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IEEE Houston Section

C ti i Ed ti O D d Continuing Education On Demand


Seminar
Presentation Code: 620
April 3-4, 2007
Motor Starting
Equivalent Circuits, Starter Types, Load
Types, and Dynamics
Review of induction and synchronous motor design,
equivalent circuits for start and operation; starting,
operating and breaking operating characteristics, load
types. Review starting techniques, calculations, and
comparison.
Agenda
Induction Motor Induction Motor
Synchronous Motor Synchronous Motor yy
Mechanical Train System Mechanical Train System
Starting, Operation and Breaking Methods Starting, Operation and Breaking Methods g, p g g, p g
Special Consideration Special Consideration
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Agenda
Induction Motor Induction Motor
Basics, characteristics, and modeling
Synchronous Motor Synchronous Motor
Basics, characteristics, and modeling
M h i l T i S t M h i l T i S t Mechanical Train System Mechanical Train System
Load characteristics
Inertia
Torque Consideration
Train Acceleration Time
St ti O ti d B ki M th d St ti O ti d B ki M th d Starting, Operation and Breaking Methods Starting, Operation and Breaking Methods
Induction and Synchronous Motor
Synchronous Motor Only y y
Agenda
Special Consideration Special Consideration
Harmonic Torques
H i Fl Harmonic Flux
Rotor Slots Design
Calculations Simulation Applications Calculations Simulation Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Software
Methodology
Induction Motor
Induction Motor
Basics, type characteristics, load
characteristics, and modeling
Induction motor - General data, principle of
operation and nameplate information describing
motor motor
Motor types and characteristics, application
consideration
Load types and characteristics, application
consideration
Motor model Motor model
Equivalent motor parameters
Other consideration Other consideration
Induction Motor Induction Motor
Induction Motor Induction Motor
General-Non-linear Model
Induction Motor Induction Motor
Clarks Transform
Induction Motor Induction Motor
Steady State Us=const
Induction Motor Induction Motor
Induction Motor Induction Motor
Induction Motor Induction Motor
Induction Motor Induction Motor
Induction Motor
General data
Motor electro-mechanical characteristics are described
bby:
Nominal Voltage
Nominal frequency
Nominal Current
Number of phases
Number of poles Number of poles
Design class
Code letter
M f i i Moment of inertia
All others (rated power factor, efficiency, excitation current etc.)
Induction Motor
General data
Induction Motor
General data
Induction Motor
Type of Torques
Current Curve
Break-
Motor Torque Curve
Pull-up Torque
Down/Critical
Torque
Locked Rotor/
Breakaway
Torque
Full Load
Operating
Full Load
Operating
Current
Load Torque Curve
p g
Torque
Full Load
Operating
Critical
Load Torque Curve
Speed/Slip
Speed/Slip
Induction Motor
Type of Torques
Locked Rotor or Starting or Breakaway Torque
The Locked Rotor Torque or Starting Torque is the torque the electrical motor develop when its starts at rest
or zero speed.
A high Starting Torque is more important for application or machines hard to start - as positive displacement
pumps, cranes etc. A lower Starting Torque can be accepted in applications as centrifugal fans or pumps
where the start load is low or close to zero.
Pull-up Torque
The Pull-up Torque is the minimum torque developed by the electrical motor when it runs from zero to full-
load speed (before it reaches the break-down torque point)
When the motor starts and begins to accelerate the torque in general decrease until it reach a low point at a
certain speed - the pull-up torque - before the torque increases until it reach the highest torque at a higher
speed - the break-down torque - point.
The pull-up torque may be critical for applications that needs power to go through some temporary barriers
hi i h ki di i achieving the working conditions.
Break-down Torque
The Break-down Torque is the highest torque available before the torque decreases when the machine
continues to accelerate to the working conditions.
Full-load Torque or Braking Torque
The Full-load Torque is the torque required to produce the rated power of the electrical motor at full-load
speed.
Induction Motor
Code letters
Induction Motor
Code letters
In general it is accepted that small motors requires higher
starting KVA than larger motors Standard 3 phase motors often starting KVA than larger motors. Standard 3 phase motors often
have these locked rotor codes:
o less than 1 hp: Locked Rotor Code L, 9.0-9.99 KVA
o 1 1/2 to 2 hp: Locked Rotor Code L or M 9 0 11 19 o 1 1/2 to 2 hp: Locked Rotor Code L or M, 9.0-11.19
o 3 hp : Locked Rotor Code K, 8.0-8.99
o 5 hp : Locked Rotor Code J, 7.1-7.99
o 7.5 to 10 hp : Locked Rotor Code H, 6.3-7.09
o more than 15 hp : Locked Rotor Code G, 5.6-6.29
Induction Motor
Design Type
Different motors of the same
nominal horsepower can have
varying starting current torque varying starting current, torque
curves, speeds, and other
variables. Selection of a particular
motor for an intended task must
take all engineering parameters
i t t into account.
The four NEMA designs have
unique speed-torque-slip
relationships making them suitable
to different type of applications: to different type of applications:
NEMA design A
NEMA design B
NEMA design C
NEMA design D
Induction Motor
Design Type
NEMA design A
o maximum 5% slip
o high to medium starting current
o normal starting torque (150-170% of rated)
o normal locked rotor torque o normal locked rotor torque
o high breakdown torque
o suited for a broad variety of applications - as fans and pumps
NEMA design B
o maximum 5% slip
o low starting current
o high locked rotor torque o high locked rotor torque
o normal breakdown torque
o suited for a broad variety of applications, normal starting torque -
common in HVAC application with fans, blowers and pumps
Induction Motor
Design Type
NEMA design C
o maximum 5% slip
o low starting current
o high locked rotor torque
o normal breakdown torque o normal breakdown torque
o cant sustain overload as design A or B
o suited for equipment with high inertia starts - as positive
displacement pumps
NEMA design D
o maximum 5-13% slip
o low starting current g
o very high locked rotor torque
o Usually special order
o suited for equipment with very high inertia starts - as cranes, hoists
etc. etc.
Induction Motor
Induction Motor
Ref: Donner at al. Motor Primer, Industry Application Transaction
Induction Motor
Ref: GE-3239A, Comparison of IEC and NEMA/IEEE Motor Standards
Induction Motor
Torque
Induction Motor
Torque
Induction Motor
Inertia
Synchronous Synchronous Motor
Synchronous Motor Synchronous Motor
Synchronous Motor Synchronous Motor
General-Non-linear Model
Synchronous Motor Synchronous Motor
Parks Transform
Synchronous Motor Synchronous Motor
Steady State Us=const
Synchronous Motor Synchronous Motor
Synchronous Motor Synchronous Motor
Synchronous Motor Synchronous Motor
Synchronous Motor Synchronous Motor
Synchronous Motor Synchronous Motor
High-Starting Torque Medium-Starting Torque
Synchronous Synchronous Motor
General data
Motor electro-mechanical characteristics are described
bby:
Nominal Voltage
Nominal frequency
Nominal Current
Number of phases
Number of poles Number of poles
Design class
Code letter
M f i i Moment of inertia
All others (rated power factor, efficiency, excitation current etc.)
Synchronous Synchronous Motor
General data
Mechanical Train System Mechanical Train System
Load
Load Types
TORQUE TORQUE
SPEED SPEED
T
L
s ( ) T
LRT
AT
a
n
s
1 s ( )

k
+
T
L
n ( ) T
LRT
AT
a
n ( )
k
+
k 1 2 , 3 ..
Load
Load Types
TORQUE TORQUE
SPEED SPEED
T
L
n ( ) A
o
B n + C n
2
+ Dn
3
+
Load
Load Types
TORQUE
SPEED
SPEED
Load
ASD Application of Standard Motors
Thermal
Rating Rating
Speed
Load
Load Types
Breakaway Accelerating
Peak
Running
Blowers centrifugal:
Load Torque as a Minimum
Percent Drive Torque
Application
Blowers, centrifugal:
Valve closed 30 50 40
Valve open 40 110 100
Blowers, positive displacement, rotary, bypass 40 40 100
Centrifuges 40 60 125
Compressors, axial-vane, loaded 40 100 100
Compressors, reciprocating, start unloaded 100 50 100
Conveyors belt (loaded) 150 130 100 Conveyors, belt (loaded) 150 130 100
Conveyors, screw (loaded) 175 100 100
Conveyors, shaker-type (vibrating) 150 150 75
Fans, centrifugal, ambient:
Valve closed 25 60 50
Valve open 25 110 100
Fans, centrifugal, hot:
Valve closed 25 60 100 Valve closed 25 60 100
Valve open 25 200 175
Fans, propeller, axial-flow 40 110 100
Mixers, chemical 175 75 100
Mixers, slurry 150 125 100
Pumps, adjustable-blade, vertical 150 200 200
Pumps, centrifugal, discharge open 40 150 150
Pumps oil field flywheel 40 150 150 Pumps, oil-field, flywheel 40 150 150
Pumps, oil, lubricating 40 150 150
Pumps, oil, fuel 40 150 150
Pumps, propeller 40 100 100
Pumps, reciprocating, positive displacement 175 30 175
Pumps, screw-type, primed, discharge open 150 100 100
Pumps, slurry-handling, discharge open 150 100 100
P t bi t if l d ll 50 100 100 Pumps, turbine, centrifugal, deep-well 50 100 100
Pumps, vacuum (paper mill service) 60 100 150
Pumps, vacuum (other applications) 40 60 100
Pumps, vane-type positive displacement 150 150 175
Inertia
Inertia
J
z
w
J
i

