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Universidad de Santiago Fallon Quintana facultad de Humanidades Lingstica y Literatura

Beyond Methods Macro strategies for language teaching kumaradivelu B. Yale University Press, New heaven and London. C ! "eaching #y $rinci$les. "eaching #y $rinci$les. %n interactive a$$roach to language $edagogy, douglas. &nd 'd. Longman. C ( intrinsic motivation in the classroom. "eaching #y $rinci$les. %n interactive a$$roach to language $edagogy, douglas. &nd 'd. Longman. C ) learner varia#les *+ teaching across age levels. "eaching #y $rinci$les. %n interactive a$$roach to language $edagogy, douglas. &nd 'd. Longman. C , Learners -aria#les **+ teaching across $roficiency levels. "eaching #y $rinci$les. %n interactive a$$roach to language $edagogy, douglas. &nd 'd. Longman. C &. Learner %utonomy+ Learning to Learn. "he $ractice of 'nglish language taching, amer /. !th 'd. Longman. Communicative Language teaching today. 0ichards, /. Practical techni1ues for language teaching. Lewis, M 2 /immie. ill,

C 3& "eaching Language Construction. "he $ractice of 'nglish Language teaching, amer, /. !th 'd. Longman. C 4 "echni1ues5correction. Practical techni1ues for language teaching. Lewis, M 2 ill, /immie. C 4 Mistakes and 6eed#ack. "he $ractice of 'nglish language teaching, ammer, /. !th 'd. Longman. Module ., $art &, unit .3 correcting learners. "he teaching knowledge test course, 7$ratt M, Pulverness %, 8illiams M, CUP. Module ., $art &, unit .& giving feed#ack. "he teaching knowledge test course, 7$ratt M, Pulverness %, 8illiams M, CUP.

C &. Counting your teachinr education. 9classroom :#servation, Classroom 0esearch, critical $edagogy, #rown, douglas. &nd 'd. Longman. C 3( integratiing the four skills. "eaching $rinci$les. %n interactive %$$roach to language $edagogy. Brown, ;ouglas. & nd 'd. Longman. C 3) "eaching language skills. "he $ractice of 'nglish language teaching, amer, /. !th 'd. Longman

TKT Do you agree with these comments !" # Learning grammar rules is really useful$ %ut learning grammatical terms isn&t" what do you thin' of this (n my o)inion$ grammar rules descri%es the way in which language should %e used$ %ut it changes with the time so grammar rules are not static" Thus$ teachers need to %e aware of it and they should not to consider %oo's that )resent rules as the main source of 'nowledge$ %ecause they are not always u) to date" *esides$ grammar rules )resented on %oo' mainly descri%e written language than s)o'en language" Some )eo)le )refer learning grammatical rules and terms %ecause it ma'es easier for them to learn" *ut only learning grammatical rules does not give enough hel) with learning how to communicate that is the main )ur)ose of language +" # The only way to learn voca%ulary is through reading widely" ,hat do you thin' (t is well 'nown that %y reading we are a%le to %road our )ers)ectives$ learn new facts and come to a %etter and dee)er understanding of the world or facts in life" *ecause of that ( thin' reading increases our voca%ulary 'nowledge" -ertainly 'nowing a word means 'nowing all its meaning

understanding its form$ )ronunciation and s)elling "furthermore$ te.ts introduce us to new words$ and in many cases$ we can deduce their meanings from the written conte.t" /lso we need chances to remem%er this item$ in that sense$ we are a%le to remem%er some of these new meaning associations$ es)ecially if we continue to read and meet the new items in conte.t again" (t seems to me reasona%le to assume that this %eneficial" 0" # (t&s not very useful for my learners to learn any of the )honemic sym%ols" ,hat do you thin' ( disagree" (t is )roved that the use of )honetic sym%ols in foreign language teaching and learning is )otentially very )ositive for learners" Therefore$ it is essential to consider the %est way to ta'e advantage of )honetic sym%ols in the foreign language classroom" The main )rinci)les a%out the sounds1sym%ols are2 e.)loiting learners3 familiarity with the sym%ol sha)es and1or the sounds to %e studied" Some consider that teachers should introduce first sym%ols identical or similar to the e4uivalent letters of the al)ha%et used in the student3s native language and1or those sym%ols which re)resent sound s also found in the learners5 native language and ma'e students )erceive the utility of )honetic notation for the study of )ronunciation" For instance$ students could %e shown the %enefits of learning )honetic notation for chec'ing )ronunciation in dictionaries autonomously$ for distinguishing minimal )airs$ for re)resenting the (f students don&t )erceive the utility of )honetic notation$ )honetic sym%ols may %e considered useless"

6" # Functions contain too much com)licated grammar for %eginner learners" ,hat do you thin' Functions are often taught in course%oo's together with the grammar in their main e.)onents" -om%ining function and grammar hel)s to give grammar a meaning1conte.t for learners and hel)s them to learn functions with grammatical structures that they can then use in other conte.ts"

7" # (f ( don&t correct my students$ they will continue to ma'e the same mista'es and these will %ecome %ad ha%its" ,hat do you thin'

( agree" -orrection is essential when learning a second language$ %ecause %y errors is that students reali8e or notice their mista'es" ,hen they notice the mista'e and correct it$ they learn" (f they do not do so$ )ro%a%ly they will 'ee) on the same mista'e and the learner will %ecome fossili8ed"

9" # ( cannot thin' of my students&needs when ( have 67 students in a class: all ( can do is teach the materials in my course%oo'" ,hat do you thin' *eing aware of students3 needs is )art of %eing a good teacher$ sim)ly %ecause students have )ersonal learning needs" ;ach learner is different" (n order to satisfy students needs$ it is im)ortant for educators to understand the emotional$ social and educational needs that each child has" ;ducating is more than only teaching reading or writing" (n that sense$ we as teachers must %e taught different ways1 techni4ues to hel) our students" Teachers can meet )ersonal needs of learners %y choosing suita%le materials$ to)ics$ )ace$ activities$ an a))roach to teaching$ s'ills$ interactions )atterns$ and ty)es of feed%ac'" ;ach class is different and teachers need to %e a%le to ada)t material from whatever source so that it is suita%le for their students" / course %oo' can certainly hel) )lanning$ %ut it cannot re)lace the teacher5s own ideas for what he or she wants to achieve in a class <" # T*L is close to the way we learn new language in our first language" ,hat do you thin' Tas'#%ased learning has some characteristic that ma'e it similar to the way we learn our first language " The )rimary focus is to use language as an instrument and students use it language to achieve a s)ecific outcome" That reflects real life $ %ecause they are free to use any language they want" Unli'e a === a))roach$ the students are free of language control" (n all three stages they must use all their language resources rather than >ust )ractising one )re#selected item as in real life "/ natural conte.t is develo)ed from the students5 e.)eriences with the language that is )ersonali8ed and relevant to them"/nother as)ect is related with e.)osure $ students will have a much more varied e.)osure to language with T*L" They will %e e.)osed to a whole range of le.ical )hrases$ collocations and )atterns as well as language forms"The language e.)lored arises from the students5 needs" This need dictates what will %e covered in the lesson rather than a decision made %y the teacher or the course%oo'"So This a))roach can %e defined as a strong communicative a))roach where students s)end a lot of time communicating" So it is en>oya%le and motivating"

?" # Students don&t li'e doing lots of different activities# it3s confusing" ,hat do you thin' (n my )ersonal o)inion$ activities must %e related to the to)ic and must %e focused on hel)ing students to get the content" So$ when the teacher )re)ares an activity$ he might %e sure these are )ointed to hel) the learners and not to distur% the )rocess of learning"

