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Dr. S. K. Prasad Professor of Civil Engineering S. J. College of Engineering, Mysore 7.0 Syllabus
1. Definition of ultimate, net and safe bearing capacities, Allowable bearing pressure 2. Terzaghi’s and Brinch Hansen’s bearing capacit e!uations " Assumptions and #imitations $. Bearing capacit of footings sub%ected to eccentric loading &. 'ffect of ground water table on bearing capacit (. )late load test, *tandard )enetration Test, +one )enetration Test ,- Hours.
7.1 Defini i!ns Bearing capacit is the power of foundation soil to hold the forces from the superstructure without undergoing shear failure or e/cessi0e settlement. 1oundation soil is that portion of ground which is sub%ected to additional stresses when foundation and superstructure are constructed on the ground. The following are a few important terminologies related to bearing capacit of soil.
Super Structure Foundation
1ig. 2.1 3 4ain components of a structure including soil
7.1.1 "l i#a e Bea$in% Ca&a'i y ()f* 3 5t is the ma/imum pressure that a foundation soil can withstand without undergoing shear failure. 7.1.+ Ne ul i#a e Bea$in% Ca&a'i y ()n* , 5t is the ma/imum e/tra pressure ,in addition to initial o0erburden pressure. that a foundation soil can withstand without undergoing shear failure. !n 6 !f 7 !o Here, !o represents the o0erburden pressure at foundation le0el and is e!ual to 8D for le0el ground without surcharge where 8 is the unit weight of soil and D is the depth to foundation bottom from 9round #e0el. 7.1.- Safe Bea$in% Ca&a'i y ()s* , 5t is the safe e/tra load the foundation soil is sub%ected to in addition to initial o0erburden pressure.
qs = qn + qo F
Here. 1 represents the factor of safet . 7.1.. All!/able Bea$in% P$essu$e ()a* , 5t is the ma/imum pressure the foundation soil is sub%ected to considering both shear failure and settlement. 7.1.0 F!un1a i!n is that part of the structure which is in direct contact with soil. 1oundation transfers the forces and moments from the super structure to the soil below such that the stresses in soil are within permissible limits and it pro0ides stabilit against sliding and o0erturning to the super structure. 5t is a transition between the super structure and foundation soil. The %ob of a geotechnical engineer is to ensure that both foundation and soil below are safe
against failure and do not e/perience e/cessi0e settlement. 1ooting and foundation are s non mous. 7.+ 2!1es !f s3ea$ failu$e Depending on the stiffness of foundation soil and depth of foundation, the following are the modes of shear failure e/perienced b the foundation soil. 1. 9eneral shear failure ,:ef 1ig. 2.1a. 2. #ocal shear failure ,:ef 1ig. 2.1b. $. )unching shear failure ,:ef 1ig. 2.1c.
*hear failure in foundation soil ) " ; cur0e in different foundation soils 1ig. 2. 1 3 1ooting on ground that e/periences a. 9eneral shear failure, b. #ocal shear failure and c. )unching shear failure
2.2.1 9eneral *hear 1ailure This t pe of failure is seen in dense and stiff soil. The following are some characteristics of general shear failure. 1. +ontinuous, well defined and distinct failure surface de0elops between the edge of footing and ground surface. 2. Dense or stiff soil that undergoes low compressibilit failure. $. +ontinuous bulging of shear mass ad%acent to footing is 0isible. e/periences this
@>2-o. 2.2 #ocal *hear 1ailure This t pe of failure is seen in relati0el loose and soft soil.. #ocal shear failure is accompanied b large strain . ha0ing high relati0e densit . 1ailure surface is not well defined.. This t pe of failure occurs in a soil of 0er high compressibilit .@A$=o. A significant compression of soil below the footing and partial de0elopment of plastic e!uilibrium is obser0ed. =.>(?. cur0e. 1ailure is sudden and catastrophic with pronounced pea< in ) " . 2. and large B . in a soil with considerabl low @ . 2.A 1C to 2C?.&. 2. cur0e. 1ailure surface does not reach the ground surface and slight bulging of soil around the footing is obser0ed. 1. $. The following are some characteristics of general shear failure.2. ha0ing low relati0e densit .2. The following are some characteristics of general shear failure. *tate of plastic e!uilibrium is reached initiall spreads graduall downwards and outwards. and low B . 1ailure pattern is not obser0ed. 1ailure is characterized b considerable settlement. in a soil with considerable @ . 1ailure is not sudden and there is no tilting of footing. .5D A 2C?. at the footing edge and 2. 9eneral shear failure is accompanied b low strain .$ )unching *hear 1ailure This t pe of failure is seen in loose and soft soil and at deeper ele0ations. The length of disturbance be ond the edge of footing is large. 2.B > (.B A $C. Dell defined pea< is absent in ) " . 1ailure is accompanied b tilting of footing. 1. =. -. &.5D A 2C?. (. (.
