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# T - Tolerancing Guidelines

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Testing and Tolerancing
T - Tolerancing Guidelines
Tolerances
Determination of a specific tolerance is highly dependent on the specific spring design, material used, equipment
used to manufacture the spring, and heat treating methods used in spring processing. The tolerances presented
are "normally achievable." However, the spring manufacturer should be consulted before finalizing. In several
areas, different grade levels are available. One should be aware that selection of the highest grade (most
stringent) could have significant cost implications.
Today, use of statistical controls allows both the spring manufacturer and the customer a high level of confidence
that the spring "properly toleranced" will meet or exceed the performance requirements. Once again it is important
to have both the designer and the manufacturer work closely together to establish the "process capability" which
will determine the quality level obtainable.

WARNING
Actual quality levels (Cpk) on many toleranced dimensions can only be determined through process capability
studies.
Note: It is possible to obtain tighter tolerancing with the intervention of special equipment. These special
processes frequently add significant cost. Do not use standard block tolerances.
Note: All English units of measure are shown in bold face type.

Regression formulas derived from industry standards for helical round wire compression springs (based on
springs with parallel sides and constant pitch.)
There are two factors to calculate before computing the load tolerance. The first factor, (Af), is based on wire (d)
and mean diameter (D). Since the specification was formulated to work with metric input, you must first convert
English data to metric.
Therefore, for conversion to inches:
d = d * 25.4
D = D * 25.4
Also, the math operators are written to accommodate programming. The following symbols are represented in the
formula.
* = multiplication
/ = division
^ = exponentiation (raised to the power of the number to it's immediate right)
c (index) = D/d
Af = 65.92 * (d ^ 3.3 / D ^ 1.6) * (-0.84 * (c / 10) ^ 3 + 3.781 * (c / 10) ^ 2 - 4.244 (c /10) + 2.274)

(T-1)

7/13/2007

44822 = 27..274^2) + 8 / (5 * 5. Example: (See Figure T-1 on page 3) Design parameters: d D Na p R = .44822) Tol = ± Af * Kf + (1.274 = 50 lbs = 50 lbs/in Figure T-1.175^3.5 * p) / 100 (T-3) To convert to English. Compression Spring.94 mm = 222.76 N/mm 2. 1.175 mm = 27. (If English. to Newtons with p = p * 4. Calculate Kf: Kf = 1 / (3 * 5.44822 for pounds..11836 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD. 7/13/2007 .4 = 50 * 4.71 = 3.8/10)^2 .803 Kf = 1.274) + . divide the result by 4.411 N = 8.8/10) + 2. convert the load in pounds.100 = 5.95864 3.803 (T-2) The tolerance formula is then calculated as shown below.Tolerancing Guidelines Page 2 of 14 The second factor (Kf) is based on active material (Na).4. Kf = 1 / (3 * Na ^ 2) + 8 / (5 * Na) + .4 = 1.6) * (-.175 = 50 / 5.3 / 27.244 * (8. Convert English parameters to metric: d D p c R =.T ..781 * (8.84 * (8.94 / 3.125 * 25.8/10)^3 + 3.92 * (3. Calculate Af: Af = 65.8 = 8.100 * 25.125 = 1.94^1.274 Af = 12.

which would result in Cpk of 1.7 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD.7.2 can "normally" be expected.Tolerancing Guidelines Page 3 of 14 4.654 mm (1..413 lbs Compression Spring Free Length Tolerances The following formula may be used to calculate the Free Length tolerance for an unloaded compression spring: FL Tol = ± (Af * Kf * Q / R) (T-4) Using our example: FL Tol = ± (12. Kf = 5. Commercial tolerance may also be calculated as indicated below.95864 * 1.11836 + (1.T .828 N (pounds = 17.5 * 222. When using commercial tolerances. multiply FL Tol by 1.274) (T-5) The second factor (Kf).0 = ± 4.008 lbs Therefore: Precision = ± 4.781 * (c / 10) ^ 2 .065") For unground springs. (T-6) 7/13/2007 . From our example: Tolerance = ± 4.3 / D ^ 1.008 lbs) Quality grades for load tolerances Load tolerances calculated from the previous formulas establish the base (precision tolerance).. The precise tolerance can only be determined by a capability study.6)* (-0. multiply the Grade factor by the calculated tolerance.6 When using the Grade factor (Q). however.008 * 1.84 * (c / 10) ^ 3 + 3.008 * 1. Extension Spring Load Tolerances Regression formulas derived from industry standard for helical round wire Extension springs. is as shown below. The Af factor for calculating extension spring load tolerances is identical to that of the compression formula.008 lbs Commercial = ± 4. Cpk >1.244 (c /10) + 2. This precision tolerance is considered to be optimum.61 / Na + .11836 * 1) / 8.411) / 100 Tol = ± 17.828 / 4.4 = ± ..4.2 or less.0 Commercial = 1. Af = 65.92 * (d ^ 3. Calculate the load tolerance: Tol = ± 12.6 = ± 6. Precision = 1.76 FL Tol = ± 1.958 * 1.654 / 25.44822 = ± 4.