@" # ( often discover what my aims are while ( am teaching the lesson" Sometimes ( only find out when the lesson is over" ,hat do you thin' Ane of the most im)ortant reasons to )lan is that the teacher needs to identify his or her aims for the lesson" Teachers need to 'now what it is they want their students to %e a%le to do at the end of the lesson that they couldn5t do %efore" (t also gives the teacher the o))ortunity to )redict )ossi%le )ro%lems and therefore consider solutions$ ma'es sure that lesson is %alanced and a))ro)riate for class and )lanning is generally good )ractice and a sign of )rofessionalism

!B"# Lesson )lans don&t hel) me teach %ecause ( always try to res)ond to learner&s needs during the lesson" ,hat do you thin' /lso the learning needs can %e meet %y choosing suita%le materials and to)ics$ activities$ interaction )atterns$ a))roach to teaching$ level of language and s'ills $ learning strategies and wor'load" !!"# The course%oo' gives me everything ( need to )lan a se4uence of lessons" ,hat do you thin' / good teacher always have to satisfy the students needs" Sometimes to follow and cover a %oo' is not that good$ %ecause students are >ust com)leting a %oo' %ut not learning" (f we$ teachers have to use a %oo' which has features we disli'e$ it may hel) to ma'e your disagreement clear to the students if$ for e.am)le$ you are going to omit )ractices of a certain ty)e$ %ut criticism of detail that could affect students3 confidence in the %oo' should always %e avoided" However$ if it is clear to students that you and the %oo' are going in different directions$ they will %e confused and their learning im)eded" *esides$ teachers do not have to %e afraid to change the order of the material )resented in the %oo'$ omit )articular items$ or su))lement the %oo' %y )roviding additional )ractice$ or )ractices of a different 'ind" Such changes must$ however$ %e )lanned in advance" Thus$the %est lessons will usually %e those in which the teacher uses the %oo' as a su))ort for a course which is centred on the students3 needs"

!+"#Cy learners have regular tests$ so ( don&t need to do much informal assessment" ,hat do you thin' /sses formally trough test and e.aminations is im)ortant %ut also informal assessment is" (t is a way of chec'ing how the learners are getting on "This 'ind of assessment hel) us to im)rove our )rocedures or choose different materials or activities for future lessons $to find out how successful our teaching has %een$ to give feed%ac' to the learners a%out they can do and what they stull need to wor' on !0"# ( use all material in every unit in the orden given in the %oo'" ,hat do you thin' -ourse%oo' units are often arranged around a s)ecific to)ic $ %ut it might ma'e students feel that the lessons are re)etitive "For that is im)ortant to vary $as teachers we should avoid doing the same 'inds of things in the same order for e.am)le we can vary the )ace$ the interactions )atternDindividual )airs$grou)s$whole classE$ the s'illD)roductive or rece)tiveE$the level of dificulty $the content$the mood and e.citing or calming activities" /lso learners might re4uire more revision than a course%oo' will )rovide"(ncluding regular revision activities during a se4uence of lesson to recycle language" !6"# Cy learners s)ea' the sameL! as ( do" So$ it&s much %etter to use the mother tongue for setting u) activities and chec'ing understanding" ,hat do you thin' (f the focus of the lesson is to im)rove the L!$ it would %e right to use the L! for chec'ing understanding or setting u)" However$ when the aim of the lesson is a%out learning a second language$ students must %e given a model and when there is no model$ it is im)ossi%le to learn" The idea is to )rovide learners with as much e.)osure as we can" *esides$ there are other ways to )rovide the same information" / teacher can convey meaning: modify his1her in)ut$ act$ etc" Finally$ the idea of using the L! in an ;nglish lesson is only recommenda%le when the teacher uses all ti)s given %efore and learners do not understood$ in order to o)timi8e time"

!7"Learners thing we&re not doing out our >o% if we don&t correct all their mista'es" ,hat do you thin' =ro%a%ly most students %elieve so" They want the teacher to %e there to hel) at any stage of the lesson %ecause $ mainly adults or %eginners Dnot necessarily young childrenE$ feel afraid of ma'ing mista'es" *ut the fact is that in a normal lesson$ there are a%out 0B )eo)le that a teacher has to correct and hel)" So$ clearly in some cases it would not %e enough and students might %elieve the teacher is not doing his1her >o% )ro)erly"

!9"#(t&s %est to se)arate wea'1strong or shy1dominant learners into different grou)s or )airs" ,hat do you thin' The %est thing a teacher can do is to mi. all students in order to ma'e them )artici)ate" (f we mi. a tal'ative student and a not that tal'ative student$ )ro%a%ly they will succeed with the tas'$ %ut (f we mi. two shy students" Fevertheless$ if a teacher mi.es a wea' with a strong student$ what is going to ha))en is that the strong student will s)ea' or do the whole tas' alone and the shy student will not %enefit from that activity"

!<"# ,hen learners ma'e mista'es it means they are not learning" ,hat do you thin' ,hen learners ma'e mista'es it means they are learning$ %ut learners tend to thin' it is wrong to ma'e mista'es and they try so hard to avoid mista'es %ecause they are not o)en to get %ad comments a%out their )erformance" Cista'es can hel) us change what it is wrong" From them we really learn$ %ecause %efore ma'ing the mista'e we are not aware we are wrong" There is a 'ind of mista'e that is called avoidance" (t ha))ens when we are so aware of our mista'es that we avoid difficult structures in order to mean the same %ut with structures we manage very well" The fact here is that avoidance does not let the learner to im)rove$ %ecause the mista'e is still there" So$ mista'es are good and hel) us in the )rocess of learning" ** Conce$ts 3. "alk a#out teacher roles+ $lanner, $arent, monitor, diagnostician, manager, resource, etc.

Teachers change their roles during a lesson" Those roles will %e a))ro)riate to the ty)e of lesson$ activities$ lesson aims and the level and age of the learners" /t different stages of the lesson a teacher might %e an informer$ a )arent$ a friend$ manager$ monitor$ etc" / teacher$ as it was said$ can %e a $lanner, and that means that he )re)ares the lesson in detail %efore teaching it$ so that it has variety and there are a))ro)riate activities for different learners in the class" / teacher as an informer, he gives the learners detailed information a%out the language or a%out an activity" / manager that organises the learning s)ace$ ma'es sure everything in the classroom is running smoothly and sets u) the rules and routines" / monitor, that goes around the class during individual$ )air$ and grou) wor' activities" /n involver$ who ma'es sure all learners are ta'ing )art in the activities" / $arent< friend$ that conforts learnes when they are u)set or unha))y" / diagnostician$ who is a%le to recognise the cause of learners &difficulties" Finally$ a resource$ who )rovides hel) and advice"

&. 8hat is a function= / function is a reason why we communicate" ;very time we s)ea' or write we do that is with a )ur)ose" For e.am)le$ greeting$ a)ologi8ing$ than'ing$ and agreeing$ among others and the language we use to e.)ress a function is called exponent. Thus$ for e.am)le$ if I want to invite my sister to the theatre I would say to my sister lets go to the theatre tomorrow so, the function here is suggesting. Coreover$ e.)onents e.)ress different levels of formality and when formality suits with a situation it is called a))ro)riacy"

.. 8hat>s the difference #etween echo correction and $eer correction= (n one hand$ echo correction is a very )ositive way of correcting students$ avoiding negative language li'e 5That5s wrongG5 or H FA G H" (t means re)eating %ac' to the student what they said incorrectly$ %ut this time with the correction or the good way of saying it" on the other hand$ )eer correction is when students wor' in grou)s or )airs and they correct themselves the mista'es they hear or read"

!.

ow can you trigger students motivation in the classroom= /s learning is autonomous$ and motivation is something that comes from within$ teachers does not motivate students %ut sha)e motivation" There are many different ways to sha)e motivation such as )raising$ STT ma.imi8ed$ showing them to find the im)ortance of ;nglish$ %y giving useful1attractive activities or %eing an energetic teacher among others"

(. 8hat?s the silent $eriod= The silent )eriod$ is a stage in second language ac4uisition where learners do not attem)t to s)ea'" Silent )eriods are more common in children than in adult learners$ as there is often more )ressure on adult learners to s)ea' during the early stages of ac4uisition" This can %e due to communication demands such as a language %eing necessary at wor'$ or to mainstream language teaching methods insisting on )roduction from the very start of instruction" The silent )eriod is often associated with Ste)hen Krashen5s in)ut hy)othesis$ that learners are %uilding u) language com)etence during their silent )eriods through actively listening and )rocessing the language they hear$ and that they do not need to s)ea' to im)rove in the language" He says that silent )eriods of u) to si. months are not unusual" /lso$ the silent )eriod has %een )ut into )ractice in language teaching methods such as Total =hysical Ies)onse$ the natural a))roach$ the delayed oral res)onse a))roach$ and the com)rehension method" (n Total =hysical Ies)onse and the natural a))roach$ the instructor is s)ecifically recommended to wait for students5 s)eech to emerge naturally$ rather than forcing early out)ut"

). 8hat is interlanguage= (nterlanguage is a Lerner3s develo)ing second language 'nowledge" (t might have characteristics of the second language$ and some characteristics that seem to %e very general and tend to occur in all our most interlanguage systems" (nterlanguages are systematic$ %ut they are also dynamic" They change as learners receive more in)ut and revise their hy)otheses a%out second language"

,. 8hat is a develo$mental error= / develo)mental error is an error in learner language that does not result from L! influence %ut rather reflects the learner&s gradual discovery of the L+ system" These errors are often similar to those made %y children learning the language as their mother tongue" Such error can %e classified as overgenerali@ation when a learner wrongly a))ly a rule for one item of the language to another item"

4. 8hat>s the difference #etween learning styles and learning straregies= Learning styles descri%e an individual&s natural$ ha%itual and )referred way of a%sor%ing$ )rocessing and retaining new information and s'ills" (n other words$ learning styles are the way in which a learner naturally )refers to remem%er information and s'ills" Some learning styles are visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, grou$, individual, reflective, etc. *ut$ learning strategies are the ways chosen and used %y learners to learn language" They include the ways to hel) ourselves identify what we need to learn$ )rocess new language and wor' with other )eo)le to learn" Some of them are2 re$eating new words in your head until you remem#er them, highlighting, etc.

A.

ow different are "BL and PPP= They are totally difference since we consider organi8ation$ %ut they have some similarities too" (n the following chart it is shown the main characteristics of each model" PPP 5 =resent the language in a conte.t" # The teacher conte.tuali8ed the new language" 5 The teacher ma'es sure that student remem%er )reviously language needed to )ractise the new language %y eliciting" # The teacher )resents the new language and the students >ust "BL 5 the lesson has a language aim" The aim of the lesson is to com)lete a tas'" #The teacher starts %y holding a discussion on the to)ic of the lesson" #The teacher then gives the student tas' to do" #Teacher and students discuss any new or )ro%lematic language they

listen" Dcontrolled )racticeE The teacher tell the students a%out the grammatical use of the new language" The teacher as' students conce)t 4uestions" The students )ractice using their own ideas" Following the model given"

needed for the tas'" #Students do an e.ercise on the new language"

(n one hand$ a PPP a))roach )resents a new language %y giving the students an o))ortunity to )ractise the language in a safe learning environment where it is difficult to ma'e mista'es" "BL a))roach$ on the other hand$ allows students to find new language when they want to$ and to use the language e.)erimentally and creatively for real communication"

3B.

8hat is feed#ack=

Feed%ac' is give information$ advice or criticism to learners a%out how good or useful something or some%ody wor's" Feed%ac' can %e focus on learner&s language or s'ills$ the ideas in their wor'$ their %ehavior $their attitude to learning or their )rogress "(t can %e give to the whole class $ to small grou)s or individual learners" (t can %e oral or written" The )ur)oses of feed%ac' is to motivate learners and to hel) them to understand what their )ro%lems are and how they can im)rove "(t should %e )ositive$ this is )articularly im)ortant to wea'er or less confident learners" /lso during feed%ac' we can revisit or recycle languages that learners are having )ro%lems with" 0'-*7*:N M'" :;:L:CY !?" "he decline of method D ;iana Larsen E 6reeman. ;iscuss in detail. Cethods are not considered sim)le$ %ecause they change during time" ,hen one method is incom)lete$ then other researchers )ostulate ways to im)rove it and so on" Cethods always change and ada)ts to the conte.t and the time" ,hat was useful in the )ast )ro%a%ly is not useful today or in the future and some other waves a))ear to demonstrate it" in other words$ Hthe %est method is one which you have derived through your very own )rocess of formulation$ try#out$ revision$ and refinementJ D!@?<2!+E" H

!@" Mention Fumaravadivelu>s main ideas a#out L"2L. To %egin with$ it is necessary to consider that any method is )erfect at all$ so Kumaravadivelu aims that the )ost method )edagogy hel)s teachers to move %eyond methods" However$ he %elieves that the conce)t of method is critical for language learning and teaching$ and teacher education" There are three main )arameters in )ost method )edagogy that indicate2 The social conte.t of the classroom and teachers3 understanding of what leads to learning in such a classroom" That is to say$ teachers should )ersuade the students3 social needs: otherwise$ they can3t satisfy students3 )edagogical needs DKumaravadivelu$ +BB0E" The three )arameters )ostulated %y Kumaradivadivelu are2 Particularity2 it means that the sort of techni4ues teachers use de)ends on where$ when and to whom they are teaching" *y the notion of )articularity$ Kumaravadivelu suggests$ Hany language )edagogy$ to %e relevant must %e sensitive to a )articular grou) of teachers teaching a )articular grou) of learners )ursuing a )articular set of goals within a )articular institutional conte.t em%edded in )articular socio#cultural milieu"J Practicality2 *y )racticality he means that a method should %e a))lica%le in real situation: otherwise$ the )ractice#theory relationshi) can3t %e a))roached: in other words$ a theory is of no use unless it can %e a))lied in )ractice" /nd finally$ Possi#ility2 which means that the method should %e a))ro)riate socially$ culturally$ and )olitically" *ecause teachers and students attend the classroom with all their %eliefs and thoughts and it cannot %e stated that their )ersonalities inside the classroom is se)arate from their )ersonalities outside the classroom in their everyday lives"

&B.

8hat makes Gs$eakingH difficult according to ;. Brown.

!" -lustering2 fluent s)eech is fluent $ it is not word %y word" +" Iedundancy2 they may use this Kfeature3 to ma'e their message clear" 0" Ieduced forms2 contractions and wea' forms 6" =erformance varia%les2 )auses$ hesitations allow )eo)le to thin' a%out what they are going to say ne.t Duse of monitorE" 7" -ollo4uial language2 student may not %e familiari8ed with idioms or )hrases of collo4uial language" 9" Iate of delivery2 to achieve an acce)ta%le s)eed DfluencyE <" Stress$ rhythm$ and intonation2 all of these features change meaning of words ?" (nteraction2 the creativity of conversational negotiation"

&3. Mention and discuss in detail the , interactive $rinci$les according to ;. Brown. !" /utomaticity2 is the su%conscious a%sor)tion of language through meaningful use Dthe use of monitor$ to thin' of rules while you are writing o )roducing utterances E" +" (ntrinsic motivation2 Kself#reward3" To feel satisfied %ecause of their im)rovement" 0" Strategic investment2 interaction re4uires the use of strategic language com)etences" Students must invest time and energy in the )rocess of learning" 6" Iis'#ta'ing2 students may ta'e ris's" (f they do not do it $ eventually they will learn less and1or slowly than other students" 7" The language#culture connection2 students not only learn a%out the L+ rules$ they also ac4uire a com)le. system of cultural customs De." ta%oosE 9" (nterlanguage2 errors as )art of the )rocess of learning Ddevelo)mental )rocess of ac4uisitionE" <" -ommunicative com)etence2 all as)ect must wor' together2 grammar$ semantics$ )ragmatics" &&. 7$eak a#out Gform5 6ocused instruction. Cive eIam$les, ;. Brown. /ccording to D" *rown$ grammar refers to the system of rules that govern sentences structure" Des)ite of the fact it is an im)ortant and fundamental com)onent of communicative com)etence$ it is not stand alone" =eo)le need more than grammar to convey meaning through their utterances" They need to 'now a%out meaning DsemanticsE and conte.t D)ragmaticsE too" / teacher should consider the %enefits of teaching grammar" (n case of 4uestions related to rules in order to understand Kthe new language3" So$ a)art from age$ teacher must consider the )roficiency level of their students D%eginners may feel overwhelmE$ students3 educational %ac'ground Dhighly educated students are cognitive more rece)tive to grammar and they may )refer error correction in order to learnE$ language s'ills Dgrammar %enefits the develo)ment of writingE$ style and register Dwithin informal settings errors in form are more toleratedE$ needs and goals Dstudents may learn ;nglish >ust to communicate with someoneE" Furthermore$ the issues a%out how to teach grammar must %e considered" Here we consider 2 *nductive v<s deductive+ in most conte.ts an inductive a))roach is more a))ro)riate %ecause2 it is a more in 'ee)ing with natural language

ac4uisition$ it conforms more easily to the conce)t of interlanguage develo)ment$ it allows students to get a communicative Kfeel3 for some as)ects of language$ it %uild more intrinsic motivation in students" The Use of e.)lanations and technical terminology2 it must %e a))roach with care" ;ven though adults may %enefits from e.)lanations$ sometimes students are too %usy to learn a%out language itself Drather than useE" Thus$ e.)lanations must %e %rief and sim)le Dto do so$ teacher may draw charts or give clear e.am)lesE" *solated grammar+ e.)eriences tell us that grammar should %e em%edded into general language courses" *ut$ intermediate levels it may %e useful to set grammar aside" So teacher should consider students3 goal to introduce grammar isolated or in conte.t" Correction+ Forms of attention to grammar errors have an im)act on learners" The treatment of grammatical errors in writing is different from s)ea'ing Dthat has an im)act on fluencyE" (n writing students ma'e drafts first and then errors that interfere in meaning are corrected" Coreover$ grammar in a curriculum should %e se4uenced in a )rogression of easier to difficult items Da logical se4uence of %asic grammatical structuresE" There is a loss of focus on the le.ical forms of language Dle.is has %een taught through lists of ver%s$ ad>ectives$ etc L communicative tas'sE" /llocate s)ecific class time to voca%ulary learning2 without voca%ulary$ we cannot e.)ress our ideas" Hel) students to learn voca%ulary in conte.t2 the %est internali8ation of voca%ulary comes from Kconte.t3" Students may create ma)s with new voca%ulary" Finally$ )lay down the role of %ilingual dictionaries2 in order to increase the amount of voca%ulary Dthey infers the meaning of the wordsE" (t is easier to internali8e and then recall voca%ulary when they learn in this way" &.. "eaching #y $rinci$les E ;ouglas Brown. ;iscuss in detail+

J Cognitive $rinci$les !" /utomaticity2 it is the automatic )rocessing of forms and voca%ulary Damong othersE to )roduce Klanguage3" To decrease the amount of monitor DKrashenE$ in other words$ to avoid overt attention to language systems" +" Ceaningful learning2 Hit leads toward %etter long#term retention" (t affects students3 motivations" (t is im)ortant to choose interesting to)ics Dconte.tuali8edE" -onsidering )rior 'nowledge" /void )itfalls of rote learning" 0" The antici)ation of reward2 )eo)le e.)ect rewards" They do and %ehave in a certain way to gain something Dto s)ar' motivationE" 6" (ntrinsic motivation2 teachers have to consider students3 motivations" Students )erform a tas' %ecause it is fun$ challenging etc"

7" Strategic investment2 to %e successful in something$ you need )ractice" J %ffective $rinci$les !" Language ego2 students develo) a new way of thin'ing" Teacher should ta'e into account students have feelings Daffective filter$ iM!E +" Self#confidence2 the %elief that they DstudentsE are ca)a%le of doing or achieve something" 0" Iis'#ta'ing2 the im)ortance of getting learners to ta'e cultural ris's in attem)ting to use language Dthe teacher should )rovide an a))ro)riate environment so students may feel comforta%leE" 6" The language#culture connection2 teacher should teach their students the cultural connotations Dsociolinguistic as)ects of languageE J Linguistic $rinci$les !" The native language effect2 it a good idea to discuss in lessons cross#cultural differences Dcontrast analysisE" +" (nterlanguage2 it is a develo)mental )rocess" Successful interlanguage develo)ment is )artially a result of utili8ing feed%ac' from others" 0" -ommunicative com)etence2 language it is not >ust grammar or le.is$ it involves other com)etences and as)ects Dintonation$ stress$ )ragmatics$ semantics$ etcE &!. "he $ractice of 'nglish Language "eaching #y 0efer to learner differences. armer.

The =ractice of ;nglish Language Teaching %y Harmer refers to2 /)titude2 analytic#ty)e learners L good at grammar L not the crucial factor to success in language learning " Cost successful students2 unusual memories" So they retain more what they hear" Learner ty)es and styles$ Iecognition of students as individuals$ ;sta%lish who the different students in our classes are$ /scertain their language level and monitor their )rogress forma and informally L to 'now who needs more or less hel)$ to guide de ty)e and amount of feed%ac' they need" To tailor our methods$ the materials and the )roduction we e.ce)t to the level we are wor'ing with" To ma'e activities that offer ma.imal advantage to the different )eo)le in the class" Through o%servation$ 4uestionnaires$ etc" ,ritten feed%ac'$ more effective than face to face feed%ac'" &(. ;escri#ing learners E and adolescents. armer + "eaching children , %dults

/ge2 -hildren (ntellectual develo)ment /dults Teens

they are centred on they handle a%stract some so)histicated the here and now on rules intellectual the functional )rocessing is )ur)oses of language )ossi%le Ddo not forget )u%erty issuesE they tend to have they have longer short attention s)an attention s)ans Dinteresting to)ics to catch their attentionE they need their 7 senses involved in lessons their egos are still %eing sha)ed" attention s)ans tend to %e long$ %ut it can easily %e shortened

/ttention s)an

Sensory in)ut

sensory in)ut may varieties of sensorial not always %e varied" in)ut are still im)ortant they tend to %e self# teacher must %e confident careful a%out self# esteem do not %ored then with overanalysis nor treat them as children

/ffective factors /uthentic$ meaningful language

language need to %e they can understand authentic and a conte.t reduced conte.tuali8ed segment of language Dconte.t still im)ortantE

Learner differences2 a)titude Dsome students are %etter at learning languages than others" *ut it does not determine the level of student3s successE good learner characteristics Dthere are not s)ecific characteristics$ %ut some of them are2 tolerance of am%iguity$ )ositive tas' orientation$ ego involvement$ high as)irations$ goal orientation$ )erseverance$ creative$ inde)endent$ etcE learner styles Dmany teachers may classify their students in different ways$ as the )artici)ators v1s re%el" There are 6 ty)es of students according to Keith ,illing2 convergers2 they avoid )air or grou) wor'$ are analytical$ confident and inde)endent: conformist2 they )refer to learn a%out language than use it$ and well#organised teachers: concrete learners2 they en>oy games$ the social as)ects of learning and are interesting on language use: communicative learners2 they are language use oriented$ they are interested on social interaction and are ha))y when they wor' without the guidance of a teacherE language levels Delementary2 real %eginner and false %eginner: )re#intermediate: mid#

intermediate: u))er#intermediate: advanced" There is a )ro%lem with these esta%lished levels %ecause it means different things to different )eo)le" For e.am)le ( may say that ( am advanced$ %ut someone else could say (3m >ust )re#intermediate$ etcE" There are many incidences related to the level of our students may reach2 the )lateau effect Dat the %eginning students note their )rogress" *ut while they go through these stages$ they may find difficult to note their )rogress and then feel frustratedE$ methodology Dsome techni4ues are more suita%le or a))ro)riated for %eginners others for advancedE$ language Dteachers have to ada)t their language to their students3 level$ length of audios1videos$ language material$ etcE$ to)ics Dmatch to)ic with level" Do not encourage %eginner students to deal with religion: they do have neither the voca%ulary nor the grammar for discuss such a to)icE individual variations D)eo)le are differentE there are + theories that e.)lain individual variations2 neuro#linguistic )rogramming Dit says that )eo)le use )rimary re)resentational$ our senses$ to e.)erience the world" /s )eo)le are different$ they use differently their senses$ one more the others$ etc" So )eo)le3s )erce)tions are different too" Therefore$ there are visual$ auditory$ 'inaesthetic learners" (t will de)end on their )referred )rimary systemE: C( theory Dthis one is related to Nardner3s multi)le intelligences2 ver%al1linguistics$ visual1s)atial$ %ody1'inaesthetic$ logical1mathematical$ intra)ersonal$ inter)ersonalE Cotivation2 motivation drives us to do a Kthing3 in a )eriod of time in order to achieve a goal" There are + ty)es of motivation2 intrinsic motivation Dcomes from within the individualE and e.trinsic motivation Dit is caused %y e.ternal factors as the need of getting a %etter >o%E" Sources of motivation D)ositive )eo)le attitudeE the society we live in2 how the L+ in our society is seen$ if it is a sign of )restige or as a %etrayed to our culture: significant others2 the a))roval or disa))roval attitude of )arents or other si%lings is crucial: the teacher2 it influence on classroom atmos)here and everything else: the method2 confidence is im)ortant in order to %e comforta%le with the method used in lessons" (nitiating and sustaining motivation Dma'ing a diagnose a%out students3 interests to find to)ics that ma'e interesting lessons: esta%lish short and long#term goals so students will wor' for a )ur)ose: ma'e the classroom a good )lace so students feel invited to learnE" +9" Mistakes and 6eed#ack E armer # 7$eak a#out 6eed#ack during oral 8ork /ccording to Harmer$ in relation to feed%ac' during oral wor'$ he aims that it will de)end on the stage of the lesson Dconsider controlled$ semi controlled or freer )racticesE$ the activity Dyou must consider the aim of the activity2 is it for them to get fluency or accuracy E$ the ty)e of

mista'e the student made Dform or meaningE$ and the )articular student who is ma'ing that mista'e Dif it is an adult for instance$ do not correct him1her as he1she is a childE" # %ccuracy v<s 6luency feed#ack. Teacher has to ma'e a distinction %etween non#communicative activities DaccuracyE and communicative activities DfluencyE" ,hereas it is true that students need and somehow e.)ect feed%ac'$ it has %een an issue to decide how$ when and in what HamountJ teacher should correct students3 )roductions" Oou may get a frustrate student with constant and immediate correction of all errors they ma'e" *ut how will you hel) students im)rove their level of ;nglish Dthe im)ortance of noticingGGE 6eed#ack during accuracy work+ Teachers have to show students a mista'e has %een made$ and hel) them to do something a%out it" There are many techni4ues to do so2 re)eating Dthe teacher as's student to re)eat the utterance or word with a raising intonation ma'ing clear something is wrongE$ echoing Dthe teacher re)eats what the student say ma'ing em)hasis on the mista'eE$ statement and 4uestion Dto say e.)licitly that there is an error or mista'eE$ e.)ression Dfacial e.)ressions$ gestures$ etcE$ hinting Dthe teacher may activate rules the student already 'nowE$ reformulation Dto re)eat what the student say$ %ut correctlyE" *ut if still student do not notice their mista'e$ the teacher should focus on the correct version in more detail Dma'ing more em)hasis or as'ing to )eer correctionE" 6eed#ack during fluency work+ Teacher must %e more tolerant to students3 mista'es when they are wor'ing on fluency activities Dhe should correct at the end of the activityE" Fevertheless$ he should correct when communication %rea's down com)letely Dgentle correctionE" The teacher may also )rom)t students to tal' and use some of the accuracy techni4ue to correct Das usual$ it de)ends on everythingE" Aver#use of gentle correction may %e counter#)roductive %ecause you interru)t the flow of the activity" / good alternative is to record your students3 utterances Dand then transcri%e them if you want to use it for the entire classE and using a ru%ric give them a feed%ac' Dgrammar mista'es$ )ronunciation$ etcE" The transcri)tion is useful to show students the usual mista'es in order to hel) them to notice" &,. *ntegrating skills in Language "eaching and Learning 5 %dvantages 5 *n$ut, out$ut

&4. "eaching $ronunciation 9see 5 Pro#lems

armerK

Perfection vs *ntelligi#ility+ 7tudents3 )roduction de)ends on what they heard" There are also )sychological factors why students may not li'e to ac4uire a native accent" *esides$ adults may have difficulties %ecause of their HrigidJ muscles" (ntelligi%ility is the goal of teaching )ronunciation" The teacher must ma'e em)hasis on the features that interfere on meaning Dcoo' v1s co'eE Pro#lems+ there are + )ro%lems2 what students can hear De." ma'e the distinction %etween 1%1 and 1v1E and the intonation )ro%lem Dstress and intonation change the meaning of what we sayE Phonemic sym#ols+ to use or not to use+ The teacher may descri%e how sounds are made D%y demonstrating$ drawing a )icture of the mouth etcE without teaching )honemic sym%ols" Fevertheless$ it is useful to teach them %ecause they a))ear in dictionaries$ so student will 'now how to )ronounce a word without the teacher3s hel)" ,hen teacher and students 'now the sym%ols$ it is easier to e.)lain )ronunciation errors" 'Iam$les of $ronunciation teaching+ wor'ing with sounds Dto as' student to focus on a sound Ksim)le )resent#third )erson3: Kcontrasting sounds#shee) v1s chi) and then they wor' the sound se)arately in different utterances a %ig shee)3: Klisten and re)eat#tango$ tengo$ %ingo$ etc to get agma3: Kshowing the chart of sounds$ how to )roduce a sound$ where they have to )ut their tongue$ etc3E" The first thing is to isolate the sound they have )ro%lems with" &A. 'valuation and testing. 7ee armer.