1ig. +ontinuous settlement with no increase in ) is obser0ed in ) " . cur0e . +u>(C <)a :esults in large strain .. B>(. &. 2. 5D>2C?. cur0e. 1ig. (. 5DA2C?.2 presents the conditions for different failure modes in sand soil carr ing circular footing based on the contributions from Eesic .1. BA$C.>(?. Dis in' i!n be /een Gene$al S3ea$ 4 L!'al !$ Pun'3in% S3ea$ Failu$es The basic distinctions between general shear failure and punching shear failure are presented in Table 2.2 3 4odes of failure at different :elati0e densities G depths of foundations 7. 1ailure is characterized b 0er large settlement. 1ailure pattern not well defined Bo pea< in )7. +uA1CC <)a :esults in small strain . Table 2. 2.+. cur0e L!'al5Pun'3in% S3ea$ Failu$e Hccurs in looseIsoft soil @>2-o. 1ailure pattern well defined G clear Dell defined pea< in )7.1 3 Distinction between 9eneral *hear G #ocal *hear 1ailures Gene$al S3ea$ Failu$e Hccurs in denseIstiff soil @A$=o. Bulging of soil around the footing is absent.$.1F=$ G 1F2$.A2C?.
. (. 'lastic zone has straight boundaries inclined at an angle e!ual to @ to the horizontal.#imit e!uilibrium is reached simultaneousl at all points. The shear strength of soil is represented b 4ohr +oulombs +riteria. 4ethod of superposition is 0alid.1 Assumptions 1. . &. *oil is homogeneous and 5sotropic. be ond the base of the footing.1F&$.Bulging formed in the neighbourhood of Bo footing at the surface '/tent of horizontal spread Bulging obser0ed in the of neighbourhood of footing of '/tent of horizontal spread disturbance at the surface large Hbser0ed in shallow foundations 1ailure is sudden G catastrophic #ess settlement. was the first to propose a comprehensi0e theor for e0aluating the safe bearing capacit of shallow foundation with rough base. The footing is of strip footing t pe with rough base. ))! produced b surcharge and ))J produced b weight of shear zone. 2. +omplete shear failure is mobilized at all points at the same time. $. 2.1ooting and ground are horizontal. *hear resistance of soil abo0e the base of footing is neglected. 'ffect of water table is neglected. )assi0e pressure force has three components . -.))+ produced b cohesion.. 1ailure zone is not e/tended abo0e. =. F. 1C. but tilting failure obser0ed 7. 5t is essentiall a two dimensional plane strain problem. 11. 1ooting carries concentric and 0ertical loads.$. 2.Te$6a%3i7s bea$in% Ca&a'i y T3e!$y disturbance at the surface 0er small Hbser0ed in deep foundations 1ailure is gradual +onsiderable settlement of footing obser0ed Terzaghi .
&. @ increases which is not considered.2 #imitations 1.$ +oncept A strip footing of width B graduall compresses the foundation soil underneath due to the 0ertical load from superstructure.$.12. Hence full plastic zone ma not de0elop at the assumed @. $. 1ig. The theor is applicable to shallow foundations 2.$ 3 Terzaghi’s concept of 1ooting with fi0e distinct failure zones in foundation soil 2.The properties of foundation soil do not change during the shear failure 2. All points need not e/perience limit e!uilibrium condition at different loads.$. As the soil compresses. 2. 4ethod of superstition is not acceptable in plastic conditions as the ground is near failure zone. The foundation soil fails along the composite failure surface and . #et ! f be the final load at which the foundation soil e/periences failure due to the mobilization of plastic e!uilibrium.
0 0. the e!uation for ultimate bearing capacit is obtained as follows.7 11.4 1.2 Nq 1.6 2.5 1.8 19. Lltimate bearing capacit . then q f = cN c + .9 2. N q −1. 1 6 1actor of safet .7 3.4 7.0 9.7 25.9 5.6 12.0 N'q 1.(γBN γ 5f the ground is sub%ected to additional surcharge load !.usuall $.7 .6 8.1 37.9 1. qs = cN c + γD . c 6 cohesion J 6 unit weight of soil D 6 Depth of foundation ! 6 *urcharge at the ground le0el B 6 Didth of foundation Bc.7 6.the region is di0ided in to fi0e zones.9 17.2 0.(γBN γ − γD *afe bearing capacit .7 7.0 0. N q + C.7 22.2 5. q n = cN c + γD.7 8.(γBNγ [ 1 ]F + γD Here. Kone 1 which is elastic.5 Ng 0. B!. + C.4 12.(γBN γ q n = cN c + γDN q + C.0 1. two numbers of Kone 2 which are the zones of radial shear and two zones of Kone $ which are the zones of linear shear.3 N'g 0. + C.7 N'c 5.8 14.7 19.0 1. BJ 6 Bearing +apacit factors Table 2. +onsidering horizontal force e!uilibrium and incorporating empirical relation.5 5.(γBN γ Bet ultimate bearing capacit .0 9.2 3 Bearing capacit factors for different ϕ ϕ 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Nc 5.3 9.2 2.5 0.γD + q . q f = cN c + γDN q + C.7 4.7 3. N q −1.
Terzaghi and other contributors ha0e suggested the correction to the bearing capacit e!uation for shapes other than strip footing based on their e/perimental findings.1 23. The following are the corrections for circular.5 65.3 11.9 51.4 100.4 81.5 35.6 57.6 20.7 60.3 287.8 81. s!uare and rectangular footings.6 36.7 172.& 3 Terzaghi’s Bearing +apacit 1actors for different ϕ 7.1 50.8 95.2 34.1 415.7 12.1 1153. Effe' !f s3a&e !f F!un1a i!n The shape of footing influences the bearing capacit .4 297.3 173.7 25.0 42.6 9.4 87.2 1ig.8 37.34 35 40 45 48 50 52.2 66..9 35.3 347. 2.5 41.0 10.5 780.3 258.1 18. .