125 * 25.5 * p) / 100 (T-7) Example: (See Figure T-2 on page 6) Design parameters: d D Na p R = .94614 + (1.274 Af = 11.300" = 22.227 N/mm 2.92 * (3. Calculate the load tolerance: Tol = ± 11.4 = 20 * 4.300 * 25.5 * 88..7 Kf = .4 = 1.61 / 22.94614 4.009 / 5.669 lbs Therefore: Precision = ± 2.4/10) + 2.13894 3.Tolerancing Guidelines Page 4 of 14 The tolerance formula is also identical to the compression calculation.175^3. Tol = ± Af * Kf + (1.669 * 1.873 N (pounds = 11. multiply the Grade factor by the calculated tolerance.244 * (10.781 * (10.175 mm = 33.T .96) / 100 Tol = ± 11.44822 = ± 2.669 lbs Commercial = ± 2..125" = 1. From our example: Tolerance = ± 2.792 = 20 lbs = 7.4/10)^2 .175 = 7.4 = 1.71 = 3. Calculate Kf: Kf = 5.44822 = 33.84 * (10.669 lbs) Quality Grades for Extension Spring Load Tolerances The Quality Grades are the same for both compression and extension springs.669 * 1.4/10)^3 + 3.0 = ± 2. When using the Grade factor (Q).6 = ± 4.009 Ibs/in 1.6) * (-..3 / 33.02 mm = 88.02 / 3.792 + .4.873 / 4. Convert English parameters to metric: d D p c R = .13894 * . Calculate Af: Af = 65.270 lbs mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD.96 N = 10. 7/13/2007 .02^1.

984 above .4 ± 0.0 ± 0.0 ± 5.1 ± 1. Extension Spring.059 ± .5 ± 0.5% of FL ±1.118 ± .8 ± 2.0 ± 5. Extension Spring Free Length Tolerances For springs with no initial tension.3 ± 1.016 ± .) FL Tol = ± (Af * Kf * Q) / R (T-8) Figure T-2.035 ± . free length should not have a tolerance and should be marked reference. use the following formula to determine free length tolerance.7 ± 1.630 above .0 ± 2.6 ± 0.3 above 6.071 ± .5 ± 1.2 ± 1.0 ± 3.480 above 2.937 to 6. Free Length Up to .031 ± .4 ± 3.5 ± 3.024 ± .5% of FL ±2% of FL ±2% of FL Table T-1.118 ± .094 ± .051 ± .0 ± 6. Free Length Tolerance (with lnitial Tension) Metric.Tolerancing Guidelines Page 5 of 14 Note: When two loads are toleranced.118 ± .071 ± .6 ± 0.039 ± .256 ±1.843 above 9.8 ± 1..157 ± .020 ± .079 ± ..094 ± .630 to .3 ± 1.197 ± .8 ± 0.028 ± .039 ± .197 ± .024 ± .043 ± . 7/13/2007 .8 ± 2.843 to 15.087 ± .028 ± .051 ± .063 ± . (Note: Free length is measured from the inside of the hooks.098 ± .6 ± 1.118 ± .0 ± 4.575 to 2. Free Length Up to 10 above 10 to 16 above 16 to 25 above 25 to 40 above 40 to 63 above 63 to 100 above 100 to 160 above 160 to 250 above 250 to 400 above 400 Permissible variations in mm Precision Commercial per index per index 4 to 8 Above 8 to 20 4 to 8 Above 8 to 20 ± 0.0 ± 4.157 ± .394 above .394 to .984 to 1.0 ± 4.6 ± 0.4 ± 3.575 above 1.3 ± 0.5 ± 1.75 Permissible variations in inches Precision Commercial per index per index 4 to 8 Above 8 to 20 4 to 8 Above 8 to 20 ± .T .75 above 15.0 ± 2.0 ± 1..937 above 3.024 ± .480 to 3.0 ± 2.051 ± .157 ± .5% of FL ±2% of FL ±2% of FL mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD.3 to 9.031 ± .5% of FL ±1.9 ± 1.7 ± 0.5 ± 0.020 ± .

