10 – 30 % )
Karbohidrat Minyak Nabati Residu Residu

B Bakar Nabati B. dan Aditif

Residu Pembangkit Listrik dan Termal
41

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

Pilot biorefinery line Foxhol (Groningen) (Prograss Consortium), New Grassa (Oenkerk)
Grass protein (products)
white grass protein

Protein

compound feed

Green grass protein

Grass juice
Grass juice concentrate
compound feed

Fibers

+ .....
Ethanol

HTUBiofuel

Construction material + paper

Polymer extrusion products

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

42 42

Water use efficiency y increases by y biorefinery: y
Brehmer, maximal fossil feedstock replacement potential; Chem Eng Res Des (2009)

________________________________________________________________

Biorefinery Bi fi substitution b tit ti Crop Ave. Water use Ave. Water use yield y efficiency y y yield efficiency y (GJ/ha) ( M3/GJ) (GJ/ha) (M3/GJ) ________________________________________________________ Maize 60 20-60 20 60 382 3-10 3 10 Wheat 36 31-40 343 3.5-4.5 Sugar cane 280 11-16 490 6-9 S Sugar b beet t 150 17-26 17 26 292 8 13 8-13 Rape seed 20 7-10 353 0.5-0.7

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

J.P.M. (Johan) Sanders, WUR
43

Conversion route of petro-chemical source to chemical products
Base chemicals

Fossil feedstock •

Derivatives

Scheme of Petro-chemical Products Tree

2500 different products on the markets from fossil origin

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

44

Top 12 Platform Chemicals

T T. Werpy Werpy, G G. Petersen Petersen, Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

45

Produksi bahan kimia bernilai tinggi dari pati

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

46

Pemrosesan singkong konvensional dan dengan konsep biorefinery
Plantation
root, root 20 tons/ha

Harvesting
stems+leaves

Pre‐ treatment

starch, starch 6 tons

Primary  processing

refined starch modified starch glucose

waste waste

(a) Diagram rantai pasok pati konvensional
root, 100 tons/ha

Plantation

Harvesting
shoots soft stems

Pre‐ treatment

starch, 30 tons

Primary  processing

glucose

Modifications

Composting

Primary  hard stems fractionation
Leaves + shoot tips

dissolved substances

Chemical  products
energy

Feed   for  Cattle

Biogas ogas  production

(b) Diagram  rantai pasok pati yang lebih baik KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

47

Block Diagram of SHS Sugar Processing (conventional)

Block Diagram of Sugar Cane Syrup Processing (biorefinery concept)
48

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

Primary Processing Field 1

Secondary Processing

Primary Processing Field 2

Detailed integration of small (primary) and large (secondary) processing systems

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

49

PERTANAMAN KAYU PUTIH DAN PADI DI INDRAMAYU

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

50

Program Pembelajaran Pertanian Bioindustri Terpadu
Produktivitas singkong 60 Ton /hr Kebutuhan panen 40/60 = 0.66 Ha/hr Kebutuhan lahan 0.66 x 360 = 240 Ha/th 80 Ton /hr 40 Ton singkong/hr g g/ 10 Ton/hr

13 Ton /hr

40 Ton /hr

1000 ekor 13 Ton /hr 13 Ton T /hr /h 13 Ton /hr

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

51

Penutup

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

52

Rehabilitation of arid land in Khartoum ‐ Sudan

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

53

Conservation Agriculture in Brazil
Massive conversion of intensive tillage systems to no till systems no-till Harnessing ecosystem services on-farm and on large landscape level

Agriculture is becoming a “producer” of clean water KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN
54

Terima Kasih

KEMENTERIAN PERTANIAN

55

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful