Julian Jaynes’ Theory of the Bicameral Mind: A Different Path Leading to Subjecti e !onsciousness in !
By "ou#Sheng Li
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Abstract: hat the man"made secondary society is %oreign to humans is once more illustrated by the phenomenon o% bicameral minds& %irst described by 'ulian 'aynes. (ccording to 'aynes& people with bicameral minds %ollowed auditory hallucination& the divine voice& in response to an enlarged community %rom )*** to 1*** +,& and sub-ective consciousness appeared around 1*** +,. .nlike /editerranean civili0ations on which 'aynes1 theory is based& ,hinese civili0ation started with genetically coded primary society and there%ore& went through a di%%erent pathway in the evolution o% human minds to sub-ective consciousness. his essay presents overwhelming evidence %or the presence o% sub-ective consciousness around 12** +, in ,hina& and there%ore& sub-ective consciousness may have appeared in a primary society setting. he bicameral mind pervasive among the /editerranean civili0ations was likely a response to the sudden appearance o% secondary society. he author believes that sub-ective consciousness might have %irst appeared with the tool e3plosion around %orty thousand
years ago and switched to the bicameral mind in early /editerranean civili0ations but not in early ,hinese civili0ation. he le%t and right hemispheres o% our brain and their connection provide a good neuropsychological e3planation %or the emergence o% the comple3 secondary society %ive or si3 thousand years ago a%ter humans had lived in primary society %or millions o% years. (s the processor o% visuospatial images and holistic or intuitive awareness& the right brain may be responsible %or the primary society while as the processor o% language and rational thought& the le%t brain may be responsible %or the secondary society.
4eywords: primary society& secondary society& sub-ective consciousness
(ccording to the (merican psychologist 'ulian 'aynes (1)2*"1))5)& humans once lacked consciousness but %ollowed auditory hallucination& the divine voice& in response to an enlarged community and the subse6uent hierarchal theocracy. 7uman consciousness is only a cultural arte%act based on language& and it %irst appeared around 1*** +,. 81&29 :% we classi%y all human societies into the genetically coded primary society and the man" made secondary society& we will %ind the %undamental di%%erence between the two with the latter being cultural arte%acts. 8;&29 hus both the division o% human society into primary and secondary societies and the theory o% the bicameral mind hold the insight that a %undamental culturally constructed change took place in recent human history due to a bigger society. (s the theory o% primary and secondary societies holds that ,hinese civili0ation started with primary society while the <estern civili0ation started with a typical secondary society. =ne may e3pect that the ,hinese history o% bicameral mentality may be %undamentally di%%erent %rom the <estern one. 'ulian 'aynes based his theory mainly on analysis o% the <estern history& including that o% /esopotamia& >gypt& :srael& and ?reece. @ery little study has been done regarding the application o% 'ulian 'aynes1 theory to ,hinese history. ( primary analysis o% available literature con%irms that the phenomenon o% the bicameral mind was much less visible in ,hinese history. Aivination by oracle bones appeared around 2*** +, in ,hina& and the earliest records that are detailed enough %or assessment yield overwhelming evidence %or the presence o% sub-ective consciousness around 12** +, in the ruling class& but the bicameral mind seemed to prevail among the peasants. Becords %rom around 2;CD to 12** +, also suggest sub-ective consciousness& though it is inconclusive whether those records are absolutely reliable. he idea o% a morality apart
%rom legality only began to appear in ?reece in the Cth century +, while ,hinese civili0ation started with a strong emphasis on morality. here%ore& ,hinese history is more consistent with the weak %orm o% 'aynes1 theory that consciousness could have begun shortly a%ter the beginning o% language and co"e3isted with the bicameral mind be%ore the latter was sloughed o%%. :t is a striking contrast to the %ull"blown bicameral mind in the early /editerranean civili0ations.
&' The !once(t of Primary Society and Secondary Society Primary society is genetically coded society& and secondary society is any society that is created by man or human culture. (lthough there is no real primary society %or us to e3amine& it is not di%%icult to outline the %eatures o% a primary society through its de%inition and the study o% animal societies and human society be%ore civili0ation. :n primary #ociety& human nature and instinct are enough to keep the society harmonious and %unctional. Primary society is the basic social organi0ation o% man immediately above %amilies. /embers are linked together emotionally and psychologically& and thus they are a whole at the subconscious level. he ideal number o% people in a primary society is believed to be around 1C*. +ands and tribes are regarded as primary societies. +ands or tribes were headed by headmen who had no power to %orce their will on others. heir leadership was based on persuasion and consensus. he culture o% primary societies is close to human nature and has no power to modi%y human nature.
#econdary society is created by man& and so it has an ideology and a corresponding social structure to support the ideology. (s a creation by man& it has limitless possible types with di%%erent value systems& di%%erent directions& and di%%erent structures while primary society& dictated by genetics& has only one type. #ocial strati%ication and institutionali0ed violence such as police and army are o%ten necessary to keep a secondary society stable in its present type and restrain its members %rom seeking other types o% society. (s a result& the authority has the power to %orce their will on others. (n analogy is the lobe%in %ish that moved onto land and became a land animal around ;** million years ago. he lobe%in %ish had strong %ins but did not have limbs yet. =nce on land& they had the possibility to trans%orm to di%%erent animals: reptiles& birds& or mammals. 7umans moved %rom primary to secondary society like %ish moved onto land: it is not an ordinary move but a move to a di%%erent level that is open to multiple dimensions or directions. he <estern civili0ation& especially /esopotamia and ?reece& started with city states. Primary society or clans were disintegrated to %orm city states with %ree citi0ens& a typical secondary society while the ,hinese civili0ation started as a super state o% two"level system: the super state enabled them to live in a relatively peace%ul social environment while the two"level system& the newly %ormed secondary society was built on the top o% numerous primary societies& enabled them to still live in primary or 6uasi"primary society. ( 6uasi"primary society is a society similar to primary society. his system was %irst started by the !ellow
>mperor around 2C** +,.
Erom 2C** to 25D +,& peace and morality were
apparently the main voices. he %irst authoritative volume o% ,hinese history& Historical Records, starts with such words: …When Godly Farmer’s (Shen Nong) rule was weakened, assal states (tri!es or "ederations o" tri!es) were "ighting and con#uering each other, $eo$le were de astated, !ut Godly Farmer was una!le to $unish them with military actions. 8C9 his super state was %urther enlarged and solidi%ied by !u the ?reat around 22** +, when the %irst ,hinese dynasty Fia was %ounded. /any <estern scholars regard the !ellow >mperor and the Fia dynasty as legendary. :t makes no di%%erence as this ancient ,hinese super state o% primary society lasted until 25D +,. ( super state was the %ar largest state o% the known world to its people& and there were not any other states to compete with it. <ith limited geographical knowledge& its people saw this super state as the only power in the whole world. (s the above 6uotation implies& this superpower or super state was to %unction as police to keep peace among tribes or con%ederations o% tribes (vassal states) like the .nited Gations keep peace in our world today. :% primary society is encoded by genetics& the %ollowing important assumption shall apply: ( primary society or 6uasi"primary society will %orm automatically i%& 1)& the population is no more than a %ew hundredsH
2)& the society is based on %ace"to"%ace interactionsH ;)& no contact with and no ideological in%luence %rom secondary societyH 2)& no outside %orce is threatening their survival. he wo"level #ystem o% ,hinese (ncient #ociety %rom 2;** +, to 25D +, was modeled as %ollows: he 4ing and his clan I :ntellectuals K he vassals and their clans I :ntellectuals K @illages and tribes Primary society Juasi"primary society Juasi"primary society
(lthough the king and vassals& who were the heads o% vassal states& were in secondary society according to the above de%initions& they were able to live in 6uasi"primary society& since all the %our Li%Ms in the above important assumption were met. Go similar power%ul states competed with this super state& which ensured that no outside %orce threatened their survival. :t is %urther e3plained as %ollows: 1)& he king& vassals& villages/tribes& and their clans all lived in primary or 6uasi" primary society.
2)& he king& vassals& and their clans lived a better material li%e than the village/tribal people& but a ten percent ta3 was well tolerated and was not enough to change the idle li%e style o% the people. ;)& he king and vassals did not live together& but they engaged in %ace"to"%ace interaction. heir numbers were within a %ew hundreds& and they %ormed a 6uasi" primary societyH 2)& #imilarly& the vassal and his subordinate headmen %ormed another 6uasi" primary society. he king ruled his vassals and the vassals ruled their headmen in the same way as a headman ruled his sub-ects in a primary society& mainly by persuasion and consensus. C)& he relations between the above primary and 6uasi"primary societies %ollowed the princinple o% reciprocity and mutual respect as i% it was in primary society. D)& :deally& adminstrative and military con%licts were minimi0ed to nearly 0ero according to the aoist princinple: govern by doing nothing or %ollow the natural way. (t the level o% the king and vassals& administration was mainly to help those who could not survive by themselves& and military actions were mainly to keep peace. hus it was ideal i% everyone was able to survive and there was no violence. :n summary& ,hinese people were able to live in primary or 6uasi"primary society a%ter civili0ation& and human nature was still the main %orce to stabili0e the society and keep it %unctional. <ith the analogy o% %ish moving onto land& the %ish was on land but still in water in the ,hinese system.
&&' The Definition of Subjecti e !onsciousness
<hat constitutes the sub-ective conscious mind may be a matter %or debate. :n his essay entitled %onsciousness and the &oices o" the 'ind 829& 'ulian 'aynes attempts to clari%y what sub-ective consciousness is& L#ub-ective conscious mind is an analog o% what we call the real world. :t is built up with a vocabulary or le3ical %ield whose terms are all metaphors or analogs o% behaviour in the physical world N(nd it is intimately bound with volition and decision.M Erom the view o% a society& this real world consists o% many minds o% the members o% the society& and those minds communicate with each other by the vocabulary o% metaphor. hus impressions& %eelings& emotions& concepts& imagery and other elements& which are available %or introspection but may or may not be represented by words& are the building blocks o% this real world or the sub-ective conscious mind. >ach individual mind though may be di%%erent is greatly in%luenced by other minds and by the vocabulary they share. :% we consider the analog o% the real world as a perspective and consider volition and decision as %ree will& sub-ective consciousness essentially e6uals perspective plus %ree will. ( %undamental 6uestion is why humans are able to build secondary society while animals are not. he answer is that humans have the ability o% sel%"transcendence: hey are continuously looking %or something higher than themselves and their real li%e. his eventually lets them create new worlds %or themselves. .nder certain circumstances& people with primitive mentality and bicameral minds may be able to use rudimentary
language in a creative way& but they use language -ust as other tools only to enrich their lives. 7umans with sub-ective conscious minds use language to create totally new worlds such as many novels& especially scienti%ic %ictions. >ach novel literally represents a new world created by man. =ur secondary society is also one o% those worlds created by humans. +ut this one is a real one& created not by one person but by numerous people over thousands o% years. #uch new worlds themselves are a result o% %ree will& and those new worlds in turn show individuals how to e3ecute %ree will to create uni6ue lives %or themselves. (s mentioned above& one %eature o% sub-ective consciousness is narrati0ation or sel%"talk and an analog O :1 acts as the agency %or the narration. =ur li%e may be considered as a novel or %iction narrated in multiple media& words& images& concepts& %eelings& and so on %or a li%e long time. (s the narrator o% this novel o% li%e& we e3ercise %ree will all the time in our inner world. Geither primates nor early human beings could achieve such a li%e e3perience. <hat is the minimum re6uirement o% vocabulary %or sub-ective consciousness to appearP he number o% words has to be enough %or the members o% society to create a new world or a new li%e in their minds %irst be%ore a world or a new li%e is created in reality. ( %ew hundred words may be enough %or a modern writer to create a %iction& but : tend to think many more words may be needed %or sub-ective consciousness to appear among ancient people. >ach secondary society is a creation by man but primary society is the society humans are born with. <ith the above mentioned ,hinese super state o% primary society& the ruling class o% the king and vassals might not be able to change the overall social structure to create a new sub"society but as an idle class& they might be able to develop
sophisticated vocabulary and %orm a subgroup with a distinct culture& which might not suit the de%inition o% secondary society but was certainly a creation o% their own. <hen a particular social issue was elaborated and debated %or a long time even in a primary society setting& it might have created %ree will and led to the emergence o% the sub-ective conscious mind.
&&&' ) idence for Subjecti e !onsciousness Around *+,, B!: The -racle Bones
Erom the late #hang dynasty between 12** and 1122 +,& some %i%teen thousand pieces o% oracle bone inscriptions have so %ar been e3cavated. :t was in 12** +, when 4ing Pan"?eng gave his three speeches that are available %or analysis. he reader should be reminded that the dating o% ,hinese history be%ore Q21 +, is only appro3imate. Erom 12** to 1122 +,& the kings o% the #hang dynasty& the ministers& and the diviner o%%icials developed an e3traordinary enthusiasm towards divination by oracle bones. :t is very much like the >gyptian pyramids that stand out without any match in human history. hey certainly created a li%e o% their own& a li%e o% divination by oracle bones. :n the <est& especially in /esopotamia and ?reece& civili0ation started with city states where primary society was broken to %orm a typical secondary society with %ree individuals. :n its early stage& there were no well established laws and social structures to provide the cohesive %orce to stabili0e the society. ( %orce%ul religious %aith was a must& and the e3ecution o% #ocrates shows how %orce%ul the religious %aith could be. #uch social
circumstances provided the cultural environment to hatch the bicameral mind. hus& people heard divine voices& and they sought divine voices by divination when they could no longer hear the voice clearly. ,hinese civili0ation started with primary society& and there was no %orce%ul authority in primary society. he gods they imagined were -ust like their headmen& not %orce%ul either. (ccording to the belie% system o% the #hang dynasty& there was a natural deity %or each o% the natural %orces they could perceive such as the sun& the moon& the wind& the rain& the snow& the cloud and so on. here was a super god& but their deceased ancestors seemed to be the most important ones. hose ancestors and gods had the power to in%luence the human world and their lives& but they represented a di%%erent world. People could seek %avour but could not seek orders to organi0e their lives %rom those ancestors and gods& -ust as the members o% a primary society cannot e3pect their headman to organi0e their lives. (s a result& they had endless 6uestions to ask and to ponder& which& %acilitated by language development& eventually led to the emergence o% sub-ective consciousness.
1. he divination by oracle bones was sophisticated enough to hatch sub-ective consciousness in the late #hang dynasty: (s mentioned above& more than 1C*&*** oracle bones were %ound %or the two hundred and seventy eight years %rom 12** to 1122 +,. ,onsidering that many may still lay underground and even more might have been lost during the last three thousand years& and that a piece o% bone could be used repeatedly and one session o% divination might contain several 6uestions& the number o% 6uestions sub-ected to oracle bones may be
several times o% those discovered oracle bones. ,uriosity and the idle li%estyle o% the ruling class were apparently the ma-or %actors behind those 6uestions. hose oracle bone inscriptions contain more than C*** ,hinese characters but only a third was deciphered. Gowadays& one needs only to master 1*** ,hinese characters to be able to read newspapers& and university graduates only mastered some 2*** ,hinese characters on average. ( wide variety o% topics were asked& essentially anything o% concern to the royal house o% #hang& %rom illness& birth and death& to weather& war%are& agriculture& tribute and so on. =ne o% the most common topics was whether an illness o% any member o% the royal house and any member o% the court o%%icials was curable or not. (s a topic o% divination& the illness was o%ten a minor one such as toothache. >ach oracle bone inscription normally consists o% %our sections& pre%ace& topic& reading& and veri%ication. Auring a divination session& the shell or bone was anointed with blood& and an inscription starts with the date that was recorded using the ,hinese system o% 7eavenly #tems and >arthly +ranches& the diviner1s name was also noted. Ge3t& the topic o% divination was posed& such as whether a particular ancestor was causing a king1s toothache. hen the bone was sub-ected to heat until it cracked. he diviner in charge o% the ceremony read the cracks to learn the answer to the divination. he divined answer was sometimes marked either RauspiciousR or RominousR. he king occasionally added a LprognosticationM and his reading on the nature o% the omen. =n rare occasions& the actual outcome was later added to the bone in what is known as a Lveri%icationM. ( complete record o% all the above elements is rareH most bones contain -ust the date& the diviner& and topic o% divination& and many remained uninscribed a%ter the divination. here is some
evidence that the divination was made on brush"written words& and those written words were inscribed later by a workshop. Erom the di%%erent names o% diviners on the oracle bones& we know that the king had many diviner o%%icials. hose o%%icials prepared the oracle bones and kept them %or late re%erence. =ne topic o% divination could be raised multiple times& and o%ten in di%%erent ways or by changing the date being divined about. his indicates that they concentrated their minds on one 6uestion %or a period o% time.
