CHAPTER 1 New learn new facts through intuition, deduction, authority and observation Intuition- common sense Deduction
- logical reasoning Authority- expert opinion Observation- personal experience Scientific method depends on empiricism, determinism, parsimony, and testability Empiricism- knowledge is gained through observation Determinism- events have identifiable causes Parsimony- simplest explanation is most truthful Testability- explanations of behavior can be tested and falsified Basic Research- research conducted with the goal of understanding fundamental processes Applied Research- research conducted with the goal of solving problems External validity- degree to which results of a study apply outside of laboratory CHAPTER 4 How one chooses to define the concept measured will affect the outcome of measurement Dependent Variable- variable measured or observed Reliability- degree to which the results of a study can be replicated under similar conditions Operational Definition- definition of an abstract concept used by a research to measure or manipulate the concept Four scales of measurement for dependent variable are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio Nominal- scale of data measurement that involves non-ordered categories Ordinal- scale of measurement that involves ordered categories Interval- scale of data measurement that involves numerical categories without scores being ratios of each other (does not include 0) Ratio- scale of data measurement that involves numerical categories with scores being rations of each other (does include 0) Likert Scale- scale of measurement of disagreement or agreement Qualitative Data- non-numerical data Quantitative Data- numerical data Construct Validity- indicates that a survey measures the behavior designed to measure Face Validity- a study that appears to be intuitively valid Internal Validity- degree to which a study provides causal information about behavior Interrater Reliability- a measure of the degree to which different observers rate behaviors in similar ways Independent Variable- variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the researcher such that the levels of the variable change across or within subjects in the experiment
each participant experiences all levels Between-Subject Variable.independent variable that includes three or more levels Subject Variable.research design that involves manipulation of independent variable.natural changes in participants occur over course of study Attrition.each participant experiences only one level Counterbalance.participants fall out of study Hawthorne Effect.an independent variable with two levels Type Variable.variables that include levels with a different amount of the treatment changing from level to level Multivalent Variable.studying participants can change their behavior Demand Characteristics.variable that allows comparison of groups of participants without manipulation Must be careful because relationship with dependent variable is not always clear Sources of bias affect both internal and external validity Group Differences. allowing control of extraneous variables that could affect the results Third-Variable Problem.experiment conducted in natural environment Must be careful for it may decrease internal validity while increasing external validity CHAPTER 11 Experiment.participants changing behavior based on perception of study Confounding Variable.control used in within-subject designs where different participants are assigned to different orders Field Experiment.Presence/Absence Variable.extreme scores unlikely to recur History.procedure used to hide the group assignment of the participants in a study to prevent their beliefs Placebo.procedure used to hide the group assignment of the participants and experimenters Within-Subject Variable.variable that involves a manipulation of types of treatment Amount Variable.historical event affects posttest in pretest-posttest study Maturation.participant groups are not equated on characteristics that can affect the data Order Effects.false treatment condition Double-Blind Design.an extraneous factor present in a study that may affect the results Single-Blind Design.multiple testing sessions can affect later ones Regression Towards Mean.variable that involves a manipulation with a level that involves the treatment and a level that does not involve the treatment Bivalent Independent Variable.order of conditions in a within-subject design can affect data Testing Effects.extraneous factor present in a study that may affect the results
.presence of extraneous factors in a study that affect the dependent variable can decrease the internal validity of the study Confounding Variable.
participants are randomly assigned to levels of the independent variable in an experiment to control for individual differences as an extraneous variable Matched Design.between-subjects experiment that involves sets of participants matched on a specific characteristic with each member of the set randomly assigned to a different level of the independent variable Latin Square-within-subject counter-balancing technique where the number of orders of conditions used is equal to the number of conditions in the study