n
i
n
1
|

\
|
|
.
2

p
m
i

V
i
n
1
|

\
|
|
.
2
+
1 i

=
n
1
\ .
1 i

=
n
1
\ .
w - numer rotating elements
b li i l p - number linera motion elements
Inertia
Inertia
J
z
J
1
J
2
+ J
3
+
( )
n
1
n
1
|

\
|
|
.
2
J
4
J
5
+
( )
n
2
n
1
|

\
|
|
.
2
+ J
6
J
7
+
( )
n
3
n
1
|

\
|
|
.
2
+ m
1
V
1
n
1
|

\
|
|
.
2
+
Induction Motor
Torque, Speed, Inertia
T
m
T
L
J
L
I
m
+
( )
t
n
m
d
d
|

\
|
|
.
+ B n
m
+
Inertia
Torque, Speed, Inertia
T
T
L
J
L
I N
2
+
|
\
|
.
n
d |

|
|
+ n B
L
B N
2
+
|
\
|
.
+
N - gear ratio
J - inertia
T
m
N
J
L
I
m
N +
\ .
t
n
m
d

\
|
.
+ n
m
B
L
B
m
N +
\ .
+
B - dumping
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Graphical Method
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Torque Unit = S1 Torque Unit S1
Speed Unit = S2
Time Unit = S3
Mechanical Train Acceleration
S1 - scale of speed acceleration
S2 - scale of torque acceleration
S3 - scale of time required to accelerate train with acceleration torque from one speed to S3 - scale of time required to accelerate train with acceleration torque from one speed to
another
S4 - scale of dynamic energy needed for acceleration
S
2
S
4
S
1
S
3
S
1
100
RPM
div1

S 20
Nm
S
2
20
div2

S
3
0.1sec
div3
S
4
S
2
S
3

k := S
4
0.04 = S
4
S
1
k : S
4
0.04
J
train
0.431kg m
2
:=
OA
t J
train

30S
4

:= OA 1.128m
2
kg =
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Accelerating Energy Accelerating Energy
Unit = S4
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Starting Time ~ 1.5 sec
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Calculations Method
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Mechanical Train Acceleration
t
i
J
i

t
30
n
s
( )
1
s
n
s
1
T
e
s ( ) T
L
s ( )
(
(
(
]
d
Mechanical Train Acceleration
t
1
J
s
J
m
+
( )
t
30
n
s

( )

s
n
s
1
M
e
s f
n
, U
2
,
( )
M
o
s ( )
(
(
(
]
d :=
t
1
1.37 =
1
]
Mechanical Train Acceleration
In Between Method
Mechanical Train Acceleration
Mechanical Train Acceleration
48.25
28
35.25
43
36
12
t
acc
J
i
ARPM
j