3 * Kf * d ^ 3) / (Na ^ . Example: (See Figure T-3 above) Design parameters: d = .62 1. Torsion Spring Load Tolerances (Torque) Regression formulas derived from Industry Standard for helical round wire Torsion springs. Free Length Tolerance (with lnitial Tension) English. Total Number of Coils Angle Between Loop Planes 36 79 10 12 13 16 over 16 ± 25° ± 35° ± 45° ± 60° Random Table T-3.087 * 25.5) ) * Q (T-9) Figure T-3. Torsion Spring..Tolerancing Guidelines Page 6 of 14 Table T-2. Tol = ± ( (1.. End Position Tolerance.T . 7/13/2007 . Convert English parameters to metric: d = -.. Calculate index: mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD. The factor (Kf) = 54 The tolerance formula is then as shown below.21 mm 2.087" Na= 6.4 = 2.24 * c ^ .

004 ± .4 ± 0.07 ± 0.2 ± 0.2 ± 1..2 ± 0.4 ± 4.004 ± .2 ± 5.9 ± 0.0 ± 2.195 3.039 .2 ± 1.012 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD.5 ± 2.3 ± 2.006 Commercial per index Above 8 Above 14 4 to 8 to 14 to 20 ± .2 ± 1.6 = ± 1.0 ± 3.8 ± 1.881 Nmm (inlbs = 109.006 ± .985 = ± .881 / 112.1 ± 0.24 * 19.63 1 1.5 ± 0.8 ± 2.3 ± 0.25 ± 0.0 ± 0.21^3) / (6.7 ± 0.2 ± 0.21 = 19.5 ± 0.5) Tol = ± 109.15 ± 0.195^. multiply the Grade factor by the calculated tolerance.008 ± .0 = ± .3 ± 0.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 ± 0.8 ± 0.2 ± 0.972 inlbs) Quality Grades for Torsion Spring Load Tolerances The Quality grades are the same as those for compression and extension springs.6 ± 0.972 * 1.025 .1 Precision per index Above 8 Above 14 to 14 to 20 ± 0.15 ± 0.1 ± 1.T .5 ± 0.0 ± 1.3 Commercial per index Above 8 Above 14 4 to 8 to 14 to 20 ± 0.4 ± 1.003 ± .8 ± 0.972 inlbs Commercial = ± .Tolerancing Guidelines Page 7 of 14 c = 42.2 ± 0.063 Precision per index Above 8 Above 14 4 to 8 to 14 to 20 ± . 7/13/2007 .039 .2 ± 2.3 10 16 25 31.42 / 2.35 ± 0.6 ± 1.4 ± 3.6 ± 0.5 ± 2.3 ± 0.5 ± 0.5 ± 0.4 ± 2.6 ± 0.15 ± 0.7 ± 0.6 ± 0.10 ± 1..9 ± 2..08 ± 0.972 inlbs Therefore: Precision = ± .1 ± 0. From our example: Tolerance = ± .5 ± 1.3 ± 0.25 ± 0.3 ± 1.8 ± 1.4 ± 0.9 ± 1. When using the Grade factor (Q).8 ± 2.3 ± 3.003 ± .7 ± 0.6 2.6 2.25 ± 0.8 ± 1.7 ± 0.2 ± 1.004 ± .7 ± 2.972 * 1.4 ± 0.5 ± 4.35 ± 0.7 ± 6. Calculate the load tolerance: Tol = ± (1.3 ± 0.006 ± .35 ± 0.5 4 6.1 ± 0.555 inlbs Metric Diameter above to 4 to 8 0.3 * 54 * 2.1 ± 0.6 ± 0.008 ± .5 ± 0.7 ± 4.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 1 1.15 ± 0.8 ± 3.5 ± 0.0 ± 1.5 ± 1.6 ± 5.2 ± 1.15 ± 0.7 ± 1.62^.4 ± 0.4 ± 1.006 ± .2 ± 0.15 ± 0.8 ± 2.4 ± 0.6 English Diameter above to .45 ± 0.0 ± 1.9 ± 3.3 10 16 25 31.3 ± 0.5 4 6.