2 gi0es the summar of shape factors suggested for strip.0 L!'al s3ea$ failu$e The e!uation for bearing capacit e/plained abo0e is applicable for soil e/periencing general shear failure. *uch a failure is accounted in bearing capacit e!uation b reducing the magnitudes of strength parameters c and ϕ as follows.C. tan φ 1 = c1 = 2 tan φ $ 2 c $ s' 1 1. L Table 2. 5f a soil is relati0el loose and soft.(γBN γ L L 2.&γBN γ 2.$ B B .$γBN γ 2. circular and rectangular footings.$ B . it fails in local shear failure. L s) 1 1 1 1 s8 1 C.2 B .$ 1.$ 3 *hape factors for different shapes of footing S3a&e *trip *!uare :ound :ectangle 7.C. B and # represent the width and length respecti0el of rectangular footing such that B > #.&. s!uare.1 + C.2 *!uare footing q f = 1.$ .& *ummar of *hape factors Table 2.&.$ summarizes the bearing capacit factors to be used under different situations. it is not sure whether the .cN c + γDN q + .2 .&. 5f ϕ is less than $=o and more than 2-o.$cN c + γDN q + C.$ :ectangular footing q f = .1 − C.1 + C.$cN c + γDN q + C.2.= .&. Table 2.1 +ircular footing q f =1.1 −C.
Table 2. L!'al S3ea$ Failu$e @ > 2-o Bc1. Howe0er. BJ1 2i9e1 :!ne 2-o > ϕ > $=o Bcm. Hence.& 3 Bearing capacit factors in zones of local. 1urther..failure is of general or local shear t pe. Effe' !f <a e$ Table flu' ua i!n The basic theor of bearing capacit is deri0ed b assuming the water table to be at great depth below and not interfering with the foundation. B!1. BJ 7. the unit weight of soil to be considered in the presence of water table is submerged densit and not dr densit . mi/ed and general shear conditions. the presence of water table at foundation depth affects the strength of soil. B!m. the reduction coefficients : D1 and :D2 are used in second and third terms of bearing capacit e!uation to consider the effects of water table. B!. BJm Gene$al S3ea$ Failu$e @ A $=o Bc. linear interpolation can be made and the region is called mi/ed zone. ZW1 1 W R o c e u l f n I B D 0. 5n such situations.5 < RW1 < 1 .
Kw1 6 D. 1.( $. :w2 lies between C.Kw2 A6 B. At an other intermediate le0el. q f = cN c + γDN q w1 + C.D B ZW2 B 1ig.(>:w1>1 2. Dhen water table is at the base of foundation .( and 1 Here.(γBN γ w2 Here. :w2 6 C.(>:w2>1 2. :w1 6 C.( and 1 R o c e u l f n I 2 W ..( 3 'ffect of water table on bearing capacit Lltimate bearing capacit with the effect of water table is gi0en b .( $. C. 2. Dhen water table is at the base of foundation . C.. w2 = 1 ! w2 1+ 2 B where KD2 is the depth of water table from foundation le0el.Kw2 6 C.. :w2 6 1 &.Kw1 6 C. At an other intermediate le0el. 1.. :w1 6 1 &. :w1 lies between C. Dhen water table is at a depth B and be ond from the base of foundation . Dhen water table is at the ground le0el . w1 = 1 ! w1 1+ 2 D where KD1 is the depth of water table from ground le0el.
= 3 'ffect of eccentric footing on bearing capacit The bearing capacit e!uation is de0eloped with the idealization that the load on the foundation is concentric.= Fa' !$ !f Safe y . 2. the forces on the foundation ma be eccentric or foundation ma B 1 = B − 2e be sub%ected to additional moment. width to be considered is B1 where B1 > #1. area of foundation to be considered for safe load carried b foundation is not the actual area.7. 7.7 Effe' !f e''en $i' f!un1a i!n base DD Resultant of superstructure pressure Concentric DD e Eccentric B 1ig. the width of foundation B shall be considered as follows. 5n such situations. but the effecti0e area as follows. #1 = B 1 "L1 5n the calculation of bearing capacit . then B 1 = B − 2e B G L1 = L − 2e L 1urther. Howe0er. 5f the loads are eccentric in both the directions. Hence the effect of pro0ision of eccentric footing is to reduce the bearing capacit and load carr ing capacit of footing.
4ethod of e/ploration $. Assume a factor of safet 1 6 $. 5mportance of structure and conse!uences of failure (. Table 2. #e0el of Lncertaint in *oil *trength &. Table 2.( T pical factors of safet for bearing capacit calculation in different situations . unless otherwise specified for bearing capacit problems. T pe of soil 2. 1.5t is the factor of ignorance about the soil under consideration. etc. 5t depends on man factors such as. #i<elihood of design load occurrence.( pro0ides the details of factors of safet to be used under different circumstances.
$. assume it as dr . J e! should be used for the second term and Jsat for the third term.7. densit . 5n the case shown in 1ig. J d should be used for second term and Je! for the third term. use e!ui0alent densit as follows. Alwa s use dr densit as it does not change with season and it is alwa s smaller than bul< or saturated densit . 5n the case shown in 1ig. 2b. 2a.> Densi y !f s!il . one deals with se0eral densities such as dr densit . 5f onl one densit densit and use. 5f the water table correction is to be applied.. 5n case of Bearing capacit problems. 5n geotechnical engineering. 5f water table is some where in between. 2. use saturated densit in stead of dr densit . &. saturated densit and submerged densit . There will alwa s be a doubt in the students mind as to which densit to use in a particular case. bul< densit . 1. use dr is specified in the problem. the following methodolog ma be adopted. Hn portions abo0e the water table.
The following are some important ones. Depth of foundation (.Dater table below base 1ig. T pe of soil 2. 1.10 . Fa' !$s influen'in% Bea$in% Ca&a'i y Bearing capacit of soil depends on man factors.γ eq = γ 1 D1 + γ 2 D2 D1 + D2 D1 D2 D B B . Dater table abo0e base . Lnit weight of soil $.5nclination of ground 12. bearing capacit depends on man factors and Terzaghi’s bearing capacit e!uation doers not ta<e in to consideration all the factors. Brinch Hansen and se0eral other researchers ha0e pro0ided a .5nclination of footing load 11. 2.b. *urcharge load &. 4ode of failure =.2 3 '0aluation of e!ui0alent densit 7. Depth of water table F. *ize of footing 2. *hape of footing -. 'ccentricit in footing load 1C.a.5nclination of base of foundation 7.11 B$in'3 ?ansen7s Bea$in% Ca&a'i y e)ua i!n As mentioned in pre0ious section.
.e π tan φ . The effects of these factors is to reduce the bearing capacit . The e!uation for ultimate bearing capacit is as follows from the comprehensi0e theor . q f = cN c s c d c i c +qN q s q d q i q + C. &( + . The biggest ad0antages are that there is no need to e/tract soil sample and the conditions during testing are identical to the actual situation.. N q = 1. Mou ha0e understood the ad0antages of field tests o0er laborator tests for obtaining the desired propert of soil.ic. tan φ φ '!uations are a0ailable for shape factors . tan 2 . iJ. depth factors . N q −1. and load inclination factors .dc. N c = . the bearing capacit factors are gi0en b the following e/pressions which depend on ϕ. 2 N γ = 1. sJ. s!.(.comprehensi0e e!uation for the determination bearing capacit called 9eneralised Bearing +apacit e!uation considering the almost all the factors mentioned abo0e.(γBN γ sγ d γ iγ Here. cot φ N q = . dJ. 4a%or ad0antages of field tests are • *ampling not re!uired • *oil disturbance minimum 4a%or disad0antages of field tests are • #abourious • Time consuming • Hea0 e!uipment to be carried to field • *hort duration beha0ior .sc. d!. 7. i!.11 De e$#ina i!n !f Bea$in% Ca&a'i y f$!# fiel1 es s 1ield Tests are performed in the field.
&. 2.2. 5t is a field test for the determination of bearing capacit and settlement characteristics of ground in field at the foundation le0el. A rigid steel plate. of re!uired accurac .1 )late #oad Test Sand Bags Platform for loading Dial "auge !esting Plate Foundation Le el Foundation Soil 1ig. (.C.3 t pical set up for )late #oad test assembl 1. the plate settles graduall . =. At e0er applied load. $. . 2. Dial gauges. 2( mm thic< acts as model footing.. #oading is pro0ided either as gra0it loading or as reaction loading.CC2 mm. round or s!uare in shape. at least 2. a reaction truss or beam is anchored to the ground. 1or smaller loads gra0it loading is acceptable where sand bags appl the load. 5n reaction loading. $CC mm to 2(C mm in size.11. A h draulic %ac< applies the reaction load. The dial gauge readings are recorded after the settlement reduces to least count of gauge .C. G a0erage settlement of 2 or more gauges is recorded. The test in0ol0es preparing a test pit up to the desired foundation le0el.CC2 mm. are placed on plate on plate at corners to measure the 0ertical deflection. 2.
1C..-.for a distance of N2Bp. +orrection for size effect is essential in such soils.). beha0iour of ground. 5t is essentiall a short duration test. The ad0antages of )late #oad Test are 1. not that of actual footing which is generall 0er large. is plotted on the 0ertical scale.The ma/imum load at which the shear failure occurs gi0es the ultimate bearing capacit of soil. :eference can be made to 5* 1--. :ed cur0e indicates the general shear failure G the blue one indicates the local or punching shear failure. #oad Es settlement graph is plotted as shown. The loading techni!ues and other arrangements for field testing are identical to the actual conditions in the field. *ize effect is pronounced in granular soil. there is no re!uirement of e/tracting soil samples. 2. Being a field test. 5t pro0ides the allowable bearing pressure at the location considering both shear failure and settlement.7 1F-2. Hence. 5t is a fast method of estimating AB) and ) " . #oad . $. $. &..11. appl huge load and carr out testing for se0eral da s in the tough field en0ironment. &. The test results reflect the beha0iour of soil below the plate . 5t is a cumbersome procedure to carr e!uipment.2 *tandard )enetration Test . The disad0antages of )late #oad Test are 1. it does not reflect the long term consolidation settlement of cla e soil. 2. is plotted on the horizontal scale and settlement .. 2. F.
the desired corrections . allowed to freel settle under its own weight or with blows for first 1(C mm which is called seating dri0e. saturated fine silt and energ . undrained cohesion.such as corrections for o0erburden pressure. Ad0antages of *tandard )enetration Test are . =. 2.. Appl -.( <g hammer freel dropped from a height of 2(C mm. min =CC mm long and =$. The number of blows re!uired for the ne/t $CC mm penetration into the ground is the standard penetration number B 2. 5t consists of a split spoon sampler (C. *plit spoon sampler is placed 0erticall in the hole. &.mm HD. (. 5t is a field test to estimate the penetration resistance of soil. $( mm 5D.3 t pical set up for *tandard )enetration test assembl 1.$% &g #ammer '%( mm !ripod Bore #ole Split Spoon Sampler 1ig. :eference can be made to 5* 21$1 " 1F-1 for details on *tandard )enetration Test. B is correlated with most properties of soil such as friction angle.. densit etc. $. Test is performed on a clean hole (C mm to 1(C mm in diameter. 2.
*)T is abused. :e!uires the preparation of bore hole. Bot possible to obtain properties continuousl with depth. Able to penetrate dense G stiff la ers =. fabric. D namic effort is related to mostl static performance $. 2.$ +one )enetration Test . )ro0ides representati0e soil sample &. Test procedure is tedious and re!uires hea0 e!uipment.1. 2. difficult to obtain reliable result. :esults reflect soil densit . standards regarding energ are not uniform &. :elati0el !uic< G simple to perform 2. (. )ro0ides useful inde/ for relati0e strength G compressibilit of soil (. '!uipment G e/pertise for test is widel a0ailable $. =. Bumerous case histories a0ailable Disad0antages of *tandard )enetration Test are 1.11. 5f hard stone is encountered. stress strain beha0ior 2.
+ontinuous record of penetration resistance with depth is achie0ed. +one is carried at the lower end of steel rod that passes through steel tube of $= mm dia. and =Co 0erte/ angle. *tatic resistance is more appropriate to determine static properties of soil. +one is pushed -C mm in to the ground and resistance is recorded. both cone and tube are penetrated 2CC mm and resistance is recorded. $. Disad0antages of *+)T are 1. +one )enetration Test can either be *tatic +one )enetration Test or D namic +one )enetration Test. +an be correlated with most properties of soil. or the tube or both can be forced in to the soil b %ac<s. Total resistance can be correlated with strength properties. Bot 0er popular in 5ndia. +orrection for o0erburden pressure is applied. 'ither the cone. . gi0es the +)T 0alue e/pressed in <)a. (.1CCC mm2. &.1ig. Ad0antages of *+)T are 1. " 1F-2 for details on *tandard )enetration Test. B 6 1C!c . -. :eference can be made to 5* &F=.)$. +one resistance represents bearing resistance at the base and tube resistance gi0es the s<in frictional resistance. 2. +onsists of a cone $= mm dia . +ontinuous resistance with depth is recorded. 2. 2. =. 1urther.F 3 t pical set up for *tatic +one )enetration test assembl 1.Appro/imatel . densit and deformation characteristics of soil.!c. F. steel tube is pushed up to the cone and resistance is recorded.<)a. 1C. $.. Total resistance . 2.
7.dr lumps easil pul0erized b fingers. &&C 2&( 1(C 1CC . resistance shown is erratic G incorrect. compact and dr 1ine sand.hard. trap G diorite #aminated :oc<s. dr 1ine sand. dr 4edium cla readil indented with a thumb nail 4oist cla and sand cla mi/ture which can be indented with strong thumb pressure *oft cla indented with moderate thumb pressure *B+ .g. silt . #oose gra0el or sand gra0el mi/ture. $. $2&C 1=2C --C &&C B 3 +ohesionless *oils *l Bo 1 2 $ & ( = Description 9ra0el.1F-$. *and stone and #ime stone in sound condition :esidual deposits of shattered and bro<en bed roc<s and hard shale cemented material *oft :oc< *B+ . without laminations and defects. 1or e. Bational Building +ode of 5ndia .2.<)a. loose and dr *B+ .<)a. 1or e.1+ P$esu#& i@e Safe Bea$in% Ca&a'i y 5t is the bearing capacit that can be presumed in the absence of data based on 0isual identification at the site. hard or stiff cla in deep bed. lists the 0alues of presumpti0e *B+ in <)a for different soils as presented below. #oose coarse to medium sand. A 3 :oc<s *l Bo 1 2 $ & Description :oc<s .g. 5f a small roc< piece is encountered. sand and gra0el. compact and offering resistance to penetration when e/ca0ated b tools +oarse sand. compact and dr 4edium sand. &&C &&C 2&( 1(C 2&( 1CC + 3 +ohesi0e *oils *l Bo 1 2 $ & Description *oft shale. granite. 5n0ol0es handling hea0 e!uipment.<)a.
A s!uare footing is to be constructed on a deep deposit of sand at a depth of C.F m to carr a design load of $CC <B with a factor of safet of 2. c 6 C 7. Design the plan dimension of footing gi0en Jsat 6 2C. 5f simpl densit is mentioned use accordingl .&γBN γ $2 1 ]F + γD ∴$CC = 1&2. Drite down the re!uired formula &. .1+ P$!ble#s 4 S!lu i!ns 1.F m :D1 6 :D2 6 C. The ground water table ma rise to the ground le0el during rain season.(C ? saturation. # B [ $1 + C. $. Lse Jd for all cases without water.<BIm$.( J 6 2C..1eb 2CC2. 5f the gi0en soil is sand.21 m .( = Eer soft cla which can be penetrated se0eral centimeters with the thumb Blac< cotton soil or other shrin<able or e/pansi0e cla in dr condition .(. (C 1$C 7 1=C N! e . Lse Jsat for calculations with water.( D 6 C.2&F B $ B 6 1.<BIm$ Bc 6 2( B! 6 $& BJ 6 $2 qs = P P = 2 = 1.222 B 2 + ($. Data +6C 1 6 2.. B! 6 $& and BJ 6$2. Bc 6 2(. 2.$cN c + γD. 1. N q − 1. 1ill all the a0ailable data with proper units.
( m s!uare footing.$ BJ &2.( m below the ground surface.( m strip foundation and . Ta<e bearing capacit factors as Bc6 22. N q −1. BJ 6 $(.( m O 2. . Assume 1 6 2. B! 6 $C.(.&γBN γ !n 6 1FF&. ϕ $(o &Co Bc (2. 1.ii. + C. B! 6 &F. N q −1.$$ <)a *!uare 1ooting q n = 1.(γBN γ !n 6 21&-.& -1. .( m .& B linear interpolation Bc 6 =(.( m is built on a homogeneous bed of sand of densit 1F <BIm$ ha0ing an angle of shearing resistance of $= o.$-.i. The depth of foundation is 1. The footings are placed at a depth of 1.& 1CC.&$ <)a $. + C. 1.( m below ground le0el. BJ 6 (& at ϕ 6 $=o Data B 6 1.1eb 2CC&. +alculate the safe load that can be applied on the footing with a factor of safet of $.F(.$-. A s!uare footing 2. Lse Terzaghi’s e!uations.2. Data +6C 16$ B 6 2.2 B! &1.( m D 6 1.( m O 1.( m J 6 1F <BIm$ *trip 1ooting q n = cN c + γD.Aug 2CC$. Dhat will be the net ultimate bearing capacit of sand ha0ing ϕ 6 $=o and Jd 6 1F <BIm$ for .$cN c + γD .
( m J 6 1F <BIm$ Bc 6 22 B! 6 $C BJ 6 $( qs = P P = 2 = 1. 5f c 6 C and ϕ 6 $(o.<BIm$. Dater table is 2.&γBN γ $2 1 ]F + γD *afe load. Dater table is & m below 9round #e0el b. Dater table is at 9round #e0el.1eb 2CC(. # B [ $1 + C. determine the factor of safet with respect to shear failure for the following locations of water table.&. a.<BIm$ . Jt 6 1=.( <BIm$ and unit weight abo0e water table is 1=. Data +6C ϕ 6 $(o B62m D 6 1.( m below 9round #e0el d. . ta<e B! 6 &1.& <B &.2 m in sand. N q − 1.& BJ 6 &2. A strip footing 2 m wide carries a load intensit of &CC <)a at a depth of 1. The saturated unit weight of sand is 1F.(γBN γ $2 1 ]F + γD . Dater table is 1.$cN c + γD.( <BIm$ .D 6 1.& *afe load intensit 6 &CC <)a q s = &CC = cN c + γD ..top. N q − 1.bottom. [ $1 + C.2 m below 9round #e0el c. Lsing Terzaghi’s e!uation.& and BJ 6 &2.2 m Jb 6 1F.. ) 6 !sPBPB 6 $2-(. Bc 6 C B! 6 &1.
Dater table is & m below 9round #e0el :D1 6 :D2 6 1 J 6 1=.2 " &C.<BIm$ . c 6 .<)a 16$ D 6 1..( " 1.( " C.& " C.a.<)a.22F d.<BIm$ 1 6 &. Dater table is at 9round #e0el :D1 6 :D2 6 C.( " 12." 1.& " C.2&( <BIm$ 2 1 +1=.& " C." 1.Assumed.2 = 12.2 F &CC = [1=.& " C. Lse Terzaghi’s anal sis for general shear failure.& " 1 + C. 6 C.( + C.( &CC = [1=..2&( " 2 " &2. Jd 6 1.( " 2 " &2.2.(] 1 +1F.( " 1F.( " 1F.2 m below 9round #e0el :D1 6 1.( J 6 1F.$ m below ground has to carr a safe load of -CC <B. A s!uare footing located at a depth of 1. B! 6 22.( m below 9round #e0el :D2 6 C.( " 1.2." 1. :D2 6 C." 1.1Q1.$ +1F.( " 2 " &2. 1ind the size of footing if the desired factor of safet is $. ..$($ (.$ m . Dater table is 1. BJ 6 1F.2 " &C.& " 1 + C.-2( γ eff = 1=. B c 6 $2.(...Aug 2CC(. Dater table is 2.-2(] 1 6 $.(] 1 +1=. Ta<e c 6 .( <BIm$ &CC = [1F.(.222 c.C2 b..$I2." 1.2 F 1 6 $.2 " &C.2 F 1 6 2.
2.(.2 ) 6 -CC <B :D1 6 :D2 6 1 qs = P P = 2 = 1. BJ 6 $(. A strip footing 1 m wide and a s!uare footing 1 m side are placed at a depth of 1 m below the ground surface. Ta<e 1 6 2. Ta<ing bearing . 5f the depth of foundation is 1.C= B 2 − -CC = C B 6 1. B! 6 $=.1eb 2CC2.m Bc 6 22 B! 6 $= BJ 6 $( )6R :D1 6 :D2 6 1 qs = P P = 2 = 1.m D 6 1.&γBN γ $2 1 ]F + γD &2.$cN c + γD.( BJ 6 1F. N q − 1. N q − 1.m O 2.&$= m =. determine the safe load that can be applied on the footing.m.&γBN γ $2 1 ]F + γD ) 6 !sPBPB 6 =C2$ <B 2. Bc 6 22.<BIm$ c 6 C ..( B 6 2.sand.<BIm$ and ϕ 6 $=o.m is built on a homogeneous bed of sand of densit 1. # B [ $1 + C.B $ + $2C.$cN c + γD.Bc 6 $2. The foundation soil has cohesion of 1C <)a... 1 6 2.2 B! 6 22. Data Jd 6 1.. angle of friction of 2=o and unit weight of 1. A s!uare footing 2.<BIm$. .. # B [ $1 + C.