t
acc
i
J
i
j
AT
avg
j

Mechanical Train Acceleration


t
acc
J
load
t
30

200
28
200
35.25
+
200
43
+
200
48.25
+
100
36
+
50
12
+
|

\
|
|
.
:= t
acc
1.289 =
Starting, Operation and Breaking Methods Starting, Operation and Breaking Methods
Motor Starting
Direct On Line Starter (or DOL or FVNR)
Motor Starting
Direct On Line Starter (or DOL or FVNR)
Motor Starting
Reduce Voltage Resistor/Reactor Starter
Motor Starting
Reduce Voltage
Resistor/Reactor Starter
Motor Starting
Reduce Voltage Autotransformer Starter (RVAT or
Korndrfer Starter)
Motor Starting
Reduce Voltage Autotransformer Starter (RVAT or
Korndrfer Starter)
Motor Starting
Reduce Voltage Autotransformer Starter (RVAT or
Korndrfer Starter)
Motor Starting
Y / Starter
Motor Starting
Y / Starter
Motor Starting
Captive Transformer Starter
Motor Starting
Wound-rotor Resistance Starter (Slip-Ring Starter)
Motor Starting
Wound-rotor Resistance
Starter (Slip-Ring Starter)
Motor Starting
Reduce Voltage Solid State Starter with V=var, f=const
(or RVSS)
Motor Starting
Reduce Voltage Solid State Starter with V=var, f=const
(or RVSS)
Motor Starting
Reduce Voltage Solid State Starter with V/f=const,
Thermal Limitation
Motor Starting
Variable Frequency Drive Starting and Control
Motor Starting and Operating
Variable Frequency Drive Starting and Control
Motor Starting and Operating
Synchronous Transfer System
Synchronous Motor Starting
Synchronous Motor Starting
Synchronous Motor Starting
High-Starting Torque Medium-Starting Torque
Synchronous Motor Starting
Starting Torque Control via
Discharge Resistor Discharge Resistor
Synchronous Motor Starting
Breaking
Induction Machine Modes Of Operation
Motor Transformer Break
Generator
Synchronous Speed
Breaking
Regeneration with Active Load
Breaking
Opposite Connection with Switching
Breaking
Dynamic
Special Consideration Special Consideration
Special Consideration
Harmonic Flux
Special Consideration
Harmonic Torques
Special Consideration
Typical Slot Design
Special Consideration
Typical Slot Design
Special Consideration
Losses and Usable Energy Separation
Stator
Rotor
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Software
ETAP, SKM/PTW
Sufficient for DOL starting and reduce voltage discrete
calculations; not applicable for RVSS starters analysis
SPICE, MATLAB, EMTP-ATP SPICE, MATLAB, EMTP ATP
Applicable for motor starting analysis with control loops
considerations, can predict waveforms and effect on power
system system
Custom Software
Write own software utilizing Compilers or high level language
(i M tl b Vi Si ) (i.e. Matlab or VisSim)
Hand Calculations
Utilize MathCad or other mathematical analysis package; must y p g ;
understand electrometrical theory
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Equivalent Schematic Parameters Calculations
Motor Data
P
n
1200 Hp := f
n
60 Hz := f
s
f
n
:= p 2 :=
P
n
8952kW = P
n
895.2kW
U
n
4kV := m
kr
1.8 :=
PF 087 : n 1789 RPM : PF
n
0.87 := n
n
1789 RPM :=
q
n
0.9595 :=
i
r
5.0 :=
m
r
0.7 :=
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Equivalent Schematic Parameters Calculations
Nominal Parameters
I
n
P
n
q
n
3 U
n
PF
n

:= I
n
154.79A =
P
T
n
P
n
t n
n

30
:= T
n
4778.38N m = T
n
3524.36ftlbf =
2 t f
s
60 f
s

-1
e
s
s
p
:= n
s
s
p
:= e
s
188.5s
1
= n
s
1800RPM =
s
n
n
s
n
n

:= s
n
0.0061 =
n
n
n
n
Z
z
U
n
3 i
r
I
n

:= Z
z
2.98O =
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Equivalent Schematic Parameters Calculations
r r
X a X
2
' =
S
X
S
R
a
I
I
r
2
' =
S
I
' R
r
R'
X R
1
V
o
I
Fe
I
m
I
S
R a
S
R
r r
2
'
= OR
) 1 ( S
S
R
r

m
X
Fe
R
2 1
aE E =
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Iteration starting parameters:
Equivalent Schematic Parameters Calculations
R
z
0.001 O := X
z
0.2 O :=
Given
{ From motor equivalent diagram }
Z
z
R
z
2
X
z
2
+
z z z
m
r
T
n

3
e
s
U
n
3
|

\
|
|
.
2

R
z
2
R
z
2
X
z
2
+

R
z
X
z
|

\
|
|
.
Find R
z
X
z
, ( ) := R
z
0.7O = X
z
2.9O =
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Equivalent Schematic Parameters Calculations
R
s
R
z
5
10
:= R
s
0.35O =
5
X
s
X
z
5
10
:= X
s
1.45O =
R'
r
R
s
:= X'
r
X
s
:=
1 q
n