Harmer&s ideas a%out evaluation and testing aims 2 =lacement tests2 Usually %ased on sylla%uses and materials the students will follow and use once their level has %een decided on$ these test grammar and voca%ulary 'nowledge and assess students3 )roductive and rece)tive s'ills" Diagnosis tests2 -an %e used to e.)ose learner difficulties$ ga)s in their 'nowledge$ and s'ill deficiencies during a course" Thus$ when we 'now what the )ro%lems are$ we can do something a%out them" =rogress or achievement tests2 Designed to measure learners3 language and s'ill )rogress in relation to the sylla%us they have %een following" They only wor' if they contain item ty)es which the students are familiar with" /t the end of a term$ they should reflect )rogress$ not failure and reinforce the learning that has ta'en )lace" =roficiency tests2 Nive a general )icture of a student3s 'nowledge and a%ility rather than measure )rogress" Fre4uently used as stages )eo)le have to reach if they want to

%e admitted to a foreign university$ get a >o%$ or o%tain some 'ind of certificate" /lso$ he adds characteristics of a good test2 Palid Dsu))osed to testE$ relia%le Dgive consistent resultsE and ty)es of test item2 Direct Dif it as's candidates to )erform the communicative s'illE$ and indirect Dmeasure students3 'nowledge and a%ility %y getting at what lies %eneath their rece)tive and )roductive s'illsE" .B. 8hy are learning strategies im$ortant E see 0. :Iford.

Ieferred to2 Strategies2 the s)ecific %ehaviors or thoughts learners use to enhance their language learning" These factors influence the student3s a%ility to learn in a )articular instructional framewor'" Learning strategies are defined as Hs)ecific actions$ %ehaviors$ ste)s$ or techni4ues# such as see'ing out conversation )artners$ or giving oneself encouragement to tac'le a difficult language tas' ## used %y students to enhance their own learningJ DScarcella Q A.ford$ !@@+$ )"90E" ,hen the learner consciously chooses strategies that fit his or her learning style and the L+ tas' at hand$ these strategies %ecome a useful tool'it for active$ conscious$ and )ur)oseful self#regulation of learning" Learning strategies can %e classified into si. grou)s2 cognitive$ metacognitive$ memory#related$ com)ensatory$ affective$ and social" Thus$ a given strategy is neither good nor %ad: it is essentially neutral until the conte.t of its use is thoroughly considered" / strategy is useful if the following conditions are )resent2 DaE the strategy relates well to the L+ tas' at hand$ D%E the strategy fits the )articular student3s learning style )references to one degree or another$ and DcE the student em)loys the strategy effectively and lin's it with other relevant strategies" Strategies that fulfill these conditions Hma'e learning easier$ faster$ more en>oya%le$ more self#directed$ more effective$ and more transfera%le to new situationsJ DA.ford$ !@@B$ )" ?E" Learning strategies can also ena%le students to %ecome more inde)endent$ autonomous$ lifelong learners D/llwright$ !@@B: Little$ !@@!E" Oet students are not always aware of the )ower of consciously using L+ learning strategies for ma'ing learning 4uic'er and more effective DFyi'os Q A.ford$ !@@0E" S'illed teachers hel) their students develo) an awareness of learning strategies and ena%le them to use a wider range of a))ro)riate strategies" .3. 8hat are direct strategies= E see 0. :Iford

-ognitive strategies ena%le the learner to mani)ulate the language material in direct ways$ e"g"$ through reasoning$ analysis$ note#ta'ing$ summari8ing$ synthesi8ing$ outlining$ reorgani8ing information to develo) stronger schemas D'nowledge structuresE$

)racticing naturalistic settings$ and )racticing structures and sounds formally" .&. "eaching leIis E see 7crivener and Lewis

Le.is Dwords and word com%inationsE is the %asis of language" Le.is is misunderstood in language teaching %ecause of the assum)tion that grammar is the %asis of language and that mastery of the grammatical system is a )rere4uisite for effective communication" The 'ey )rinci)le of a le.ical a))roach is that language consists of grammaticali8ed le.is$ not le.icali8ed grammar" -larify that a voca%ulary item can %e more than one word" Develo) the understanding that languages do not consist of words with e4uivalents from one language to the other" Do not discuss the structure of the le.ical item" /void confusing the students %y using structuralist e.)lanations for functional e.)lanations" Difference %etween active and )assive voca%ulary2 students have to understand items that they do not need to add to their active voca%ulary" (t is hel)ful to guide them towards those words to add to their active voca%ulary and distinguish those they will only need for )assive use" ;.)lain difference of meaning$ not meaning2 to define a word in relation to other words" -ontrastively$ for e.am)le" (t is easier and effectively" ,ords are often %est taught in grou)s2 synonyms$ antonyms$ com)lements Dsingle1marriedE$ converses D)arent1childE$ and hy)onyms" Pary the way you e.)lain2 demonstrate1use the real thing1draw or s'etch$ show the scales or grades1antonyms1synonyms1dictionary1ver%al e.)lanations1translation" ,ords can lin' grammatically as well as thematically2 voca%ulary learning seems to %e a totally disorganised )rocess of learning a lot of different words %ut$ %y thin'ing of grammatical lin's voca%ulary can at least to a limited e.tent$ %e systemati8ed" ... Noticing in Language teaching and Learning. ;iscuss

Foticing may %e the %asic learning )rocess in classroom second language learning" *ecause noticing is an inner )sychological )rocess$ data on noticing can only %e gleaned from two sources R intros)ection and o%servation" From %oth of these )oints of view$ ( thin' we can say two things a%out it definitively" Firstly$ we teachers are not doing the noticing" Foticing is something that DiE only the learner can do DiiE is not guaranteed even when the teacher leads the learner %y the nose" Secondly$ noticing is something that can ta'e many stages$ and may not ha))en either

'nowingly$ or all at once" Foticing does not normally ha))en all at once" So let3s not force our students into )roducing freely what can ta'e ages to assimilate" Let3s >ust let them come to it when they do" That moment$ the moment when it %ecomes )art of them$ is invisi%le" (t >ust ha))ens at an un'nown )oint$ and the student is from then on a different )erson" ,e should not want to 'now when it ha))ens" ,e should not want to control when it ha))ens" ,e should >ust %e o)en to when it ha))ens" There are many methods of hel)ing the students to notice$ which wor' well$ and they include the u)dated version of ===" The 'ey )rinci)le %ehind Iutherford3s wor' is that he ta'es the )ressure off the teacher to %elieve that the single lesson is the moment of learning for the student" (t is the moment of teaching$ %ut it is not necessarily the moment of learning" /s)ects of language 4uite incidental to the lesson seem to ma'e as much im)ression on my students as the targets of my focusing" ,hat seems to ha))en here is that$ while the %ul' of these as)ects emerge after focused attention directed %y the teacher D( call this Kdirected noticing3E$ some emerge either after attention a))lied %y the students alone D( call this Kincidental noticing3E$ or after no attention at all D( call this Kunconscious noticing3E"(f there is a %asic )rinci)le of noticing$ it is that language noticing comes from language focusing" /ll the techni4ues that hel) the students tend to have this feature in common" *ut it is always 'ey to remem%er that when learners notice an as)ect of the language$ this is only ever one stage among a succession of stages in the learning of that item %y those learners" So in su%se4uent lessons$ that language item will return in other guises$ in )ractice e.ercises$ role#)lay scenarios$ discussion to)ics$ etc$ and each time$ with feed%ac' and focus from the teacher or )eers or self#correction$ the learner will Klearn3 it a little dee)er" /nd then$ one day$ at a time not 'nown to either teacher or learner$ it will have %ecome )art of the learner$ and they will have learnt it" For some language items$ this )rocess seems to ha))en very 4uic'ly$ for instance with the structure Kcan1can3t3 M infinitive" Teachers have to raise the noticea%ility of language )oints" .!. Listening and 0eading E see M. Lewis.