055 ± .024 ± .146 ± .028 ± .098 . ± 661). to the specified solid height.024 ± .157 .921 6.T .240 1.018 ± .138 ± .575 1.53) 3/8 (9.260 Table T-4.921 6.006 ± . · · · ··· 3/8 (9. ± 3/16 (4. incl 3/32 (2.059 ± . incl 1/16 (1. the applied load should not exceed 150 percent of the calculated solid load.165 ± .106 ± .008 ± .091 ± .35) incl Over 16 to 20 (406 to 508).059 ± .110 ± . Making the permanent set check first takes care of any anelastic recovery due to vibration and shock in shipping and handling.394 .35) Over 42 to 60 (1067 to 1524).35) incl Over 12 to 16 (305 to 406). ± ··· ··· ··· 1/4 (6.031 ± .020 ± .063 .090 ± .984 1.031 ± .014 ± .76) 1/4 (6.008 ± .039 ± .016 ± . They do not allow for the expansion of active coils which occurs when the spring is compressed in application.020 ± .157 .031 ± .240 1.35) 5/16 (7.039 ± . In checking solid height.059 ± .012 ± .630 .024 ± . ± 874).020 ± .35) Over 8 to 12 (203 to 305). on page 13.071 ± .17) 3/16 (4. Body Diameter Tolerances for Compression.016 ± .020 ± .083 ± .35) 1/4 (6.014 ± .024 ± .087 ± .17) 3/16 (4. ± Up to 6 (152). incl.059 ± . on page 14.17) 5/32 (3.006 ± .248 .098 .075 ± .020 ± .. Nominal Free Height or Length of Spring.020 ± .067 ± . the actual solid height of a hot-coiled compression spring varies from the calculated value.047 ± .016 ± ..028 ± . Because of manufacturing variations.047 ± . Tolerances for Hot Coiled Springs Tolerances that are applied to hot-coiled springs are given in Tables T-5 through T-9.35) 1/4 (6.35) 1/4 (6.043 ± .984 1.008 ± . on page 12.248 .008 ± .039 ± . on page 14.031 ± . 1/5 (3.874 ± .090 ± . Table T-5. ± 18 (254 to 26 (457 to 34 (661 to 457).035 ± . Tolerances for permissible out-of-squareness in springs with unground ends are given in Table T-9.047 ± . Usual practice is to apply the tolerances shown in Table T-6..94) 5/16 (7.028 ± .130 ± .480 3.118 ± .055 ± .480 3. and loaded height.969 2.012 ± .575 1.969 2. Table T-7.38) 1/8 (3. below.213 ± .35) 1/4 (6.016 ± . covers tolerances for outside diameters for manufacturing only. 7/13/2007 .937 4.38) 1/8 (3. presents tolerances for maximum permanent set.300 Page 8 of 14 .071 ± .394 630 .300 7.53) 3/8 (9. The permanent set is usually taken as the difference between the initial test height with load P and the test height with load P after cycling to solid three times. as published by the American Society for Testing and Materials. · · · ··· 5/16 (7 94) 5/16 (7 94) incl Over 20 to 24 (508 to 610).181 ± . incl.079 ± .110 ± .039 ± .010 ± .012 ± .76) 1/4 (6. incl.010 ± .97) Over 6 to 8 (152 to 203).150 3.53) incl Over 34 to 42 (874 to 1067). Table T-8.039 ± .004 ± .53) 7/16 (11.010 ± . · · · 1/4 (6.094 ± .150 3.94) 3/8 (9.071 ± . free height. These characteristics should be checked in this order because of the anelastic recovery experienced on preset springs.012 ± . Extension and Torsion Springs.00) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD.047 ± .224 ± .012 ± . incl.035 ± .114 ± .028 ± .173 ± .57) 3/32 (2. in (mm) Nominal Outside Diameter. gives out-of-squareness tolerances for springs with ground ends having slenderness ratios between 1 and 5. A height tolerance can be converted to a load tolerance if load is to be checked at a fixed height.014 ± .024 ± .Tolerancing Guidelines .047 ± . incl.138 ± .024 ± .016 ± .76) 1/4 (6. Up to 10 Over 10 to Over 18 to Over 26 to in (mm) (254) incl.937 4.