AP
n
P
n
q
n
q
n
:= AP
n
37.79kW =
APu
n
3
2
I
n
2
R
z
:= APu
n
25.22kW =
AP
m
0.01P
n
:= AP
m
8.952kW =
AP
fen
AP
n
APu
n
AP
m
:= AP
fen
3.61kW =
R
fe
U
n
2
AP
fen
:= R
fe
4426.97O =
U
I
fe
U
n
3 R
fe

:= I
fe
0.52A =
I
0
20% I
n
:= I
0
30.96A =
I I
2
I
2
: I 3095A I
m
I
0
I
fe
:= I
m
30.95A =
X
m
U
n
3 I
m

:= X
m
74.61O =
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Equivalent Schematic Parameters Calculations
Z
s
f ( ) R
s
f
f
j X
s
+ :=
Change "f" only when analysis with VSD
f
n
Z'
r
s f , ( )
R'
r
s
f
f
n
j X'
r
+ :=
Z
m
R
fe
X
m
j
R X j
:= Z
m
f ( )
f
f
n
|

\
|
|
.
0.7
R
fe

f
f
n
X
m
j
:=
m
R
fe
X
m
j +
m
( )
f
f
n
|

\
|
|
.
0.7
R
fe

f
f
n
X
m
j +
Z s f , ( ) Z
s
f ( )
Z'
r
s f , ( ) Z
m
f ( )
Z'
r
s f , ( ) Z
m
f ( ) +
+ :=
f
U f ( ) U
n
f
f
n
:=
n s f , ( )
60 f
p
1 s ( ) :=
I
s
s f , ( )
U f ( )
3 Z s f , ( )
:= I'
r
s f , ( ) I
s
s f , ( )
Z
m
f ( )
Z'
r
s f , ( ) Z
m
f ( ) +
:=
T s f ( )
3 p
I' s f ( ) ( )
2
ReZ' s f ( ) ( ) := T
e
s f , ( )
2 t f
I
r
s f , ( ) ( ) ReZ
r
s f , ( ) ( ) :=
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Equivalent Schematic Parameters Calculations
Nominal Slip Calcs
s 0.0100 :=
Given
T
e
s f
n
, ( )
t n s f
n
, ( )
30
P
n
AP
m
+ ( )
30
s
n
Find s ( ) := s
n
0.0228 =
I
n
I
s
s
n
f
n
, ( ) := I
n
147.59A =
T T f ( ) T 490838N T
n
T
e
s
n
f
n
, ( ) := T
n
4908.38N m =
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Equivalent
Schematic
Parameters
IEEE 112
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Equivalent Schematic Parameters Sensitivity
Calculations
Basis for ETAP Motor Estimating Calcs
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Equivalent Schematic Parameters Sensitivity
Calculations
EMTP ATP G S ft EMTP-ATP Group Software
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Equivalent Schematic Parameters Sensitivity
Calculations
EMTP ATP G S ft EMTP-ATP Group Software
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
U1
Isc 3P 150.0 MVA
Isc SLG 36.0 MVA
B1
13800 V
S
P
TR1
Size 3250.00 kVA
Pri Delta
Sec Wye-Ground y
PriTap -2.50 %
%Z 5.7500 %
X/R 11.0
B2
4160 V
CB-001
CBL-0001
2- #4/0 MV
EPR
150.0 Meters
Ampacity 560.0 A
B3
4160 V
M1
2500.000 hp
Load Factor 1.00
X"d 0.17 pu
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
U1
Isc 3P 150.0 MVA
Isc SLG 36.0 MVA
G1
8750 kVA
X"d 0.2 pu
B1
13800 V
S
P
TR1
Size 3250.00 kVA
Pri Delta
SecWye-Ground Sec WyeGround
PriTap -2.50 %
%Z 5.7500 %
X/R 11.0
B2
4160 V
CB-001
CBL-0001
2- #4/0 MV
EPR
150.0 Meters
Ampacity 560.0 A
B3
4160 V
M1
2500.000 hp
Load Factor 1.00
X"d 0.17 pu
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
1.1
Ub 1Gen KCR
0.9
1
Ub_1Gen_KCR
Ub 2Gen KCR
09
1
Ub_1Gen_KCR
Ub_2Gen_KCR
Ub_1Gen_DECS
Ub_2Gen_DECS
0 5 10 15 20
0.8
0.9
Ub_2Gen_KCR
Ub_1Gen_DECS
Ub_2Gen_DECS
0.9
Time
2000
12
1500
2000
1800
RPM
09
1
1.1
1.2
Ub [pu]
1.0
09
500
1000
Mot RPM
Mot Amp
Amp
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9 0.9
Ub
0 10 20 30 40
0
Mot Amp
Time
0 20 40 60
0.5
Time
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
1
1.2
1
Ub 1Gen KCR
0.8
1
Ub_1Gen_KCR
Ub 2Gen KCR
0.9
1
Ub_1Gen_KCR
Ub_2Gen_KCR
Ub_1Gen_DECS
Ub_2Gen_DECS
0 5 10 15 20
0.6
Ub_2Gen_KCR
Ub_1Gen_DECS
Ub_2Gen_DECS
Time
2000
1500
2000
1800
RPM
09
1
1.1
1.2
Ub [pu]
1.0
09
500
1000
Mot RPM
Mot Amp
RPM
Amp
06
0.7
0.8
0.9 0.9
Ub
0 10 20 30 40
0
Mot Amp
Time
0 20 40 60
0.5
0.6
Time
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
3500
5000
P
fpso
2000
3500 fpso
Q
fpso
P
tlp
Q
tlp
0 20 40 60
1000
500
p
Time
1500
2000
Mot RPM
Mot Amp
1.1
1.2
Ub_fpso [pu]
Ub_tlp [pu]
500
1000
RPM
Amp
0.9
1
0.9
1
Ub
fpso
Ub
tlp
0 10 20 30 40
0
Time
0 20 40 60
0.8
Time
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
PARKs equations for this machnie:
Motor Simulation
p+
s
o +
s
| +
r
+ j e
s
+
s
v
s
+
p+
r
+
r
o +
s
+ j e
s
e
m

