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Marker Beacons
The ILS marker beacon subsystems give pilots location references. Consisting of an outer marker, a middle marker and, in some cases, an optional inner marker. These beacons provide a pilot on final approach a series of visual and audio indications of precise position reference points. The Marker Beacon components of the ILS operate on 75 MHz and are identified by Outer, Middle, and Inner along the final approach course. These marker beacons indicate when to execute the procedure turn, when the pilot has reached the decision height, and when the runway threshold is imminent. Electrical/Hardware Details

By : Ajay Shokeen, Air India Limited,NR

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Outer Marker: The Outer Marker uses the dual V-Yagi antenna which gives greater range to cover signal requirements for aircraft intercept at the higher altitudes.

This component may also be used as an airway marker and as a fan marker for non-precision approach aids such as a TVOR. The Outer Marker is located 4 to 7 NM from the runway threshold, and marks the procedure turn (or minimum holding altitude) for the pilot. Upon intersecting the outer marker, the pilot may start descent on the glideslope to the runway. The indication inside of the cockpit is a continuous series of 400 Hz audio "dashes" and a flashing blue "marker" light until past the station.

By : Ajay Shokeen, Air India Limited,NR

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Middle Marker : The Middle Marker is located approximately 1070 meters (3500 ft.) from threshold and establishes the decision height (missed approach point) for Category I operation. For Category II and III, the pilot may descend beyond this point. The Middle Marker is modulated at 1300 Hz. The pilot is notified when crossing the Middle Marker by a flashing amber light and a series of alternate "dots" and "dashes" in the aircraft audio system.

By : Ajay Shokeen, Air India Limited,NR

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Inner Marker: The Inner Marker is located approximately 92 to 610 meters 330 to (2000 ft.) from threshold and establishes the decision height (missed approach point) for Category II and III operation. The Inner Marker is modulated at 3000 Hz. The pilot is notified when crossing the Inner Marker by a flashing white light and a series of "dots" in the aircraft audio system.

The Middle and Inner Markers use the single Yagi in lieu of the dual V-Yagi used at the outer marker. The single Yagi is fully adequate to meet signal requirements at these points, and cost savings are realized over the dual V-Yagi system.

By : Ajay Shokeen, Air India Limited,NR