+ 6 1C <)a.F2.&γBN γ [ 1 ]F + γD 61C$. the ground e/periences local shear failure +’ 6 .2I$.$cN c + γD.C. 1ind the re!uired size of footing gi0en the following data.O1C 6 =.=2 <)a tan ϕ’ 6 . O tan ϕ ϕ’ 6 1-. calculate the safe bearing capacit using Terzaghi’s theor .Sul 2CC2. N q − 1.Sul 2CC-.2 BJ 2. + C.capacit factor from the following table.2 2(.C1 B61m D61m J6 1.2F. B!’6(.( (. Bc 6 =1. BJ’6&. A s!uare footing placed at a depth of 1 m is re!uired to carr a load of 1CCC <B. .C 12. Bc’61(.1 B! &.F= <)a *!uare footing q s = 1. N q −1.(γBN γ [ 1 ]F + γD 6F&.C1o B linear interpolation. BJ 6 2&. + C.F 12.2 As ϕ 6 2-o. ϕ 6 $-o.C$ and 1 6 $.$(. Lse factor of safet of $.<)a -. ϕ 1(o 2Co 2(o Bc 12.C F. . Assume water table is at the base of footing.2I$. J 6 1F <BIm$. B! 6 &-.<BIm$ *trip footing q s = cN c + γD . Data + 6 1C <)a ϕ 6 $-o B6R D61m J 6 1F <BIm$ .F$.& 2.
&. Dhat is the change in safe bearing capacit if the water table rises to C.E9e$'ise &$!ble#s 1.-. # B [ $1 + C. 1. Also calculate ultimate bearing capacit if same footing is placed at a depth of 1 m below ground surface. Dhat will be the gross net bearing capacit of sand ha0ing ϕ 6 $=o and dr unit weight of 1F <BIm$ for the following cases a. $.( m in a soil with a moist unit weight of 12.Sul 2CC2.22 m 7.( m O 1. C.1 m placed at a depth of 1. B! 6 &1.(= = C B 6 C.= <BIm$. 2.1& B 2 − $.1. . Determine the safe bearing capacit of a s!uare footing 2. 1.Sul 2CC=.( m s!uare footing c.C$ 16$ :D1 6 1 :D2 6 C. N q − 1. +alculate the ultimate bearing capacit of 2 m wide s!uare footing resting on the ground surface of sand deposit with the following propertiesT unit weight 1-. BJ 6 &2.( qs = P P = 2 = 1.Bc 6 =1.( m abo0e footing base if 1 6 $. angle of internal friction $(o.( m wide strip foundation b.1 m O 2.&γBN γ $2 1 ]F + γD B $ + =. Ta<e Bc’611.F$ BJ 6 2&. .2( m radius circular footing .2. B!’ 6 $.( <BIm $.$( B! 6 &-.F and BJ’ 6 1.2.$cN c + γD. c 6 1( <)a and ϕ 6 2Co.
ϕ Bc B! BJ &C F(. 5f c 6 1C <)a. Assume factor of safet of 1. A s!uare footing 2m O 2m in plan and 1.& -.( m. B! 6 1.( m from ground surface.2 m outside of centroid widthwise. if the load was concentric.& &2. . J61=<BIm$. A $ m O & m rectangular footing and 1.The footings are placed at a depth of 1. The resultant is C.1 and D 6 1. J61=<BIm$. Determine the safe load if the unconfined compressi0e strength is (C <)a.& m O 1. 5f c 6 1C <)a. 1 6 2. Dhat would ha0e been the increase in load carried. The resultant is C.<BIm$.( m below ground le0el is eccentricall loaded. BJ 6 &&. =.& &. find the safe load carried b footing.. ϕ 6 2(o. Design a s!uare footing to carr a load of 1(CC <B.2 m outside of centroid widthwise.$ 1CC. A s!uare footing 1.$ m outside of centroid lengthwise.& &C F(.& 2. (. B! 6 &F. A $ m O & m rectangular footing is eccentricall loaded.2 -1.&1. Ta<e Jsat 6 12. 5f c 6 1C <)a.& m rests at a depth of 1 m in a saturated cla la er $ m deep.2 -1.2 m outside of centroid in one direction. if the load was concentric.$ 1CC. Dhat would ha0e been the increase in load carried. .( m below ground le0el is eccentricall loaded.$ 1CC. ϕ Bc B! BJ &C F(. J61=<BIm$.2. ϕ 6 &C o. The resultant is C. ϕ 6 &C o. if the load was concentric.$ m outside of centroid lengthwise. 1 6$. Bc 6 (. Assume cohesionless soil and adopt J 6 1F <BIm$. ϕ 6 $-o. find the safe load carried b footing.( and use Terzaghi’s bearing capacit e!uations ϕ Bc B! BJ $( (2.(. and C.1eb 2CCF. Dhat would ha0e been the increase in load carried.2 -1. find the safe load carried b footing. and C. :efer to 5* =&C$71F-1 for bearing capacit factors.