( )
+
r

T T
pe
m
n
T
e
T
r

State variable assigment: x


0
=
+
s
(stator) , x
1
=
+
r
(rotor), x
2
=
e
m
(angular speed)
3
2
V
eff
o x
0
| x
1
+ j e x
0

( )

(
(
(
(
f x t , ( )
x
1
o x
0
+ j e x
2
( ) x
1

n
M
L
k
L
Im x
0
x
1

( )
k
x
2
n
|

\
|
|
.
2

(
(
(
(
:=
L
k
L
r
n
\ .
J
n

(
(

Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications


Coeficients for Runge-Kutta (R-K) interation 4th degree:
Motor Simulation
g ( ) g
k1 x t , ( ) h f x t , ( ) :=
k2 x t , ( ) h f x
k1 x t , ( )
2
+ t
h
2
+ ,
|

\
|
|
.
:=
k3 x t , ( ) h f x
k2 x t , ( )
2
+ t
h
2
+ ,
|

\
|
|
.
:=
k4 x t ( ) h f x k3 x t ( ) + t h + ( ) :
, ( )
2 2
,
\ .
k4 x t , ( ) h f x k3 x t , ( ) + t h + , ( ) :=
Final equation for R-K calcualtions:
x
i 1 +
( )
x
i
( ) 1
k1 x
i
( )
i h
( )
2 k2 x
i
( )
i h
( )
+ 2 k3 x
i
( )
i h
( )
+ k4 x
i
( )
i h
( )
+
( )
+ := x x
6
k1 x i h ,
( )
2 k2 x i h ,
( )
+ 2 k3 x i h ,
( )
+ k4 x i h ,
( )
+
( )
+ :=
i
s
i
|

\
|
|
.
1
L L
L
r
M
M
L
|

\
|
|
.

+
s
+
|

\
|
|
|
.

Equations for current in stator:


i
r \ .
L
k
L
r
M L
s \ .
+
r
\ .
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Conversion Park reference frame to phase domain:
Motor Simulation
u i ( ) e h i :=
cos u i ( )
( )
cos u i ( )
2
3
t
|

\
|
|
.
cos u i ( )
4
3
t
|

\
|
|
.
|

|
|
TP i ( )
2
3
( )
( )
sin u i ( )
( )

( )
3
\ .
sin u i ( )
2
3
t
|

\
|
|
.