S C" Lewis )ostulates the following a%out Listening2 -an %e divided into su%#s'ills2 follow general trend1understand s)ecific details$ s)ea'ers3 intention$ s)ea'ers3 attitude" Direct students3 listening$ )articularly if it is ta)ed2 two or three 4uestion in order %efore they listen to the ta)e$ do some voca%ulary e.ercises a%out the to)ic %efore" Iemem%er that listening to a ta)e is difficult: you cannot interru)t and re)eat for clarification of re)etition"

Students need to hear Hthe real thingJ from early in the course" ,e %egin listening when learning our mother tongue" Ca'e sure students can hear the difference %etween similar sounds Use a variety of listen and res)ond activities2 you learn to s)ea' %y listening$ good listening means that listeners are actively involved" Net the students involved is the 'ey" S C" Lewis )ostulates the following a%out Ieading2 Different te.ts are suita%le for different activities" Fot to use a te.t with a high density of new items" Too much new material sim)ly cannot %e mastered at one time" Use material that is not too difficult for the students$ %ecause nothing is interesting if you can3t do it" Use )re activities to focus students3 attention2 introduction1)re# 4uestions1voca%ulary Distinguish %etween intensive and e.tensive reading Do not as' students to read aloud unseen2 students will not 'now how to )ronounce and he will also %e una%le to concentrate on their meaning too" Pary the method of reading Use short 4uestions during intensive reading2 not to test com)rehension %ut to ensure that students are following and to hel) them concentrate" Use definition 4uestions$ don3t as' what does"" mean Students cannot use what they cannot say HDifficult wordsJ are not the same as long words" -orrection 4uestion )rom)t students3 language Fot all com)rehension 4uestions chec' understanding Use com)rehension and conversation 4uestions together (f you read a dialogue$ distinguish the two s)ea'ers clearly"

.(.

Characteristics of a good<effective $resentation

*n$ut2 is the term denoting either an entrance or changes which are inserted into a system and which activate or modify a )rocess" (t is an a%stract conce)t$ used in the modeling$ system design and system e.)loitation" Language which learners experience in a lesson, from which they can learn. *ntake2 /mount of a su%stance ta'en into a %ody within a certain )eriod$ whether or not it is a%sor%ed in or assimilated %y the %ody" :ut$ut2 is the term denoting either an e.it or changes which e.it a system and which activate1modify a )rocess" # "he role of $ractice

The more the teacher tal's$ the less o))ortunity the students have to s)ea'$ %ut it is the students who need the )ractice # Conce$t 1uestioning (t is an im)ortant chec'ing tool" (t has to avoid as'ing the 4uestion$ 5Do you understand 5$ which can %e answered 5yes5 without indicating true understanding" -once)t 4uestions$ using realia$ as'ing learners to re)eat instructions$ learners e.)laining meaning$ and o)en#class 4uestions are all ways of conce)t chec'ing" # Correction + 8hen, 8hy, ow= Teachers have to correct all the time$ %ecause as students are learning a new language they might commit all 'inds of mista'es and if teacher does not correct those mista'es$ the student might fossili8e the mista'e" However$ if the teacher wants to develo) fluency$ the %est way to correct is after they s)ea' and )roduce and most of the times correction is for every%ody$ so the rest can %e %eneficed too" *ut$ (f the tas' is in order to develo) accuracy $ it is necessary to correct immediately" "echni1ues E conversation. 7ee M. Lewis. Some techni4ues )ro)osed %y C" Lewis are2 S ;.)loit o))ortunities for short s)ontaneous conversation" Fot to )lan a conversation into a lesson Dtoo general or too s)ecific or to %oring$ etcE /%out something that H/==;FS during the lesson -onversation lessons2 the least successful L it is com)letely unnatural S Don3t flog a dead horse -hange the to)ic as soon as you notice it is not of the interest of the students S ;ncourage contri%utions without interfering Teachers have to remem%er that this s'ill is the most difficult and have to ma'e the conversation activities as rela.ed as it can %e" Teacher must e.)ect sim)le contri%utions Nive students a )ause so they thin' what they want to say and how Fot to )ressure students with 4uestions or hel)ing %y finishing students sentences for them" -onversation focuses on fluency rather accuracy" Teacher must not correct small structure mista'es and if they are to give correction it must %e after the conversation" Don3t interru)t it" S -onversation does not need to %e a%out serious issues Teachers should %e aware of K%ig issues3 as the %asis of conversation lessons"

(f students don3t li'e the to)ic they will not %e interested on sharing their o)inion$ they won3t have one" Unim)ortant to)ics$ everyone have o)inion S =rovocative statements are often %etter than 4uestions Students can %e much more willing to res)ond it Teachers can feel inhi%ited to e.)ress their o)inions$ in that case they can say something li'e Ha friend of mine told me thatTJ S =ro%lem solving is often an e.cellent %asis for conversation K(nformation ga)s3 L + s)ea'ers with different sets of info L conversation consisting of an e.change of info Fatural involvement closer to normal language use outside the classroom Different )eo)le can have different o)inions and care enough to correct others3 o)inions %ut not enough to feel inhi%ited %y the to)ic" S ;ncourage active listening Teach the 'ind of res)onses which encourage the s)ea'er to e.)and2 really That3s very interesting$ were you Did you Has she

.).

"echni1ues E structure. 7ee M. Lewis

/ccording to Lewis$ (t is necessary for a teacher to encourage students to see )atterns" The a%ility to recogni8e items which are similar in some way will ma'e it easier for the student to learn" The teachers have to construct and guide the attention to grou)s which ma'e such similarities clear to students" Nood rules hel) students Dwhere Kgood3 means a com)romise %etween accuracy and accessi%ility$ and where Krule3 is a com%ination of cyclically )resented well#chosen e.am)les and ver%al descri)tion" Understanding is a cycle which involves each of e.)licit e.)lanation$ e.am)le and )ractice" (t is not sufficient for students to understand intellectually Terminology can hel) or hinder" Terminology should %e taught for its own sa'e" Terminology has to %e taught and understood %efore students are e.)ected to use it" Filling in a fill#in e.ercise is not enough$ students need to )ractice" The teacher say the num%er$ the student say the com)lete e.am)le" Students need to )ractice form as well as use" The teaching should maintain a %alance %etween )ractices which concentrate on fluency and those which concentrate on accuracy" (t is worth to em)hasise that oral and written )ractices are *ATH useful even if the students3 main o%>ective )laces the em)hasis strongly on oral or written ;nglish" HNimmic'sJ to com%at )o)ular mista'es" Have an KS3 to )oint to when students forget the final Ks3 in third )erson" Use %eehives with large classes" *eehive drill" The name of such )ractices is %ased on

the fact that all the %ees in the hive wor' at the same time" For structure )ractice we can use language games$ it is more li'ely to %e effective than a more conventional )ractice" Free situations are im)ortant" Lessons develo) from controlled to free )ractice" Nrammar is a rece)tive s'ill too" Nrammar conveys meaning %ut too often the teacher directs the students only to the meaning of words" Hel) students to see the meaning of grammar as well" Teach word grammar as well as sentence grammar"

.,. 6actors affecting learning. 7ee 7$ada and Light##own. 9 ow Languages are learnedK