32) 7/16 (11. with plus variation on the outer springs and minus variation on the inner springs to guarantee free assembly. incl Over 8 to 9 (203 to 228).97) Over 16 to 19 (406 to 483). incl 3/32 (2.17) 5/32 (3.97) 3/16 (4. incl Over 10 to 11(254 to 279).14) 5/16 (7. incl 5/16 (7. ina (mm) Up to 7 (178).01) 29/32 (23 01) 1 (25. incl Over 5 to 6 (127 to 152).49) 9/16 (14.. Drawings must show reference to the complete nested spring units. The diametrical clearance desired is 1/8 in (3.87) 21/32 (16. incl Over 12 to 13 (305 to 330). NOTE 2 .25) 13/16 (20.87) 5/8 (15. Permissible Variations in Solid Height (From ASTM A-125).67) Permanent Set.175 mm) less than the sum of the applicable tolerances of the nested spring units. 7/13/2007 .97) 11/64 (4.99) 3/32 (2. incl Over 16 to 17 (406 to 431).19) 1/16 (1.94) a For additional 3-in (76-mm) increase in solid height.76) Over 19 to 22 (483 to 559).35) 9/32 (7. incl Over 19 to 20 (483 to 508). the deviation shown should be increased by l/32 in (0.94) 11/32 (8.40) Deviation From Nominal Loaded Heighta.17) 1/8 (3. incl Over 14 to 15 (356 to 381).17) Over 13 to 16 (330 to 406).76) 7/32 (5.64) 13/16 (20.38) Over 10 to 13 (254 to 330).97) 1/4 (6. exclusive of manufacturing taper..49) 5/8 (15.38) 7/64 (2.57) 9/64 (3. incl Over 18 to 19 (457 to 483).59) 1/16 (1. Nominal Solid Height..08) 5/8 (15.97) 5/32 (3. incl 3/16 (4.37) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD.53) 13/32 (10. max.0) 7/16 (11. ± 1/8 (3.78) 1/8 (3. should be used as a guide in the design or concentrically-nested helical-spring units for three spring assemblies. but in no case should it be less than 1/8 in (3. incl 1/8 (3.91) 1/2 (12.35) 11/32 (8. incl 1/4 (6. incl Over 11 to 12 (279 to 305).87) 23/32 (18.49) 17/32 (13. Deviation Above Nominal Solid Height max.37) 11/64 (4. incl Over 9 to 10 (228 to 254).73) 3/8 (9. max.(for design information) These permissible variations.59) 5/64 (1 99) 5/64 (1.00) 15/32 (11. Permissible Variations In Outside Diameter of Spring. in (mm).35) Over 25 to 28 (635 to 711). ± 5/32 (3.56) Over 22 to 25 (559 to 635).59) Over 7 to 10 (178 to 254). Nominal Total Deflection.56) 1/4 (6. max. incl 7/32 (5.2 to 102).35) 1/4 (6. in (mm). incl 5/32 (3. incl 9/32 (7. in (mm) Up to 3 (76. ± in (mm) (D/d = 8 or less).70) 17/32 (13.0) 17/32 (13.64) 29/32 (23.73) 7/16 (11. incl Deviation From Nominal Free Height. incl Over 3 to 4 (76. Table T-5. incl Over 17 to 18 (431 to 457). in (mm) Table T-6.78) 7/64 (2.175 mm). incl 1/16 (1.2).38) 3/32 (2. incl Over 4 to 5 (102 to 127). the nominal inside diameters shall be adhered to as closely as practicable.79 mm).17) 9/64 (3.In cases where radial clearance on existing concentrically-nested helical-spring units will not accommodate these tolerances. incl Over 13 to 14 (330 to 356).57) 5/32 (3.25) 23/32 (18. incl Over 15 to 16 (381 to 406).73) 11/32 (8. incl Over 6 to 7 (152 to 179).14) Over 28 to 31 (711 to 787). in (mm) 3/64 (1.Tolerancing Guidelines Page 9 of 14 NOTE 1 .28) 19/32 (15.17) 1/8 (3.T . incl Over 7 to 8 (179 to 203).