( )
3
\ .
sin u i ( )
4
3
t
|

\
|
|
.

|
|
|
|
|
:=
1
2
1
2
1
2

\
|
|
.
i
f
i ( ) TP i ( )
1
i
sd
i
i
sq
|

|
|
|
:=
Pase currents
i
f
i ( ) TP i ( ) i
sq
i
0

\
|
|
.
:=
Pase currents
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
100
Angular Speed vs. time
125
Motor Simulation
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
0
50
0
O
i
0.8 0 h i
100
600
Torque vs. time
700
400
T
.e
i
550
Average, dynamical and load torques
T
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
400
400
0.8 0 h i
450
50
T
e
i
T
c
i
T
r
i
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
450
O
i
Calculations, Simulation, Applications Calculations, Simulation, Applications
Phase A, B, C Current
Motor Simulation
150
50
250
350
350
i
.f
i ( )
0
i
.f
i ( )
1
i
.f
i ( )
2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
350
350
0.8 0 h i
50
250
Phase A, B, C Current
350
i
.f
i ( )
0
i
.f
i ( )
1
i i ( )
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
350
150
350
i
.f
i ( )
2
0.3 0 h i
Testing/Protection Testing/Protection
Testing/Protection Testing/Protection
Testing/Protection Testing/Protection
6000
7000
8000
70
80
90
100
Avg Phase Current (A)
Ground Current (A)
3000
4000
5000
30
40
50
60
Avg Line Volt (V)
kW Power (kW)
kvar Power (kvar)
T. C. Used (%)
Hottest Stator RTD ( C)
0
1000
2000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0
10
20
Motor Load (x FLA)
Testing/Protection Testing/Protection
6000
7000
8000
80
100
120
Avg Phase Current (A)
Avg Line Volt (V)
3000
4000
5000
40
60
80
Current U/b (%)
kW Power (kW)
kvar Power (kvar)
Hottest Stator RTD ( C)
T. C. Used (%)
0
1000
2000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
0
20
Ground Current (A)
Testing/Protection Testing/Protection
120
9
10
80
100
7
8
60
4
5
6
Hottest Stator RTD ( C)
T. C. Used (%)
Motor Load (x FLA)
20
40
2
3
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
0
1
Testing/Protection Testing/Protection
LAST "BLOW" - Phase A Current (Amps)
2000
3000
4000
LAST "BLOW" Phase B Current (Amps)
2000
3000
4000
-2000
-1000
0
1000
T
im
e
-
4
7
.
9
1
2
2
.
9
1
9
3
.
7
3
1
6
4
.
5
6
2
3
5
.
3
8
3
0
6
.
2
3
7
7
.
0
2
4
4
7
.
8
4
5
1
8
.
6
6
5
8
9
.
4
9
6
6
0
.
3
1
7
3
1
.
1
3
8
0
1
.
9
5
8
7
2
.
7
7
9
4
3
.
5
9
1
0
1
4
.
4
1
1
0
8
5
.
2
4
1
1
5
6
.
0
6
1
2
2
6
.
8
8
1
2
9
7
.
7
1
3
6
8
.
5
2
1
4
3
9
.
3
4
1
5
1
0
.
1
7
1
5
8
0
.
9
9
1
6
5
1
.
8
1
1
7
2
2
.
6
3
1
7
9
3
.
4
5
1
8
6
4
.
2
7
1
9
3
5
.
0
9
2
0
0
5
.
9
2
C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(
A
Phase A Current (Amps)
-2000
-1000
0
1000
T
im
e
-
4
7
.
9
1
2
2
.
9
1
9
3
.
7
3
1
6
4
.
5
6
2
3
5
.
3
8
3
0
6
.
2
3
7
7
.
0
2
4
4
7
.
8
4
5
1
8
.
6
6
5
8
9
.
4
9
6
6
0
.
3
1
7
3
1
.
1
3
8
0
1
.
9
5
8
7
2
.
7
7
9
4
3
.
5
9
1
0
1
4
.
4
1
1
0
8
5
.
2
4
1
1
5
6
.
0
6
1
2
2
6
.
8
8
1
2
9
7
.
7
1
3
6
8
.
5
2
1
4
3
9
.
3
4
1
5
1
0
.
1
7
1
5
8
0
.
9
9
1
6
5
1
.
8
1
1
7
2
2
.
6
3
1
7
9
3
.
4
5
1
8
6
4
.
2
7
1
9
3
5
.
0
9
2
0
0
5
.
9
2
C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(
A
Phase BCurrent (Amps)
-4000
-3000
TIME(ms)
-4000
-3000
TIME(ms)
LAST "BLOW" Phase C Current (Amps) LAST "BLOW" AN(AB) Vol tage (V)
1000
2000
3000
4000
E
N
T