/ccording to S)ada and Light%%own $ factors that affect learning are2 intelligence which is understood as the )erformance on certain 'ind of tests" However$ it has %een demonstrated that some tests avoid some as)ects that evaluate only metalinguistic a%ilities and not communicative a%ilities" Thus$ Nardner claims that we have multi)le intelligences that gives us other a%ilities li'e musical$ inter)ersonal$ athletic$ etc" /)titude refers to the a%ility to learn 4uic'ly$ for instance$ some learners may have strong memories %ut only average a%ilities in language analysis" Learners& strengths and wea'nesses in these different com)onents may occur for their a%ility to succeed in different ty)es of instructional )rograms" Learning styles$ as it has %een mentioned$ are an learner&s natural way of a%sor%ing$ )rocessing and retaining new information and s'ills" Then$ in relation to Personality, these authors aims that a learner an.iety interferes with the learning )rocess and that this student will not learn as a rela.ed or self confident student$ %ut all this factors are uncontrolled and de)end of each learner" Motivation and attitudes goes together %ecause there is a sim)le evidence that )ositive motivation is associated with willingness to 'ee) learning$ so$ a )ositive attitude Dor value to the second languageE increases the )ossi%ilities to learn" Finally$ in relation to age of ac4uisition$ S)ada an Light%%own notice the fact that it has %een hy)othesi8ed that there is a critical )eriod for second language ac4uisition" This critical )eriod hy)othesis is that there is a time in human develo)ment when the %rain is )redis)osed for success in language learning"

.4.

8hat is CL" today. 7ee 0ichards

!@<Bs" (t is a set of )rinci)les a%out the goals of language teaching$ how learners learn a language$ the 'inds of classroom activities that %est facilitate learning$ and the roles of teachers and learners in the classroom" The goals of language teaching2 develo) communicative com)etence D%eing a%le to use a language for meaningful communicationE rather than grammatical com)etence Dim)ortant %ut not the most im)ortantE" ow learners learn the language+ as an interactive )rocess %etween the learner and the users of the language$ negotiation of meaning$ creating meaningful and )ur)oseful interaction$ learning through the feed%ac' learners receive$ )aying attention to the in)ut and trying to incor)orate new forms they hear$ trying out and e.)erimenting with different ways of saying things" Finds of classroom activities that facilitate learning 2 -LT moved from controlled activities for the mastery of grammar to the develo)ment of activities such as role )lays$ )air and grou) wor'$ )ro>ect wor'$ etc" 0oles of the teachers and learners2 learners have to %e )artici)ative$ coo)erative rather than individualist" They have to listen to their classmates also and not to rely on the teachers as the only model" Learners have a greater degree of res)onsi%ility a%out their learning" /nd teachers have to assume the role of monitor and facilitator of the learning )rocess$ %eing the )rimary res)onsi%ility to ma'e students )roduce a lot of errors free sentences" .A. *nformed, Princi$led electism. 7ee Brown, Larsen E 6reeman. Iivers aims that Han eclectic a))roach allows language teachers Uto a%sor% the %est techni4ues of all the well#'nown language#teaching methods into their classroom )rocedures$ using them for the )ur)oses for which they are most a))ro)riateUD!@?!277E" This is relevant for teachers %ecause they Ufaced with the daily tas' of hel)ing students to learn a new language cannot afford the lu.ury of com)lete dedication to each new method or a))roach that comes into vogueU D)" 76E" The main criticism of the eclecticism is that Uit does not offer any guidance on what %asis and %y what )rinci)les as)ects of different methods can %e selected and com%inedU DST;IF !@?027!+E" Iodgers2 cross%reeding elements from various methods into a common )rogramme of instruction seem an a))ro)riate way to find those )ractices which %est su))ort effective learning" Cethods and a))roaches have usually %een )ro)osed as idiosyncratic and uni4ue$ yet it a))ears reasona%le to com%ine )ractices from different a))roaches where the )hiloso)hical foundations are similar" Iodgers calls such an a))roach Hdisci)lined

eclecticism"J Larsen#Freeman2 s)ea's a%out two ty)es of eclecticism2 K)rinci)led eclecticism3 and Kinformed eclecticism3" The am%ition of the former is to descri%e a desira%le$ coherent$ )luralistic a))roach to language teaching$ and the latter stresses that teachers have to %e informed and use this information to choose from among the availa%le )ractices to create their own uni4ue %lend that would %e a))ro)riate for their own )ersonality$ teaching style$ and the circumstances in which the teaching is ta'ing )lace" Iichards$ et al$ add that Hmost language teaching )rograms o)erate from a %asis of informed eclecticism rather than %y attem)ting to rigidly im)lement a s)ecific methodJ D!@@!2!7?E" These ideas indicate that the conce)t of eclecticism may %e inter)reted in a numerous ways" Two conce)ts$ however$ seem to %e most fre4uent" Ane is %ased on an idea that there may %e an eclectic HmethodJ or HmethodologyJ which incor)orates what is valua%le in any system or method of teaching and refuses to recogni8e anything that is in conflict" This attitude is close to what is sometimes called a Hcom)lete methodJ DN(I/ID !@?9E" *rown advocates Venlightened eclecticismH which means Vto engage in an intelligent use of selected a))roaches %uilt u)on and guided %y an integrated and %roadly %ased theory of second language ac4uisitionHD!@?<2+69E" /nother conce)t claims that an eclectic teacher ma'es ma.imum %enefit from various methods and techni4ues according to the s)ecial needs of a given class at a given time" HThe eclectic teacher will ma'e his )ersonal choices on the %asis of the 4uestions he will have to as' himself$ as he goes along$ a%out the main issues of language teaching$ and on the %asis of the answers he will %e a%le to give in connection with inesca)a%le criteriaJ DN(I/ID !@?92!!E" !B. Modified Language E im$lications when teaching low levels. ,hen teaching low levels it is necessary to modify the in)ut in order to hel) them to understand" (t im)lies that the teacher must find different ways to teach the same content %ut as sim)le as )ossi%le" Some techni4ues to hel) low levels are2 conveying meaning$ using ( M ! when tal'ing$ finger highlighting$ drills$ among others"

!3.

"eacher>s role

Teachers are encouraged to wor' out with an a))roach that suits each s)ecific teaching situation" (n that sense$ the teacher is given freedom for e.)erimentation$ %ut also a %ig res)onsi%ility" Thus$ the

teacher as a controller2 they determine what the students do$ when learners should do s)ea'$ and what language forms students should use" *ut for interaction to ta'e )lace$ the teacher must create an a))ro)riate climate" He is also a director2 / teacher has to guarantee a smooth and fluent learning )rocess in order to ena%le students to engage in real life communication" Furthermore$ a teacher can %e a manager2 who involves )lans lessons$ modules$ and courses" *esides$ the teacher is su))osed to %e a facilitator2 This is a less directive role" Teachers facilitate the )rocess of learning" *ased on students3 intrinsic motivation$ the teacher allows students to discover language through using it )ragmatically" Finally$ he is a resource2 this is the least directive role" The teacher is availa%le for advice and counsel when students see' it" /s it was said %efore$ a teacher might %e many different things in one lesson or one semester as the categories mention %efore an many others li'e an organi8er$ an assessor$ a )rom)ter $ a )artici)ant$ a tutor$ an o%server$ among others" !&. Lesson Planning Princi$les. 7ee 7anti#aLe@ 9manual de a$oyo a la ;ocencia E *dioma eItranMero, 3AA,K !" De)endence ### (nde)endence +" Timeta%le fit 0" -larity of aims 6" /ssum)tions and /ntici)ated =ro%lems 7" *alance$ variety$ timing$ and logical )rogression 9" How would ( feel <" -hec'ing understanding ?" Layout and sufficient details @" Testing !B" *e realistic