Bp 6 C. 1$. permissible settlement in field 6 12 mm.A s!uare footing is proposed at a site to carr a load of =CC <B.. 1&.F$. A circular footing is proposed on a cohesi0e ground with c 6 . ( 1C 2C $C &C (C =C .1( C.=2 1ind the allowable bearing pressure if B 6 2 m.1( C.( m. ) . 2.F1 1. 4a . The standard penetration test indicated that the a0erage B 0alue after all the corrections was $C and the ground was granular.A 2 m O 2 m s!uare footing is proposed on a ground with c 6 .$ m.<B. Ta<e c 6 1C <)a. . ϕ 6 2(o. BJ 6 2&.22 $.o. .22 $. ϕ 6 $.1 m widthwise and C.m when the load is inclined at 1C o to 0ertical. J61= <BIm$. Bp 6 C. ϕ 6 $Co.( m. The depth of 9round Dater Table below 9round #e0el in Sanuar . find the drop in safe load carried if water table rises up to the base of footing. C m. Design the size of footing. Hence correction for bearing capacit factors and c are necessar F.-( 2.<)a.F1 1.( m. Sul .$(.( m. 1C. permissible settlement in field 6 12 mm.<)a.-( 2.The following are the results of plate load test on granular soil.The following are the results of plate load test on cohesi0e soil.1ind the safe bearing capacit of soil to support a 2 m O $ m footing at a depth of 1.=2 C. 1ind the safe load carried b the footing if the diameter is 2. . C. ) .mm. 1 m. 1urther.$ C. 5f Bc 6 =1. 1ind the safe load carried b the footing. = m.$ C. 12. B! 6 &-. 1ind the safe load supported b the footing if eccentricities of C.( <BIm$. *eptember and Bo0ember are respecti0el & m.<BIm$ at a depth of 1.Bote 3 As ϕ > 2-o. J 6 1.C$.mm.12 m lengthwise e/ist.<B. ( 1C 2C $C &C (C =C . :efer to 5* =&C$71F-1 for bearing capacit factors. and J 6 1=.=2 1ind the allowable bearing pressure if B 6 2 m. 1. find the safe bearing capacit of soil in different seasons of the ear.$ m. C. 4arch. :efer to 5* =&C$71F-1 11.=2 C. the mode of failure is local shear failure.
Dhat is the influence of size of footing on cohesi0e soils R 1$. '/plain the procedure adopted to e0aluate *afe Bearing +apacit . -. Distinguish *afe Bearing +apacit from Allowable Bearing )ressure 1=. How do ou consider local shear effect in bearing capacit e!uation R 1&.7. . 2. 1C. F. $. Dhat are the ad0antages of Brinch Hansen’s Theor o0er Terzaghi’s theor of bearing capacit R 1(. 12. (. A granular soil possesses ϕ 6 $Co. '/plain the effect of eccentricit of footing on its load carr ing capacit . A11i i!nal Aues i!ns 1. 5s the statement true or false R Sustif our answer. Briefl e/plain Terzaghi’s bearing capacit theor 1-. 2. #ist the ad0antages and disad0antages of plate load test Distinguish between *tandard )enetration Test and *tatic cone penetration test Distinguish between *tatic cone penetration test and d namic cone penetration test Distinguish between *tandard )enetration Test and d namic cone penetration test Distinguish general shear failure from local shear failure #ist the assumptions of Terzaghi’s bearing capacit theor 4ention the limitations of Terzaghi’s bearing capacit theor '/plain the effect of shape of footing on bearing capacit How does ground water table influence bearing capacit R '/plain footings. &. 'ccentricall placed footings perform better than concentricall placed 11. =. Briefl e/plain Brinch Hansen’s bearing capacit theor 1F. Distinguish *afe Bearing +apacit from Lltimate Bearing +apacit 12. Describe the influence of one wa and two wa eccentricities.1.
*tatic +one )enetration test d. 9eneral shear failure g. 21. )late load test b. *tandard )enetration test c. 22. 'ffect of 9round Dater Table on bearing capacit i. Drite short notes on a. '/plain the test procedure for conducting *tandard )enetration test as per 5ndian *tandards 2=. )unching shear failure h. 'ccentric load on footing . '/plain which unit weight of soil should be used in bearing capacit determination. How do ou determine *afe Bearing +apacit at a site R '/plain. How do ou interpret field test results for the determination of *afe Bearing +apacit re!uired for foundation design R 2F. *hape of footing %. Dhat actions would ou ta<eR 2$. D namic +one )enetration test e. '/plain the test procedure for conducting plate load test as per 5ndian *tandards 2(. '/plain the test procedure for conducting D namic +one )enetration test as per 5ndian *tandards 2-. #ocal shear failure f. '/plain the test procedure for conducting *tatic +one )enetration test as per 5ndian *tandards 22. Sustif our answer. 5t is decided to redesign the same to carr double the load.2C. A footing is designed to carr a specific load of superstructure. Discuss the factors influencing bearing capacit of soil 2&.
L. and Das.ions. F. S. Mc . Bangalore So<.ions-.d.y 7 8an nos. Bowles.ion #nalysis and Design-.7. N. &399() *Princi:les of Fo+nda.. B.rand ein6old Co.ice /all of =ndia.ion. Englis6 Lang+age Boo2 Socie. J. &%'(() *Fo+nda. N. New Del6i .ice of Fo+nda. >. L.6eory and Prac. M. LaB<i P+0lica.. New Del6i. 5. 3.. 5rd Edi. E. &%'45) *Soil Mec6anics-. London.ions Pv. &3995) *.10 Refe$en'es %. Das. . Pren.ion Design-.ion.d. C. =S?>95@%'4% P+n<ia. . New 1or2. ?. B.ion Engineering-. Craig.6o<son =ndia Edi.raw /ill P+0lica. C. A. &399A) *Soil Mec6anics and Fo+nda.
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