2. wo e3amples o% the oracle bone inscriptions show the mind space o% the people who were involved in the divination: he %ollowing is a typical oracle bone inscription: (t will rain today) Rain will come "rom the west) Rain will come "rom the east) Rain will come "rom the north) Rain will come "rom the southP (郭沫若: 《卜辭通纂 he ?eneral ,ompilation o% =racle +one :nscriptions》& ;5C ) his oracle bone inscription shows that those people had a clear representation o% the physical world and its %our directions in their minds to enable them to ask and monitor the outcome o% those 6uestions. :t is understandable to ask whether it will rain or not today but what is the point to ask a total o% %our 6uestions about which direction the rain will comeP :t shows an essential part o% human nature& the curiosity o% an idle mind. he %ollowing oracle bone inscription is a completed one with the veri%ication and was read by 4ing <u"Aing himsel%. 4ing <u"Aing ruled %rom 1;C* to 12)2 +, appro3imately.
*i ination date+ ,ui-Si. di iner+ Hui. /o$ic+ whether mis"ortunate e ents will ha$$en within ten days. ,ing Wu0*ing read the !one cracks and concluded+ ominous, and mis"ortunate e ents will ha$$en. &eri"ication+ mis"ortunate e ents came "rom the west a"ter "i e days1 2hi0Huo re$orted that /u !a!arians in aded our eastern su!ur! and destroyed two towns, and Shu !a!arians in aded our "arm "ields in the western su!ur!. (《菁》& 2) hose divining people apparently had a sense o% time& the past& the %uture& and the present. (ncient ,hinese people worshiped ancestors& and they o%ten kept the shrines %or each o% their deceased ancestors in order o% time %rom a generation to the ne3t. his may give the ,hinese a sense o% time much earlier than in the <est. Eor the same reason& ,hinese kept good records about their ancestors: their deeds and their words %rom prehistoric time. 'aynesS concept o% the mind space is much broader than the actual represention o% time and physical space. Gevertheless it is part o% the mind space that enable to think about the answers to our 6uestions.
;. ,onscious dreams in oracle bone inscription: (ccording to 'ulian 'aynes& there are conscious dreams and bicameral dreams. here are %our oracle bones asking the meaning o% a particular dream and whether the dream was auspice or ominous. :n their dreams& one saw -ades& and one (king) saw many sons& and two saw ghosts in several times (《合集》CD2)H 《合集》15;Q; H 《合 集》152C1H《合集》152C* ). hose are apparently conscious dreams. he dreamer
recalled their dreams and put them on oracle bones to seek the meaning o% them. :t is apparently sel%"introspection: O:S 8 : saw ghosts& -ades& and son in dreams9 hose oracle bones are direct evidence %or the presence o% sub-ective consciousness.
2. +one inscriptions o% memorable events: #ome bone inscriptions were records o% a particular event. Eor e3ample& the king once on a hunting tour (P12*; +,) killed a tiger& and he used the tiger bones to make table utensils& and then recorded this event on it (<illiam ,harles <hite: +one ,ulture o% ,hina& the .niversity oronto Press& 1)2C& Plate F@). his clearly shows that the king was proud o% what he had done. :t is consisted with sub-ective consciousness.
C. ,on%licting =pinions and +ook o% (ncient te3ts (%ter the #hang dynasty was overthrown by the ,hou dynasty in 1122 +,& 4ing <u o% the Thou dynasty sought governing e3perience %rom a #hang minister& Auke 'i. (ccording to Auke 'i& the ,hinese kings had ruled the country based on nine principles since !u the ?reat around 22** +,. he seventh o% the nine principles is about divination. :t is a reliable source to see how divination was carried out during the #hang dynasty. (《,ollection o% (ncient e3ts: ?reat Principles 尚書﹕洪範》) (ccording to Auke 'i& the %irst thing %or the king was to select and appoint the right persons as diviners. Eor one issue& the king had to ask three diviners to per%orm
divination and take the two identical readings as the %inal result& which is consisted with the archaeological %inding that divination was o%ten repeated %or a single issue. (ccording to Auke 'i& the king& when %acing a di%%icult issue& had to think it over himsel% %irst& and then consult with his ministers& his people& and %inally consult with divination. here were si3 possible ways o% con%licting opinions among divination by oracle bones& divination by mil%oil stalks& the king& the ministers& and the people ( able 1). :t clearly indicates that the ,hinese super state had no %orce%ul authority. he ruling class had to learn how to deal with di%%erent opinions& and it might well have %acilitated the development o% sub-ective consciousness.
able 1. he si3 di%%erent ways o% con%licting opinions and their predicted outcomes he king /inisters he =racle /il%oil Predicted outcome when being stalks yes carried out ?rand concord& best %or the king and his %amily %ortunate %ortunate %ortunate %ortunate %or internal operations but unlucky %or D !es no yes no yes no no yes no yes e3ternal undertakings %ortunate %or being still but unlucky %or active operations
people bones 1 yes yes yes yes
2 ; 2 C
yes no no yes
no yes no no
no no yes no
yes yes yes yes
yes yes yes no
he di%%erent opinions held by the king& the ministers& and the people show that even the ordinary people had their own perspective and %ree will e3pressed in words. he
%ollowing 4ing Pan"?engSs three speeches provide detailed records o% a real situation o% such con%licting opinions.
&.' ) idence for Subjecti e !onsciousness Around *+,, B!: /ing Pan#0eng’s Three S(eeches
( notable ,hinese historian considers ,hinese society as classless primitive society be%ore 12** +, when the king took part in physical labour among other peasants. (ccording to his study& the capital moved at least seven or more times %rom 15DD to 12** +, as re6uired by so"called mobile agriculture. 8D9 (%ter 12** +,& the king or emperor became a %ull time administrator and the capital did not move unless %orced by war. 4ing Pan"?eng used strong words to condemn the interest in gathering and accumulating wealth by his o%%icials& ministers and local lords& because those o%%icials %elt it hard to abandon the wealth and move to a new place. :t is likely that more accumulated wealth eventually enabled the capital to have permanent location a%ter 12** +,. (s the last move o% this kind in 12** +,& 4ing Pan met strong resistance %rom all levels o% people. 4ing Pan"?eng gave three speeches to persuade and motivate his o%%icials and people %or this move. hrough ,hinese history and up to today& ,hinese scholars almost unanimously viewed the three speeches as genuine ones by 4ing Pan"?eng himsel%. hey were written down either when 4ing Pan"?eng was alive or shortly a%ter his death. <hether the te3t o%
the three speeches was edited by others in its early surviving years remains a matter %or debate& though there is no evidence to support either view. he three speeches have 12** ,hinese characters& which e6ual about 2*** words in modern >nglish translation. Eor a king to speak at such a length on a single issue but to di%%erent people and on di%%erent occasions is uni6ue in early ,hinese records: %ollection o" 3ncient /e4ts (#hangshu& 尚書).
1. hey were trying hard to persuade each other and change each otherSs mind: (s pointed out by ed Bemington 859& LPersuasion& in any true sense o% the term& could not e3ist without the type o% consciousness 'aynes describes as only developing toward the end o% the second millennium +,. =ne cannot persuade without the ability to see the world %rom the point o% view o% the one to be persuaded. =nly by imaginatively inhabiting the mind"space o% the other can persuasion be e%%ected.M he three speeches by 4ing Pan"?eng were the records o% a long comple3 process o% persuasion during which& the king was trying to persuade his o%%icials and people who were& on the other hand& trying to persuade the king to change his mind. hey all showed the vision o% the world %rom the point view o% the others& and claiming %or the good o% the others. he %irst speech was delivered to the o%%icials including ministers& local lords& and tribal chie%s. he second speech was delivered to the ordinary people. he third was a%ter the move and was %or the o%%icials. he %ollowing is %rom the speech to the people: 'y $resent undertaking to mo e you to the new $lace, is "or the long0lasting sta!ility to our country1 5ou, howe er, show no sym$athy with the an4ieties o" my mind.
!ut you all kee$ a great reser e in declaring your minds, trying res$ect"ully !y your sincerity to change my mind1 5ou only e4haust and distress yoursel es1 /he case is like sailing in a !oat+ i" you do not cross the ri er in time, you will ruin the whole cargo1 5our sincerity does not res$ond to mine, and we are in danger o" going together to destruction1 5ou do not e4amine the matter !ut anger yoursel es, what cure will that !ring) 5ou do not $lan "or the "uture, nor think o" the calamity that will come to you1 5ou greatly encourage one another in what must $ro e to your sorrow1 Now you ha e the $resent, !ut you will not ha e the "uture. what li"e can you look "or "rom a!o e) …1*o ( "orce you !y the terrors o" my $ower) 'y o!6ecti e is to su$$ort and nourish you all. .sing the sailing boat %or the political situation as an analogy is itsel% a very abstract concept& a sign o% sub-ective conscious mind. Persuasion also relies on a conception o% time that& according to 'aynes& is only possible a%ter the development o% consciousness. he above 6uotation shows well that 4ing Pan"?eng had a sense o% time& since he talked about L%utureM and Llong"lasting stabilityM.