(
A
2000
4000
6000
8000
G
E

(
V
)
-4000
-3000
-2000
-1000
0
T
im
e
-
4
7
.
9
1
2
2
.
9
1
9
3
.
7
3
1
6
4
.
5
6
2
3
5
.
3
8
3
0
6
.
2
3
7
7
.
0
2
4
4
7
.
8
4
5
1
8
.
6
6
5
8
9
.
4
9
6
6
0
.
3
1
7
3
1
.
1
3
8
0
1
.
9
5
8
7
2
.
7
7
9
4
3
.
5
9
1
0
1
4
.
4
1
1
0
8
5
.
2
4
1
1
5
6
.
0
6
1
2
2
6
.
8
8
1
2
9
7
.
7
1
3
6
8
.
5
2
1
4
3
9
.
3
4
1
5
1
0
.
1
7
1
5
8
0
.
9
9
1
6
5
1
.
8
1
1
7
2
2
.
6
3
1
7
9
3
.
4
5
1
8
6
4
.
2
7
1
9
3
5
.
0
9
2
0
0
5
.
9
2
C
U
R
R
E
Phase CCurrent (Amps)
-8000
-6000
-4000
-2000
0
T
im
e
-
4
9
.
9
9
1
8
.
7
5
8
7
.
4
9
1
5
6
.
2
2
2
2
4
.
9
6
2
9
3
.
7
3
6
2
.
4
4
4
3
1
.
1
8
4
9
9
.
9
2
5
6
8
.
6
6
6
3
7
.
3
9
7
0
6
.
1
3
7
7
4
.
8
7
8
4
3
.
6
1
9
1
2
.
3
5
9
8
1
.
0
9
1
0
4
9
.
8
3
1
1
1
8
.
5
6
1
1
8
7
.
3
1
2
5
6
.
0
4
1
3
2
4
.
7
8
1
3
9
3
.
5
2
1
4
6
2
.
2
6
1
5
3
0
.
9
9
1
5
9
9
.
7
3
1
6
6
8
.
4
7
1
7
3
7
.
2
1
1
8
0
5
.
9
5
1
8
7
4
.
6
9
1
9
4
3
.
4
3
2
0
1
2
.
1
6
V
O
L
T
A
G
AN(AB) Voltage (V)
TIME(ms) TIME(ms)
Testing/Protection Testing/Protection
2.5
3
3.5
0.5
1
1.5
2
LINE
2 5
3
3.5
-0.5
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
0 5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Series1
Series2
3.5
-0.5
0
0.5
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Series1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Series2
Questions? Questions?
References References
References References
References References
References References
Fitzgerald & Kingsley, Electric Machinery, McGraw-Hill, 1961
Liwschitz-Garik, Whipple, A-C Machines, Van Nostrand, 1961
Say, M.G., Alternating Current Machines, John Wiley & Sons, 1976
Gra Electrical Machines and Dri e S stems John Wile & Sons 1989 Gray, Electrical Machines and Drive Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 1989
Leonhard, Control of Electrical Drives, Spinger-Verlag, 1985
Maxwell, James Clerk, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, third edition, 1891
IEEE Standard 519-1992 IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements
for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems, IEEE Press SH15453, New York, 1993
Hammond, P. Power Factor Correction of Current Source Inverter Drives with Pump
Load 1980 IEEE/IAS Conference Record pp 520-529.
Osman R A Novel Medium Voltage drive Topology with Superior Input and Osman, R., A Novel Medium-Voltage drive Topology with Superior Input and
Output Power Quality, VI Seminario de Electronica de Potencia, 1996.
Hammond, P., A New Approach to Enhance Power Quality for Medium Voltage Drives,
1995 IEEE/PCIC Conference Record pp231-235.
Ferrier, R., McClear, P. Developments and Applications in High-Power Drives Proceedings,
Advanced Adjustable Speed Drive R&D Planning Forum, EPRI-CU-6279 NC, USA, Nov 87.
Bin Wu, DeWinter, F. Voltage stress on induction motors in medium voltage (2300 to 6900V)
PWM GTO CSI drives PESC 95 Record 26th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists PWM GTO CSI drives, PESC 95 Record. 26th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists
Conference
(Cat. No. 95CH35818) Part vol.2 p.1128-32 vol.2; IEEE, New York, NY, USA, 1995.