81) Over 29 to 30 (746 to 772).93) 15/16 (23. incl Over 20 to 22 (508 to 559). 3/16 (4. incl ··· 2 1/4 1 3/4 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1 ··· ··· Over 8 to 10 (203 to 254).05) Over 23 to 24 (584 to 610). Springs With Ground Ends (From ASTM A-125).54) 1 9/32 7/8 (22.incl Over 18 to 20 (457 to 508).54) 27/32 (21.. incl 2 1/4 1 3/4 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1 ··· ··· ··· Over 6 to 8 (152 to 203).22) Over 27 to 28 (685 to 711). incl Over 6 to 8 (152 to 203). Springs With Ground Ends (From ASTM A-125). incl Over 14 to 16 (356 to 406). incl incl incl incl incl incl Degree Table T-8. 356). incl Over 22 to 24 (559 to 610).16) 13/16 (20. incl 1 (25.40) 11/16 (17. Total Travel. no tolerance shall apply to the free height. incl incl Over 6 to 8 (152 to 203). degree 3 1/2 3 2 1/2 2 1/2 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD. in (mm) Up to 2 (51).56) 7/32 (5. in (mm) 2 (51) and under 2 and under 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1 1 1 ··· ··· ··· ··· Over 2 to 4 (51 to 102).76) 13/64 (5.T .16) 7/32 (5.64) Over 25 to 26 (635 to 661). incl 1 3/4 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1 1 ··· ··· ··· Over 4 to 6 (102 to 152).78) 23/32 (18. incl 1 9/32 (32. incl Over 4 to 6 (102 to 152).76) 3/16 (4. 7/13/2007 . incl Over 24 to 26 (610 to 660). incl Over 28 to 30 (702 to 762).96) Table T-7.16) 13/64 (5. 457). incl 1 3/8 (34. incl Over 12 to 14 (305 to 356). 406). 508). 254). incl Over 26 to 28 (660 to 701). incl Over 16 to 18 (406 to 457).96) 15/64 (5.43) Over 26 to 27 (661 to 685). Permissible Deviations. 102). incl 1 3/16 (30. incl 1 3/32 (27.96) 15/64 (5.16) 25/32 (19. incl 1 3/32 (27.Tolerancing Guidelines Page 10 of 14 Over 20 to 21(508 to 533).46) Over 21 to 22 (533 to 559). incl Over 2 Over 4 to 6 to 4 (51 to (102 to 152). incl 1 3/16 (30. Mean Diameter.56) 15/64 (5.78) 3/4 (19. incl 1 15/32 (37.96) 15/64 (5.84) Over 24 to 25 (610 to 635). incl Over 2 to 4 (51 to 102). incl 1 3/8 (34. incl (32. incl Deviation.25) Over 22 to 23 (559 to 584). incl Over 8 Over 10 Over 12 Over 14 Over 16 Over 18 to 12 to 14 to 16 to 18 to 20 to 10 (203 to (254 to (305 to (356 to (406 to (457 to 305).61) a If two loads are specified...19) 31/32 (24. incl ··· 2 1/2 2 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 ··· ··· ··· ··· 2 1/4 1 3/4 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 ··· ··· ··· 2 1/2 2 1 3/4 1 3/4 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/4 1 1/4 ··· ··· ··· 2 1/4 2 2 1 3/4 1 3/4 1 1/2 1 1/2 ··· ··· ··· ··· 2 1/4 2 2 1 3/4 1 3/4 1 1/2 ··· ··· ··· ··· 2 1/2 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 2 1 3/4 ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 2 1 3/4 ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 2 1 3/4 ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· 2 1/2 2 1/2 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· 2 1/2 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· 2 1/2 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 Over 10 to 12 (254 to 305). Permissible Squareness Deviation.93) 29/32 (23.01) Over 28 to 29 (711 to 746).