2. he words used by 4ing Pan"?eng that indicate sub-ective consciousness: 7ere : only list out three ,hinese characters that indicate the presence o% sub-ective consciousness in the speaker. hey are plan (mou 謀)& volition (0hi 志)& and heart (3in 心). hey appeared %our& ten& and %our times respectively. he ,hinese character mou 謀 usually means plan& design or stratagem but can also be used as noun with the meaning& strategy plans. #ince the le%t hal% o% the character is the radical yan 言& speaking& there are usually a %ew people who are involved in the activity o% mou 謀 like the king designing a path %or the country with his ministers& but
there can also be only one person in the activity o% mou 謀. he ,hinese character mou 謀 indicates %ree will. =ne e3ample o% Pan"?eng’s words with the ,hinese character mou 謀 are as %ollows in >nglish translation: L(s : see as clearly as one sees a %ire& i% : lack planning and strategy& it will be my %ault.M ( he underlined words are the >nglish translation o% the ,hinese character in discussion& same below.) he ,hinese character 3in 心 e6uals heart& mind& %eeling& moral nature or character& and intention: (7)1 ( ha e now !rought "orward and announced to you my mind, whom ( a$$ro e and whom ( disallow. let none o" you !ut re erence my will1 (8)1 9et e ery one o" you set u$ the true rule o" conduct in his heart1 (:)1 (" you can $ut away your (sel"ish) thoughts, (;)1 /ake counsel how to $ut away your (sel"ish) thoughts1 he >nglish e6uivalents o% the ,hinese character 0hi 志 are will& aspiration& ambition& ideal. wo e3amples o% the words with the ,hinese characters 0hi 志 are translated as %ollows: (7)1 ( ha e now !rought "orward and announced to you my as$iration, whom ( a$$ro e and whom ( disallow. let none o" you !ut re erence my will1 (8)1 Now ( ha e disclosed my heart and !elly, my reins and !owels, and "ully declared to you, my $eo$le, all my mind and ideal1
:n the second e3ample& the king spoke such words: LheartM& LbellyM& LreinsM& and bowels. :t indicates the close relationship that was consistent with the historical %act: the king and his o%%icials lived in a primary society.
;. he voice o% human nature vs. divine voice: comparison o% Pan"?engSs move to a new capital with /osesS move out o% >gypt: (ll the di%%erence between Pan"?eng1s move to the new capital and /oses1 move out o% >gypt may be accounted %or by the %act that ,hina was modeled a%ter primary society while /oses1 people lived in a secondary society& or in other words& the voice o% human nature vs. the divine voice. /oses led the :sraelites& D**&*** men plus women and children and a mi3ed multitude& with their %locks and herds %rom >gypt into the wilderness o% the desert %or a %ew decades surrounded by hostile neighbouring states. :n %act& they o%ten battled through the way they were taking. 7uman nature was not enough to provide the needed cohesive %orce %or such a goal. :t was not surprising that the divine voice was heard all through the whole process o% /oses1 move out o% >gypt. :% we believe the bible& it was ?od not /oses who led the :sraelites out o% >gypt. :t suits well with the theory o% the bicameral mind. :n comparison with /oses and his people& Pan"?eng apparently had a better developed government: 7e was the king with several ministers to help him& and he also had a hereditary system to ensure the peace%ul transition o% power to the ne3t generation. (s a result o% the limitation o% primary society& Pan"?eng1s move was much easier and simpler than /oses1. Pan"?eng1s move took only a month or so& and it was a peace%ul
-ourney o% some 1C* miles. Pan"?eng also had much less people to move& as he called them to his palace to persuade them. Eor the ordinary people& they might not have the ability to see clearly the advantage this move would bring to them. Eor the o%%icials& they might understand the political situation but did not want to lose their privileges and wealth. Pan"?eng1s persuasion seemed to be much harder than /oses1& and he had called both o%%icials and people to his palace& and being %riendly to them. 7e literally had to take his whole heart out to prove that he was sincerely dedicated to them& and his distressed heart also needed sympathy. :t clearly shows that the social bond was emotional and psychological one in the primary society. Pan"?eng warned both the o%%icials and people that they might %ace e3ecution i% they re%used to co"operate with the king. >3ecution sounds harsh but it was almost the only punishment available to the king. his punishment could not be taken lightly& as the king1s power was well balanced against by ministers& vassal lords& tribal chie%s& and the people. ,hinese people lived in numerous colonies that scattered over a vast area with waste land and minority people o% di%%erent ethical origin between. .nhappy individuals could easily run away& and dissident chie%s could lead their peasants to live among those minority people. =ne may e3pect that a %ew must be e3ecuted be%ore the whole population gave up their resistance. Pan"?eng said in his third speech& L: have not punished any o% you.M #o he did not punish anyone %or this controversial move& even some o%%icials had instigated peasants to act against the king. <hat happened to those who resisted /oses1 leadershipP hey were much less lucky than the ones who resisted Pan"?eng& since they were in a secondary society where
the cohesive %orce was generated by reward and punishment e3pressed as divine will. Gobody gave them a clear warning be%ore hand as Pan"?eng did to his o%%icials and people. (ccording to the +ible (Gumbers 1D:2"2*";2";C)& L wo hundred and %i%ty men o% the son o% :srael& chie%tains o% the assembly& summoned ones o% the meeting& men o% %ame. #o they congregated against /osesN'ehovah now spoke to /oses and (aron& saying O#eparate yourselves %rom the midst o% the assembly& that : may e3terminate them in an instant1N(nd the earth proceeded to open its mouth and to swallow up themN(nd a %ire came out %rom 'ehovah and proceeded to consume the two hundred and %i%ty men o%%ering the incense.M /oses was apparently much more power%ul than 4ing Pan"?eng. /oses1 power was not %rom a well developed law system and corresponding social structure but %rom religious %aith and bicameral mentality. :n contrast& Pan"?eng had a much more advanced government but much less power as the bicameral mind played only a minor role in ,hinese social li%e. he social order o% ,hinese society was still based on human nature while the <estern social order was pretty much man"made in the divine name.
.' The Different Social )n ironments 1atched Different &deologies
'ulian 'aynes says& L:t can easily be in%erred that human beings with such a (bicameral) mentality had to e3ist in a special kind o% society& one rigidly ordered in strict hierarchies with strict e3pectancies organi0ed into the mind so that hallucinations preserved the social %abric. (nd such was de%initely the case. +icameral kingdoms were all hierarchical theocracies& with a god& o%ten an idol& at their head %rom whom
hallucinations seemed to come& or& more rarely& with a human being who was divine and whose actual voice was heard in hallucinations.M 829 : will e3plain why social conditions %or such rigidly ordered hierarchical theocracies were not available in ancient ,hina& and then : will present evidence that ,hina was much less religious compared to the <est. :t is well documented that primitive hunters and gatherers lived an idle li%e as other animals do& and only in%re6uently did they have violent con%licts. hus they lived in a relatively peace%ul environment as ancient ,hinese people did. he renowned (merican anthropologist& /arvin 7arris& listed many evidences to support his conclusion: L(rchaeological evidence %rom the upper paleolithic periodU about ;*&*** +, to 1*&*** +,U makes it per%ectly clear that hunters who lived during those times en-oyed relatively high standards o% com%ort and security. hey were no bumbling amateurs.M8Q9 (ccording to /arvin 7arris& those ancient hunters even knew how to control their population. $ike other animals& early humans were motivated to intensi%y production only when they were in trouble. <hen human %ace the continuous threat o% war& their trouble was insolvable even by intensi%ied production. (nthropologists believe that the separation o% work %rom entertainment started with the invention o% agriculture which re6uires intensive invest in the %uture& but humans only worked in modern sense o% work when the governments o% states provided an idle class to supervise others1 work. he trans%ormation %rom a primitive peace%ul idle li%e to a rigidly ordered hierarchical society in which most people were working day and night like ants is apparently not a natural and simple process. :t re6uires special conditions and
special circumstances which appeared in the /editerranean civili0ations but were absent in the ancient ,hina. /arvin 7arris lists three %actors as the essential re6uirement %or states to appear& namely population increase& intensive agriculture to produce enough plus %ood& and the so called circumscription. 8)9 ,ircumscription means the emigration o% dissatis%ied %actions was blocked in such a way that %actions o% discontented members o% a state cannot escape %rom their elite overlords without su%%ering a sharp decline in their standard o% living. he earliest states like /esopotamia& >gypt& and ?reece were circumscribed by their dependence on modes o% production associated with %ertile river valleys surrounded by arid or semiarid plains or mountains. ,ircumscription was the critical %actor %or the three civili0ations& as it generated the %irst genuine rulers in human history who were able to control access to basic resources. o control access to basic resources enabled the rulers to control people and set up a military power to kill people. =nce the rulers have the power to kill& and the %irst %orce%ul authority o% secondary society is established. #lavery %or massive scales o% productive and constructive activities was then possible. :n ancient ,hina& such a circumscription was never available to set up any similar states. (ccording to <ang 8D9& the locations ,hinese lived scattered over a vast area but were mingled with minority ethical people until the #pring (utumn Period (551"25D +,). he royal clans and the peasants who lived in the capital practiced mobile agriculture at least until 12** +,& and peasants were no doubt to practice mobile agriculture much later. (s a result& it was almost impossible %or the ruling class to e3ecute strict control over its people& since the escape o% dissatis%ied %actions was always possible. <ithout circumscription and the control o% basic resources& the military power to kill was well
balanced against each other by this super state structure o% primary society. he king and his court& as the ultimate power o% this super state& were the ma-or check %or any local power& but the power o% the king and his court was in turn checked by the power o% various vassal states. he cooperation o% a %ew vassal states would easily overpower the king and his court. he %irst social implication o% the above mentioned ,hinese super state o% primary society was that this super state saw itsel% as the only government %or the whole humanity. he second social implication o% this ,hinese super state o% primary society was that the people were le%t on their own. :n a primary society& people cannot e3pect very much %rom their powerless leader& the headman. #imilarly ancient ,hinese people could not e3pect very much %rom gods. ?ods were an essential part o% ancient <estern society& and people e3pected gods to play a vital role in their lives. ?ods and heaven played only a peripheral role in ancient ,hinese li%e. (ccording to ,ollection o% (ncient e3ts (尚書)& the %amous minister ?ao" ao once said (P2;** +,): “7eaven (?od) hears and sees& but it hears and sees through our people. 7eaven (?od) delivers reward and punishment& but it delivers reward and punishment through our people.M his was a %undamental belie% o% ancient ,hinese people. Eor the ruling class& the people were the ?od& and there%ore& the ruling class had to %ul%il the peopleSs need to please ?od. he e3pression o% the same belie% became more clearly stated in 5*D +,: “ he people are the master o% gods” ( Tuo0huan& 左傳). he headman’s leadership was based on persuasion and consensus& and so ,hinese gods had to please the people to survive.
(ccording to 'ulian 'aynes& the bicameral mind hears the voice o% gods only in stress%ul situation when a decision has to be made. :t is understandable that ancient ,hinese people heard less such voices& since they lived in a relatively peace%ul environment. his was e3actly the case. (ccording to 'ulian 'aynesS theory& divination appeared only a%ter humans lost their bicameral minds and could no longer hear the voice o% gods. (rchaeological %indings %ound that ,hinese people per%ormed divination using turtle and other animal bones at least si3 thousand years ago or 2*** +,. Fia listed three earliest %indings o% oracle bones& and they are dated 2*5* +,& ;Q** +,& and ;C1* +, and %rom 7enan& ?ansu& and :nner /ongolia respectively. he %inding o% the oracle bones in ;Q** +, %rom ?ansu consists o% si3 pieces o% animal scapulae& which are all etched with marks and symbols and have been sub-ected to technical heat. Fia listed %urther C) %indings o% oracle bones %rom the $ongshan culture (2D**"1)** +,)& and mentioned the custom o% burial turtle shells around D*** +,. hose turtle shells were technically modi%ied and decorated& and were only buried with elderly men and women. hose turtle shells are believed to be the precursor o% oracle bones& since ancient ,hinese people believed that turtles have spiritual power. 81*9 ,hinese people also saw many less images o% gods& statues and paintings. Aavid G. 4eightley says& L,haracteristically& there is no visual image or even te3tual description o% any early ,hinese ruler or deity to compare with the images and descriptions o% particular rulers& heroes& and gods we have %rom /esopotamia and ?reece. here is no ,hinese e6uivalent to the bron0e head& which may depict 4ing #argon the ?reat& no ,hinese version o% a heroic& li%e si0e& naked bron0e Poseidon.M 8119
#ince the very beginning& ,hinese civili0ation lacked the giant temples dedicated to gods in the /iddle >ast and in ancient ?reece. :n the ancient ,hinese cities& the %irst eye"catching building was the palace. he shrines to the ancestors were usually inside the palace& occupying a minor part. he capital& +ei-ing& %rom the last dynasty o% ,hina& Jing (1D22"1)11)& had %our temples each in one o% the %our directions& the south& the north& the east& and the west %or heaven& earth& the sun& and the moon respectively. hose %our temples embrace the %ar larger central palace& which shows e3actly that gods are peripheral in ,hinese society. /any ,hinese scholars believe that the ,hinese character %or the super god or ?od& di 帝& symboli0es an inverted triangle on a table %or worshippers. he inverted triangle is the symbol %or the %emale se3 organ. Erom 221 +,& ,hinese emperors took the same word to name themselves& which makes the ,hinese ?od& di 帝& a more personated %igure. ,hinese culture has never created a well"known personal image %or the super god& di 帝& which is in line with the interpretation that ?od is essentially the %emale se3 organ. he national leader was called the son o% 7eaven& since the early ,hou dynasty but remarks that depreciate 7eaven have never stop. :n summary& peace%ul social environment& primary society& a culture based on human nature %or the whole humanity& divination by animal bones& a ruling class who saw the people as the basis o% their rule may each have contributed to the appearance o% sub-ective consciousness mind in ,hina.
.&' The Bicameral Mind in !hina
#ub-ective consciousness& a perspective plus %ree will or in 'ulian 'aynes1 term& the real world plus volition& can be greatly in%luenced by the di%%erent states o% mind. =ne window to see what people really saw in their world is to see what their visual artists created %or them in history. hose artists represent their culture and their people. (ncient ,hinese artists painted mainly mountains& rivers& birds& %lowers and so on& and i% there is any %igures in their paintings& those %igures are tiny in vast landscapes. hat1s because ,hinese people lived in a relatively peace%ul environment& and they had a rela3ing mind. :t is breathtaking to notice that %or more than a thousand years& the <estern artists created nothing but human %igures. $andscape as a subtype o% painting %irst appeared in the 15th century in 7olland. :t shows clearly that war was the main %orce to shape the society and li%e in the <est but not in ancient ,hina. <hen your mind engaged in %ighting with other people& you see nothing but people who are either your %riends or enemies. 'ulian 'aynes used to say Lconsciousness is what is going on in the minds o% any do0en people now on the streetM. 7e talks about the idle mind or sel%"entertaining mind but not the goal"oriented or war"occupied mind. >ven the stream o% worries& regrets& hopes& and so on is constantly monitored and modi%ied by a more general perspective which has been %ormed to reach some goals in the sub-ect1s mind. his perspective o% goals is relatively stable in the sub-ect1s li%e and is integrated into the general perspectives o% goals o% the society he lives in. he human mind has to be rational when %acing a war or being pressed to achieve a goal. <hile being idle& humans -ust as other animals want to en-oy themselves. <hen
the only thing you care about is en-oyment& there is no point to care about rationality and sub-ective consciousness. here is even no point to worry about the di%%erence between hallucination and reality. $evy"+ruhl1s book RPrimitive /entalityR was in%luential in 'aynes1s thinking about the bicameral mind. $evy"+ruhl writes that in comparison to modern society& a greater number o% individuals in primitive societies e3periences hallucinations& e3periences them more %re6uently& and the hallucinations play an important role in their day"to"day lives. $evy"+ruhl states: R o them the things which are unseen cannot be distinguished %rom the things which are seen. he beings o% the unseen world are no less directly present than those o% the otherH they are more active and more %ormidable. ,onse6uently that world occupies their minds more entirely than this one& and it diverts their minds %rom re%lecting& even to a slight e3tent& upon the data which we call ob-ective.R 8129 Eurther& >rika +ourguignon& %rom a study o% almost C** societies has shown that the %re6uency& accessibility and 6uality o% religious e3periences& correlate inversely with the comple3ity o% social structure. :n the simplest and most egalitarian societies& ritual trance states tend to be voluntary& conscious and accessible to most people who desire them. 81;9 +oth $evy"+ruhl and >rika +ourguignon indicated that hallucination was more common in ancient primitive people. +ut it was only part o% the idle mind in the primary society while it became the divine voice to dictate the people to obey their rulers in the secondary society.