000 in (25. Table T-10.500 in (3. Figure T-5.7 mm to 610 mm) can be produced on standard ring coiling machines.015 in (0. incl Over 12 to 14 (305 to 356).25 mm) per each 1.1 mm) Gap ± 0.1 mm) Diameter (D) Tolerance ± 0.Tolerancing Guidelines Page 11 of 14 Over 8 to 10 (203 to 254).4 mm) of diameter. Springs With Unground Ends. Tolerances for Retaining Rings Ring diameters from . Diameter Tolerances A good rule of thumb is ± . incl Over 14 to 16 (356 to 406).500 in (< 38. External Retaining Rings. Permissible Squareness Deviation.10 in (0. Figure T-4. The exception is rings under 1.00 in (12. Retaining Ring Free Dimension Tolerances. 7/13/2007 .38 mm).38 mm) @ Dia. Internal Retaining Rings. tolerance 1. < 1. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD.500 in (> 38. incl Over 10 to 12 (254 to 305)..25 mm) per each Gap tolerance X 3 Dia.000 in (25.010 in (0..T .4 mm) of Dia.. @ Dia. incl 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/4 Table T-9.15 in (0. > 1.500 in to 24.81 mm) which should remain at ± .

0.00 Up to 0.984 .0 0.50) + 0.0.969 . Tolerances for Special Spring Washers Washer Curved Wave Stock Thickness in mm 0.3 0.0.1.5 .30) + 0. 7/13/2007 .0 0.30) 0.1. in (mm) I. * (R = OD / ID) Diameter.969 (25 50) .020 0.00 -0.T .D.40) 0. Figure T-6.80% of mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD.0.0.0.0.20) + 0.010 0.25) + 0.0.0.394 .039 0.0.016 (+ 0.0.079 ± Percent Load 15 33 25 20 15 12 Table T-12.Tolerancing Guidelines Page 12 of 14 Tolerances for Belleville Washers O.010 (.394 (5 10) .25 0.1.197 . Belleville Washer Diameter Tolerances..0.0.0.25 .984 (10 25) .004 0.0 .20) .0.937 (50 100) Based on R* = 2.40) + 0. in (mm) Table T-11..008 (.1 . Load Tolerances for Special Spring Washers.5 0.012 . increased tolerances are required for lower R ratios.3 .020 .2.012 0.0 0.0..008 (+ 0.D.50) 1. (Apply to deflection ranges of 20% .0. Belleville Washer.197 (5) .0.25) 0.012 (.010 (+ 0.020 (.020 (+ 0. in (mm) +0.004 .010 .039 .0.016 (.3.0.012 (+ 0.039 1.1 .

Flat Springs: Strip Thickness Tolerances.00150 (0.0.0.00100 (0..063 (3.18) 0.(1.0.18) .01) .029 (1.60) 0.. Tempered and Untempered.00030 (0.00075 (0.020 (0.039 .00050 (0.02) 0. in (mm) ± 0.50) .007 (0.019) 0.74) 0. Special Spring Washers.028 .019 .T .062 .(0.025) 0.008) Table T-13.0.00200 (0.038) 0.59) . Tolerances for Flat Springs Thickness Range in (mm) Tolerance.18) 0.0.73) . mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD.040 (1.125 .(1.(0..51) 0. 7/13/2007 .51) 0.(0.) Figure T-7.007 (0.013) Under 0.Tolerancing Guidelines Page 13 of 14 available deflection.

Symbols for Spring Terms mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\UTS\Advanced%20Spring%20Design\Help\ASD.. Related Topics: Tolerancing Guidelines Guidelines for Spring Testing Reference . Flat Springs. 7/13/2007 .T ...Tolerancing Guidelines Page 14 of 14 Figure T-8.