#uch prehistoric primary society described by $evy"+ruhl e6uals Geanderthal %rom 2**&*** to )&*** +, in 'ulian 'aynes1 term. 7ere : use the primitive mind to represent the mentality o% this period o% time be%ore the %irst towns and the bicameral mind appeared around )&*** +,. :n primary society where the mentality is primitive& gods and people are on the same level& which is the re%lection o% the egalitarian society. #ubsistence endeavour is not enough to shi%t people %rom an idle %rame o% mind to a rational goal"oriented mind. he bicameral mind serves as a transitional phase %rom the primitive mind to the goal"oriented conscious mind. (s mentioned above& the ,hinese super state o% primary society enabled ,hinese people to still live in primary or 6uasi"primary society. his makes the shi%t %rom the primitive mind to sub-ective conscious mind much less dramatic& though the bicameral mind was still visible as 'ulian 'aynes1 theory is universally applicable. he ruling class& the king and vassals& and the peasants lived in separate societies. : have to address the ruling class and the peasants di%%erently to show how the 'ulian 'aynes1 theory o% the bicameral mind and sub-ective consciousness applies to ,hinese history. ,ontrast to the goal"oriented <est where people had to look %orward to an uncertain %uture& the ,hinese had to look back to their traditions and ancestors to keep the harmony and unity o% their society. here are no ,hinese e6uivalents %or the :liad and the +ible stories& and gods stayed peripheral in the ,hinese li%e. <ith the ruling class& they heard the voice o% human nature and the voice o% deceased ancestors instead o% the voice o% gods in the <est. Eurthermore& such voice usually appeared as conscience or a model to %ollow but not in spoken words. /ichael ,arr illustrates that the drunk corpse/ personators speak in the
voice o% the deceased ancestors as described in the +ook o% Poetry. #uch descriptions are relatively rare in ancient ,hinese literature. Eurthermore& the spiritual voice speaks almost identical blessings %or the descendants& ten thousand year happy li%e& in the three poems cited by /ichael ,arr. hose words seem to have been chosen be%ore hand as part o% the %ormality. hey are not divine orders as heard by the bicameral man in the <est. =n contrary& like other ,hinese gods& the ancestor spirits were keen to please the people %or their survival: they o%%ered ten thousand year happy li%e a%ter receiving a simple ritual worship. 8129 he process o% changing mentality in the ruling class was described well by the %ollowing 6uotation %rom $ao 0u: When /ao is lost, there remains irtuosity1 When irtuosity is lost, there remains !ene olence1 When !ene olence is lost, there remains righteousness1 When righteousness is lost, there remains ritual1 When ritual is lost, what remains is the thinness o" honesty and trustworthiness, and chaos is on its way. ( ao e ,hing& ,hapter ;Q) he above 6uotation %rom $ao 0u can serve as the description o% the mental shi%t %rom the primitive mind to the bicameral mind and to sub-ective conscious mind. <hen ao prevailed in ancient primary society& the mentality was primitive. hat ao is lost means that the primitive mind is lost. <hen a primary society is in trouble& people rely on collective unconsciousness to keep the harmony and unity o% the society. :t was natural that ancient ,hinese called up on people1s subconscious by emphasi0ing virtue& benevolence. he primitive mind must have been lost long be%ore recorded history in ,hina. he earliest ,hinese records& ,ollection o% (ncient e3ts starts with the !ao >mperor
( 2;CD +,). 7e was the %irst ,hinese leader who emphasi0ed virtue and set up as an e3ample o% virtue %or his people to %ollow. his is the clear indication that the primitive mind had been lost& the society had to be reminded o% virtue by the leader and by his e3ample. he leader represents the people who had heard the voice o% human nature and called on the society to behave according to the re6uirement o% virtue. +oth virtue and morality are the same word in ,hinese& de 德. #uch a ,hinese concept o% morality is based on human nature. (ccording to the aoist theory& de 德 is essentially the obtainment o% ao& and ao is nature itsel% that %ollows the natural way. <e are born with the ability o% empathy& an ability to understand the emotions and %eelings o% others and take on the perspective o% others. /odern technology such as %unctional magnetic resonance imaging allows us to observe the brain when it is %ully %unctional. <e can see the same pattern o% mental activity %rom both the brain o% the patient who is having a surgical operation and the brain o% the patient1s wi%e who is watching beside. he sympathi0er %eels the pain o% the su%%erer. he +ook o% (ncient e3ts describes the !ao >mperor as such a good e3ample %or the society to look up to: L7e was reverential& intelligent& accomplished& and thought%ul " naturally and without e%%ort. 7e was sincerely courteous& and capable o% all complaisances. he bright in%luence o% these 6ualities was %elt through the %our 6uarters o% the land& and reached to heaven above and earth beneath. 7e made the able and virtuous distinguished& and thence proceeded to the love o% all in the nine classes o% his kindred& who thus became harmonious. 7e also regulated and polished the people o% his domain& who all became brightly intelligent. Einally& he united and harmoni0ed the
myriad statesH and so the black"haired people were trans%ormed. he result was universal concord.M <hen the >merpor !ao chose a man to succeed his position as the emperor o% ,hina& he %ound such a man who was unmarried among the lower class o% people& called #hun. he tribal chie%s told the >mperor !ao& L7e is the son o% a blind man. 7is %ather is obstinately unprincipledH his (step")mother was insincereH his (hal%") brother Fiang was arrogant. 7e has been able& by his %ilial piety& to live in harmony with them& and to lead them gradually to sel%"government& so that they no longer proceed to great wickedness.M <hen the society became more comple3 and people1s sel%"consciousness was growing& the society had to take %urther steps to keep the society stable. he #hang people seemed to worship various gods& spirits& ancestors. he ,hou dynasty (1122"2CD +,) introduced a comple3 system o% rituals that emphasi0es the ranking system o% the society. his ritual system o%ten re6uires the ruling class o% di%%erent ranks and the people to participate in ritual per%ormance with music. :n a way& it was a resuscitation o% ritual per%ormance o% ancient primitive society. Auring the so"called #pring (utumn Period (55*"25D +, )& this ritual system was no longer enough to keep the society stable. +enevolence& righteousness& and ritual are the principle belie% o% ,on%ucianism. <hen a primary society is in trouble %acing an unwanted division& they called on members1 subconscious to %eel the emotional and psychological bond they have with the society. ,on%ucian scholars are those who heard such voices and called on the society %or benevolence and righteousness. (ccording to $ao 0u& violence"based legal system was invented only a%ter chaos set in. $egal system represents the rational thinking& and there%ore& the sub-ective conscious mind.
(s to the peasants& they seemed to ac6uire sub-ective conscious mind at the time as the ruling class did. his is likely as they communicated with each other and engaged in the same mental process. =% course& peasants might also have ac6uired their sub-ective conscious mind by %ollowing their leaders like today1s children %ollow their parents. (s mentioned above& the peasants had their own opinion that might be di%%erent %rom the king and his o%%icials& and the peasants tried to persuade 4ing Pan"?eng to change his mind. ( %ew peasants might have a sub-ective consciousness but the ma-ority o% them might still have a bicameral mind while the ma-ority o% o%%icials and the king had sub-ective conscious mind& because Pan"?eng talked to the o%%icials and to the peasants di%%erently. 7e mentioned ancestors only when he talked to the peasants. he %ollowing is what 4ing Pan"?eng said to the peasants: ( think that my king ancestors em$loyed your "ore"athers, and ( will !e ena!led in the same way to greatly nourish you and cherish you1 (" ( am to err in my go ernment and remain long here, my "ounder king ancestor sends down on me $unishment and scolds me, and says, <Why do you treat my $eo$le so !ad)= (" you myriads o" $eo$le do not try to $er$etuate your li es and do not cherish one mind with me, the >ne man, in my $lans, the "ormer kings will send down on you $unishment, and say, <Why do you not agree with my young grandson, !ut go on to "or"eit your irtue)= When they $unish you "rom a!o e, you are una!le to esca$e1 'y king ancestors made your ancestors toil in the "ields, you are all my $eo$le1 5ou cherish wrong"ul intentions in your hearts1 'y royal ancestors treated your ancestors and "ore"ather well, and your ancestors and "ore"ather a!andon you, and do
not sa e you "rom death1 (" some o" you try to damage my administration, and think only o" hoarding u$ wealth, your ancestors and "ore"athers re$ort it to my "ounder ancestor, saying, <?lease e4ecute $unishment on our descendants1= So my "ounder ancestor sends great calamities on those men1 he original te3t does not have a grammar tense& and so many translations use %uture tense %or those remarks by the deceased ancestors. 7ere : use present tense %or those remarks indicating that Pan"?eng not only considered his people as bicameral& so he spoke to them in the deceased ancestors1 voice& but he also temporarily reversed to bicameral mind when he was saying in the deceased ancestors1 voice. :n other words& he was possessed by the spirits o% those deceased ancestors when he spoke in their voices. Eurthermore& ,hinese bicameral men regarded their leaders and ancestor as the model to %ollow. he ancient ,hinese corpse/ personators were grandchildren& and girls %or %emale ancestors and boys %or male ancestors. (cting out as their deceased grandparents in childhood on such a %ormal occasion might have planted a %irm idea in their minds that they were going to model a%ter their deceased grandparents& which was e3actly what the society wanted. <hen 4ing <u o% the Thou dynasty talked to Auke 'i& he said& L7eaven& working unseen& secures the tran6uillity o% the lower people& aiding them to be in harmony with their condition. : do not know how the unvarying principles o% the 7eaven to govern the country. 11 Auke 'i told the king nine principles& and the %irst is the %ive elements& water& %ire& wood& metal& and earth. his is almost identical with the ancient ?reek %our elements& water& %ire& air& and earth. +ut only the ancient ,hinese regarded the %ive elements as the
%irst principle o% governing the country& which indicates that ancient ,hina modeled a%ter nature. he second principle o% governing the country is so called the %ive personal matters. L he %irst is the bodily demeanourH the second& speechH the third& seeingH the %ourth& hearingH the %i%th& thinking. he virtue o% the bodily appearance is respect%ulnessH o% speech& accordance with reasonH o% seeing& clearnessH o% hearing& distinctnessH o% thinking& perspicaciousness. he respect%ulness becomes mani%est in gravityH accordance with reason& in orderlinessH the clearness& in wisdomH the distinctness& in deliberationH and the perspicaciousness& in sageness.M hose words show that the model the leaders set up %or their people and the ancestors set up %or their descendants is not a particular method or ideology to achieve a particular goal but rather a general character or more speci%ically& a state o% mind& as the ultimate goal o% this ancient ,hinese super state was to let the country remain in its original natural way o% unity and harmony %orever.
.&&' Discussion: !hinese 1istory is More !onsistent 2ith the 2ea3 4orm of Julian Jaynes’ Theory
<hen : %irst came to the idea o% primary and secondary society a %ew years ago& : was possessed by the 6uestion what was the brain power storage %or the sudden development o% a comple3 new li%e in the man"made secondary society only %ive or si3 thousand years ago a%ter humans had lived a simple li%e in primary society %or at least two hundred thousand yearsP Gow it seems clear that the le%t and the right hemisphere o% our brain and their connection may be the neurological basis. <hen patients have hal% o% their
brain cut o%% in the surgical procedure known as hemispherectomy& they can survive and %unction pretty well& but they will have some physical disabilities. he patients may even overcome the physical disabilities by reorgani0ation o% the le%t over hal% o% the brain especially when the patients who go through the procedure are young. :ntellectually they are doing well in college& and one o% them became the champion bowler o% her class& and another& the chess champion o% his state according to a neurologist 'ohn Ereeman o% 'ohns 7opkins .niversity. 81C9 hus humans might have hal% o% their brain power stored %or the emergence o% a comple3 li%estyle created by humans themselves. (ccording to 'ulian 'aynes& the connection o% the two hemispheres is very limited& and the trans%erring o% in%ormation through the two hemispheres must be coded. his also applies to the connection o% primary and secondary societies. Erom primary society to secondary society& a coded system is a must& which may include language& value systems& codes %or behaviour& law and so on. 'ulie 4ane reviewed the literature and concluded& LParticularly in the decade o% the 1)5*s& mass market publications populari0ed the notion o% the le%t brain as the processor o% language and rational thought and the right brain as the processor o% visuospatial images and holistic or intuitive awareness.M 81D9 #uch descriptions %it well with the concept o% primary and secondary societies with the right hemisphere responsible %or the primary society li%e and the le%t hemisphere responsible %or the secondary society li%e. Erom the discussion above& we know ,hinese civili0ation took a uni6ue pathway that allowed ,hinese people to remain in a primary or 6uasi"primary society. +ecause o% the similar social environments& the reason %or the ,hinese to practice divination might
have been the same around 2*** +, as in the late #hang dynasty. hey did not seek the divine voice to guide their lives but trying to %ind answers to 6uestions arising in their li%e& a sign o% the sub-ective conscious mind. o the prehistoric people& the /editerranean sea may be a much too more treachery physical environment than the isolated yet vast land o% ,hina. he latter might have accommodated a rela3ing mind o% curiosity but the %ormer might not. (lthough all ,hinese people regard the !ellow >mperor as their earliest common ancestor& the ,ollection o% (ncient e3ts starts with the !ao >mperor and the #hun >mperor& (P2;CD"22*C +,). ( total o% %ive short te3ts are %rom 2;CD to 12** +,& and all those te3ts provide %urther evidence %or the presence o% sub-ective consciousness. (ccording to the te3t& the >mperor !ao ordered his men to use the con%iguration and movement o% the stars at night to calculate the numbers o% days a year& and concluded that there were ;DD days in a year. /odern astronomic studies indicate that the special con%iguration o% stars the >mperor !ao and his people observed occurs every 2*** years& and its last appearance was in 1Q**. :ts previous appearance was around 22** +, 8159. he aosi archaeological site& #hang3i province& was considered to be the >mperor !ao1s capital. ( recent e3cavation reveals more than a do0en earth columns arranged in a hal% circle& which is apparently an ancient observatory. hose columns were thought to support stone columns %ive meter high. here%ore& the content o% the te3t about the >mperor !ao is essentially true. he te3t about the >mperor !ao uses 152 ,hinese characters& which e6uals about si3 hundred modern >nglish words& to describe how the >mperor !ao sent out people to observe the star pattern at %our places& each in the south& the north& the east& and the west
respectively& in order to assess the length o% a solar year. : think this shows that the !ao >mperor and his people had a sense o% space and time. here are numerous words used in the te3t suggest o% sub-ective consciousness. Auring a conversation with his tribal chie%s& every time the tribal chie%s mentioned a name& the >mperor !ao recalled his memory and e3pressed his impression on the named. :t indicates that the >mperor !ao had reminiscent memory available %or introspection and recall& a %eature o% sub-ective consciousness. o send a man in charge o% %lood control& the !ao >mperor disagreed with the tribal chie%s about the candidate they had recommended. +ut those tribal chie%s insisted& and the !ao >mperor gave in. =nce again& it shows that con%licting opinions are commonplace in primary society& since there is no %orce%ul authority. he %irst te3t o% ,ollection o% (ncient e3ts has the %ollowing phrases to describe poetry and songs& LPoetry is the e3pression o% earnest thoughtH singing is the prolonged utterance o% that e3pressionH the notes accompany that utterance& and they are harmoni0ed themselves by the standard tubes. 詩言志，歌永言， !永，"# $” hose
words clearly indicate the presence o% sub-ective consciousness. :% we accept the divination around 2*** +, in ,hina as an indication o% sub-ective consciousness and accept the authority o% the ancient ,hinese te3ts %rom 2;CD to 12** +,& ,hinese history is more consistent with the weak %orm o% 'ulian 'aynes1 theory that consciousness must have begun shortly a%ter humans ac6uired language. (n alternative interpretation o% the burial goods with the deceased and the ,hinese ancestor worship is that a sub-ective conscious mind has impassable di%%iculty to understand death. #ome philosophers even noticed that man cannot imagine one1s death
and cannot imagine a world without him while he can vividly imagine how he was born. :n other words& one cannot understand and cannot imagine how his or her sub-ective consciousness stops to e3ist. he death o% one1s sub-ective consciousness is only a culturally constructed idea en%orced on man. he concept o% immortal souls itsel% indicates the presence o% sub-ective consciousness rather than a bicameral mind to hear the voice o% the deceased. here%ore& : agree with those who put the time %or the emergence o% human sub-ective consciousness much earlier around %orty thousand years ago along the tool e3plosion and the %irst ritual burials. Primates groom each other to solidi%y their social bond& and anthropologists believe that naked humans chat with each other in stead o% grooming. >ven today when people spend most time working& watching television& they still chat at home. #uch chat does not necessarily %unction as e3change o% in%ormation or discussion o% a current issue& but it can be only %or the en-oyment. : o%ten see children o% three or %our years old chat this way: they giggle wholeheartedly at the nonsense they are talking. #uch chat is a piece o% pure art. hrough such chat and other collective activities& all members integrate into a whole psychologically and emotionally in primary society. he cohesive %orce and the unity o% secondary society rely on the uni%orm understanding o% their collective goals. ( highly developed system o% communication that is based on e3change o% in%ormation is a must. hus sub-ective consciousness might be an unintended side product while humans en-oy themselves by doing nothing& and secondary society uses sub-ective consciousness as the basic engine to promote its goal. =ne goal o% meditation is to seek a state o% mind: thoughtless awareness. hus it is not an easy -ob to stay wake and have nothing in the mind. Go doubt ancient primitive
people might have a dri%ting or wandering mind when they had nothing to do. 'ulian 'aynes thinks bicameral people do not have reminiscent memory& and their memories are supposed to be random and unorgani0ed. he content o% the dri%ting mind o% primitive people includes such unorgani0ed memories plus imagination. <hen they mastered enough words& nothing could stop them %rom communicating with each other about what was going on in their wandering minds. <hat they so e3pressed is called hallucination or imagination or spiritual e3perience or whatever you pre%er but the result is the same that they rela3ed and en-oyed themselves -ust as many animals do when they have nothing to do. his process eventually led to the stage that their collective imagination had created a world o% their own which has a set o% metaphors or mental representations to describe the created world with the mind"space. hat is e3actly what sub-ective consciousness is. =% course& this collectively imagined world by our ancient primitive people was a mi3ture o% hallucination and reality& the real world in 'aynesS term. :n response to a danger situation& one or two primates call out and the rest primates only hear the voice o% the call but they do not see the danger situation themselves. /ost o% those primates take the same right action in response to the call. (ccording to 'aynes& primitive people would similarly respond to a certain situation with the right words in their minds as auditory hallucination. he result is the same: they all response to the situation with the right action. 'ohn 7amilton reports auditory hallucinations in nonverbal 6uadriplegics 81Q9. 7e %ound nine out o% 1; ( D).2V ) such 6uadriplegics showed auditory hallucination. 7amilton even suggests& LNauditory hallucination& which %or certain physically
handicapped populations may be the rule& not the e3ception.M hose people are completely dependent on others %or their physical and mental well"being. (s mentioned above& our civili0ation made uncivili0ed idle people all labouring themselves day and night like ants& especially in the early stage o% civili0ation. heir conditions may be in a way similar to those 6uadriplegics. =n the other hand& those 6uadriplegics hear voices when they have nothing do lying in bed. o hear those voices certainly re6uires mental concentration to a certain degree. hose voices may be more a result o% sub-ective consciousness than a result o% the bicameral mind& since mental concentration is no doubt an action o% %ree will that directs the thought to certain direction. =% course those voices a%%ected the way those 6uadriplegics respond to their care"givers a%terwards. :% those 6uadriplegics had only randomly dri%ting minds when they were alone and did not have any mental activity concentrating on certain topics& they would not have heard the voices they had. hose voices are all persistent and meaning%ul to the hearers. :% the voices they heard were only part o% their randomly dri%ting minds& they would not have been able to report any voices. (gain it %avours the weak %orm o% the theory that sub-ective consciousness coe3ists with the bicameral mind: some heard voice because they had searched %or the voice consciously& and some heard the voice only as a way to %ollow the authority. 7amilton discusses intuitions at length. Primitive people had 6uite di%%erent intuitions %rom modern civili0ed people. Primitive people1s intuition is the result o% human nature. =ur intuition is the working o% our minds without our awareness. #uch intuitions have integrated into them all the in%ormation we have learned by sub-ective conscious e3perience.
#ince hypnosis& trance& religious e3perience& and even including poetry writing& are all considered as a temporary bicameral mind. #ub-ective consciousness and bicameral mentality can trans%orm into each other in modern individuals. :t is understandable that sub-ective consciousness and bicameral mentality could trans%orm into each other in ancient society. hus once ac6uired sub-ective consciousness could be lost a%terwards in a small society. #ophisticated writing and sophisticated social structure based on sub-ective consciousness might have acted to prevent such loss. =% course& a large sub-ective conscious population itsel% is the ultimate blockage to such loss. =ne way %or the loss o% sub-ective consciousness is that some content o% sub-ective consciousness becomes inheritance o% the society such as mythology or divine voice heard by members& the bicameral mind. hus the bicameral mind could be the relic o% the previous conscious minds that had been lost. :% sub-ective consciousness could be lost during the early stage o% human development& the weak %orm and the strong %orm o% 'ulian 'aynes1s theory do not contradict each other. he <est happened to be the strong %orm while ,hina happened to go through a pathway o% the weak %orm o% the theory. he weak %orm indicates the coe3istence o% sub-ective consciousness and the bicameral mind in early ,hinese history while the strong %orm indicates the absence o% sub-ective consciousness be%ore the documented presence o% the bicameral mind in the <est. +oth remain speculative and un%alsi%iable. Eurthermore& the author believes that sub-ective consciousness likely %irst appeared with the tool e3plosion around %orty thousand years ago and switched to a %ull blown bicameral mind in the early /editerranean civili0ations but not in ,hinese civili0ation.
'ulian 'aynes made it clear that this weak %orm o% his theory is almost un%alsi%iable. 7e says& L: think we should have a hypothesis that can be disproved by evidence i% we are going to call it a scienti%ic hypothesis.M hus 'ulian 'aynes did not necessarily believe less in his weak %orm than in his strong %orm o% the theory.
5eferences 819 'ulian 'aynes (1)5D): he =rigin o% ,onsciousness in the +reakdown o% the +icameral /ind. +oston: 7oughton"/i%%lin. 829 'ulian 'aynes (1)QD): ,onsciousness and the @oices o% the /ind& ,anadian Psychology& (pril 1)QD& @ol. 25(2). 8;9 !ou"#heng $i (2**C): ( Gew :nterpretation o% ,hinese aoist Philosophy. $ondon& ,anada: aoist Becovery ,entre. 829 !ou"#heng $i (2**D): he ,oncept o% Primary society and #econdary #ociety. <eb site: http://taoism21cen.com. 8C9 #ima6ian %﹕迁 (?90 BC): 7istorical Becords& 'ilin $iteral and 7istorical Publishing 7ouse& 2**;. (:n ,hinese& translated by the author& same %or all 6uotations %rom ,hinese sources). 8D9 <ang !u0he '() (2**2)﹕ (ncient ,hinese 7istory& #hanghai: People’s Publishing 7ouse& 2**2. (in ,hinese) 859 ed Bemington (2**5): he =rigin o% Bhetoric in the +reakdown o% the +icameral /ind& he 'aynesian Gewsletter& #ummer 2**5. (http://www.-ulian-aynes.org) 8Q9 /arvin 7arris (1)55): ,annibals and 4ings. Gew !ork: Bandom 7ouse. p).
8)9 /arvin 7arris (1)QQ): ,ulture& People& Gature. Gew !ork: 7arper W Bow Publishers. P;55"5Q. 81*9 Fia Thenhao (2**1): ( ?eneral ,ultural 7istory: Fia and #hang. #hanghai: #hanghai (rt and $iterature Publishing 7ouse& pD*Q"525. (:n ,hinese) 8119 Aavid 4eightley (1))*): >arly civili0ation in ,hina. :n Paul #. Bopp& eds: 7eritage o% ,hina. +erkeley& .niversity o% ,ali%ornia Press. p;5. 8)9 $. $evy"+ruhl (1)5;): Primitive /entality. Gew !ork: /acmillan. (pD1"D2). 8129 >rika +ourguignon (1)51): Psychological (nthropology: an :ntroduction to 7uman Gature and ,ultural Ai%%erences. Gew !ork: 7olt& Binehart and <inston. 8129 /ichael ,arr (2**Q): he #hi L,orpse/PersonatorM ,eremony in >arly ,hina. :n /arcel 4ui-sten& eds& Be%lections on the Aawn o% ,onsciousness& 7enderson: 'ulian 'aynes #ociety. 81C9 ,harles J. ,hoi (2**Q): Ao !ou Geed =nly 7al% !our +rainP #cienti%ic (merican& /arch 2**Q& p1*2. 81D9 'ulie 4ane (2**2): Poetry as Bight"7emisphere $anguage. 'ournal o% ,onsciousness #tudies. 11& Go. C"D& p21"C). 8159 <ang& +aolin (2**;): ( /odern >dition o% ,ollection o% (ncient e3ts. #hanghai: #hanghai (ncient +ook Publishing 7ouse. P;D";5. ( <ang cites the 1)th century sinologist Ar. /. 7. /elhurst& >nglish translator 'ames $egge& and recent studies by Ar. 7. 4. ,. !ee in his book. !#$i) (in ,hinese) 81Q9 '. 7amilton (2**Q): (uditory 7allucinations in Gonverbal Juadriplegics. :n /arcel 4ui-sten& eds& Be%lections on the Aawn o% ,onsciousness& 7enderson: 'ulian 'aynes #ociety.